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Nastran 2002
Thermal Analysis
User’s Guide
Main Index
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Main Index
C O N T E N T S
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
Preface s List of MSC.Nastran Books, vi
s Technical Support, vii
s , ix
s Internet Resources, x
s , xi
s Permission to Copy and Distribute MSC Documentation, xii
1
Introduction s Introduction to the MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide, 2
2
Thermal
Capabilities
s Introduction to Thermal Capabilities, 6
s Elements, 7
s Material Properties, 10
s Thermal Loads, 12
s Convection and Radiation Boundary Conditions, 16
s Temperature Boundary Conditions and Constraints, 28
s Initial Conditions, 30
3
Interface and File
Communication
s Introduction to Interface and File Communication, 32
s Execution of MSC.Nastran, 33
s Input Data, 34
s Files Generated by MSC.Nastran, 39
s Plotting, 41
4
Method of Solution s Introduction to Solution Methods, 58
s Nonlinear Iteration Scheme, 59
s Steady State Analysis, 61
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis
User’s Guide
Main Index
s Transient Analysis, 69
5
Examples s Steady State and Transient Analysis Examples, 83
s Example 1a  Linear Conduction, 84
s Example 1b  Nonlinear Free Convection Relationships, 88
s Example 1c  Temperature Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient, 95
s Example 1d  Film Nodes for Free Convection, 100
s Example 1e  Radiation Boundary Condition, 105
s Example 2a  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Free Convection, 111
s Example 2b  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Control Nodes, 116
s Example 2c  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Film Nodes, 122
s Example 3  Axisymmetric Elements and Boundary Conditions, 127
s Example 4a  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Nondirectional Solar Load with
Radiation Boundary Condition, 130
s Example 4b  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Directional Solar Load with
Radiation Boundary Condition, 133
s Example 4c  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Directional Solar Load, Spectral
Surface Behavior, 138
s Example 5a  Single Cavity Enclosure Radiation with Shadowing, 142
s Example 5b  Single Cavity Enclosure Radiation with an Ambient Element
Specification, 148
s Example 5c  Multiple Cavity Enclosure Radiation, 153
s Example 6  Forced Convection Tube Flow  Constant Property Flow, 158
s Example 7a  Transient Cool Down, Convection Boundary, 163
s Example 7b  Convection, Time Varying Ambient Temperature, 166
s Example 7c  Time Varying Loads, 172
s Example 7d  Time Varying Heat Transfer Coefficient, 176
s Example 7e  Temperature Dependent Free Convection Heat Transfer
Coefficient, 181
s Example 7f  Phase Change, 185
s Example 8  Temperature Boundary Conditions in Transient Analyses, 193
s Example 9a  Diurnal Thermal Cycles, 200
s Example 9b  Diurnal Thermal Cycles, 204
s Example 10  Thermostat Control, 210
s Example 11  Transient Forced Convection, 214
s Example 12  Thermostat Control with Deadband Applied to a Heat Source, 221
s Example 13  Cryogenic Heat Shielding, 223
Main Index
A
Nomenclature for
Thermal Analysis
s Commonly Used Terms, 228
B
Executive Control
Section
s Frequently Used Executive Control Statements, 230
C
Case Control
Commands
s Thermal Analysis Case Control Commands, 244
D
Bulk Data Entries s Commonly Used Bulk Data Entries, 276
E
View Factor
Calculation
Methods
s Calculation of View Factors, 410
s Fundamentals of View Factor Calculation, 411
F
Radiation
Enclosures
s Method of Poljak, 420
s Method of Poljak  Radiation Exchange in Matrix Format, 422
s Transformation from Element Heat Flows to Grid Point Heat Flows, 423
s Example of Element/ Grid Transformation, 424
s Two Element Example for Radiant Exchange, 426
s Resistive Network Approach to the Two Surface Problem, 428
s Radiation Enclosure Analysis, 429
G
Radiation
Exchange – Real
Surface
Approximation
s Real Surface Approximation and Radiation Exchange, 434
INDEX s MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
Main Index
Main Index
Preface
s List of MSC.Nastran Books
s Technical Support
s Internet Resources
s Permission to Copy and Distribute MSC Documentation
Main Index
vi
List of MSC.Nastran Books
Below is a list of some of the MSC.Nastran documents. You may order any of these documents
from the MSC.Software BooksMart site at www.engineeringe.com.
