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MSC Laminate Modeler

Version 2008
User’s Guide

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P3*2008R1*Z*LAM*Z* DC-USR

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Contents
MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

1 Overview
Purpose 2

MSC.Laminate Modeler Product Information 3

What is Included with this Product? 4

MSC.Laminate Modeler Integration with MSC.Patran 5

What is MSC.Laminate Modeler? 6

2 Tutorial
Introduction 10

Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes 11


Composite Materials 11
Common Material Forms 11
Common Manufacturing Forms 12

Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture 15


The Development Process 15
Requirements of CAE Tools for Composites Development 15
Composites Development Within the MSC.Patran Environment 19

Draping Simulation (Developable Surfaces) 21


Definition of Developable Surfaces 21
Example of Waffle Plate 21
Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler 23

Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces) 24


Definition of Non-Developable Surfaces 24
Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler 29

Building Models using Global Layers 30


Global Layer Description of Layup 30
Example of a Top Hat Section 31
Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler 33

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iv MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

Results Processing 34
Recovering Results by Global Layer 34
Example of a Top Hat Section 34
Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler 37

Structural Optimization 38
Introducing Iteration to the Development Process 38
Example of a Torque Tube with a Cutout 38
Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler 41

Glossary 42

3 Using MSC.Laminate Modeler


Procedure 44

Element Library 46
Supported Element Topologies 46
Supported Element Types 46
Supported Element Property Words 46

Initialization 48

Creating Materials 49
Create LM_Material Add Form 51
Modify LM_Material Form 52
Show LM_Material Form 53
Delete LM_Material Select Form 54

Creating Plies 55
Create LM_Ply Add Form (Draping) 56
Create LM_Ply Add Form (Projection) 68
Modify LM_Ply Form 69
Show LM_Ply Graphics Form 70
Delete LM_Ply Select Form 71

Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model 72


Create LM_Layup Add Form 73
Modify LM_Layup Add Form 80
Show LM_Layup Exploded View Form 81
Show LM_Layup Cross Section Form 82
Show LM_Layup Element Form 83
Show LM_Layup Element Info Form 84
Transform LM_Layup Mirror Form 85
Delete LM_Layup Select Form 86

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CONTENTS v

Creating Solid Elements and an Analysis Model 87


Create Solid Elements LM_Layup Form 88

Creating Laminate Materials 89


Create Laminate LM_Layup Form 90
Show Laminate Form 92
Delete Laminate Select Form 93
Delete Property Set Select Form 94

Creating Sorted Results 95


Create LM_Results LM_Ply Sort Form 96
Create LM_Results Material ID Sort Form 97

Creating Failure Results 98


Create LM_Results Failure Calc Form 99

Creating Design and Manufacturing Data 101


Create Ply Book Layup Form 102

Importing Plies and Models 103


Import Plies File Form 104
Import Model File Form 105

Importing and Exporting Laminate Materials 106


Import Laminate LAP Form 107
Export Laminate LAP Form 108

Setting Options 109


Set Export Options Form 110
Set Display Options Form 112

Session File Support 116

Public PCL Functions 117

Data Files 125

4 Example:Laminated Plate
Overview 128

Model Description 129

Modeling Procedure 130

Step-By-Step 132

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vi MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

5 Theory
The Geometry of Surfaces 140

The Fabric Draping Process 142

Results for Global Plies 151

Composite Failure Criteria 155

A Bibliography

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview
MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

1 Overview

J Purpose 2
J MSC.Laminate Modeler Product Information 3
J
What is Included with this Product? 4
J MSC.Laminate Modeler Integration with Patran 5
J What is MSC.Laminate Modeler? 6

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2 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Purpose

Purpose
Patran comprises a suite of products written and maintained by MSC.Software Corporation. The core of
the product suite is Patran, a finite element analysis pre and postprocessor. Patran also includes several
optional products such as application modules, advanced postprocessing programs, tightly coupled
solvers, and interfaces to third party solvers. This document describes one of these application modules.
For more information on the Patran suite of products, see the Patran Reference Manual.
MSC.Laminate Modeler is a Patran module for aiding the design, analysis, and manufacture of laminated
composite structures. The user can simulate the application of layers of reinforcing materials to selected
areas of a surface to ensure that a design is realizable. Layers are then used to build up the composite
construction in a manner that reflects the manufacture of the structure. Finite element properties and
laminated materials are automatically generated so that accurate models of the structure can be evaluated
rapidly. Alternative solutions can be compared to optimize the structure at an early stage of the
development process.

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Chapter 1: Overview 3
MSC.Laminate Modeler Product Information

MSC.Laminate Modeler Product Information


MSC.Laminate Modeler is a product of MSC.Software Corporation. The program is available on all
Patran supported platforms and allows identical functionality and file support across these platforms.

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4 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
What is Included with this Product?

What is Included with this Product?


The MSC.Laminate Modeler product includes all of the following items:
1. PCL command and library files which add the MSC.Laminate Modeler functionality definitions
into Patran.
2. An external executable program for Layup manipulation and composite ply generation.
3. This Application Preference User’s Guide is included as part of the product. An online version is
also provided to allow the user direct access to this information from within Patran.

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Chapter 1: Overview 5
MSC.Laminate Modeler Integration with Patran

MSC.Laminate Modeler Integration with Patran


Figure 1-1 indicates how the MSC.Laminate Modeler library and associated programs fit into the Patran
environment.

Figure 1-1 MSC.Laminate Modeler Integration with Patran Environment

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6 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
What is MSC.Laminate Modeler?

What is MSC.Laminate Modeler?


MSC.Laminate Modeler is a Patran module for aiding the design, analysis, and manufacture of laminated
composite structures. By enabling the concept of concurrent engineering, MSC.Laminate Modeler
allows the production of structures which take full advantage of these materials in the aerospace,
automotive, marine, and other markets. The quality of the development process can be greatly improved
because of the rigorous and repeatable manner in which MSC.Laminate Modeler defines fibre
orientations.
MSC.Laminate Modeler incorporates two key functionalities: simulation of the manufacturing process,
and storage and manipulation of composite data on the basis of global layers.

Process Simulation
Process simulation methods include draping of fabrics using various material and manufacturing options,
in addition to the more conventional techniques of projecting fibre angles onto a surface. These options
allow the use of MSC.Laminate Modeler for various production methods including manual layup of pre-
preg materials, Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) and filament winding. Furthermore, MSC.Laminate
Modeler reflects the open systems philosophy of Patran and can cater to customized simulation methods
developed by customers.

Composite Data Management


All data produced by the manufacturing simulation are stored together and referenced as a single data
entity. This structured representation allows efficient data handling in the actual design environment. For
example, to apply predefined layers to an analysis model, the user simply adds them to a table in a process
which reflects the real-world manufacture of the finished component. Alternative layups can be
generated and evaluated rapidly to allow the designer to optimize the composite structure using existing
structural analysis tools. The process of defining layups is inherently traceable, unlike the situation in
conventional composites analysis where data is reduced to an unstructured element-based level which
has no physical analogy.
The functions available within MSC.Laminate Modeler allows the designer to visualize the
manufacturing process and estimate the quantity of material involved. Representative analysis models of
the component can be produced very rapidly to allow effective layup optimization. Finally, a “ply book”
and other manufacturing data can be produced.
These functions promise a significant increase in the efficiency of the development process for high-
performance composite structures.

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Chapter 1: Overview 7
What is MSC.Laminate Modeler?

Main Index
8 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
What is MSC.Laminate Modeler?

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Chapter 2: Tutorial
MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

2 Tutorial

J Introduction 10
J Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes 11
J
Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes 11
J Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture 15
J Draping Simulation (Developable Surfaces) 21
J Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces) 24
J Building Models using Global Layers 30
J
Results Processing 34
J Structural Optimization 38
J Glossary 42

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10 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Introduction

Introduction
This manual is intended to introduce the reader to the most common methods of composite manufacture,
and define what is required of an effective tool for simultaneous composites engineering. Thereafter,
some examples of the use of the MSC.Laminate Modeler are presented to illustrate the usefulness of this
module in the composites development process.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 11
Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes

Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes

Composite Materials
Composite materials are composed of a mixture of two or more constituents, giving them mechanical and
thermal properties which can be significantly better than those of homogeneous metals, polymers and
ceramics. An important class of composite materials are filamentary composites which consist of long
fibres embedded in a tough matrix. Materials of this type include graphite fibre/epoxy resin composites
widely used in the aerospace industry, and glass fibre/polyester mixtures which have wide applicability
in the marine and automotive markets. Because of their predominance in high-quality structures which
need to be analyzed before manufacture, the term composite material will refer to a filamentary
composite having a resin matrix in this document. Furthermore, it will be assumed that the composite is
manufactured in distinct layers, which is appropriate for almost all filamentary composite materials.
By decreasing the characteristic size of the microstructure and providing large interface areas, the
toughness of the composite material is improved significantly compared with that of a homogeneous
solid made of the same material as the fibres. In addition, the manufacturing processes of many
components can be simplified by applying the fibres to the component in a manner which is compatible
with its geometry. These and other considerations mean that composite materials are an effective
engineering material for many types of structure.
However, filamentary composite materials are often characterized by strongly anisotropic behavior and
wide variations in mechanical properties which are a direct result of the manufacturing route for a
component. In addition, the cost of a composite component is highly dependent on the way the fibres are
applied to a surface. This means that designers must be aware of the consequences of manufacturing
considerations from the beginning of the development phase.

Common Material Forms


Filamentary composite materials are usually placed in components as tows (bundles of individual fibres)
or as fabrics which have been processed in a separate operation.

Tows
A large proportion of commercially-produced components are built up from layers of fibre tows laid
parallel to each other. Each tow consists of a large number of individual fibres as each fiber is usually too
thin to process effectively. For example, graphite tows typically contain between 1000 to 10000 fibres.
Tows containing many fibres result in cheaper components at some expense of mechanical properties.
Composite structures built up from tows have the greatest volume fraction of fibres which usually lead
to the most favorable theoretical mechanical properties. They are also characterized by extreme
anisotropy. For example, the strength and stiffness of a resulting layer may be ten times greater in the
direction of the fibres compared with an orthogonal direction.

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Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes

Fabrics
Individual tows may also be woven or stitched into fabrics which are used to form the component. This
method effectively allows much of the fibre preparation to be completed under controlled conditions,
while components can be rapidly built up from fabric during the final stage of manufacture.
Composite structures built up from fabrics are generally easier to manufacture and exhibit superior
toughness compared with those built up from tows, with some loss in ultimate mechanical properties.

Mixed
Some processing methods allow the user to mix tows and fabrics to achieve optimum performance. An
example of this is a composite I-beam, where the shear-loaded web consists of a fabric, while the axially-
loaded flanges have a high proportion of fibres oriented along the beam.

Common Manufacturing Forms


Composite structures are manufactured using a wide variety of manufacturing routes. The ideal
processing route for a particular structure will depend on the chosen fiber and matrix type, processing
volume, quality required, and the form of the component. All these issues should be addressed right from
the beginning of the development cycle for a component or structure.
A feature of almost all the manufacturing processes is that the fibres are formed into the final structure
in layers. The thickness of each layer typically ranges between 0.125 mm (0.005”) for aerospace-grade
pre-pregs up to several millimeters for woven rovings (say, 0.25”). This means that a component is
usually built up of a large number of layers which may be oriented in different directions to achieve the
desired structural response.
Another consequence of layer-based manufacturing is that a laminated area is usually thin compared with
its area. This means that the dominant loads are in the plane of the fibres, and that classical lamination
theory (which assumes that through-thickness stresses are negligible) and shell finite elements can be
used to conduct representative analyses. In contrast, in particularly thick or curved skins, inter-laminar
tensile and shear stresses can be significant. This can seriously compromise static and fatigue strength
and may require the use of through-thickness reinforcement. Another consequence of thick laminates is
that the analyst must use special thick shell or solid elements to model the stress fields correctly.

Wet Layup
In the wet layup process, fibres are placed on a mould surface in fabric form and manually wetted-out
with resin. Wet layup is widely used to make large structures, like the hulls of small ships.
This process is amenable to high production rates but results in wide variations in quality. In particular,
the inability to control the ratio of fibres to resin means that the mechanical properties of the laminate
will vary from point-to-point and structure-to-structure.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 13
Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes

Pre-Preg Layup
In this process, tows or fabrics are impregnated with controlled quantities of resin before being placed on
a mould. Pre-preg layup is typically used to make high-quality components for the aerospace industry.
This process results in particularly consistent components and structures. Because of this, pre-preg
techniques are often associated with sophisticated resin systems which require curing in autoclaves under
conditions of high temperature and pressure. However, the application of pre-preg layers to a surface is
highly labor-intensive, and can only be automated for a small class of simple structures.

