Paper No.


Duplication for publication or sale is strictly prohibited Without prior written permission Of the Transportation Research Board.


Commuter Rail Station Governance and Parking Practices


David C. Wilcock

Transportation Research Board 80th Annual Meeting January 7-11, 2001 Washington, D.C.

David C. Wilcock


ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to provide a summary of the current station governance and parking practices at the 19 commuter rail services in the United States and Canada and to describe any unique or innovative approaches used to address ownership, maintenance, and management issues. Unlike most urban transit systems, commuter rail authorities often do not control the stations or parking. A broad range of practices exists from outright ownership and control of the facilities by the authority to no control or ownership. In many cases, multiple agencies and the private sector, including freight railroads, are involved in the ownership and management of these facilities. The results illustrate the wide range of practices currently in use. Older, more established systems have the most complex ownership arrangements and operating practices. The authority, municipalities, and private sector all own and manage station buildings and parking facilities. Many authorities continue the practice of providing ticket agents at the stations and a fee is typically charged for parking that is often collected by the municipality. Passenger platforms are generally owned and maintained by the authority. Recently implemented commuter rail services have less complex practices. In several cases, the authority has nothing to do with either the station building or parking although they typically own and maintain the platforms. Many of the newer services also make more extensive use of technology including ticket vending machines to reduce the need for station personnel. Parking at the newer systems is generally provided free of charge, although a variety of ownership and operating situations exist. Several systems have developed innovative approaches to address parking capacity issues through funding of local shuttle bus services and accommodating bicycles at stations or on trains. Partnerships with municipal governments, private companies, and community organizations to share parking are also used to reduce agency expenditures for new parking.

KEY WORDS Commuter rail, transit, parking, planning

Several authorities manage services that operate over tracks and use stations owned by the host freight railroad. and maintenance of stations and parking facilities. It addresses the question of who owns and maintains these critical components of the commuter rail network. Decreasing peak period traffic congestion by improving access to alternate modes of transportation is a key provision of the Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). As a result. Wilcock OVERVIEW The commuter rail station is often the first point of contact between a new customer and the service. The availability. A universal issue at commuter rail systems in the United States and Canada is the ownership. Improving access to commuter rail systems includes numerous considerations most importantly sufficient parking to meet the increasing demands. location. The governance issue focuses on the ownership and maintenance of the station buildings. commuter rail authorities do not always control and/or own the stations and parking. Many of the stations on older established systems are located in developed neighborhoods or downtown areas with little available land for expansion. and cost of parking along with the overall appearance and ease of use of the station are key to the retention of customers. Wilcock 2 Commuter Rail Station Governance and Parking Practices Prepared By David C. management. The station and parking practices issue focuses how the stations are . Commuter rail authorities face numerous challenges as they develop strategies for new or expanded stations and parking facilities to meet these needs. SURVEY OF PRACTICES This paper provides a summary of the station governance and parking practices at the 19 operating commuter rail systems in the United States and Canada.David C. and parking. the authorities are not able to consistently operate and manage the stations or provide adequate and affordable parking. platforms. The lack of control in these situations can lead to a lengthy project development process for station and parking initiatives. Ownership and management ranges from the local municipalities to private interests. Unlike urban transit systems. The authority’s need for station improvements or parking expansions are sometimes at odds with the community’s interest.

In addition. Survey forms were distributed to and returned from 17 of the 19 commuter rail services. The form was developed primarily to obtain specific information regarding the ownership. industry publications and periodicals. telephone interviews. management. TABLE 1 Station and Parking Governance Funding A/PR M/PR A A A/C A/PR A A/M/C A/M/C A A A/M/PR A A M/C A S/M A A/M A/S Ownership Maintenance/Operations System Platforms Building Parking Platforms Building Parking MBTA A A A/M/P A A/M A/M/P ConnDOT New Haven Line A/P A/P A/P M M/P M Shore Line East R R R R R R MTA/MNRR A A/M A/M/P A A A/M/P MTA/LIRR A A A/M/P A A A/M/P NJT A A/M A/M/P A A/M A/M/P SEPTA A A A A A A MARC R R R R R R VRE A M/RR C/M A M/RR A TCCRA/Tri-Rail A A S/M/P A A A NICTD A A A A A A Metra A/R A/M/R A/M/P/R A/R A/M/R A/M/P DART/TRE A A A A A A CalTrain A A/M A/M A A/M A/M Metrolink M/C M/C M/C M/C M/C M/C NCTD/Coaster A A A A A A ACE A/M/O A/M/O A/M/O A/M/O A/M/O A/M/O GO Transit A A A A A A AMT A A A/M A A A/M WCE A A A A A A Key: A – Commuter Rail Agency/Authority R – Host Railroad S – State or other Public Agency O – Other M – Municipal P – Private C – County PR – Parking Revenue . Table 1 summarizes the station and parking governance data and Table 2 the station and parking practices. the number of spaces provided. any unique aspects of the agency’s station governance and parking programs are noted. Wilcock 3 operated. and operation of commuter rail stations and their associated parking facilities. along with innovative approaches used to address governance or practice issues. Findings on station governance and parking practices of the 19 commuter rail systems are summarized in the following paragraphs. Data was compiled from several sources including commuter rail authority web sites and printed materials. and the cost of parking. System ridership and operating information has been provided to give a broad overview of the agency’s commuter rail service. Several questions were included regarding innovative practices being implemented to address station governance and parking practices issues.David C. and through the use of a specially designed survey form.