Installation and Release Guides
❏ Installation and Operations Guide
❏ Release Guide
Reference Books
❏ Quick Reference Guide
❏ DMAP Programmer’s Guide
❏ Reference Manual
User’s Guides
❏ Getting Started
❏ Linear Static Analysis
❏ Basic Dynamic Analysis
❏ Advanced Dynamic Analysis
❏ Design Sensitivity and Optimization
❏ Thermal Analysis
❏ Numerical Methods
❏ Aeroelastic Analysis
❏ Superelement
❏ User Modifiable
❏ Toolkit
Main Index
vii Preface
Technical Support
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Main Index
viii
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Main Index
ix Preface
Main Index
x
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Main Index
xi Preface
Main Index
xii
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Main Index
xiv
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
CHAPTER
1
Introduction
s Introduction to the MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
Main Index
2
1.1 Introduction to the MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s
Guide
The MSC.Nast ran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide describes the heat transferspecific material
within MSC.Nastran required for performing thermal analyses. This book emphasizes
fundamental capabilities, describing them in basic engineering format, and then detailing the
interface to MSC.Nastran through the Bulk Data entry descriptions. A series of examples
demonstrates a wide cross section of available features and their application with complete
MSC.Nastran input listings.
This user’s guide is not intended to provide an exhaustive treatment of heat transfer or finite
element theory. Rather, it is designed to assist in building, analyzing, and designing basic
thermal system models and to numerically study their thermal performance. Some advanced
material is included in the appendices to direct the most efficient use of the more complicated
features.
The information contained here can be augmented with material available in the Get t ing St art ed
wit h MSC.Nast ran User’s Guide, MSC.Nast ran Quick Reference Guide, and the MSC.Nast ran
Reference Manual as well as the MSC.Nastran Handbook for Nonlinear Analysis. These manuals
can provide greater depth of coverage regarding finite element basics, modeling, input file
structure, and nonlinear solution techniques.
A complementary product, MSC.Patran, is available for performing pre and postprocessing
functions for MSC.Nastran Heat Transfer. This engineering graphics package automates the
reading of CAD geometry, automeshing of the finite element mesh, creation and application of
the material properties, loads, boundary conditions, nonlinear solution control, analysis job
submittal, results access, and results visualization. This product and its application are described
in MSC.Nastran Preference Guide, Volume II  Thermal Analysis.
Starting with Version 68 there have been substantial modifications made to the MSC.Nastran
heat transfer capability. Along with many new and flexible features, a break with the past has
occurred in terms of nonupward compatible Bulk Data entries. The primary areas where non
upward compatibilities arise include the specification of CHBDY surface elements, boundary
and initial conditions, available solution sequences, and temperature boundary conditions.
General Capabilities
• Solution methods:
• Steady state, linear and/ or nonlinear (SOL 153).
• Transient, linear and/ or nonlinear (SOL 159).
• Heat conduction:
• Temperaturedependent conductivity.
• Temperaturedependent specific heat.
• Anisotropic thermal conductivity.
• Latent heat of phase change.
Main Index
3 CHAPTER 1
Introduction
• Temperaturedependent internal heat generation.
• Weighted temperature gradient dependent internal heat generation.
• Timedependent internal heat generation.
• Free convection boundaries:
• Temperaturedependent heat transfer coefficient.
• Weighted temperature gradient dependent heat transfer coefficient.
• Timedependent heat transfer coefficient.
• Nonlinear functional forms.
• Weighted film temperatures.
• Forced convection:
• Tube fluid flow field relationships  H(Re,Pr).
• Temperature dependent fluid viscosity, conductivity, and specific heat.
• Timedependent mass flow rate.
• Temperaturedependent mass flow rate.
• Weighted temperature gradient dependent mass flow rate.
• Radiation to space:
• Temperaturedependent emissivity and absorptivity.
• Wavelength dependent emissivity and absorptivity.
• Timedependent exchange.
• Radiation enclosures:
• Temperaturedependent emissivity.
• Wavelengthdependent emissivity.
• Diffuse view factor calculations with self and thirdbody shadowing.
• Adaptive view factor calculations.
• Net view factors.
• Usersupplied exchange factors.
• Radiation matrix control.
• Radiation enclosure control.
• Multiple radiation enclosures.
• Applied heat loads:
• Directional heat flux.
• Surface normal heat flux.