Compression Moulding
Compression moulding describes the process whereby a stack of pre-impregnated layers are compressed
between a set matched dies using a powerful press, and then cured while under compression. This method
is often used to manufacture small quantities of high-quality components such as crash helmets and
bicycle frames.
Due to the use of matched dies, the dimensional tolerances and mechanical properties of the finished
component are extremely consistent. However, the requirement to trim the component after curing and
the need for a large press means that this method is extremely expensive. Also, it is very difficult to make
components where the plies drop off consistently within the component.

Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) / Structural Reaction Injection Moulding (SRIM)


Here, dry fibres are built up into intermediate preforms using tows and fabric held together by a
thermoplastic binder. One or more preforms are then placed into a closed mould, after which resin is
injected and cured to form a fully-shaped component of high quality and consistency. The in-mould cycle
time for RTM is of the order of several minutes, while that for SRIM is measured in seconds.
As fibres are manipulated in a dry state, these processes provide unmatched design flexibility. RTM
produces good-quality components efficiently but incurs high initial costs for tooling and development.
As a result, there is often a cross-over point between pre-preg layup and RTM for the manufacture of
high-quality components like spinners for aero engines. At a lower level, SRIM is used for the
manufacture of automotive parts which have a lower volume fraction of fibres.

Filament Winding
In this method, tows are wet-out with resin before being wound onto a mandrel which is rotated in space.
This process is used for cylindrical and spherical components such as pipes and pressure vessels.
Winding is inherently automated, so it allows consistent components to be manufactured cheaply.
However, the range of component geometries amenable to this method is somewhat limited.

Automated Tow Placement


This development of filament winding utilizes a computer-controlled 5-axis head to apply individual
tows to a mandrel rotating in space. This allows the manufacture of complex surfaces, such as entire
helicopter body shells with speed and precision.

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Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes

Of course, the equipment required for manufacture is extremely expensive, being of the order of $1
million. In addition, the possibilities for fibre placement are so controllable that no component can
possibly make use of the capabilities of the process at present. However, the development of CAE tools
for optimized design of composite structures will increase its usefulness in the future.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 15
Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture

Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture

The Development Process


The development process for any component consists of design, analysis and manufacturing phases,
which are sometimes undertaken by separate groups within large organizations. However, for
composites, these functions are inextricably linked and must be undertaken simultaneously if the
component is to be manufactured economically. Thus, the principles of concurrent engineering must be
followed particularly closely for composites development.
In general, the development process incorporates three phases:
Conceptual Development - here, the development team generates a number of conceptual solutions based
on their interpretation of the requirements and knowledge of composite materials and processes.
Outline Development - thereafter, surface geometry is defined, a preliminary layup determined and
analysis undertaken. Based on the interpretation of analysis results, the outline design may be modified
through several iterations before an acceptable solution is reached.
Detailed Development - detailed drawings of the structure and required tooling are prepared together with
plans for production.

Requirements of CAE Tools for Composites Development


The outline development process is the most critical phase in refining a design solution. Composite
components and structures can be an order of magnitude more complex than items made of homogeneous
materials. It is, therefore, essential to automate many repetitive tasks using computer-based tools.
Depending on the application, these tools should have one or more of the features defined below.

Integration of CAD/CAE/CAM Systems


It is important to integrate all tools for composites engineering within a single environment to allow
simultaneous development of a product (see Figure 2-1).
Furthermore, all design and manufacturing information should be readily transferable to and from a CAD
system so that the intent of an optimized design can be realized.

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Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture

Figure 2-1 Integrated Composites Development Environment

Layer-Based Modeling
The fundamental requirement is that the CAE tools treat the composite structure in a manner which
reflects the real-world structure. In particular, many conventional CAE tools store and manipulate data
on the basis of laminate materials as shown in Figure 2-2. This representation means that the model
becomes extremely complicated as soon as the layers making up the structure overlap. In contrast, all
CAE tools should store the data describing the structure in terms of its constituent layers. This ensures
that the construction is always representative of the manufacturing method, making the model easy to
understand. Furthermore, changes are easily effected by adding and removing layers.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 17
Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture

Figure 2-2 Comparison of Global Layer and Laminate Material Descriptions for a Simple
Structure

Layer-Based Results Processing


Any optimization during the development process is likely to involve the interpretation of results for
various analyses. These results should be interpreted on the basis of layers, in the same way that the
component is manufactured.
Furthermore, it should be possible to visualize results in the reference system of the material making up
a layer, even where this reference system changes constantly over a surface.

Mass and Cost Calculation


The cost of composites materials are generally high. A CAE tool should allow the designer to interrogate
the materials usage and approximate cost at any point in the development cycle.

Visualization Tools
Sufficient visualization tools should be provided to ensure that the form of the structure is easily checked
and communicated. Such tools would include the ability to interrogate the extent and orientation of

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Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture

layers, generate core samples at various points, generate cross sections along arbitrary lines, and generate
a layer sequence table.

Manufacturing Guides
Any CAE tool should produce fool-proof manufacturing guides, so that the design and analyses
components are actually manufactured. For structures manufactured from sheet materials, this could take
the form of a “ply-book” which has a page for every layer. This should present the cutout shape, views
of the three-dimensional moulded shape and other essential information.

Mould Surface and Insert Shape Definition


Typically, layers will be placed on a male or female mould surface. If the mould tool is closed. The
software should calculate the exact thickness of the laminate stack which has been defined. This should
include the effect of thickening which can occur as woven material is sheared to conform to a surface.
Thereafter, a second mould surface should be defined which is offset from the original surface by the
correct amount.
It should also be possible to define a secondary mould surface, and automatically define the cutout shapes
of individual plies required to fill the entire mould.

Materials Data Management


Because composite materials are generally anisotropic, and have more variability in their properties than
homogeneous materials, it is important to store and manipulate materials data in a consistent manner
throughout the design process. In particular, the same data should be used for all subsequent analyses, so
that any change is reflected throughout the entire cycle.
The state of composite materials can also be highly dependent on temperature, moisture content, and
even the degree of shear which might be induced in a manufacturing process. This means that all data
should be stored as a function of state, and the correct information retrieved for any analysis.
Because of the wide variety of states possible, material property data will only be available for a few
states. It is, therefore, necessary to interpolate material property data for intermediate states in a
rational and repeatable manner. For example, if the properties of fabric are known when the warp and fill
fibers are 90 and 60 degrees apart, the software should also calculate equivalent properties for 75
degrees separation.

Drape Analysis
A large proportion of composite structures are manufactured by placing essentially two-dimensional
sheets of fabric onto three-dimensional surfaces. If the surface has curvature, then the shape of the sheet
cannot be inferred directly from a projection of the surface onto a plane. Therefore, the draping
simulation software must produce the cutout shape of the layer before it is applied to the surface.
If the surface is doubly-curved at any point, it is non-developable. In this case, the sheet material must
shear in its plane to allow it to conform to the surface. The software must illustrate the degree of shearing
in the sheet, and update the material property references to account for the changed material state. The

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 19
Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture

shearing also means that the orientation of the material changes dramatically over a curved surface. The
correct orientations must therefore be passed through transparently to all relevant analysis codes.
Sheet material can be extremely expensive. Therefore, so-called nesting software should be used to
minimize the material required by aligning and placing the cutouts in an optimum way.

Structural Analysis
Any composite part must be thoroughly analyzed to ensure that it will withstand service loads. Many
composite components are relatively thin so that through-thickness stresses are low. This means that shell
elements can be used to model the structure adequately. However, to model through-thickness stresses,
solid elements must be used. For some problems, such as investigating through-thickness stresses at
edges, many high-order elements will be required through the thickness of the laminate to model stresses
at all reasonably.
A major concern with composite materials are their resistance to damage, as the degradation of the
material is very complex and not well understood. It is, therefore, important that the structural analysis
codes provide for modelling the initiation, growth and effects of defects.

Resin Flow Analysis


Resin flow should be analyzed for processes such as RTM to ensure that pockets of air are not trapped in
the moulding, causing defects. In addition, resin flow has a dominant effect on cycle time, with its
ongoing effect on manufacturing cost.

Cure Analysis
The curing of a composite component should be analyzed to determine the cycle time of the process.
Also, it is essential to determine the extent of springback in the cured component.

Mould Tool Analysis


Mould tool analysis is required to estimate deflections in the tool where small tolerances are required.
The thermal behavior of the mould can also have a significant effect on the cutting of a composite
component.

Composites Development Within the Patran Environment


The Patran environment provides a rich core environment for the development of composite structures.
Existing links are readily used to import geometry from leading CAD systems including CATDirect,
CADDS 5, Unigraphics, Pro/ENGINEER and Euclid 3. Meshing and other general pre and
postprocessing functions are available within Patran itself. Finally, the preference system enables the
seamless use of a variety of analysis systems which would be useful for composites development.

MSC.Mvision
MSC.Mvision allows the user to store and handle complex materials data such as that required for
composites development.

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Composites Design, Analysis and Manufacture

MSC.Laminate Modeler
The MSC.Laminate Modeler adds dedicated layer-based modeling and results processing functionality
to Patran. This support greatly improves the ability of the user to define and modify representative
composite structures, and then analyze their behavior using analysis packages supported by preferences.
The module also includes a drape simulation facility which can handle non-developable surfaces. This
allows the user to understand the deformation required of a sheet of fabric to cover a surface, predicts
realistic material orientations over individual elements, and produces cutout shapes for use by CAM
systems.

Patran FEA
This general-purpose finite element analysis solver includes QUAD4/8 and TRI3/6 laminates shell
elements which account for bending and extension deformation of a shell. The linear strain elements also
model the transverse shear flexibility of the laminate.
HEX8/20 and WEDGE6/15 elements are available to model the flexibility of a laminate in all directions.
All composite elements provide the facility for inputting nonlinear material properties.

Patran Composite
This specialized finite element analysis solver is used for detailed analysis of laminates with complex
fibre geometry or unusual material behavior. It utilizes a family of elements with tri-cubic interpolation
functions, with up to HEX64 topology. These allow the calculation of high stress gradients, such as occur
at free edges or in components which suffer severe thermal stress during processing.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 21
Draping Simulation (Developable Surfaces)

Draping Simulation (Developable Surfaces)

Definition of Developable Surfaces


An important subset of curved surfaces is developable surfaces. These surfaces can always be
manufactured using sheet materials without the material needing to shear. At any point, there will be no
curvature in one direction and maximum curvature in the orthogonal direction. Mathematically, this
means that these surfaces are characterized by zero Gaussian curvature over their entire area. Cylinders
are one example of developable surfaces found in many structures.
Note that all developable surfaces are ruled surfaces. However, not all ruled surfaces are developable.
For example, a hyperbola of one sheet (such as a cooling tower shape) is not developable.
Although many CAD systems have provision for developing flat patterns from developable surfaces, the
definition of material orientation is not trivial, particularly when the curvature is great.
The draping process for development is unique. That means that the cutout profile is always the same,
and that definition of fibre orientation at any point uniquely describe the fibre orientations at all other
points on the surface.

Example of Waffle Plate


One example of a developable surface with complex fibre orientations is a waffle plate used as a core for
sandwich structures. A typical geometry for a circular sandwich structure is shown in Figure 2-3. As the
core is predominantly loaded in shear, it would be if the majority of fibres lay in the +/-45 directions along
the webs. However, if these directions are ideal for one web, they will obviously not be the same for other
webs.

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22 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Draping Simulation (Developable Surfaces)

Figure 2-3 Geometry of a Curved Waffle Plate

The MSC.Laminate Modeler can be used to quantify the effect of varying fibre orientation both
qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, if a piece of woven fabric is draped from the middle rib so
that the average angle is +/-45 along the webs of the central rib, we see that the angle on the webs near
the edge of the plate are more like 0/90. This latter direction will obviously result in poor shear stiffness
and strength in this direction.
Having understood this limitation, the designer can then make an informed decision whether to specify
a quai-isotropic layup for the whole of the waffle plate, or to make the waffle plate out of several different
plies oriented in different directions. Both alternatives can be modeled and analyzed rapidly using the
MSC.Laminate Modeler, and an informed choice made on the basis of analysis results.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 23
Draping Simulation (Developable Surfaces)

Figure 2-4 Variation of Fibre Angles over Waffle Plate

Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler


1. Visual feedback of fibre orientation.
2. Accurate orientation data for analysis model.
3. Exact flat-pattern generation.

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24 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces)

Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces)

Definition of Non-Developable Surfaces


Non-developable surfaces are those which cannot be formed from sheet material without the material
shearing in its plane. Surfaces of this type have curvatures in two different directions (they are therefore
often called doubly-curved surfaces). Although these surfaces are usually more difficult to manufacture
than flat or developable surfaces, their form gives them great stiffness and strength.
Because composite materials can often shear during the manufacturing process, they are more suitable
for manufacturing these shapes than conventional materials like aluminium. This magnifies the
advantage of laminated composite materials for many classes of structure.