000 39 2 V 10. of Stations 119 Staffed Stations 5(A)/3 Ticket Sales O/B The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operates 453 daily trains over 13 commuter rail lines that carry an average of 127.100 weekday trips.David C.400 No.000 49 47 O/T 31.000 226 80 B/T/V 73. tickets are sold through a network of sales outlets located at or near the station or on-board the trains.500 19 AR V N/A NICTD 13. five are staffed with Amtrak intercity agents and three are staffed with MBTA agents.75 $2.900 Key: (A) – Amtrak Intercity Staff O – Outlet B – On board T – Ticket Agent V – Ticket vending machine F – Free P – Paid L – Local permit required AR – Tri-Rail’s contract operator staffs the busier stations as required (C) – Canadian currency N/A – Not available Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Boston.100 8 3(A) B/T 1. A majority of the parking lots are owned and maintained by the .093 total parking spaces provided at commuter rail stations at a cost of $1.800 SEPTA 107.25 No Fee $1.800 8 8 V 1.597 Tri-Rail 8. of Type Daily Fee Spaces 28. There are approximately 28.000 NJT 95.174 ACE 2.00.850 Shore Line East 1.50 . Some of the station buildings (and associated parking) are leased to the municipalities.000 124 N/A B/T/V 62.$3 No Fee $1 No Fee No Fee No Fee No Fee No Fee $(C)1 System MBTA ConnDOT New Haven Line 65.000 18 1(A) V 8. As part of the agreement.733 MTA/LIRR 290.000 DART/TRE 2.200 8 0 V 2.000 35 14 O/B/T 14.300 3 1(A) O/T 400 CalTrain 33.000 AMT 47.50-$10. the municipalities are responsible for the maintenance of the leased facilities (except for the platforms).700 84 31 B/T/V 31. All the stations and platforms are owned by the MBTA.850 9 0 V 1. The MBTA owns all the commuter rail lines they operate over except for two short segments owned by CSX and Amtrak.300 WCE 7.893 VRE 9.000 155 72 O/B/T 19.461 MTA/MNRR 113.00 to $3.50 $0.100 Metrolink 31.000 20 7 O/B/T 6. MA) Ridership (Trips/Day) 120.50-$3 $0.50-$2 $1.983 MARC 20.000 35 9 O/B/T 5.093 P/L $1-$3 F/P/L F/P(2) F/P/L P F/P/L P F/P(7) F/P(1) F F/P(3) F/P/L F P F/P(3) F F F F P $3-$6 $5.66 $1.000 154 N/A B/T/V 45.50-$5 $1-$5 $0.500 47 0 V 14.000 40 22 O/B/T 17.800 GO Transit 120. The agency is responsible for maintaining the passenger platforms. Several locations provide free parking. Wilcock 4 TABLE 2 Station and Parking Practices Station Practices Parking Practices Charge No. At the remaining stations.000 Metra 280.280 NCTD/Coaster 4. Of the 119 stations located throughout the system.