• Grid point nodal power.
• Temperaturedependent heat flux.
Main Index
4
• Weighted temperature gradient dependent heat flux.
• Timedependent heat flux.
• Temperature boundary conditions:
• Specified constant temperatures for steady state and transient.
• Specified timevarying temperatures for transient.
• Initial conditions:
• Starting temperatures for nonlinear steady state analysis.
• Starting temperatures for all transient analyses.
• Thermal control systems:
• Local, remote, and timevarying control points for free convection heat transfer
coefficients.
• Local, remote, and timevarying control points for forced convection mass flow
rates.
• Local, remote, and timevarying control points for heat flux loads.
• Local, remote, and timevarying control points for internal heat generation rates.
• Transient nonlinear loading functions.
• Perfect conductor algebraic constraint temperature relationships.
• Output graphical display  basic:
• Heat flows for conduction and boundary surface elements.
• Temperature versus time for grid points.
• Enthalpy versus time for grid points.
• Isothermal contour plots.
• Miscellaneous:
• MSC.Nastran DMAP and DMAP Alter capability.
• MSC.Nastran restart capability.
• Direct matrix input to conduction and heat capacitance matrices.
• Lumped mass and discrete conductor representations.
Example Problem Input Files
Example problem input files are supplied with delivery. Refer to the MSC.Nast ran 2005
Inst allat ion and Operat ions Guide for the location of these files.
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
CHAPTER
2
Thermal Capabilities
s Introduction to Thermal Capabilities
s Elements
s Material Properties
s Thermal Loads
s Convection and Radiation Boundary Conditions
s Temperature Boundary Conditions and Constraints
s Initial Conditions
Main Index
6
2.1 Introduction to Thermal Capabilities
This chapter covers the following topics:
• Element types and uses.
• Material properties and consistent units.
• Thermal loads and application.
• Convection and radiation boundary conditions.
• Enclosure radiation.
• Temperature boundary conditions and constraints.
• Initial conditions.
Main Index
7 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
2.2 Elements
MSC.Nastran is an analysis code based on the finite element method. Fundamental to the
method is an element library, available for building discretized numerical models that
approximate the structure or system of interest. Several categories of elements exist to facilitate
model generation: conduction elements, surface elements, and specialty elements.
Conduction Elements
Conduction elements are defined by the configuration generated when geometric grid points are
connected in specific orientations and, for heat transfer, obey Fourier’s Law. These elements can
be characterized geometrically as being either one, two, or three dimensional, or axisymmetric.
Besides being associated with geometry, these elements have the material properties for thermal
conductivity, density, and specific heat associated with them. A typical element definition Bulk
Data entry is given below for a 2D element:
Conduction Elements Available for Heat Transfer
The following table presents the conduction elements available for heat transfer. These elements
include onedimensional elements, shell elements, axisymmetric elements, and solid elements.
Surface Elements
Wherever a boundary condition is applied to the surface of a conduction element, it must be
interfaced with a surface element. Surface elements provide the geometric connection between
the structural conduction elements and the applied convection, radiation, or heat flux loads. In
particular, surfaces that participate in radiation enclosures derive their cavity identity and their
radiation material property pointers from the surface element Bulk Data description. Similarly,
free and forcedconvection Bulk Data entries are identified through their mating surface
element identification numbers.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CQUAD4 EID PID G1 G2 G3 G4 THETA
or MCID
ZOFFS
T1 T2 T3 T4
1D 2D AXIS 3D
CBAR CQUAD4 CTRIAX6 CHEXA
CBEAM CQUAD8 CPENTA
CBEND CTRIA3 CTETRA
CONROD CTRIA6
CROD
CTUBE
Main Index
8
Surface Elements Available for Defining Heat Transfer Boundaries
The following table presents the surface elements available for convection and radiation
boundary conditions and certain applied heat flux loads.
Surface element geometries are associated with surface types. Of the three forms of surface
elements, the CHBDYG and the CHBDYP have their TYPE explicitly defined on their Bulk Data
entries. The CHBDYE deals with the geometry type implicitly by reference to the underlying
conduction element. The surface element Bulk Data entries are given below:
Special Elements
Several types of special elements are available for added modeling flexibility. Simple resistive
components are represented by CELASi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) elements. More complicated elements can
be introduced into the system through generalized matrix input in the form of DMI, DMIG, and
TF.