Gaussian Curvature
The extent of double curvature at any point is reflected in a value called the Gaussian curvature. This is
the product of the curvatures in the principal directions at any point on a surface. The Gaussian curvature
reveals many of the characteristics of a surface. Positive Gaussian curvature means that the surface is
locally dome-shaped, with the curvatures in the same direction with respect to the surface normal. In
contrast, negative Gaussian curvature implies saddle-shaped topology, with curvatures in opposite
directions. Finally, zero Gaussian curvature is characteristic of a developable area.
Note that surfaces often have varying Gaussian curvature over their extent. As an example, a torus
(donut) is saddle-shaped on the inside (negative Gaussian curvature) but dome-shaped on the outside
(positive Gaussian curvature).
Gaussian curvature can be given a physical significance by drawing geodesic lines on a surface.
(Geodesic lines are straight in the plane of the surface at any point; meridians are geodesic, but lines of
latitude are constantly turning in one direction with respect to the surface.) A pair of lines which are
initially parallel will tend to converge on surfaces of positive Gaussian curvature, but will diverge on a
surface of negative Gaussian curvature. In contrast, the lines will remain parallel on the surface until they
reach an edge if the surface is developable.
Another interpretation of Gaussian curvature is the extent of misfit in the surface. Consider a circular disk
made up of several flat segments. This necessarily has zero Gaussian curvature even if it is bent along
the joints between segments. However, if one of the segments is removed and the neighboring segments
joined, the disk will adopt a dome-like shape which is indicative of positive Gaussian curvature. In
contrast, adding a segment will result in the disk forming a saddle-like shape with negative Gaussian
curvature.

Drape Simulation for Non-Developable Surfaces


Draping of non-developable surfaces is an extremely difficult task. Essentially, this process involves
extremely large geometric and, perhaps, material nonlinearities. A direct consequence of this is that there
is no unique solution for the draping process. The draped shape is highly dependent on the point at
which the draping starts, the directions in which the draping proceeds and the properties of the material
itself. In addition, if there is interaction between different layers, friction between them would have a

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 25
Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces)

significant effect. A detailed analysis of the draping process for arbitrary geometries is therefore a
considerable analysis task in itself.
This difficulty in analysis reflects a real-world difficulty in manufacturing complex composite
components consistently. Engineering drawings of composite components typically specify fibre angles
within a tolerance of 3 degrees. In practice, if there is significant curvature in a surface, the manufacturing
tolerance could easily reach 15 degrees or more.
These problems can be mitigated to a large extent by limiting the degree of shear developed within
reinforcing layers during the manufacturing process. The degree of shear is primarily dependent on the
Gaussian curvature and the area of a layer. Therefore, a design incorporating two layers of excessive
shear can be replaced by three smaller layers with less shear and greater quality. The MSC.Laminate
Modeler employs a rapid draping module which allows the designer to investigate the likely degree of
shear, and make rational engineering decisions on the basis of manufacturing simulations.
Whatever simulation process is used, two different levels of draping should be considered. Local
Draping reflects the behavior of an infinitesimal material element applied to a point on a surface having
general curvature. This is a material characteristic and is determined from tests on materials. In contrast,
Global Draping considers how the many material elements are placed on a surface, and is dependent on
the manufacturing process used.

Local Draping Models


Local draping is concerned with fitting a small section of material to a generally-curved surface. If the
surface has nonzero Gaussian curvature, the material element must shear in its plane to conform to the
surface. This deformation is highly dependent on the microstructure of the material. As a result, local
shearing behavior can be regarded as a layer material property.

Figure 2-5 Scissor Draping Mechanism

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26 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces)

Figure 2-6 Slide Draping Mechanism

MSC.Laminate Modeler currently supports two local draping algorithms: scissor and slide draping. For
scissor draping (Figure 2-5), an element of material which is originally square shears in a trellis-like
mode about its vertices to form a rhombus. In particular, the sides of the material element remain of
constant length. This type of deformation behavior is characteristic of woven fabrics which are widely
used to manufacture highly-curved composite components.
For slide draping (Figure 2-6), two opposite sides of a square material element can slide parallel to each
other while their separation remains constant. This is intended to model the application of parallel strips
of material to a surface. It can also model, very simply, the relative sliding of adjacent tows making up a
strip of unidirectional material.
When draping a given surface using the two different local draping algorithms, the shear in the layer
builds up far more rapidly for the slide draping mechanism than for the scissor draping mechanism. This
observation is compatible with actual manufacturing experience that woven fabrics are more suitable for
draping curved surfaces than unidirectional pre-pregs.
For small deformations, the predictions of the different algorithms are practically identical. Therefore, it
is suggested that the scissor draping algorithm be used in the first instance.

Global Draping Models


Global draping is concerned with placing a real sheet of material onto a surface of general curvature. This
is not a trivial task as there are infinite ways of doing this if the surface has nonzero Gaussian curvature
at any point. Therefore, it is important to define procedures for the global draping simulation which are
reproducible and reflect what can be manufactured in a production situation. As a result, global draping
behavior can be regarded as a manufacturing, rather than material, property.
The MSC.Laminate Modeler currently supports three different global draping algorithms: Geodesic,
Planar and Energy. For the Geodesic global draping option, principal axes are drawn away from the
starting point along geodesic paths on the surface (i.e., the lines are always straight with respect to the
surface). Once these principal axes are defined, there is then a unique solution for draping the remainder
of the surface. This may be considered the most “natural” method and appropriate for conventional
laminating methods. However, for highly-curved surfaces, the paths of geodesic lines are highly
dependent on initial conditions and so the drape simulation must be handled with care.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 27
Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces)

For the Planar global draping option, the principal axes may be defined by the intersection of warp (and
weft for scissor draping) planes which pass through the viewing direction. This method is appropriate
where the body has some symmetry, or where the layup is defined on a space-centered rather than a
surface-centered basis.
Finally, the Energy global draping option is provided for draping highly-curved surfaces where the
manufacturing tolerances are necessarily greater. Here, the draping proceeds outwards from the start
point, while the direction of draping is controlled by minimizing the shear strain energy along each edge.

Example of a Pressure Vessel


Many pressure vessels are made of composite materials, particularly via the filament winding process.
However, it is often necessary to add woven reinforcements to the shell. In this case, it is vital to
understand the mechanics of the draping process because the curvature of the surface varies so much. In
particular, the body of a pressure vessel is developable and has zero gaussian curvature. In contrast, the
ends have constant positive Gaussian curvature.
If draping begins at the pole of the vessel (Figure 2-7), the shear in the material increases rapidly away
from the start point due to the severe curvature. The amount of shearing is indicated by the color of the
draping pattern lines. Note that the degree of shear is zero along the principal axes, which are defined by
geodesic lines.
The draping algorithm stops where the shear reaches the cutoff value for the material, or the override
value defined in the Additional Controls form. This gives an indication of where the material would fold
when being formed.

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28 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces)

Figure 2-7 Fibre Directions for Draping Starting at the Pole of the Vessel

To cover the same area, it is also possible to begin draping on the cylindrical part of the surface
(Figure 2-8). Because this region is developable, there is no shear deformation until the end cap is
reached. This means that the average degree of shear on the surface is much lower, which should lead to
better quality and better mechanical performance.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 29
Draping Simulation (Non-Developable Surfaces)

Figure 2-8 Fiber Directions for Draping Starting on the Cylindrical Part of the Vessel

Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler


1. Visual feedback of fibre orientation.
2. Visual feedback of material shear.
3. Orientation data for analysis model.
4. Flat pattern generation.

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30 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Building Models using Global Layers

Building Models using Global Layers

Global Layer Description of Layup


The model is built up from predefined layers using a spreadsheet. This mirrors the use of layup tables in
the final drawings of a component. The models are easily modified by defining, adding and deleting new
layers to or from the layup.

Figure 2-9 Spreadsheet For Defining the Layup Using Predefined Layers

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 31
Building Models using Global Layers

Example of a Top Hat Section


A typical top-hat section subjected to pressure and bending load will be used to illustrate the building of
models using global layers. The model itself consists of a total of 52 global layers arranged in 4 different
laminates. To model this structure properly, using conventional methods, would require the definition of
11 different property regions containing between 16 and 48 layers each. This would be tedious to define,
and almost impossible to modify if the user wished to conduct a rapid sensitivity analysis.

Figure 2-10 Geometry of the Top Hat Section

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32 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Building Models using Global Layers

Figure 2-11 Lamination Specification of the Top Hat Section

In contrast, the MSC.Laminate Modeler user simply needs to define four layers which cover the areas of
each laminate. Then, multiples of these layers are added to the model, using the layup spreadsheet.
Because the surface is developable, it is permissible to use the Angular Offset option to modify the
orientation of the plies at 45, 90 and -45 to the original layers. All the generation of representative
property regions would be handled completely automatically by the software.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 33
Building Models using Global Layers

Figure 2-12 Visualization of Geometry Covered by Layer_3

The greatest benefit would, of course, accrue if the model needed to be changed after a preliminary
analysis. For example, the user may wish to define localized reinforcement at the attachment end of the
section. This could be completed in a matter of minutes by defining additional layers and adding them to
the layup.

Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler


1. Rapid layer-based generation and modification of model.

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34 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Results Processing

Results Processing

Recovering Results by Global Layer


Conventional systems present stresses on the basis of a particular layer on individual elements. If any
element is reversed, or there are ply drop-offs on the surface, the produced results cannot be interpreted
meaningfully.
In contrast, the MSC.Laminate Modeler rearranges analysis results stored in the database so that they
refer to global layers defined in the layup spreadsheet. This means that the results for a physically
meaningful piece of fabric are presented together. This is a unique capability for the majority of codes
that store composite data on the basis of laminate materials.

Example of a Top Hat Section


Fringe plots for stresses along the fibres are presented for global layers 1, 17, 21 and 33 for the top-hat
section model. Using conventional post-processors, this would give misleading results due to the
variation of layup over the model. In contrast, all stresses presented here are continuous, indicating that
the correct results have been grouped for each global layer.

Figure 2-13

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 35
Results Processing

Figure 2-14 Layer Results

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36 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Results Processing

Figure 2-15 Layer Results

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 37
Results Processing

Figure 2-16 Layer Results

Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler


1. Flexible layer-based results processing.

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38 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Structural Optimization

Structural Optimization

Introducing Iteration to the Development Process


The ability to modify a composite model rapidly and asses results on a realistic basis opens up many
opportunities for the optimization of composite structures. This is essential to compete with highly-
optimized structures made of conventional materials, and bring the cost of composite structures down to
a competitive level.

Example of a Torque Tube with a Cutout


A tube subject to torsional loading and having a large cutout is representative of a number of structures,
including the chassis of a single-seater racing car. A layup was defined, using two global layers covering
the entire surface, and the rim around the cutout respectively as shown in Figure 2-17 and Figure 2-18.

Figure 2-17 Analysis Model of Torsion Tube

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 39
Structural Optimization

Figure 2-18 Stiffened Collar

Models were built with a uniform layup, and including layer_2 reinforcement around the cutout.
Analyses were then conducted for both configurations. As shown in the deformation plot in Figure 2-19,
the torsional load generates substantial out-of-plane deflections around the cutout. Therefore, it is to be
expected that reinforcing the cutout edge will have a significant effect on the structural performance of
the tube.

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40 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Structural Optimization

Figure 2-19 Deformed Shape of Analysis Model

The analysis results for both models are summarized in the table below.

Property Uniform Layup Reinforced Layup Difference


Layup layer_1 (0/45/-45/90) layer_2 (0/45/-45/90) layer_2 (0/45/-45/90)
layer_1 (90/-45/45/0) layer_1 (0/45/-45/90) layer_2 (90/-45/45/0)
layer_1 (90/-45/45/0)
layer_2 (90/-45/45/0)
Mass 4.826 kg 5.035 kg 0.209 kg (+4.3%)
Rotation 0.143 0.118 -0.025 (-18%)
Max. Deflection 2.817 mm 1.800 mm -1.017 mm(-36%)
Max. Tensile Fiber Stress 165 MPa 122 MPa 43 MPa (-26%)
Max. Compressive Fiber 186 MPa 121 MPa 65 MPa (-35%)
Stress

This clearly shows that the addition of local reinforcing in highly-loaded areas can have an extremely
significant effect on overall structural performance. By allowing the designer to quantify the effects of
localized reinforcement, the MSC.Laminate Modeler will enable the development of more efficient
structures.