The New Haven Line service includes the 72-mile main line from New Haven to Grand Central Station in New York City. and the 8mile New Canaan Branch. Wilcock 5 MBTA. ConnDOT contracts with MTA/Metro North Railroad (MNR) to operate and maintain all aspects of the New Haven Line service in Connecticut. or annual).181 spaces) to municipalities or other state agencies. . the 24-mile Danbury Branch. quarterly. New Haven Line The New Haven Line services commuters in both Connecticut and New York. private corporations two. the private management company is able to pursue partnerships and other special arrangements to develop new parking. The party leasing the parking collects the fees and maintains the site. Several years ago. There are few restrictions placed on the municipalities by ConnDOT regarding the operation of the stations. There are also four private parking lots totaling 557 spaces on the commuter rail system. The municipalities at 26 of the 35 stations issue parking permits (monthly. the MBTA privatized its real estate department.000 daily trips are carried on 250 trains from 35 stations located in 22 Connecticut communities. The communities are allowed to sub-let space in the buildings and collect parking fees with the receipts being used to offset the annual maintenance and operating expense of the station and parking facility. Over the past six years. As part of the agreement. ConnDOT owns 29 stations. and municipalities the remaining four stations. Shore Line East service operates between New London and New Haven over a 51-mile segment of Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor. Municipal owned and maintained lots often restrict parking to local residents and require a permit. Approximately 14. The MBTA has also been working with the regional transit authorities (RTA) in Massachusetts to address station governance and parking issues. The MBTA is currently looking at public/private opportunities to expand parking. Connecticut Department of Transportation The Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) manages two commuter rail services: The New Haven Line and Shore Line East. The agency leases some of its parking (approximately 4. the 32-mile Waterbury Branch. This practice has resulted in a variety of policies and fees. The 29 state owned stations are leased back to the communities at no cost.850 parking spaces are available at the 35 stations. the MBTA has turned over the management and operation of five stations and related parking facilities to RTAs. Over 65.David C.

460 parking spaces are available at the seven stations. The annual maintenance cost of the stations and parking is part of the operating agreement between ConnDOT and Amtrak. Station personnel are provided by MNR at all stations and are paid for through the operating agreement between ConnDOT and MNR.25 per hour (metered parking) to $8 a day. MTA/Metro North Railroad MNR is one of five transportation organizations controlled by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) in New York.700 trips each weekday. The majority of these spaces are owned and maintained by Amtrak. the host railroad and operator of the service. Amtrak. They operate commuter rail service along five lines in New York transporting over 113. At 16 of the 25 stations with permit parking. ConnDOT plans to commence a rail station governance study. The purpose of the study is to assess how ConnDOT manages the stations they own and determine if any changes should be made in how the rail stations and parking facilities are governed. Early in 2001. Approximately 1. and $23 to $90 for a monthly permit. The five remaining stations are not staffed. which also serve as Amtrak stops. and the annual expenses and revenues associated with the stations and parking. The remaining 560 spaces are free of charge. owns and maintains seven outlying stations and passenger platforms (excluding New Haven that is covered in the New Haven Line discussion). $90 to $225 for a quarterly permit.065 trips a day between New London and New Haven. The New London and Old Saybrook stations serve as Amtrak stops and are staffed seven days a week for approximately 16 to 17 hours a day. The study will be examining the physical condition of the facilities. Fourteen of the 35 stations are staffed on a limited basis. Wilcock 6 Based on 1997 data (1). The majority of the staffed stations are open weekday mornings. The fees range from $0. Service is provided to 84 stations in New York that are owned and maintained by the agency or the . and $31. are open seven days a week for approximately 16 to 17 hours. Shore Line East The Shore Line East service carries approximately 1. reviewing governance practices. Both the New Haven and Stamford stations. Of this total. 900 spaces at a cost of $1.00 per hour.33 per month are located in a private garage near the New London station (1). $5. either daily or hourly fee parking is also available.David C. the fees range from $10 to $525 for an annual permit.66 a day. Free parking is available at nine stations.

The private company was hired to operate MNR owned facilities that the agency is in the process of taking back from municipal operators. $100 to $500 semi-annually. The municipal operators charge a variety of rates to residents and non-residents ranging from $1. . MNR has conducted several long-term studies to assess the demand for parking. A total of 31. Municipalities are allowed to restrict for resident use a percentage of the parking based on a pro-rated share of the community’s financial contribution.David C. The agency provides ticket agents at 31 of the 84 stations. MTA/Long Island Rail Road The MTA also controls the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) which is comprised of nine branches extending over 120 miles from Penn Station in Manhattan to the eastern tip of Long Island at Montauk. MNR has a non-restrictive commuter parking policy at the facilities it owns. Expansion projects are underway in several regions to develop new surface lots and garages. Service is provided to 124 stations that are owned and maintained by the agency. There are approximately 62. The agency provides ticket agents at many of its stations. Many municipal residents receive free parking permits while others pay up to $400 annually. municipality. or private contract operators maintains the parking facilities using the parking revenue and funds from MNR’s capital program.50 to $5.50 to $10. Penn Station and Jamaica Station. $45 to $245 quarterly. All of the platforms are owned and maintained by MNR. The agency has also entered into a public/private partnership with a parking contractor. A small number of municipal operators restrict parking to residents only. Wilcock 7 municipality. The agency. municipality. An average of 290. LIRR’s parking program includes infrastructure improvements to attain better access to underutilized stations by directly linking parking facilities to the platform.000 off-street parking spaces available that are owned and maintained by the agency.00.733 parking spaces owned by the agency or municipality are provided.000 trips a day is carried on 735 daily trains.100 annually. and $35 to $2. They have been installing TVMs at select outlying stations and at its two major terminals. These projects are separate from the expansion of existing facilities. All of the platforms are owned and maintained by LIRR. The daily rate ranges from $0.50 daily. or county. They also have been installing ticket vending machines (TVM) at select outlying stations and at Grand Central Terminal in New York City.