Lumped thermal capacitance can be defined with the use of CDAMPi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) entries.
Key Points Regarding Elements
• All element Bulk Data connection inputs signify that an element connection is
performed among grid points.
• Every element must have a unique element identification number (EID) with respect to
all other elements in the problem. This requirement applies to conduction elements,
surface elements, and specialty elements.
Element CHBDYE CHBDYG CHBDYP
Surface Types All REV POINT
AREA3 LINE
AREA4 ELCYL
AREA6 FTUBE
AREA8 TUBE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHBDYG EID TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB RADMIDF RADMIDB
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8
CHBDYE EID EID2 SIDE IVIEWF IVIEWB RADMIDF RADMIDB
CHBDYP EID PID TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB G1 G2 GO
RADMIDF RADMIDB
GMID CE E1 E2 E3
Main Index
9 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
• Element definitions reference Bulk Data property entries that supply supplemental
information about geometry and governing relationships, and subsequently refer to
material property entries.
Main Index
10
2.3 Material Properties
Material properties for heat transfer analysis are supplied on MAT4, MAT5, MATT4, MATT5,
RADM, and RADMT entries. The MAT4, MAT5, and RADM entries provide constant valued
material properties, while their companion entries MATT4, MATT5, and RADMT supply
information about temperaturedependent properties through reference to material tables
(TABLEMi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4)). The fields available on the material entries are described below.
Data Available on MAT4 Bulk Data Entry
The format of the MAT4 Bulk Data entry is:
MSC.Nastran Material Properties
The following table describes the fields on the MAT4 Bulk Data entry.
Data Available on RADM Bulk Data Entry
The format of the RADM Bulk Data entry is as follows:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MAT4 MID K CP r H m HGEN REFENTH
TCH TDELTA QLAT
Symbol Property Consistent Units
K(T) Thermal Conductivity* W/ m °C
CP(T) Specific Heat* J/ kg °C
Density*
kg/ m
3
H(T) Free Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient
W/ m
2
°C
(T)
Dynamic Viscosity*
N sec/ m
2
HGEN(T) Volumetric Internal Heat Generation
W/ m
3
REFENTH Reference Enthalpy J/ kg
TCH Lower Temperature Limit for Phase Change °C
TDELTA Temperature Range for Phase Change °C
QLAT Latent Heat J/ kg
* Thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, and dynamic viscosity cannot currently be time
dependent. Thermal heat flux loads can reference explicit functions of time. Thermal
boundary conditions for convection and radiation utilize control node techniques for
specifying time dependent behavior (see “Convection and Radiation Boundary
Conditions” on page 16).
ρ
µ
Main Index
11 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
The following table describes the fields for the RADM Bulk Data entry.
Key Points Regarding Material Properties
• It is the user’s responsibility to enforce consistent and rational units for material
properties as well as for applied loads, boundary conditions, geometry, and various
physical constants.
• Although the surface characteristics for free convection (heat transfer coefficient) and
radiation (emissivity and absorptivity) are not normally considered to be material
properties, they are included in the above entries.
• Temperature dependence of the quantity of interest is ultimately defined on a
TABLEMi entry. The table is connected to the MAT4 through the MATT4 entry. Most
material properties are directed toward a structural element and are referenced by the
property entry for the element of interest.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADM RADMID ABSORP EMIS1 EMIS2 EMIS3 EMIS4 EMIS5 EMIS6
EMIS7 etc.
Field Description Unit
ABSORP(T) Absorptivity for Directional Heat Flux and
Radiation Boundary Condition (QVECT and
RADBC)
Nondimensional
EMIS(λ,T) Emissivity for Radiation Boundary Condition
and Enclosure Radiation (RADBC and RADSET)
Nondimensional
Main Index
12
2.4 Thermal Loads
MSC.Nastran makes a clear distinction between loads and boundary conditions. This distinction
refers more to solution sequence methods than with the physical phenomena involved. In
general, the specification of surface flux and internal heat generation are defined as loads. Loads
are readily identified from their Bulk Data entries because they possess a load set identification
(SID). This identifier has ramifications regarding the application of the load via Case Control.
Case Control is discussed briefly in “Interface and File Communication” on page 31, but is
introduced here for clarity.
The Case Control Section:
• Selects loads and constraints (temperature boundary condition).