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Chapter 2: Tutorial 41
Structural Optimization

Benefits of MSC.Laminate Modeler


1. Rapid modify-analyze-interpret cycle allows optimization.

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42 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Glossary

Glossary
(ISO 10303 equivalent terms in parentheses)

layer An area on a surface having consistent material properties, fiber


(Ply) orientation and thickness. A layer is analogous to one or more pieces of
fabric which are applied to a surface adjacent to each other and in a
similar way.
layup sequence An assembly table which provides an ordered list of layers.
(Layup_ply_table)
layup A collection of one or more layers which mate with one another.
(Ply_laminate)

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler
MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

3 Using MSC.Laminate Modeler

J Procedure 44
J Element Library 46
J
Initialization 48
J Creating Materials 49
J Creating Plies 55
J Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model 72
J Creating Solid Elements and an Analysis Model 87
J
Creating Laminate Materials 89
J Creating Sorted Results 95
J Creating Failure Results 98
J
Creating Design and Manufacturing Data 101
J
Importing Plies and Models 103
J
Importing and Exporting Laminate Materials 106
J
Setting Options 109
J Session File Support 116
J Public PCL Functions 117
J Data Files 125

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44 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Procedure

Procedure
The MSC.Laminate Modeler is a specialized tool for the creation and visualization of a ply-based
laminated composite model. An analysis model consisting of appropriate laminate materials and element
properties can be generated automatically for a number of different analysis codes. Following analysis,
specific composite results can be calculated to verify the performance of the model. The general process
for generating a laminate composite model is as follows:
1. Create Homogeneous Materials (Patran)
Materials are typically orthotropic, and the user should specify failure coefficients when defining
materials.
2. Create Mesh (Patran)
The surface on which the composite layup is to be built is defined by the shell elements of the
finite element mesh in the Patran database. The user should generate a mesh of sufficient
resolution for both drape simulation and analysis purposes. It is a requirement that the meshing is
completed before starting a session. Use the tools in the Finite Element application to verify the
element normals and the free edges of the model before creating a new Layup file.
3. Create Ply Materials (MSC.Laminate Modeler)
These materials are analogous to raw ply materials and include a reference to a homogeneous
material for specifying mechanical properties, as well as manufacturing related information like
thickness.
4. Create Plies (MSC.Laminate Modeler)
Create plies in a manner which reflects the manufacturing process.
5. Create a LM_Layup and an Analysis Model (MSC.Laminate Modeler)
A layup, or sequence of plies, is defined, allowing the creation of corresponding laminate
materials and element properties required to define an analysis mode..
6. Analyze (Patran and analysis code)
The analysis is submitted in the usual way. The user may have to explicitly request layered
composites results from the analysis code.
7. Create Results (MSC.Laminate Modeler)
The user may sort results on the basis of physical plies or define new ones based on a failure
analysis.
These operations are summarized schematically overleaf.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 45
Procedure

Overview

Figure 3-1 Overview of MSC.Laminate Modeler Process

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46 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Element Library

Element Library
Standard shell elements define the surfaces used in the MSC.Laminate Modeler module. The standard
Patran geometry and mesh generation commands can be used to create a valid model.
The elements in the Patran database are used to define the draping surface in addition to acting as analysis
elements

Supported Element Topologies

Figure 3-2 Element Types

After the laminate descriptions have been generated they are applied to the Finite Element model in a
controlled manner. The user is allowed to select the type of element for the currently selected analysis
preference.

Supported Element Types


1. Property selection and generation has been significantly enhanced from previous versions.
MSC.Laminate Modeler is no longer restricted to generating the data for MSC’s own preferences.
Any suitably customized database will allow the generation of the required laminate materials and
properties.
2. Selection of the thermal composite elements is now possible because of the redesign.
3. SAMCEF is supported by writing an external file for inclusion into the BACON BANQUE file.

Supported Element Property Words


The routine for creating properties extracts the data from the database and compares it against values that
are consistently used for the type of data required by MSC.Laminate Modeler.
The PROP_IDS that are recognized are:

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 47
Element Library

PROP IDS DESCRIPTION DATA TYPE


ID_PROP_MATERIAL_NAME(13) Laminated material name generated by MATERIAL_ID(5)
MSC.Laminate Modeler.
ID_PROP_ORIENTATION_ANG(20) This will be set to 0.0. The Laminate REAL_SCALAR(1)
materials are built to reflect the different
relative angles.
ID_PROP_ORIENTATION_SYS(21) This prop_id is used to allow the creation of COORD_ID(9)
additional reference coordinate frames.
Users are prompted whether or not they
wish to create the frames.
ID_PROP_ORIENTATION_AXIS(1079) The property call is made reflecting the INTEGER_SCALAR(3)
occurrence of this prop_id.

If the applicable data type for the prop_ids described is not available, then the MSC.Laminate Modeler
cannot generate the required property cards.

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48 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Initialization

Initialization
The initialization form controls the opening of the current MSC.Laminate Modeler database (Layup) file
and the resultant display of the main Action Object Method control forms. To display the initialization
form, select MSC.Laminate Modeler from the Tools menu.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 49
Creating Materials

Creating Materials
When using MSC.Laminate Modeler there are three levels of material generation.
1. Patran homogeneous materials should be generated using standard Patran functionality. These
contain mechanical, thermal or physical data which can be manually input or imported Using
Patran Materials (p. 10) in the Patran Materials Enterprise.
1. MSC.Laminate Modeler ply materials. These ply materials have thickness and manufacturing
data in addition to a reference to an appropriate material in the Patran database. These ply
materials are used to create plies in the MSC.Laminate Modeler module.
1. Patran laminate materials which are built up from Patran homogeneous materials by the
MSC.Laminate Modeler software on the basis of the user-specified layup sequence, offsets and
tolerances.

Patran Homogeneous Material Definition


The main description of the materials is done using the standard Patran methods of definition. The
Materials form can be used to generate the required materials. Methods available include user input,
external definition and Patran Materials.

MSC.Laminate Modeler Ply Material Definition


The homogeneous materials created, within the standard Patran form, are referenced within the
MSC.Laminate Modeler Create LM_Material Add form to generate ply materials with extended property
sets which include thickness and manufacturing data, such as the maximum strain allowable during
draping.

Material Application Types


Ply materials are categorized by the way in which they are applied to a selected surface. They reference
particular types of Patran homogeneous materials.
• Painted
Isotropic materials are supported for Painting.
• Projected
2D/3D orthotropic and anisotropic materials are supported for Projecting.
• Scissor Draped
2D/3D orthotropic and anisotropic materials are supported for Scissor Draping.
• Slide Draped
2D/3D orthotropic and anisotropic materials are supported for Slide Draping.

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Creating Materials

Additional Ply Material Parameters


• Thickness
• The thickness of a single ply of the material before it is sheared.
• Maximum Strain
The allowable strain value before the material “locks” (i.e., the material can no longer conform
to the surface by shearing). This is measured in degrees.
• Initial Warp/Weft Angle
This value describes the original undeformed angle between warp and weft yarns in a fabric.
This value can be overridden on the Create LM_Ply Add, Additional Parameters form. This
allows deformation of the fabric before it is placed on the model, which may achieve better
draping. This angle is measured in degrees.

Paint Project Scissor Slide


Thickness Yes Yes Yes Yes
Maximum Strain No No Yes Yes
Initial Warp/Weft Angle No No Yes No

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Creating Materials

Create LM_Material Add Form


This form allows the user to generate MSC.Laminate Modeler ply materials which reference Patran
homogenous materials and contain additional thickness and manufacturing data.

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Creating Materials

Modify LM_Material Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 53
Creating Materials

Show LM_Material Form

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Creating Materials

Delete LM_Material Select Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 55
Creating Plies

Creating Plies
What is a Ply?
A ply is an area of LM_Material which is stored and manipulated as a single entity. A ply represents a
piece of reinforcing fabric which is cut from sheet stock and placed on a mould during the manufacturing
process. A ply is fully characterized by the LM_Material it is made of, the area it covers, and the way in
which it is applied to the surface. The latter is particularly important for non-developable surfaces where
there are many different ways of placing the fabric on a surface.

Figure 3-3 LM_Ply Description

Why use Plies?


Plies allow easy manipulation of complex data when you assemble and/or modify the layers to form the
complete layup. The physical representation of a ply is a piece of fabric.

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Creating Plies

Create LM_Ply Add Form (Draping)

Note: When a ply is created, a group of the same name and containing the Area Definition entities
is created.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 57
Creating Plies

Input Data Definitions

Start Point
This defines the starting point of the drape simulation process. It is analogous to the point at which a ply
is first attached to a mould surface during manufacture. As the distortion usually increases away from the
starting point, it is best to begin draping near the center of a region to minimize shear distortion. If the
start point coordinates do not lie on the selected surface, the coordinates are projected onto the surface
along the application direction vector. The start point must lie on the selected area.

Application Direction
The application direction defines the side of the surface area on which a ply is subsequently added when
the final layup is defined. The “Top” of the surface covered by the ply is defined as the side on which the
ply is originally applied when created. When defining a layup, the ply can be added to the “Top” or
“Bottom” side of the mesh. It follows that the “Top” side is the same side as the application direction
used to define the ply, whereas the “Bottom” side is the side opposite the application direction.

The concept of side is very important as composite structures are often built using molds or forms,
limiting the side of application to a single direction. The plies of reinforcing fabric can be added to either
the outside of a male mould or the inside of a female mould. When defining plies and a layup, it is useful
to consider the manufacturing process.
The application direction is also used to project the start point and reference direction onto the surface.

Reference Direction
The reference direction is used to specify the initial direction of the fabric. The input vector is projected
onto the surface along the application direction to define the principal warp axis of the material at the

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Creating Plies

start point. Note that the direction of the material will usually change away from the starting point if the
surface is curved.

Reference Angle
The principal warp axis of the material on the surface can be rotated from the reference direction by
inputting a non-zero reference angle. This rotation is counterclockwise when viewed along the
application direction.

Figure 3-4 Effect of Application Direction on Warp Orientation

Note that the application direction is used to project the start point and reference direction vector onto the
selected surface. This means that the same start point and reference direction vector results in different
values when projected onto the surface along different application directions, as shown in Figure 3-4. It
follows that the start point and reference direction should be defined as close to the surface as practical,
while the application direction should be defined as perpendicular to the surface as possible.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 59
Creating Plies

Figure 3-5 Projection of Reference Direction

Example of Starting Definitions

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Creating Plies

This example shows the view as it would appear in the viewport in addition to the input that would appear
on the Create LM_Ply Add form.

Axis Type
The principal warp and weft axes are the paths the warp and weft fibers follow along the surface away
from the start point. By defining the paths of the principal axes, it is possible to constrain the ply uniquely
in the region bounded by the principal axes.

The principal axes can be defined in different ways:


• None
No principal axes are defined, draping proceeds using the extension method only.
• Geodesic
The principal axes are defined by geodesic lines from the start point.

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Creating Plies

• Planar
The principal axes are defined by the intersection of planes defined by the start point, application
direction and reference direction rotated about the application direction through the reference
angle.

Extension Type
The extension type controls the draping process if no axis type is defined, or the draping extends beyond
the region uniquely defined by the principal axes. In this case, the material cells on each edge are
kinematically unconstrained, and so some extension type must be specified to control the extension of
the fabric.

The extension mechanism can be defined in different ways:


• Geodesic
The fiber closest to the principal axis is identified and extended along the surface along a
geodesic path. The adjacent fabric cells are then uniquely constrained.
Note that the geodesic extension method yields an identical result to that produced using
geodesic principal axes, followed by geodesic extension where necessary.
• Energy
The mechanism defined by the free edge cells is rotated in such a way as to minimize the shear
strain energy in that free edge, using the assumption that the shear load-deflection behavior is
linear (this could be extended for nonlinear response).
• Maximum
The mechanism defined by the free edge cells is rotated in such a way as to minimize the
maximum shear strain in that free edge.

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Creating Plies

Additional Controls Form - Geometry

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 63
Creating Plies

Additional Controls Form - Material

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Creating Plies

Additional Controls Form - Boundaries

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 65
Creating Plies

Figure 3-6 Split Example

Note: Avoid starting to drape near split definitions to prevent ambiguous draping results.

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Creating Plies

Additional Controls Form - Order of Draping

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 67
Creating Plies

Note: This capability is particularly useful when draping over a series of conical sections. First
drape the most critical section, ensuring minimal shear. Thereafter, drape peripheral areas.

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68 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating Plies

Create LM_Ply Add Form (Projection)

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 69
Creating Plies

Modify LM_Ply Form

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70 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating Plies

Show LM_Ply Graphics Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 71
Creating Plies

Delete LM_Ply Select Form

Note: When an LM_Ply is deleted, the group of the same name created at LM_Ply creation time
will also be deleted.