David C. The seven lines provide rail service to 155 stations located in four counties and two adjacent states. Approximately 19. private businesses. NJT has installed TVMs at 14 Northeast Corridor and 8 Atlantic City Line stations at to reduce the need for station personnel. All five out of state stations offer off-street parking facilities. The three downtown stations (Market East. Forty-one stations have free parking available. SEPTA owns and maintains the remaining 149 stations located in Pennsylvania. Six locations rely on private lots for some or all of the station parking (2). A daily fee of $0.50 is charged at the in-state stations. Amtrak owns and manages 30th Street Station in downtown Philadelphia.000 trips a day in the greater Philadelphia area.983 parking spaces are provided at 131 stations. Suburban Station. 61 have metered parking. TVMs are provided at the three downtown Philadelphia stations. The 591 weekday daily trains service a network of 154 stations carrying an average of 95. Many of the stations are staffed on a part time basis for ticket sales. approximately 45.000 trips on a typical weekday. The municipalities operate 81 parking facilities and contractors operate 25 facilities. Wilcock 8 New Jersey Transit New Jersey Transit (NJT) operates a system of 12 rail lines throughout the state primarily focused on carrying passengers into and out of the metropolitan New York City area. The stations are owned and maintained by the agency or the municipality while the platforms are all owned and maintained by the agency. . Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority The Railroad Division of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) operates service along seven regional rail lines that carry approximately 107. and NJT. and parking permits are required at 87 stations. and 30th Street Station) and the Fern Rock Transportation Center in North Philadelphia have extended weekday hours and are also open one or both weekend days. The parking at the 126 in-state stations is owned and managed by SEPTA. The three stations in Delaware and two stations in New Jersey are not owned or managed by SEPTA. Permit parking is available at a cost of $10 per month. Nine of the stations have no parking available while at the remaining locations. Sixty-eight stations are staffed on weekday mornings from 5:30 AM until noontime.800 spaces are provided under a variety of controls including the municipality.

900 parking spaces are available.600 spaces). 22 are staffed with ticket agents. There is no parking at the Silver Spring Station.David C. BWI.330 spaces (47 percent). The terminal station for all three lines. Of the 40 total stations served by MARC trains. CSX personnel staff the majority of the 16 stations with ticket agents. Station maintenance costs are primarily funded by MARC and paid to the host railroads through the operating agreements for the commuter rail service. VRE manages the operation of two commuter rail lines into Union Station in Washington DC. Larger staffed stations are open for extended hours weekdays. The Penn Line service from Perryville operates over the Northeast Corridor using stations owned and maintained by Amtrak. The smaller stations with agents are generally open for three or four hours in the morning and again in the evening on weekdays. Parking is free at 31 of the 38 stations that host 8. On the Camden and Brunswick lines.554 spaces) and the Baltimore-Washington International (BWI) Airport station (1. Amtrak provides the personnel at four of the five staffed stations on the Penn Line since the stations are also intercity service stops. In both cases. The other three locations with paid parking are the two downtown Baltimore stations (1. and Washington Union Station – are open daily. Similarly. is staffed by Amtrak. Four stations – New Carrollton. approximately 17. The three lines combine to carry approximately 20. the Camden and Brunswick Line services from Baltimore and Martinsburg (West Virginia) operate over track and use stations owned and maintained by CSX. the host railroads contract with MARC to operate the service. Virginia Railway Express The Virginia Railway Express (VRE) is a cooperative effort of Potomac Rappahanock Transportation Commission (PRTC) and the Northern Virginia Transportation Commission (NVTC). Four of the seven locations with paid parking are also Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Metrorail stations (6. the host railroad. At 38 of the 39 outlying stations. Twenty . Baltimore Penn Station. Wilcock 9 Mass Transit Administration/MARC The Maryland Rail Commuter Service (MARC) manages the operation of three commuter rail lines into Washington DC’s Union Station for the Maryland Mass Transit Administration (MTA). The Fredericksburg Line operates over track owned and maintained by CSX and the Manassas Line operates over Norfolk Southern and CSX track. Some funding is made available from municipalities and the counties for station maintenance. Union Station in Washington DC. The staff costs are funded through the operating agreements with the contract operators of the service.418 spaces).000 trips a day.