• Requests printing, plotting, and/ or punching of input and output data (plot
commands are discussed in the MSC.Nastran Reference Manual and “Interface and
File Communication” on page 31 of this guide). Punch files are generally intermediate
files of data saved for use in a subsequent computation. Two common examples for
heat transfer are the punch files of view factors that result from an execution of the
VIEW MODULE, and a punch file of temperatures from a thermal solution to be used
in a subsequent thermalstress analysis.
• Defines the subcase structure for the analysis.
For the current discussion, consider the selection of loads. In order to activate any of the loads
stipulated in the Bulk Data Section, a load request must be made from the Case Control Section.
Key Points in Requesting Loads from Case Control
• LOAD = SID; where SID is an integer used in steady state analysis (SOL 153) to request
application of the load Bulk Data labeled with the given SID. Only one LOAD
command per subcase may be specified in the Case Control Section.
• DLOAD = SID; used in transient analysis (SOL 159) to request the application of the
dynamic load Bulk Data with the given SID. Only one DLOAD command per subcase
may be specified in the Case Control Section.
• For steady state analysis, any number of loads defined in the Bulk Data may be
referenced from a single Case Control request by specifying all loads of interest to have
the same SID.
• For transient analysis, the static load entries are not selected by the Case Control SID;
rather, they reference a TLOADi entry (DAREA field). The SID required for Case
Control selection is given on the TLOADi entry (SID field). The schematic for this
process is illustrated below.
Main Index
13 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
• Unlike the steady state case where many loads may utilize the same SID, every
TLOADi entry must have a unique SID. To apply multiple loads in a transient analysis,
the multiple TLOADi first must be combined using a DLOAD Bulk Data entry. The SID
on the DLOAD Bulk Data entry then becomes the reference SID on the DLOAD Case
Control command.
• Nonlinear transient forcing functions (NOLINi) are requested in Case Control with the
NONLINEAR = SID command. They are only available for transient analysis and
cannot be referenced on the DLOAD Bulk Data entry.
Available Thermal Loads
QVECT Directional heat flux from a distant source.
QVOL Volumetric internal heat generation.
QHBDY Heat flux applied to an area defined by grid points.
QBDY1 Heat flux applied to surface elements.
QBDY2 Heat flux applied to grid points associated with a surface element.
QBDY3 Heat flux applied to surface elements with control node capability.
SLOAD Power into a grid or scalar point.
NOLIN1 Nonlinear transient load as a tabular function.
NOLIN2 Nonlinear transient load as a product of two variables.
TABLED1
TID
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4
“LOAD” SID S S1 L1 S2 L2 S3 L3
TLOAD1 SID DAREA DELAY TYPE TID
Case Conrol
DLOAD = SID
DELAY SID P1 C1 T1 P2 C2 T2
QVECT or other loading entries can be substituted for
“LOAD” (see “” on page 13)
Main Index
14
A complete description of the capability of each load type may be found in the appropriate Bulk
Data entry description.
Thermal Load Flowchart
The schematic below illustrates the Bulk Data relationship for a directional surface heat flux
where temperaturedependent surface properties are important. Some typical surface loads are
QVECT, QHBDY, QBDY1, QBDY2, and QBDY3. The CONTRLT entry can be used in transient
analysis. For loads application, it is limited to QVOL, QVECT, and QBDY3.
NOLIN3 Nonlinear transient load as a positive variable raised to a power.
NOLIN4 Nonlinear transient load as a negative variable raised to a power.
Main Index
15 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
QVECT SID Q0 TSOUR CE E1 E2 E3
CNTRLND
+EID +EID etc.
TLOAD1 SID
EXCITEID
DELAY TYPE TID
Steady State
Case Control
LOAD = SID
Transient
Case Control
DLOAD = SID
CHBDYG
EID TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMIDF RADMIDB
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8
RADM
RADMID ABSORP EMIS1 EMIS2 EMIS3 EMIS4 EMIS5 EMIS6
EMIS7 etc.
RADMT RADMID
T(A)
T(
1
) T(
2
) T(
3
) T(
4
) T(
5
) T(
6
)
T(
7
)
etc.
ε ε ε ε ε ε
ε
TABLEM2
TIDA X1
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
CONTROL
ID SENSOR SFORM CTYPE PL PH PTYPE PZERO
DT DELAY TAUC
Main Index
16
2.5 Convection and Radiation Boundary Conditions
The specification of boundary conditions was introduced in “Elements” on page 7.