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72 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model


The individual LM_Plies are used to define the model LM_Layup using the Create LM_Layup Add form.
When this form is selected, a spreadsheet for the Layup definition and forms for the relevant tolerances
can be accessed. The forms are described on the following pages.
These forms are used to create and maintain the analysis layup. As well as providing tools to modify and
redefine the layup, the forms will generate the correct laminate materials and apply the correct properties
to the model. If all other operations are complete (i.e., Loads/BC addition), the model is ready for analysis
after these forms have been applied.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 73
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Create LM_Layup Add Form

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74 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Layup Definition Form

The spreadsheet is used to specify which of the previously defined LM_Plies are used in the generation
of the model LM_Layup. The form allows the selection and ordering of the required LM_Plies.
Manipulation of the LM_Plies within the spreadsheet is used to create different stacking sequences
and layups.
Select the specific LM_Ply from the definitions in the Existing LM_Plies frame The method of
application of that LM_Ply to the existing layup is controlled by the LM_Layup Controls. Continue by
Adding, Inserting, and Deleting LM_Plies until the LM_Layup is finished.
LM_Plies can be added to the layup at any time to reinforce the model between analyses. The ability to
redefine laminates rapidly is one of the key features of the MSC.Laminate Modeler.
The spreadsheet works in two distinct but connected modes. They are called “Expanded” and
“Compressed.” In expanded mode, the multiplier column on the spreadsheet is always set equal to 1. This
enables you to work at the level of single LM_Plies and the Delete and Replace commands will only act
on the single LM_Ply selected. In compressed mode, the Delete and Replace commands can be used to

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 75
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

do multiple “single actions” at the same time. For example, if a row is specified as having a multiplier of
10, then a replace instruction will replace all 10 rows with the new LM_Ply. The same is true for delete.
You can switch between the two methods at any time and take advantage of the quicker set up time of
the stack building, while still being able to modify the LM_Ply sequence at the single LM_Ply level if
required.

Make current definition a total definition.

Make the current definition symmetrical by copying LM_Plies.

Make the current definition symmetrical about the bottom LM_Ply.

Split the current definition in half.

Split the current definition in half as if the current definition is


symmetrical about a mid-LM_Ply.

Cut data from selected spreadsheet cells.

Copy data from selected spreadsheet cells

Paste data cut or copied from selected spreadsheet cells

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Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Paste mirrored data cut or copied from selected spreadsheet cells

Undo the last command for the LM_Layup definition spreadsheet.

Figure 3-7 Icons on LM_Layup Create Spreadsheet

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 77
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Offset Definition Form

Important: Ignore Offsets is required for analysis preferences like ABAQUS and Patran
Advanced FEA which do not allow any offset definition for composite shells. This is
not the same as having an offset = 0.0. An offset with a specified value will cause an
error as it is interpreted as a set value.

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Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Select Element Type Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 79
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Tolerance Definition Form

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80 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Modify LM_Layup Add Form

As only a single layup is allowed in a single Layup file, the form for layup modification is identical to
that for layup creation.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 81
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Show LM_Layup Exploded View Form

This capability allows the user to verify the definition and application direction of the plies defined in
a layup.

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Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Show LM_Layup Cross Section Form

This capability allows the user to define cross-section plots of the plies defined in a layup.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 83
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Show LM_Layup Element Form

This capability allows the user to verify the resulting layup on individual elements. Visualization
capabilities are similar to those provided by the Show Laminate function.

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84 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Show LM_Layup Element Info Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 85
Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Transform LM_Layup Mirror Form

This capability allows the user to model a repeated unit of a symmetrical model, and mirror as appropriate
to generate the full model. For example, only one half of a composite chassis may be modeled prior to
mirroring the mesh and layup about the center plane.

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Creating a Layup and an Analysis Model

Delete LM_Layup Select Form

This form allows the user to delete the single layup defined in the current Layup file.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 87
Creating Solid Elements and an Analysis Model

Creating Solid Elements and an Analysis Model


The MSC.Laminate Modeler defines a ply layup on a 2D shell mesh. The majority of analyses can be
conducted using shell elements as through-thickness effects are relatively insignificant. However, if the
laminate is thick, and especially if the surface is curved, it may be necessary to use solid elements to
model structural behavior adequately.
For these situations, the MSC.Laminate Modeler includes the capability to extrude shell elements
through a distance equal to the laminate thickness. Furthermore, laminate materials and element
properties can be created automatically to allow accurate analysis. If the analysis code does not support
laminated solid elements, the laminate materials are converted to equivalent anisotropic materials for
subsequent analysis.

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Creating Solid Elements and an Analysis Model

Create Solid Elements LM_Layup Form

This capability allows the user to generate solid elements and the associated materials and element
properties needed for detailed analysis of thick laminates.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 89
Creating Laminate Materials

Creating Laminate Materials


The MSC.Laminate Modeler generates laminate materials and element properties when creating or
modifying a layup, or when creating solid elements. Additional capabilities are provided for advanced
users who need greater control over the creation of the analysis model. For example, when using
MSC.Nastran, the user can align the laminate materials using several different methods such as using
coordinate systems or specified vectors.
The procedure followed for generating an analysis model is as follows. The MSC.Laminate Modeler
stores warp angle, weft angle and thickness data for every element making up a ply. When a layup is
created, the total material definition on every element can be defined. By default, angle data is specified
with respect to the first edge of every element.
The next step is to transform this angle data to the angle definition system required by the selected
element type. For example, the projection of a vector onto each element may be used as the basis for
defining laminate material orientations. This allows the program to calculate a corresponding laminate
material on each element.
However, it is generally unwieldy to define a laminate material per element for large models which may
contain over a hundred thousand elements. Hence, a sorting mechanism is invoked to identify a minimum
number of materials within the user-defined tolerance.
The analysis model can become complicated due to the continuous variation of fiber direction over
curved surfaces. Verification tools allow the user to show the layer thickness and orientations on any
element in the model. This capability can be used even if conventional techniques have been used to
define the composites model, or legacy analysis files have been imported into Patran.

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Creating Laminate Materials

Create Laminate LM_Layup Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 91
Creating Laminate Materials

Laminate Options Form

Preview Form

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92 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating Laminate Materials

Show Laminate Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 93
Creating Laminate Materials

Delete Laminate Select Form

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94 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating Laminate Materials

Delete Property Set Select Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 95
Creating Sorted Results

Creating Sorted Results


Most analysis codes which generate results for laminated composite materials define the layer results as
the stacking sequence number with respect to the element orientation system. If there are ply drop-offs
or elements are reversed, the stacking sequence number bears no direct relationship to the physical plies.
To overcome this problem, two results sorting procedures are supported. If the analysis model has been
generated using laminate modeler, the results can be sorted quite simply using data stored in the Layup
file. Otherwise, results can be sorted on the basis of underlying material IDs, if the ID is only used once
on every element over a selected area.

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96 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating Sorted Results

Create LM_Results LM_Ply Sort Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 97
Creating Sorted Results

Create LM_Results Material ID Sort Form

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98 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating Failure Results

Creating Failure Results


Failure indices according to various criteria can be calculated from layered results.
Note that these are based on calculated results and do not affect the analysis model itself. Therefore, they
rely on the assumption of linearity and are only valid for first ply failure.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 99
Creating Failure Results

Create LM_Results Failure Calc Form

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100 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Creating Failure Results

Material Allowables Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 101
Creating Design and Manufacturing Data

Creating Design and Manufacturing Data


It is important to integrate the design, analysis and manufacture of laminated composites. In particular,
it is important that the model analyzed is equivalent to the manufactured part. Therefore, a ply book
containing design and manufacturing data can be produced at any time.

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Creating Design and Manufacturing Data

Create Ply Book Layup Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 103
Importing Plies and Models

Importing Plies and Models


Usually, a new Layup file is created once a mesh has been finalized in the Patran database. If the user
subsequently changes the mesh, the elements in the database and those in the Layup file no longer
correspond. This can lead to errors because the elements selected in the viewport may not have the same
IDs as those used for internal operations. For this reason, a warning is issued if the database mesh does
not correspond to the Layup file mesh when opening a new Layup file.
In addition, it may be desirable to import plies from another Layup file, which may have a different
element definition. For example, a draping simulation tool embedded in a CAD package could generate
a Layup file which has no knowledge of the analysis mesh.
The Import Ply capability has been developed to allow users to remesh as required and also import of
data from other draping systems. In order to do this, it is necessary to generate a mapping between the
current mesh and the imported mesh. This mapping is calculated by element matching or piercing.
The MSC.Laminate Modeler first tires to find a direct match between current and imported elements by
identifying elements with the same nodal coordinates. Where such a match is identified, the layup on the
imported element can be transferred directly to the current element as necessary. The matching process
is relatively fast.
Where a current element has no direct match, mapping is determined through piercing. Here, a normal
vector is calculated at the centroid of each current element and any intersections with imported elements
are calculated. If there are multiple intersections, that closest to the centroid is chosen. The distance
between the centroid and intersection point is calculated, as is the angle between the current normal and
the normal of the intersected imported element. If both the calculated distance and angle are less than the
distance and angular tolerances respectively, the layup on the intersected element is mapped onto the
current element. This piercing process is relatively slow due to the multiple calculations required.
In addition to ply import, it is also possible to import a complete composites model definition stored in
a Layup file. This will copy the mesh and materials from the Layup file into a Patran database so that
further operations like ply creation can be conducted as normal. This feature means that composite
models can be transferred and stored by means of the Layup file alone.

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Importing Plies and Models

Import Plies File Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 105
Importing Plies and Models

Import Model File Form

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106 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Importing and Exporting Laminate Materials

Importing and Exporting Laminate Materials


The MSC.Laminate Modeler generates laminate materials based on a ply layup. However, under certain
circumstances, it is desirable to export or import laminate materials to or from specialized tools used for
laminate analysis. The MSC.Laminate Modeler includes and interface to the LAP laminate analysis
program developed by Anaglyph Ltd. (www.anaglyph.co.uk).
During preliminary design, the user can define a baseline laminate material within LAP and save this data
in a text file. This information can be imported into Patran and referenced by element properties in the
normal way. This basic laminate can be optimized for loading and manufacturing criteria using the tools
within the MSC.Laminate Modeler.
Following analysis, the user can export laminate material and load information to LAP in order to
examine and report stresses.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 107
Importing and Exporting Laminate Materials

Import Laminate LAP Form

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108 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Importing and Exporting Laminate Materials

Export Laminate LAP Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 109
Setting Options

Setting Options
Options for the display of graphical information in a viewport, and the export of manufacturing data,
must be set before creating plies and layups.

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110 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Setting Options

Set Export Options Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 111
Setting Options

Flat Pattern Example

Figure 3-8 Example Flat Pattern

The 2D flat pattern shape can be generated in different formats. The DXF format is typically used to drive
nesting and cutting machines.
Note that the flat pattern shape does not indicate the edges of the fabric where the maximum strain value
has been exceeded.

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112 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Setting Options

Set Display Options Form

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 113
Setting Options

Additional Forms Controlling Ply and Layup Graphics

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114 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Setting Options

Flat Pattern Display on Screen

Figure 3-9 Flat Pattern Displayed on Screen

The flat pattern shape is displayed on the screen perpendicular to the application direction arrow. The
variation that occurred between the draped fabric on the model and the undeformed fabric shape can
be seen.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 115
Setting Options

Figure 3-10 Flat Pattern Displayed for Surface with Split Definition

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116 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Session File Support

Session File Support


MSC.Laminate Modeler can be run from a session file if required. The session file should contain calls
to the public PCL functions defined in the next section. These functions correspond to user interface
forms in the usual way. If required, the contents of a session file can be modified manually before being
replayed to change the layup.
Replaying a session file also allows the user to remesh surfaces if area selection is done by reference to
geometrical entities, such as <Surface 4 8>. However, care must be taken with the selection of the start
point and the reference direction to make sure that they correspond to the remeshed model.
Note that running a session file will be slightly different from undertaking an interactive run because the
forms will not appear or be filled with the corresponding data.

Important: Session File edits.

It is also advisable to change the full path names for the files to just the file names. For example:
“/usr/people/demo/test/testrun. Layup” becomes “testrun.Layup”.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 117
Public PCL Functions

Public PCL Functions


These functions correspond to user interface forms in the usual way. They can be used by running a
session file, or calling them directly from other PCL functions. In either case, it is important that the PCL
library <laminate_modeler.plb> is available to the session, and the executable <layup> is in the path

p3cm.new ( <filename> )

Input:
STRING <filename> Name of the new Layup file.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine is
successful.

Begins a MSC.Laminate Modeler session using a new Layup file with the name <filename>.

p3cm.open ( <filename> )

Input:
STRING <filename> Name of the existing Layup file.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine is
successful.