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) purchased the 71-mile rail corridor from CSX prior to the initiation of service. WMATA owns the facility at the Franconia/Springfield station and charges a daily fee of $2. Woodbridge. At the other 14 stations. The 19 stations located along the corridor are owned and maintained by TCCRA. either the municipalities or private interests own the parking facilities. Station personnel provided by the contract operator are located at the busier stations. Wilcock 10 daily trains carry an average of 9. Amtrak owns Washington Union Station. although free of charge. are permit parking for city residents only.000 trips to and from 17 suburban stations. There is no parking available at the Palm Beach Airport station.500 trips a day. These 14 parking lots are maintained by TCRRA as part of the station facility maintenance. . and Manassas). and Alexandria stations. VRE owns and maintains all the platforms but does not own or maintain any station buildings. A network of sales outlets near commuter rail stations also sell tickets. Crystal City. Passengers may purchase tickets for travel from TVMs located at each station. the 348 spaces located at the Manassas station require a permit but are open to anyone and are free. Passengers may purchase tickets for travel from TVMs. Free parking is provided at 18 of the 19 stations. Four of the stations – Cypress Creek. On-site vendors provide cash sales of tickets at the Woodbridge and Broad Run/Airport stations. A total of 3.David C. There are approximately 8. Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority/Tri-Rail The Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority (TCCRA) operates 28 weekday daily trains between West Palm Beach and Miami carrying an average of 8. Amtrak (Alexandria). The 100 spaces located at the Fredericksburg station. In addition. and municipalities (Fredericksburg. Sheridan Street. Likewise. Either the county or the municipality owns 13 of the parking facilities and does not charge for parking.435 park and ride spaces are available at these four facilities. Amtrak ticket agents sell VRE tickets at Union Station.600 parking spaces provided at 14 of the 17 outlying stations. Five of the stations are shared with Amtrak.000 paid parking spaces (35 percent of the 8. A total of 3. There are five station buildings that are owned by CSX (Quantico). There is no parking available at the L’Enfant.25.600) are provided at this location. and Golden Glades – use FDOT owned park & ride lots for commuter rail parking. VRE maintains all of the parking facilities except for the WMATA station. Fort Lauderdale (Broward Boulevard).

and contracts for service provided by the host railroads over the remaining four lines.000 trips a day. Metra funds passenger platform maintenance while the parking revenue funds the maintenance of the parking facilities. Only the South Bend Airport and Carroll Avenue stations have extended weekday hours. The agency or the municipality funds annual maintenance of the station buildings and platforms. There is no parking available at the seven Metra stations on the University Park line. Metra Commuter rail service in the Chicago area is managed by Metropolitan Rail (Metra).75 a day to $5 a day. The 19 miles and seven stations from Kensington to Randolph Street are part of the Metra Electric route to University Park. The airport authority operates the South Bend Airport parking. Parking fees range from $0. and host freight railroads. operates and leases three lines. Wilcock 11 Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District/South Shore Line The Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) operates the South Shore Line commuter rail service over an 89-mile line from South Bend.000 parking spaces are provided at the 13 NICTD owned stations. Service is provided over a 470-mile rail network comprised of 11 lines and 226 stations. Ownership and maintenance of Metra’s stations and parking facilities include the agency. . Six of the 13 NICTD stations are staffed generally on half-day basis (5 AM to 12:30 PM) weekdays. Gary. The NICTD maintains the parking at the other 11 stations. The commuter rail system carries approximately 280. the commuter rail division of northeast Illinois’ Regional Transportation Authority (RTA). Forty-one trains a day carry approximately 13. Indiana to Randolph Street Station in downtown Chicago. The only weekend staffing is at the South Bend Airport. municipalities. NICTD owns and maintains 70 miles of the rail line and the 13 stations and platforms from South Bend to Kensington Station. Illinois. Metra owns and operates four of the rail lines.David C. The revenue at the airport station parking goes to the airport authority. Approximately half of the spaces are free while paid parking is located at three stations – South Bend Airport. Approximately 6. Many of the stations and lots owned by the freight railroads are leased to private vendors while municipalities operate and maintain their own or Metra funded lots. The passenger platforms are owned and maintained by Metra or the host railroad. and Hegewisch. The Gary Public Transportation Corporation operates the Gary parking.000 trips between 20 stations.