MSC.Nastran treats the application of radiation and convection as boundary conditions. Unlike
flux loads, convection and radiation are therefore not Case Control selectable. The implications
of this are twofold. In transient analysis, the transient load methodology (see “Thermal Loads”
on page 12) is unavailable, and in steady state analysis, the solution sequence mechanism for
load incrementing does not apply. To mitigate these shortcomings, transient control is
introduced into the boundary conditions through the use of the control node. In addition,
although the ability to do load incrementing is lost for these boundary conditions, their inclusion
in a comprehensive tangent matrix significantly enhances both the overall stability and
convergence rate.
Available Boundary Conditions
Free Convection Application
Free convection heat transfer is available through the CONV Bulk Data entry. In MSC.Nastran,
free convection is governed by relationships of the following forms:
•
•
•
•
where
Key Points  Free Convection Application
• Free convection allows thermal communication between a surface and an ambient
environment through a heat transfer coefficient (H) and a surface element (CHBDYi).
• CONV Free convection
• CONVM Forced convection (fluid “element”)
• RADBC Radiation exchange with space
• RADSET Radiation exchange within an enclosure
H = free convection heat transfer coefficient
T = surface temperature
TAMB = ambient temperature
= value of the control node (dimensionless)
q H T TAMB – ( )
expf
T TAMB – ( ) ⋅ =
q H u
CNTRLND
T TAMB – ( )
expf
T TAMB – ( ) ⋅ =
q H T
expf
TAMB
expf
– ( ) =
q H u
CNTRLND
T
f exp
TAMB
f exp
– ( ) ⋅ =
u
CNTRLND
Main Index
17 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
• Free convection heat transfer coefficients are supplied on MAT4 Bulk Data entries. The
coefficient can be made temperature dependent by using the MATT4 entry.
• The access temperature for the temperaturedependent coefficient can be varied by
specifying the film node field (FLMND on CONV).
• Time dependence can be introduced into the heat transfer coefficient through the
control node entry (CNTRLND on CONV).
The following schematic illustrates the Bulk Data relationships for temperature dependentfree
convection and timedependentfree convection.
Free Convection  TemperatureDependent Heat Transfer
Coefficient
.
CHBDYE Provides the surface element for convection application through reference to
the underlying conduction element (CQUAD4).
CONV Stipulates the application of free convection and identifies the film node,
control node, and ambient node or nodes.
MAT4 MID K CP r H m HGEN
REFENTH
TCH TDELTA QLAT
CONV EID PCONID FLMND
CNTRLND
TA1 TA2 TA3 TA4
CHBDYE
EID EID2 SIDE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMIDF RADMIDB
PCONV PCONID MID FORM EXPF
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CQUAD4
EID PID G1 G2 G3 G4 Q ZOFFS
MATT4 MID T(K) T(CP) T(H) T(µ)
T(HGEN)
TABLEM2
TID X1
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
The temperature of the FLMND is the temperature accessed
in the TABLEMi entry
Main Index
18
PCONV Provides supplemental information on the form of the convection
relationship to be applied.
MAT4 Provides the free convection heat transfer coefficient.
MATT4 Provides for the free convection heat transfer coefficient temperature
dependence.
TABLEM2 Specifies the actual table data for the heat transfer coefficient versus
temperature.
Main Index
19 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
Free Convection  TimeDependent Heat Transfer Coefficient
Forced Convection Application
Streamwiseupwind PetrovGalerkin Element (SUPG). Forced convection is available
through the CONVM Bulk Data entry. Forced convection in MSC.Nastran is limited to one
dimensional fluid flows. An SUPG element formulation allows for energy transport due to
streamwise advection and diffusion and displays good spatial and temporal accuracy. Heat
MAT4 MID K CP H HGEN
REFENTH
TCH TDELTA QLAT
ρ µ
CONV EID PCONID FLMND
CNTRLND
TA1 TA2 TA3 TA4
CQUAD4
EID PID G1 G2 G3 G4 Q ZOFFS
PCONV PCONID MID FORM EXPF
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHBDYE
EID EID2 SIDE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMIDF RADMIDB
TLOAD1 SID
EXCITEID
DELAY TYPE TID
TABLED2
TID X1
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
Case Control
DLOAD = SID
DELAY SID P1 C1 T1 P2 C2 T2
TEMPBC SID TYPE TEMP1 GID1 TEMP2 GID2 TEMP3 GID3
Main Index
20
transfer between the fluid stream and the surroundings is accounted for through a forced
convection heat transfer coefficient based on locally computed Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.