Begins a MSC.Laminate Modeler session by opening an existing Layup file with the name <filename>.

p3cm.save_as ( <filename> )

Input:
STRING <filename> Name of the target Layup file.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine
is successful.

Saves a copy of the current Layup file with the name <filename>.

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Public PCL Functions

p3cm.create_material_add ( <type_name>, <material_name>,


<analysis_material_name>, <thickness>,
<max_strain>, <warp_weft_angle> )

Input:
STRING <type-name> Application type.
STRING <material_name> Material name.
STRING <analysis_material_name> Analysis material name.
REAL <thickness> Initial thickness of the ply material.
REAL <max_strain> Maximum permissible strain of the ply material.
REAL <warp_weft_angle> Initial angle between warp and weft fibres.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the
routine is successful.

Creates a new material

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 119
Public PCL Functions

p3cm.create_ply_add ( <type_name>, <material_name>, <ply_name>,


<start_pt>, <appliqueing>, <ref_dirn>, <ref_ang>,
<warp_weft_angle>, <max_strain>, <step_length>,
<axis_type>, <max_sweeps>, <bounds>, <area_str>,
<split_str> )

Input:
STRING <type_name> Application type.
STRING <material_name> Ply material name.
STRING <ply_name> Ply name.
REAL ARRAY <start_pt> Coordinates of starting point.
REAL ARRAY <appliqueing> Vector defining application direction.
REAL ARRAY <ref_dirn> Vector defining the reference direction.
REAL <ref_ang> Reference angle.
REAL <warp_weft_angle> Initial angle between warp and weft fibres.
REAL <max_strain> Maximum permissible strain of the ply material.
REAL <step_length> Step length.
INTEGER <axis_type> Axis type.
INTEGER <max_sweeps> Maximum number of sweeps.
REAL ARRAY <bounds> Maximum fabric bounds.
STRING <area_str> Selected area.
STRING <split_str> Split definition.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the
routine is successful.

Creates a new ply.

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Public PCL Functions

p3cm.create_layup_add (<num_plies>, <ply_names>, <type_names>,


<instances>, <sides>, <offsets>, < num_offs>,
<off_values>, < off_flags>, < off_starts>,
<off_views>, < off_areas>, < num_tols>,
<ang_tols>, <thick_tols>, <tol_areas>,
<model_flag>, < element_type>, <solid_flag>,
<bacon_flag> )

Input:
INTEGER <num_plies> Number of plies.
STRING ARRAY <ply-names> Ply names.
STRING ARRAY <type_names> Application types.
INTEGER ARRAY <instances> Instances.
STRING ARRAY <sides> Side of application.
REAL ARRAY <offsets> Angular offset values.
INTEGER <num_offs> Number of offset regions defined.
REAL ARRAY <off_values> Value of offset.
STRING ARRAY <off_flags> Side of offset.
REAL ARRAY <off_starts> Coordinates of starting points for offset definition.
REAL ARRAY <off_views> Vectors defining view direction for offsets.
STRING ARRAY <off_areas> Selected areas for offset definition.
INTEGER <num_tols> Number of tolerance regions defined.
REAL ARRAY <ang_tols> Angular tolerance values (degrees).
REAL ARRAY <thick_tols> Thickness tolerance values(degrees).
STRING ARRAY <tol_areas> Selected areas for tolerance definition.
LOGICAL <model_flag> Generate analysis model.
STRING <element_type> Selected element type.
LOGICAL <solid_flag> Generate solid element file.
LOGICAL <bacon_flag> Generate BACON command file.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the
routine is successful.

Creates a new layup.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 121
Public PCL Functions

p3cm.delete_material_name (<type_name>, <material_name> )

Input:
STRING <type_name> Application type.
STRING <material_name> Material name.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine
is successful.

Deletes an unused material.

p3cm.delete_ply_name (<type_name>, < ply_name> )

Input:
STRING <type_name> Application type.
STRING <ply_name> Ply name.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the
routine is successful.

Deletes an unused ply.

p3cm.create_results_sort (<res_names> )

Input:
STRING ARRAY <res_names> A string array containing the loadcase name, subcase
name, primary label, secondary label and dummy
layer name of result to be sorted.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine
is successful.

Creates sorted results.

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Public PCL Functions

p3cm.create_results_failure (<res_names>,<area>,<criterion>,<basis>,
<num_mats>,<mat_names>,<mat_allows>,
<name>,<ply_sort>,<ply_results>,<failure_index>,
<reserve_factor>,<margin_safety>,<critical_compo
nent>,<critical_ply> )

Input:
STRING ARRAY <res_names> A string array containing the loadcase name, subcase
name, primary label, secondary label and dummy layer
name of result to be sorted.
STRING <area> A list of elements for which results are to be calculated.
STRING <criterion> The name of the criterion to be used.
STRING <basis> The basis to be used: "STRESS" or "STRAIN".
INTEGER <num_mats> The number of material allowables.
STRING ARRAY <mat_names> A <num_mats> array of material names.
REAL ARRAY <mat_allows> A <num_mats>x<8> array of material allowables.
STRING <name> Result name.
LOGICAL <ply_sort> Flag to sort ply results by LM_Ply. (Not yet
implemented.)
LOGICAL <ply_results> Flag to generate failure index, reserve factor, margin of
safety and critical component results for every ply in the
Patran database. (Not yet implemented.)
LOGICAL <failure_index> Flag to generate failure index results in the Patran
database. (Not yet implemented.)
LOGICAL <reserve_factor> Flag to generate failure index results in the Patran
database. (Not yet implemented.)
LOGICAL <margin_safety> Flag to generate margin of safety results in the Patran
database.
LOGICAL <critical_component> Flag to generate margin of safety results in the Patran
database.
LOGICAL <critical_ply> Flag to generate critical ply results in the Patran database.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine is
successful.

Creates composite failure index results. These are stored in a text file and optional results in the Patran
database.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 123
Public PCL Functions

p3cm.set_graphics_options (<msg>, <ply_gr>, <layup_gr>, <view>, <init>,


<maxstrn>, <area>, <cutout>, <pattern>,
<offset>, <angles>, <offval>, <scale> )

Input:
LOGICAL <msg> Display the message file.
LOGICAL <ply_gr> Display the ply graphics control form.
LOGICAL <layup_gr> Display the layup graphics control form.
LOGICAL <view> Display the view direction arrow of a ply.
LOGICAL <init> Display the reference direction arrow of a ply.
LOGICAL <maxstrn> Display the maximum strain value of a ply.
LOGICAL <area> Display the border of the selected area of a ply.
LOGICAL <cutout> Display the 2D flat pattern of a ply.
LOGICAL <pattern> Display the 3D draped pattern of a ply.
LOGICAL <offset> Display the angles of the surface plies of a layup.
LOGICAL <angles> Display the angles of a ply.
REAL <offval> Offset value of the 2D flat pattern of a ply.
REAL <scale> Scale value of the angles of the surface plies of a layup.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine is
successful.

Sets graphics options.

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Public PCL Functions

p3cm.set_export_options (<pat>, <cut>, <mould>, <iges>, <dxf>, <post> )

Input:
LOGICAL <pat> Export the 3D draped pattern.
LOGICAL <cut> Export the 2D flat pattern.
LOGICAL <mould> Export mould surface.
LOGICAL <iges> Export files in IGES format.
LOGICAL <dxf> Export files in DXF format.
LOGICAL <post> Export files in postscript format.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine is
successful.

Sets export options.

p3cm.delete_properties_all ()

Input:
None.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine is
successful.

Deletes properties named <P3LM_prop_XXX> generated by the MSC.Laminate Modeler.

p3cm.delete_laminates_all ()

Input:
None.
Output:
INTEGER <Return Value> Status return value. The value will be 0 if the routine is
successful.

Deletes laminates named <laminate_XXX> generated by the MSC.Laminate Modeler.

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Chapter 3: Using MSC.Laminate Modeler 125
Data Files

Data Files
MSC.Laminate Modeler uses a variety of files to store and communicate the extensive data required for
composites analysis. The file name prefix <filename> is set when entering the MSC.Laminate Modeler.
The default prefix is the name of the database. For data files, additional suffices <.bak>, <.igs>, <.dxf>
and <.ps> denote backup, IGES, DXF or postscript files respectively.
1. <filename>.Layup
This is the external MSC.Laminate Modeler database.

Important: Do not delete or modify this file manually.

2. <filename>.lm_msg
This message file is produced by the “layup” executable and provides a record of the ply
application and manipulation processes. Any errors will always be reported in this file. This file
can be displayed automatically after every user command by setting a toggle on the Set Display
Options form.
3. <filename>.lm_mould
This file contains mould surface data.
4. <filename>.lm_solid
This file contains data describing solid elements created by extruding the shell elements through
the thickness of the plies.
5. <filename>.lm_bacon
This file contains BACON (SAMCEF preprocessor) commands to build the analysis model.
6. <filename>.lm_report
This file contains a text summary of the layup.
7. <filename>.lm_results
This file contains the results of a laminate failure analysis.

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Data Files

Main Index
Chapter 4: Example:Laminated Plate
MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

4 Example:Laminated Plate

J Overview 128
J Model Description 129
J
Modeling Procedure 130
J Step-By-Step 132

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128 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Overview

Overview
This example will show the use of MSC.Laminate Modeler by building and modifying a simple layup on
a flat plate. The Functionality shown is extendable to general shapes.

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Chapter 4: Example:Laminated Plate 129
Model Description

Model Description
• L=Length = 10 units
• H=Height = 6 Units

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130 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Modeling Procedure

Modeling Procedure
Step 1: Open a new database and set parameters

Step 2: Create a new empty group

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Chapter 4: Example:Laminated Plate 131
Modeling Procedure

Step 3: Construct the Patch

Step 4: Mesh the Patch


Use the Create action.

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Step-By-Step

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Step-By-Step

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Step-By-Step

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Chapter 5: Theory
MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

5 Theory

J The Geometry of Surfaces 140


J The Fabric Draping Process 142
J
Results for Global Plies 151
J Composite Failure Criteria 155

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140 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
The Geometry of Surfaces

The Geometry of Surfaces


Introduction
Composite materials are typically made from sheets of materials whose thickness is very much smaller
than their width. Therefore, an elementary understanding of surface geometry is essential in order to use
these materials effectively.
For the purposes of engineering analyses, surfaces are generally divided into flat plates or curved shells.
Compared with plate structures, shells generally exhibit superior strength and stiffness as a consequence
of their curvature. Shells have traditionally been difficult to manufacture from conventional materials
like aluminum, but are now readily built from plies of reinforcing fabrics which conform or drape
relatively easily to surfaces of complex curvature. The potential for optimizing surface geometry leads
to weight savings beyond those promised by the increase in mechanical performance alone.
The drapability of reinforcing materials results directly from their ability to shear, allowing the material
to cling to surfaces without folding or tearing. It is important to understand the cause of material shear as
this both changes the form of the material, and hence its mechanical properties, but also varies the
alignment of the fibres with respect to the loads in the surface. The latter factor is especially vital in
unidirectionally-reinforced materials where the strength and stiffness along the fibres may be more than
ten times greater than in the transverse direction.

Effect of Gaussian Curvature


The amount of shear distortion in a sheet of material is dependent on the degree of curvature of the
surface and the size of the sheet. The curvature of the surface is conveniently measured by a scalar
quantity called the “Gaussian curvature” which is the product of the curvature of the surface in two
orthogonal principal directions. For example, the dome has positive Gaussian curvature because the
sense of the curvature in two directions at 90 degrees is the same.
Gaussian curvature can be visualized easily by drawing geodesic lines on surfaces. (Geodesic lines are
those that are straight in the plane of the surface, such as the meridian of a sphere.) A pair of lines which
are parallel at some point will tend to converge, remain parallel or diverge on surfaces of positive, zero
and negative curvature respectively.
In contrast, the cylinder has zero Gaussian Curvature as there is no curvature along its axis. All
“developable” surfaces (i.e., those that can be rolled up from a flat sheet without the material shearing in
its plane) necessarily have zero Gaussian Curvature over their entire area. Finally, a saddle which has
curvature in two different directions, has a negative Gaussian curvature.

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Chapter 5: Theory 141
The Geometry of Surfaces

Figure 5-1 Selected Shapes with Different Gaussian Curvature

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142 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
The Fabric Draping Process

The Fabric Draping Process


Note: Material Models for Draping.

The fabric draping process can be split into two sections:


1. A Local draping mechanism
2. A Global draping procedure

Local Draping
Local draping is concerned with fitting a small section of material to a generally curved surface. If the
surface has nonzero Gaussian curvature, the material element must shear in its plane to conform to the
surface. This deformation is highly dependent on the microstructure of the material. As a result, local
shearing behavior can be regarded as a ply material property.