Overnight parking and short-term parking (outside of the daily peak commuting periods) is provided at some locations. Generally after the last morning peak period train has departed. They simply fill out a short form identifying both their vehicle and the space number that is deposited in a special box or given to the ticket agent. the Metra Electric service to University Park.00 for daily parking. There are approximately 72. Approximately 5 percent of the spaces (3. Both the agency and the municipalities set the rates that range from $0. The agency continues to fund the major capital improvement projects but the municipality will pay for the on-going. The agency has also developed a program of shuttle bus services from remote parking locations. Of the 226 stations. $30 to $140 for quarterly permits. The overnight parking is provided to assist reverse commuters who leave a car at an outlying station or air travelers using commuter to access one of the area airports. Metra provides indemnification at no cost as well as appropriate signing.640) are free of charge. has been equipped with TVMs. .David C. $10 to $35 for monthly permits. $90 to $132 for semi-annual permits. three downtown and 74 outlying stations are staffed with ticket agents. Wilcock 12 Metra continues the practice of staffing some of the stations on a part time or full time basis. Metra has been quite successful in local communities to take on the responsibility of station building maintenance. a commuter can park in any unfilled permit space and pay a daily fee for its use. One line.800 parking spaces provided. Revenue that does not go into this special fund goes back into the agency’s general operating fund. To better utilize the existing parking inventory. Two additional downtown locations and one outlying location provide both ticket agents and vendors.50 to $3. the agency has a program to sell unused permit parking spaces and a second program to promote the joint use of existing parking. The joint use program is targeted at organizations like churches or recreational businesses such as a racetrack with available weekday parking. Those organizations that choose to participate are allowed to collect a fee and keep all of the revenue. Vendors are also used to sell tickets at 36 suburban stations. routine maintenance. The Metra Space Program allows a commuter to park in a vacant permit space during off-peak periods. and $150 to $240 for annual permits. Several of the municipalities restrict parking to residents only. The parking revenues collected by the municipalities go into a station/parking fund for the annual maintenance of the facilities.

At stations with intercity rail service. Union Station is privately owned and maintained. the parking is owned. The remaining 35 stations provide free parking. managed. There are three stations located at the South Irving Transit Center. and Union Station.280 parking spaces are provided at 38 of the 48 stations. Ten stations (including Union Station in Los Angeles) do not offer parking. Service operates along a 77-mile corridor between downtown San Francisco and Gilroy. Similar to the buildings and platforms. California. and maintained by the municipality or the county. and maintained by the municipality or the county. CalTrain CalTrain commuter rail service is managed by the San Mateo County Transit District (SamTran). SCRRA/Metrolink The Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA) manages the Metrolink commuter rail service. Union Station is owned. there are 400 parking spaces available free of charge which DART also owns and maintains. The PCJPB owns the right-of-way from San Francisco to San Jose . managed. and maintained by a private corporation. The first phase of the service operates over a 10-mile route between Dallas Union Station and South Irving. At South Irving. Wilcock 13 Trinity Railway Express Trinity Railway Express (TRE) is a joint effort of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) and Fort Worth Transportation Authority (T). operated. The 47 outlying stations and platforms are owned. one of three members of the Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board (PCJPB). All ticket sales are done through TVMs eliminating the need for Metrolink station staff. DART owns and maintains the two outlying stations and platforms. Approximately 2. A parking fee is charged at three of the stations.David C. Six regional lines carrying approximately 31. Maintenance of the two stations and parking at South Irving is funded through the DART annual budget. Amtrak provides station personnel that will assist Metrolink passengers.500 daily trips are operated from Union Station in downtown Los Angeles to 47 suburban stations. A total of approximately 14.300 trips a day are carried on 52 weekday trains. SCRRA purchased several of the lines over which the service is operated and has trackage rights agreements for the other lines with the host railroads. Medical Market Center.

