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Classical Music (17501810) and its main characteristics Texture Lighter and clearer than Baroque and less

complicated Melody over a chordal accompanimentHomophonic Melody An emphasis on grace and beauty of melody and form Short and clearly defined musical phrases with two or more Variety and contrast in keys, tunes, rhythms and dynamics, with a Timbre Orchestra increases in range and size and harpsichord is replaced by the piano, often with an alberti bass accompaniment. Symphony orchestra arranged into four sections. Choral music = sacred mass and oratorio Secular = opera and song Chamber music = trios, quartets, quintets etc. Forms Composers Sonata form, rondo form, sonata rondo form, fugue, minuet ad trio, Mozart (1756-1791), Haydn (1732-1809), Gluck (1714-1787), Beethoven (1770-1827), C.P.E. Bach (1714-1788).

L. Shannon. www.musicatschool.co.uk

2000, L. Shannon www.MusicatSchool.co.uk

Classical Music

Objectives:

To understand how a melody can be constructed from a chord sequence. To construct a short melody based on chords To understand the command chords used and passing notes. To know Symphony No. 94 by Haydn.

You will develop your awareness of Classical music and composers and be able to recognize styles and forms. Key words Pizzicato Harmony Musical device Tasks Read worksheet Classical Music Discuss key conceptsComposers and styles. Listen to Surprise Symphony and answer questions. Dictation. Read worksheets Mozart and Haydn and answer questions. Analyse 2 different classical pieces. words and concepts. Composition: Compose a melody based on chords 1. 2. Choose two or maybe three chords which fit well together. NEXT make the following: Some phrases which use the pitches of only one chord. Some phrases in which the pitches go up through one chord and down through another. Some phrases which use repeated pitches. Some phrases which contain wide leaps. FINALLY choose some of these, together with some of you own ideas, to make your melody by playing both the melody and the chords at the same time. Composer and contrast using key Counter melody Scale Pedal Variation Discord major Unison Coda Minor

3.

Characteristics of the Classical Period Short and clearly defined musical phrases with 2 or more contrasting themes Very defined and regular

MELODY

RHYTHM

Mostly homophonic - one melody line with accompaniment made up using notes of the chord, or a texture where all parts TEXTURE keep in step with each other (often known as chordal style). Symphony orchestra - arranged in 4 sections Harpsichord seldom used. Piano in use but not normally in orchestral music, except when it is a piano concerto. Choral music - sacred mass and oratorio Secular - opera and song Chamber music - trios, quartets, quintets etc. Greater range diminuendos, of dynamics, use of crescendos and

TIMBRE

DYNAMICS

Sonata form, rondo form, fugue, minuet and trio form.

FORM

Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Paganini,


2000, L. Shannon www.MusicAtSchool.Co.uk

Composers

L. Shannon www.MusicatSchool.co.uk

This is one of Mozarts most popular works. It was written in 1787 for a fourpart string orchestra with two violin parts, one viola and the cello and double basses playing the same music. It is one of a number of serenades written to entertain out-of-doors on a warm summers evening.

EXPOSITION
First subject, tonic key (G major) Strong and important character, based on broken chords Bridge - G major - D major Second subject, dominant key (D major) Soft, dainty, more smooth and flowing Codetta End of Exposition. Repeat from the beginning of the piece Bars 35 - 55 Bars 18 - 27 Bars 28 - 35 Bars 1 - 55

DEVELOPMENT
Begins by developing the first subject, but from bar 60 Bars 56 - 75 concentrates on part of the second subject.

RECAPITULATION
First subject, tonic key (G major) Codetta - G major Second subject, tonic key (G major) Coda End of movement. Repeat Deve lopment and Recapitulation Bars 76 - 93 Bars 93 - 100 Bars 101 -106 Bars 116 -137

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born at Salzburg, Austria, in 1756. He began taking piano lessons from his musician father at the age of 4, and at the age of 5 he began composing. Mozart learned quickly and in 1762 his father took him to Munich and Vienna to introduce him to the public. In Vienna, Mozart played for the Emperor of Austria. It was at this time that Mozart learned to play the violin without having lessons. It is also said that he did the same on the organ after someone explained the use of the pedals. In 1763, the entire family travelled to Paris, where he had his first compositions published. Mozart travelled almost all the time. Before he was 25 he had visited most of the great cities of Europe. In 1764, while visiting England, he composed several sonatas for violin and harpsichord and a number of symphonies. Mozart was only 8. In 1769, on a visit to Rome, history tells us that Mozart went to hear the Sistine choir sing; and, after returning home. He put the entire work on paper from memory. Mozarts father was in service to the Archbishop of Salzburg most of his life, so Mozart was appointed concert-master to the archbishop for a short time. He was never able to accept his role as servant very well and was dismissed in 1781. From then on, he was basically on his own. He married Constance Weber. It was during their life together, much of which was spent in poverty, that his three great operas, Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute and The Marriage of Figaro, were written. The writing of his last work The Requiem (Mass for the Dead) was never finished. Mozart died in Vienna and was buried in a paupers grave.

2000, L. Sh annon www.MusicatSchool.co.uk

QUESTIONS: Answer in full sentences


1. Where and when was Mozart born? 2. What did his father do? 3. Where did Mozart go in 1762? 4. Why could Mozart be described as a child genius/prodigy? 5. What instruments did he play? 6. What type of music did he compose? 7. What were hi s great operas? 8. Who was his wife? 9. Why did Mozart never complete The Requiem? 10. Find out some names of the pieces Mozart composed. 11. Try to listen to some of his music.

When writing music the composer must plan their work as carefully as an architect would design a building. The finished work must have continuity, balance, and shape, or form. But whereas architecture is concerned with a balance in space, music is a balance in time. In music, we use the word FORM to describe the way in which a composer achieves this balance by arranging and setting in order the musical ideas the way in which we design and build our music.

Sonata Form is a type of musical form used in the Classical period in the first movement of a Sonata, symphony or concerto. Most music has a form of some kind. Pop songs have a structure - Verse, Chorus, Verse etc. Some have linking passages.

Sonata Form is in three main sections. EXPOSITION: Where the composer presents the tunes they are going to use. 1st and 2nd themes with a bridge passage between them. Where the music of the Exposition is put to different keys, or it is changes, developed, in some way. Where the composer repeats the music of the Exposition in a slightly different way. Very often the composer

DEVELOPMENT:

RECAPITULATION:
2000, L. Shannon www.MusicatSchool.co.uk