Figure 5-2 Scissor Draping Mechanism

Figure 5-3 Slide Draping Mechanism

MSC.Laminate Modeler currently supports two local draping algorithms: scissor and slide draping. For
scissor draping, an element of material which is originally square shears in a trellis-like mode about its
vertices to form a rhombus. In particular, the sides of the material element remain of constant length. This
type of deformation behavior is characteristic of woven fabrics which are widely used to manufacture
highly-curved composite components.

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Chapter 5: Theory 143
The Fabric Draping Process

For slide draping, two opposite sides of a square material element can slide parallel to each other while
their separation remains constant. This is intended to model the application of parallel strips of material
to a surface. It can also model, very simply, the relative sliding of adjacent tows making up a strip of
unidirectional material.
When draping a given surface using the two different local draping algorithms, the shear in the plies
builds up far more rapidly for the slide draping mechanism than for the scissor draping mechanism. This
observation is compatible with actual manufacturing experience that woven fabrics are more suitable for
draping curved surfaces than unidirectional pre-pregs.
For small deformations, the predictions of the different algorithms are practically identical. Therefore, it
is suggested that the scissor draping algorithm be used in the first instance.

Global Draping
Global draping is concerned with placing a real sheet of material onto a surface of general curvature. This
is not a trivial task as there are infinite ways of doing this if the surface has nonzero Gaussian curvature
at any point. Therefore, it is important to define procedures for the global draping simulation which are
reproducible and reflect what can be manufactured in a production situation. As a result, global draping
behavior can be regarded as a manufacturing, rather than material, property.
MSC.Laminate Modeler currently supports three different global draping algorithms: Geodesic, Planar
and Energy. For the Geodesic global draping option, principal axes are drawn away from the starting
point along geodesic paths on the surface (i.e., the lines are always straight with respect to the surface).
Once these principal axes are defined, there is then a unique solution for draping the remainder of the
surface. This may be considered the most “natural” method and appropriate for conventional laminating
methods. However, for highly-curved surfaces, the paths of geodesic lines are highly dependent on initial
conditions and so the drape simulation must be handled with care.

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The Fabric Draping Process

Figure 5-4 Geodesic Global Draping

For the Planar global draping option, the principal axes may be defined by the intersection of warp (and
weft for scissor draping) planes which pass through the viewing direction. This method is appropriate
where the body has some symmetry, or where the layup is defined on a space-centered rather than a
surface-centered basis.

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Chapter 5: Theory 145
The Fabric Draping Process

Figure 5-5 Planar Global Draping

Finally, the Energy global draping option is provided for draping highly-curved surfaces where the
manufacturing tolerances are necessarily greater. Here, the draping proceeds outwards from the start
point, while the direction of draping is controlled by minimizing the shear strain energy along each edge.

Figure 5-6 Energy Global Draping

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The Fabric Draping Process

Note: Step Length.

Note that all draping simulations are discrete and use a specific step length. A default value is calculated
on the basis of the area of the selected region. This may be modified or overridden, using the step length
databox on the Additional Controls/Geometry form.

Note: Fabric Graphics.

The sections above relate only to how the fabric algorithm works internally. When the graphics are drawn
to the screen, they are drawn in the same manner for all of the selected types, if applicable. The fabric
drawing to the screen has no relevance to the method that the fabric generation routine executed. In
particular, do not expect to see the fabric being drawn in a manner similar to the calculation method for
the Energy Option.

Projected Angles
MSC.Laminate Modeler supports two different methods of projecting fiber angles onto a surface. In the
first Planar method, the angles are defined by the intersection of parallel planes with the surface. Using
the Axis method, axes are projected onto the elements and rotated as specified. The appropriate method
will depend on the manufacturing process followed.

Figure 5-7 Plane X-Axis

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Chapter 5: Theory 147
The Fabric Draping Process

Using the “Plane X-axis” option, a plane passing through the Z-axis and rotated through an angle α from
the X-axis. The elemental material angle is the angle between the intersection of this plane, or one parallel
to it, with the element and the first edge of the element.
“Plane Y-axis” uses plane through X-axis measured from Y-axis.
“Plane Z-axis” uses plane through Y-axis measured from Z-axis.

Figure 5-8 Projected X-axis

Using the “Project X-axis” option, the global X-axis is projected normally onto the element at the first
node. This axis is then rotated through the reference angle α in the counter (anti-) clockwise direction
from the viewing point. It is important to note that the element material angle θ is generally not equal the
angle α.
“Project Y-axis” uses the Y-axis
“Project Z-axis” uses the Z-axis
MSC.Laminate Modeler also allows the user to define angles with respect to the element datum (i.e., the
first edge of the element). This feature can also be used to visualize the relative orientation of elements
where this is not immediately obvious, such as if the pave mesher is utilized.

Practical Restrictions On Surfaces


The draping simulation has been found to give realistic results for surfaces which are manufacturable
using sheet materials. This is even true for surfaces having infinite curvature in a single direction (i.e.,

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The Fabric Draping Process

sharp edges). However, the simulation is likely to fail where it is physically impossible to drape a real
sheet of material.
Geometrical features leading to poor draping include:
1. Excessive Gaussian Curvature. For example, the apex of a cone has extreme Gaussian
curvature, and is therefore impossible to drape realistically. The user should use the Split
Definition facility to cut the cone between its base and apex before simulating the drape.

2. Holes in Surfaces. It is recommended that holes be temporarily filled with dummy elements
while a layup is being defined. If these elements are put in a separate Patran group, they can be
excluded from the analysis by only analyzing the current group.

3. Incomplete Boundary Definition. Many surfaces, such as cylinders, do not have a complete
boundary; draping will continue around the body until an internal program storage limit is
reached. Define artificial boundaries using the split definition facility on the Create LM_Ply,
Additional Controls, Definition form.

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Chapter 5: Theory 149
The Fabric Draping Process

4. “T” Sections. These can be draped along three separate paths. The user must make sure that the
correct elements are selected, and that a consistent definition of top and bottom surfaces is
maintained. This prevent plies crossing over unexpectedly.

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The Fabric Draping Process

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Chapter 5: Theory 151
Results for Global Plies

Results for Global Plies


MSC.Laminate Modeler results can be rearranged to produce output for a single continuous piece of
fabric rather than a local element-based ply-by-ply representation of the results. This feature is essential
for proper results interpretation because a single piece of fabric may be represented by different ply
numbers on different elements. The common approach to results processing is to produce results by ply
number over a range of elements. This can lead to completely misleading results for typical
components.The results rearrangement creates a new set of results in the database which uses the exact
definition of a fabric on an element/ply-number scheme, allowing meaningful postprocessing as
illustrated below.

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Results for Global Plies

Example

Note: Results shown above are centroidal.

Spectrum was updated for each picture so contours were assigned per plot.

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Chapter 5: Theory 153
Results for Global Plies

As can be seen, the analysis references to plies can be in error. This rearrangement of results does not
give “better” or “more accurate results” but provides a more realistic grouping of results. The
functionality can be used to rearrange any results stored and referenced by plies in the database. For
example, you could create failure criteria results using P/LAM or an in-house program, read the results
into Patran, and then sort these results on the basis of global plies. The initial release of this functionality
extracts and creates results at element centroids.
Some more simple examples can be used to help visualize the difference.

Note: All model dimensions are greatly exaggerated.

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Results for Global Plies

Results at Multiple Sections Through a Ply


This initial version of the results manipulation always tries to operate on a single result per layer.
MSC.Laminate Modeler determines how many results there are per ply by a simple formula: the number
of layer results from database divided by the maximum number of plies on any element.
If the value of this = 1 then MSC.Laminate Modeler uses that single value to create the new results.
If the value is > 1 then a further calculation is done to extract what should be a reasonable value.
For example:

Main Index
Chapter 5: Theory 155
Composite Failure Criteria

Composite Failure Criteria


Failure criteria for composite materials are significantly more complex than yield criteria for metals
because composite materials can be strongly anisotropic and tend to fail in a number of different modes
depending on their loading state and the mechanical properties of the material. While theories which
reflect detailed mechanisms of failure are currently being developed, empirical criteria based on test data
have been used for decades. These criteria have been incorporated in the MSC.Laminate Modeler to
allow rapid evaluation of the strength of a structure according to the current industry standards. The user
can also define custom criteria using PCL functions for use in specialized applications.

Nomenclature
Failure criteria compare the loading state at a point (stress or strain) with a set of values reflecting the
strength of the material at that point (often referred to as the material allowables). Both loading and
strength values should be reflected in the same material coordinate system. For unidirectional materials,
this is typically in the direction of the fibres. However, for woven and knitted fabrics , this direction is
not obvious, and might change as the material is formed to shape.
In general, the load is represented by a full stress or strain tensor having six independent components. By
convention, for lamina materials the material X axis lies in the direction of the warp fibres while the Z
axis lies in the through-thickness direction of the sheet. Note than in Patran, shear strains are stored in
tensor rather than engineering notation, and any experimental failure strengths should reflect this.

STRESS σx,σy,σz,τxy,τyz,τxz
STRAIN εx,εy,εz,γxy,γyz,γxz

The strength of a composite can be expressed by an arbitrarily large number of values, depending on the
complexity of the failure criterion. However, lamina materials, used in composites, are often assumed to
be orthotropic; the through-thickness stresses or strains are ignored and it is assumed that there is
negligible interaction between the different failure modes. The strength of the material can therefore be
represented by seven independent variables:

TX tensile strength along the X axis 0 < TX


CX compressive strength along the X axis 0 < CX
TY tensile strength along the Y axis 0 < TY
CY compressive strength along the Y axis 0 < CY
SXY shear strength in the XY plane 0 < SXY
SYZ shear strength in the YZ plane 0 < SYZ
SXZ shear strength in the XZ plane 0 < SXZ

In the Tsai-Wu criterion, these values have been supplemented by an interaction term which reflects the
interdependence of failure modes due to loading along both the X and Y material directions.

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IXY interaction between X and Y directions -1< IXY <1

Note that the above values can be applied to either stress or strain.
The form of the failure criterion is typically described as a mathematical function of the above variables
which reaches the value of unity at failure as follows.
Failure Index = FI (load, strength) = 1
The strength of a structure can be given as a Strength Ratio (SR), which is the ratio by which the load
must be factored to just fail. (Note that the Strength Ratio is not necessarily the reciprocal of the Failure
Index.) Alternatively, the Margin of Safety (MoS), where MoS = SR - 1, is used.

Maximum Criterion
This criterion is calculated by comparing the allowable load with the actual strength for each component.
Mathematically, it is defined by:
FI = max (σx/TX, -σx/CX, σy/TY, -σy/CY,

abs(τxy)/SXY, abs(γyz)/SYZ, abs(γxz)/SXZ)

In this case,
SR = 1/FI

Hill Criterion
The Hill criterion was one of the first attempts to develop a single formula to account for the widely
different strengths in the various principal directions:

FI = FXX σx2 + FYY σy2 + 2 FXY σx σy + FSS τxy2

where

FXX = 1/(TX TX) if σx >= 0


1/(CX CX) if σx <0
FYY = 1/(TY TY) if σy >= 0
1/(CY CY) if σy <0
FXY = -1/(2 TX TX) if σxσy >= 0
-1/(2 CX CX) if σxσy <0
FSS = 1 / (SXY SXY)

Because this failure theory is quadratic:


SR = 1 / sqrt (FI)

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Chapter 5: Theory 157
Composite Failure Criteria

In the Laminate Modeler, the Tsai-Wu criterion for in-plane loads (representing fiber failure) has been
supplemented by a maximum load theory for out-of-plane shear loads (representing matrix failure):
FI = max( abs(γyz)/SYZ, abs(γxz)/SXZ)

In this case,
SR = 1/FI
For every ply, the lower of the Margins of Safety for fibre and matrix failure is calculated and displayed.

Tsai-Wu Criterion
The Tsai-Wu failure criterion is an unashamed, empirical criterion based on the sum of the linear and
quadratic invariants as follows:

Fi σi + Fij σi σj = 1 i,j = 1...6

where Fi and Fij are dependent on the material strengths. For the restrictions of lamina materials, this
equation reduces to:

FI = FX σx + FY σy + FXX σx2 + FYY σy2 + 2 FXY σx σy + FSS τxy2

where:
FX = 1/TX - 1/CX
FY = 1/TY - 1/CY
FXX = 1/(TX CX)
FYY = 1/(TY CY)
FXY = IXY sqrt(FXX FYY) = IXY / sqrt(TX CX TY CY)
FSS = 1 / (SXY SXY)
Because this failure theory is quadratic, the Strength Ratio (SR) = 1/FI. However, multiplying the failure
criterion by SR and rearranging gives

a SR2 + b SR - 1 = 0
where

a = FXX σx2 + FYY σy2 + 2 FXY σx σy + FSS τxy2

b = FX σx + FY σy

Therefore

SR = [-b + sqrt (b2 + 4a)] / 2a

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Composite Failure Criteria

In the Laminate Modeler, the Tsai-Wu criterion for in-plane loads (representing fiber failure) has been
supplemented by a maximum load theory for out-of-plane shear loads (representing matrix failure):
FI = max( abs(γyz)/SYZ, abs(γxz)/SXZ )

In this case,
SR = 1/FI
For every ply, the lower of the Margins of Safety for fibre and matrix failure is calculated and displayed.