a CalTrain Peninsula Service station. Nine of the 35 stations are staffed and open on a limited basis.100 total parking spaces are available at 28 of the 35 stations. CalTrain also allows bicycles to be brought on board all trains every day. The downtown San Francisco station is open from 5:30 AM to 10 PM and the San Jose station is open from 5:30 AM to 8 PM. The San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission (SJRRC). they have modified the cab-control cars to store 12 bicycles. first serve basis. California that is owned by the UP. and parking along the route. platforms. A daily fee of $1. The stations are owned and maintained by either the agency or the municipality. There are a total of nine stations along the route including the southern terminus at San Jose Diridon Station. The agency continues to explore these types of arrangements to increase the parking capacity on the system. CalTrain provides bicycle lockers at stations and local shuttle bus services. Sixtyeight weekday trains carry approximately 33. It operates service over an 86 mile route between San Jose and Stockton.David C. Wilcock 14 and hold operating rights from the Union Pacific Railroad (UP) for the segment from San Jose to Gilroy. All of the parking receipts are returned to the general revenue fund. As an alternative to driving and parking. manages ACE.000 trips along the Peninsula Corridor. Seven stations are open for approximately 6 ½ hours from 5 AM or 5:30 AM. Currently there are 725 bicycle lockers available for use. To accommodate the bicycles. CalTrain has several shared parking situations at transit oriented developments and in central business districts with retailers. These lockers cost $30 for a six-month rental. All of the passenger platforms are owned and maintained by CalTrain. CalTrain offers a monthly permit for $10 as part of a higher value fare package. No special permit is required or additional fare charged to bring a bicycle onto a train.00 (set by CalTrain) is charged at the other 22 stations that provide parking. Either the agency or the municipality own and maintain the parking facilities. or the county owns and maintains the eight outlying stations. There are a total of 35 stations located along the route. The agency. municipality. one of three members of the ACE Joint Powers Commission (JPC). Parking is free at all six stations south of San Jose. All maintenance . Altamont Commuter Express The most recent new start commuter rail service is the Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) which commenced operations on October 19. Approximately 5. Twelve weekday trains have a second modified coach in the train consist allowing up to a maximum of 24 bicycles per train. 1998. The on board bicycle space is provided on a first come.

carry approximately 4. and parking are owned and maintained by the agency. Coaster is presently developing plans to expand parking at four stations. Tickets are also available from ticket agents at the two downtown Montreal stations.200 trips. Coaster trains serve eight stations located in seven communities along the 42-mile route it purchased from the Santa Fe Railroad. A total of 4. AMT has been developing partnerships with the municipalities for the shared use of parking. There are two terminal stations in Montreal – Windsor Station and Central Station – and 37 outlying stations. North County Transit District/Coaster The North County Transit District (NCTD) manages the Coast Express Rail (Coaster) commuter rail service between San Diego and Oceanside. and the recently opened Blainville – that carry approximately 47. They also offer designated spaces for bicycle parking at the stations. Ticket sales are all handled through TVMs. The other two stations do not provide any parking.500.000 trips a day. The stations. Passengers purchase tickets from TVMs located at each of the stations.300 parking spaces are provided free of charge at the 37 outlying stations. The other 27 facilities are owned and maintained by the agency. Eighteen weekday daily trains. operated under contract by Amtrak. platforms. The provincial government will fund up to 75 percent of the cost for a new parking space to a maximum of $(C)3. Commuters are able to use the parking weekdays and the municipalities can use it weekday evenings and weekends . A total of 1. The municipalities are charged 40 percent of the total operating expense of the service. Ten parking lots on the Dorion-Rigaud were built by the provincial government and transferred to the municipalities for ownership and management prior to the creation of AMT. AMT owns and maintains all 37 stations (buildings and platforms).800 parking spaces are provided free of charge. Deux Montagnes. The annual operating and maintenance costs for the stations are provided in AMT’s budget.David C. Passengers may purchase tickets for travel from TVMs at all eight stations. Agence Metropolitaine de Transport In Montreal. A new proof of payment system was recently adopted for the commuter rail service. the Agence Metropolitaine de Transport (AMT) operates three commuter lines – the DorionRigaud. Approximately 10. Wilcock 15 activity is funded through a local sales tax and Measure K.212 free parking spaces are provided at six of the eight stations.

000 parking spaces are provided free of charge at 39 of the 48 outlying stations. All of the lines pass through Union Station in downtown Toronto. the agency charges $(C)50. Service radiates from downtown Toronto along seven regional rail lines. Forty-seven of the 49 stations are staffed. There is no parking available at nine of the stations. The program costs GO transit less than expanding parking facilities and is justifiable since the cost of parking is built into the commuter rail fares. The revenue from this program is invested in the expansion of parking facilities. Approximately 31. Wilcock 16 for special events. A few of the stations also have weekday evening hours. There are 48 suburban stations located along the seven regional lines. Annual maintenance costs are funded through the fare (passenger) revenues. Ontario area. GO Transit has been the provider of commuter rail service in the greater Toronto. The CP and CN are the contract operators of the rail service.00 a month. GO Transit reimburses the operator for the cost of the discount. GO Transit owns and maintains all 49 stations and the associated passenger platforms.David C. The service. . The maintenance costs of the parking facilities including snow removal rely on fare revenues. Most of the suburban stations are open weekday mornings for a limited time period (generally between 5:30 AM and 9:00 AM). carries approximately 120. For the privilege of a reversed parking space. The program offers an alternative for those people that have to drive to the station but do not arrive early enough to get a space. Several of the larger suburban stations and Union Station in downtown Toronto are open for extended weekday hours and also have weekend hours. GO Transit offers reserved parking at their stations for customers willing to pay for the privilege. Typically the local transit provider offers a 75 percent discount to commuter rail customers. GO Transit Since 1967. which operates over rail lines owned by the Canadian Pacific Railroad (CP) and Canadian National Railroad (CN). The agency also offers secure bicycle parking at many of its stations as an alternative to driving and parking. Another program underwritten by GO Transit is to offer customers using local transit to access rail stations a substantial discount on the local bus fare.000 trips a day.

. municipalities.00 a month. The agency is also pursing public/private partnerships with businesses and municipalities to expand parking capacity. is spread across several interests including the MBTA. The 41-mile rail corridor is owned by the Canadian Pacific Railroad (CP) who is also the contract operator of the service. which has been operating since November 1995. The parking revenue is used to offset the annual operating cost of the service. A total of 1. Monthly parkers are issued a permit. British Columbia area is managed by West Coast Express (WCE). To meet the growing demand for service. At many of the long established services like the MBTA in Boston. The stations. are a $(C)1.00 a day or $(C)15. an attendant is provided at the downtown Vancouver station. and private parties all own stations and parking facilities along the rail lines. platforms. The municipalities will lease space in the buildings to vendors who in turn sell tickets for the service. which are set by the agency. regional transit authorities. These systems typically have some type of daily fee for parking. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The industry experience with ownership and management of commuter rail stations and parking facilities covers a broad range of practices. Parking fees.900 parking spaces are provided at six of the eight stations. The commuter rail agency. MNR in New York.800 trips a day between eight stations. The agency does provide an attendant during the morning commute hours at the seven outlying stations. a subsidiary of Translink the local transit agency. The fees are collected using an automated parking collection system. The annual maintenance costs are funded primarily through the agency.David C. The parking facility ownership and management however. Wilcock 17 West Coast Express Commuter rail service in the Vancouver. Two stations do not have any parking available. carries approximately 7. The service. and parking are owned and maintained by the agency. WCE has expanded parking capacity where possible by leasing spaces from businesses and other nearby uses such as recreational centers that have excess capacity. The Boston situation is probably the least complex with the MBTA owning and maintaining many of the buildings and all of the platforms. British Columbia. Ticket vending machines are used at all eight stations for ticket sales reducing the need for station staff. They also tend to have ticket agents in many of the outlying station buildings. and Metra in Chicago. In the evening. WCE manages the operation of 10 weekday trips between Mission and downtown Vancouver. The Province pays for some costs. Some of the stations are leased back to the municipalities who assume the building maintenance. a variety of situations exist.

Several systems have developed innovative approaches to address parking capacity issues. Parking is free at Tri-Rail where the Florida Department of Transportation or the local municipality owns most of the lots. Another program implemented by Metra is the daily sale of unused permit parking spaces after the morning peak period. Most of the systems offer free parking. The municipalities are responsible for the maintenance of the facilities. . At the opposite end of the spectrum are the new start services like Metrolink. Virginia Railway Express. operated. Wilcock 18 municipalities. Many of the stations and lots owned by the freight railroads are leased to private vendors while municipalities operate and maintain their own lots. The Metra situation in Chicago is complicated with some of the private freight railroads still holding title and control over stations and parking. the stations and parking are owned. In Connecticut. Metra has been quite successful with their joint-use parking program that encourages community organizations to offer unused weekday parking to commuters. GO Transit (Toronto) offers a substantial discount on the local bus fare for commuter passengers that use local transit to access the train station. and TriRail. All three agencies are exploring joint public/private partnership programs to encourage development at stations and potential management of the station facilities. Commuter rail agencies are also continuing to develop public/private partnership arrangements to expand parking. The agency does not provide any station personnel as all ticketing is done through TVMs. This program allows mid-day travelers to find parking at commuter rail stations. Six of the eight new start services use TVMs reducing the need for station personnel. All of the long established services still use ticket agents at outlying stations. Other agencies also offer bicycle parking as an alternative to driving and parking. the Department of Transportation owns most of the stations and parking facilities but leases them back to the municipalities at no cost. and private owners.David C. At Metrolink. Several of the systems are implementing the use of TVMs to reduce the need for station personnel. Partnerships with municipal government partners and private companies to share parking are also being explored to reduce agency expenditures for new parking construction. and maintained by the county or municipality. CalTrain (San Francisco) offers both secure bicycle lockers at stations and a program that allows passengers to bring their bicycle on board the train.

New Jersey Transit . 1997 Connecticut Rail Passenger Factbook. 2. Wilcock 19 REFERENCES 1.David C. Connecticut Department of Transportation New Jersey Transit Statewide Transit Guide.

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