Extended Quadratic Criteria


These criterion are identical to the Tsai-Wu criterion except for the calculation of the interaction
coefficient FXY which is derived rather than obtained from experimental results.

Hoffman
FXY = - 1 / (2 TX CX)

Hankinson
FXY = 0.5 / (1/(TX CX) + 1/(TY CY) - 1/SXY2)

Cowin
FXY = 1 / sqrt(TX CX TY CY) - 0.5 /SXY2

User-Defined Criterion
The user can write a custom PCL function to generate failure indices and margins of safety according to
specialized failure criteria. For example, sophisticated failure criteria are being developed which
incorporate a mixture of equations depending on the expected mode of failure. These could be expected
to outperform simple criteria where there is a complex loading state, particularly within thick laminates.
To use this facility, the user should modify the function user() within the class
p3CM_create_res_fail_user. A sample function based on the criteria of maximum loading is illustrated
below. The function has input values of loading state and material strength data. The output values are
the margin of safety, the critical component, and a failure index. The required function should be edited
into a file “p3CM_create_res_fail_user.user.pcl.” This function must then be substituted for the default
dummy function in the Laminate Modeler PCL library. To do this, save a backup copy of the existing
laminate_modeler.plb, and issue the following commands in the command line:
!! LIBRARY ADD laminate_modeler.plb
!! COMPILE p3CM_create_res_fail_user.user INTO laminate_modeler.plb
The PCL source code required to implement the maximum failure criteria
follows as an example:
CLASS p3CM_create_res_fail_user

FUNCTION user(res_array,mat_array,out_res_array)

Main Index
Chapter 5: Theory 159
Composite Failure Criteria

REAL res_array()
REAL mat_array()
REAL out_res_array()

REAL sxx,syy,szz,sxy,syz,sxz
REAL fxt,fxc,fyt,fyc,fs12,fs23,fs31
REAL margin,component,fi

REAL fi11t,fi11c,fi22t,fi22c,fi12,fi23,fi31

/*
* Set input values.
*/

sxx = res_array(1)
syy = res_array(2)
szz = res_array(3)
sxy = res_array(4)
syz = res_array(5)
sxz = res_array(6)

fxt = mat_array(1)
fxc = mat_array(2)
fyt = mat_array(3)
fyc = mat_array(4)
fs12 = mat_array(5)
fs23 = mat_array(6)
fs31 = mat_array(7)

/*
* Check that failure values are reasonable.
*/

IF ( (fxt<=0.) || @
(fxc<=0.) || @
(fyt<=0.) || @
(fyc<=0.) || @
(fs12<=0.) || @
(fs23<=0.) || @
(fs31<=0.) ) THEN

user_message(“Ack”,4,”LAMMODEL”,”Failure strength values must be >


0.0”)
RETURN

END IF

/*
* Initialise variables.
*/

margin = 0.0
component = 1.0
fi = 1.0
sys_allocate_array(out_res_array,1,3)

out_res_array(1) = 0.0
out_res_array(2) = 1.0
out_res_array(3) = 1.0

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Composite Failure Criteria

/*
* Calculate strength ratios for each component.
*/

fi11t = sxx / fxt


IF( fi < fi11t )THEN
fi = fi11t
margin = 1. / fi - 1
component = 11
ENDIF

fi11c = -sxx / fxc


IF( fi < fi11c )THEN
fi = fi11c
margin = 1. / fi - 1
component = -11
ENDIF

fi22t = syy / fyt


IF( fi < fi22t )THEN
fi = fi22t
margin = 1. / fi - 1
component = 22
ENDIF

fi22c = -syy / fyc


IF( fi < fi22c )THEN
fi = fi22c
margin = 1. / fi - 1
component = -22
ENDIF

fi12 = mth_abs(sxy) / fs12


IF( fi < fi12 )THEN
fi = fi12
margin = 1. / fi - 1
component = 12
ENDIF

fi23 = mth_abs(syz) / fs23


IF( fi < fi23 )THEN
fi = fi23
margin = 1. / fi - 1
component = 23
ENDIF

fi31 = mth_abs(sxz) / fs31


IF( fi < fi31 )THEN
fi = fi31
margin = 1. / fi - 1
component = 31
ENDIF

/*
* Set output values.
*/

out_res_array(1) = margin
out_res_array(2) = component

Main Index
Chapter 5: Theory 161
Composite Failure Criteria

out_res_array(3) = fi

END FUNCTION

END CLASS

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162 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide
Composite Failure Criteria

Main Index
Appendix A: Bibliography

MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

A Bibliography

Main Index
164 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

Bibliography
1. Bergsma, O.K. and Huisman, J. “Deep Drawing of Fabric Reinforced Thermoplastics,” in
Brebbia, C., et al., CAD in Composite Material Technology (Southampton, Computational
Mechanics, 1988).
2. Bergsma, O.K. Deep Drawing of Fabric Reinforced Thermoplastics: Simulation and Experiment
(Delft University of Technology, Department of Aerospace Engineering).
3. Calladine, C. Theory of Shell Structures, Chapter 5.
4. Heisey, F.L., et al. “Three-Dimensional Pattern Drafting,” Textile Research Journal, November
1990, pp. 690-696.
5. Collier, J.R., Collier, B.J., O’Toole, G. and Sargand, S.M. “Drape Prediction by Means of Finite-
Element Analysis,” J. Text. Inst., 1991, Vol. 82, No. 1, pp. 96-107.
6. Heisey, F.L., and Haller, K.D. “Fitting Woven Fabric To Surfaces in Three Dimensions,” J. Text.
Inst., 1988, No. 2, pp. 250-263.
7. Hinds, B.K., McCartney, J., and Woods ,G. “Pattern Development for Three Dimensional
Surfaces” (Queens University Belfast, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing
Engineering).
8. Kawabata, S. The Standardization and Analysis of Hand Evaluation, 2nd ed., (Osaka, Japan, The
Textile Machinery Society of Japan, 1980).
9. Mack, C., and Taylor, H.M. “The Fitting of Woven Cloth to Surfaces,” J.Text. Inst., 1956, No.
47, pp. T477-88.
10. Mallon, P.J., O’Bradaigh, C.M., and Pipes, R.B. “Polymeric Diaphragm Forming of Complex-
Curvature Thermoplastic Composite Parts,” Composites, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan. 1989, pp.48-56.
11. Monaghan, M.R., Mallon, P.J., O’Bradaigh, C.M., and Pipes, R.B. “The Effect of Diaphragm
Stiffness on the Quality of Diaphragm Formed Thermoplastic Composite Components,” The
Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Vol. 3, July 1990, pp.202-215.
12. Okine, R.K. “Analysis of Forming Parts from Advanced Thermoplastic Composite Sheet
Materials,” The Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Vol. 2, Jan. 1989, pp.50-77.
13. Potter, K.D. “The Influence of Accurate Stretch Data for Reinforcements on the Production of
Complex Structural Mouldings -- Part 1. Deformation of Aligned Sheets & Fabrics,” Composites,
July 1979, pp.161-167.
14. Potter, K.D. “The Influence of Accurate Stretch Data for Reinforcement on the Production of
Complex Structural Mouldings -- Part 2. Deformation of Random Mats,” Composites, July 1979,
pp. 168-173.
15. Potter, K.D. Deformation Mechanisms of Fibre Reinforcements and Their Influence on the
Fabrication of Complex Structural Parts (London, Controller HMSO, 1980).
16. Robertson, R.E., et al. “Fiber Rearrangements During the Moulding of Continuous Fiber
Composites. 1: Flat Cloth to a Hemisphere,” Polymer Composites, July 1981, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp.
126-131.
17. Skelton, J. Shear Of Woven Fabrics (Dedham MA, USA, FRL, 1979).

Main Index
Appendix A: Bibliography 165

18. Smiley, A.J., and Pipes, R.B. “Analysis of the Diaphragm Forming of Continuous Fiber
Reinforced Thermoplastics,” The Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Vol. 1, Oct.
1988, pp. 298-321.
19. Stubbs, N., and Fluss, H. “A Space-truss Model for Plain-Weave Coated Fabrics,” Appl. Math.
Modeling, Vol. 4, Part 1, Feb. 1980, pp. 51-58.
20. Tam, A.S., and Gutowski, T. “Ply-Slip During the Forming of Thermoplastic Composite Parts,”
Journal of the ASCE Engineering Mechanics Division, Vol. 104, Part 5, Oct, 1978.
21. Testa, R.B., Stubbs, N., and Spillers, W.R. “Bilinear Model For Coated Square Fabrics,” The
Journal of the ASCE Engineering Mechanics Division, Vol. 104, Part 5, Oct. 1978, pp. 1027-
1042.
22. Van Der Weeen, F. “Algorithms For Draping Fabrics on Doubly-Curved Surfaces,” International
Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 31, 1991, pp. 1415-1426.
23. Van West, B.P., et al. The Draping and Consolidation of Commingled Fabrics (Delaware USA,
Center for Composite Materials and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware,
1990).
24. Wormersley, J.R. “The Application of Differential Geometry to the Study of the Deformation of
Cloth Under Stress,” J. Text. Inst., 1937, pp.T97-112.

Main Index
166 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

Main Index
MSC.Fatigue Quick Start Guide

Index
MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

A F
anisotropic behavior, 11 fiber angles, 146
Index anisotropy, 11 axis method, 146
automated tow placement, 13 planar method, 146
Ind filament winding, 6, 13
ex filamentary composites, 11
B
bottom, 57 fabrics, 11, 12
glass fibre/polyester mixture, 11
graphic fibre/epoxy resin, 11
C tows, 11
CAD systems, 19, 21 finite element analysis, 20
CADDS 5, 19 flat plates, 140
CATIA, 19
composites data, 6
compression moulding, 13 G
conceptual design, 15 Gaussian curvature, 24, 25, 140
core samples, 18 negative, 24, 140
cross sections, 18 positive, 24, 140
curved shells, 140 zero, 140
geodesic global draping, 26, 143
geodesic lines, 140
D global draping, 25, 26, 143
degree of shear, 25 energy, 27, 145
detailed development, 15 geodesic, 26, 143
developable surfaces, 21 planar, 27, 144
dome-shaped surfaces, 24
doubly-curved, 18
doubly-curved surfaces, 24 H
drape simulation, 20 holes in surfaces, 148
draping
global, 143 I
local, 142 incomplete boundary definition, 148
scissor, 142 initial direction, 57
slide, 143 initial direction vector, 58

E L
energy global draping, 27, 145 lamination theory, 12, 13
Euclid 3, 19 layer, 42, 55
excessive Gaussian curvature, 148

Main Index
168 MSC Laminate Modeler User’s Guide

layer materials, 49 RTM, 13


painted, 49 ruled surfaces, 21
projected, 49
scissor draped, 49 S
slide draped, 49 saddle-shaped surfaces, 24
layup, 42, 74 sandwich structures, 21
layup ply table, 42 scissor draping, 26, 27, 142
layup sequence, 42 shell model, 46
layup table, 30 simulation, 6
LM_layer material, 55 slide draping, 26, 143
local draping, 25, 142 springback, 19
SRIM, 13
M stacking sequences, 74
manual layup, 6 step length, 146
material generation, 49 structural reaction injection moulding, 13
maximum strain, 50, 111
mesh, 44, 57 T
MSC.Mvision, 19 T sections, 149
MSC.Patran COMPOSITE, 20 thickness, 50
MSC.Patran FEA, 20 top, 57
top-hat section, 31
N
nesting software, 19 U
non-developable, 18 Unigraphics, 19
non-developable surfaces, 24, 55

V
O view direction, 58
outline design, 15

W
P waffle plate, 21
planar global draping, 27, 144 warp, 144
ply, 42 warp/weft angle, 50
ply laminate, 42 weft, 144
ply-book, 18 wet layup, 12
pressure vessels, 27
Pro/ENGINEER, 19
production methods Z
filament winding, 6 zero Gaussian curvature, 21
manual layup, 6
resin transfer method (RTM), 6

R
resin flow, 19
resin transfer moulding, 6, 13

Main Index