The pertinent heat transfer behavior is listed as follows:
1. Streamwise energy transport due to advection plus streamwise diffusion
a. FLAG = 0 , no convective flow
b. FLAG = 1 , diffusion and convection transport
2. Heat transfer coefficient to fluid tube wall
a.
b.
Key Points  Forced Convection
• Controlling Mass Flow Rate. The actual mass flow rate is specified by using a control
node for mass flow, the CNTMDOT field on the CONVM Bulk Data entry. For forced
convection, the control node can supply active or passive/ local or remote system mass
flow rate control. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure continuity of mass flow rate
from element to element.
• The material properties of interest for determining energy transport and forced
convection heat transfer coefficients are given on the MAT4 Bulk Data entries.
Temperaturedependent material properties are given through the MATT4 statement,
and a film node is available for the lookup temperature. The heat transfer coefficient
(H) given on the MAT4 statement is for free convection ONLY.
• As with all boundary conditions, CONVM can only communicate to the structure
through a surface element. The CHBDYP specification is identified on the CONVM
entry as the EID field.
• Courant Number for Forced Convection. Time dependence can be introduced into
the flow field mass flow rate through the control node (CNTMDOT on CONVM).
Accurate resolution of the evolving flow field (transient analysis) requires some user
control over the Courant number (CN).
where:
where
If FORM = 0 then h = coef Re
EXPR
Pr
EXPP
⋅ ⋅ ( ) ,
If FORM = 1 then
hK
d
 = coef Re
EXPR
Pr
EXPP
⋅ ⋅ ( ) ,
Re
DVρ
µ
 =
Pr
C
p
µ
k
 =
CN V
∆t
L
 ⋅ ≡
Main Index
21 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
For good resolution of transient flow fields, it is recommended that CN ≤ .10. Since the
element length and mass flow rate are specified, this implies that the user must control
the time step size. This may eliminate the use of the automatic time step selection
scheme.
Radiation to Space
A radiation boundary condition can be specified with a RADBC Bulk Data entry. This form of
radiant exchange is solely between the surface element and a blackbody space node. The
following relationships apply:
1. If CNTRLND = 0,
2. If CNTRLND > 0,
Key Points  Radiation Boundary Conditions
• Two PARAMETERS are required for any radiation calculation to be performed:
TABS  Defines the absolute temperature scale.
SIGMA  The StefanBoltzmann constant.
PARAMETERS are discussed in “Parameters” on page 601 of the MSC.Nastran Quick
Reference Guide. For these Bulk Data Section PARAMETERS, the statement would look
like:
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E08
PARAM,TABS,273.16
• The emissivity and absorptivity material surface properties are specified on the RADM
Bulk Data entry. They may be constant, temperaturedependent (RADM/ RADMT),
and/ or wavelength banddependent (RADM/ RADBND).
• Wavelength dependence is specified in a piecewise linear curve fashion with discrete
break points defined on a RADBND Bulk Data entry. There can only be one set of break
points in any given analysis, and any RADM definition must have break points that are
coincident with those on the solitary RADBND. The theoretical treatment within
MSC.Nastran of spectral radiation effects are discussed in some detail in “Radiation
Exchange – Real Surface Approximation” on page 433.
• As with all boundary conditions, RADBC may only be used when it is applied to a
surface element (CHBDYi).
= Velocity of fluid
= Time step size
= Element length
V
∆t
L
= σ FAMB ⋅ ( ) ε
e
T
e
4
α
e
T
amb
4
– ( ) ⋅
= σ FAMB u
CNTRLND
ε
e
T
e
4
α
e
T
amb
4
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅ ( )
Main Index
22
• Time dependence can be introduced into the RADBC in two ways. The Control Node
Multiplier (CNTRLND) can be made to follow a specified time function, and the
temperature of the ambient node (NODAMB) can be a function of time. Each has a
unique effect on the overall heat transfer.
• RADBC is the only Bulk Data entry besides QVECT that uses the material’s
absorptivity property in its calculations. For all enclosure radiation calculations,
absorptivity is assumed to be equal to emissivity.
Enclosure Radiation Exchange
Thermal radiation exchange among a group of surface elements is treated as a radiation
enclosure. Defining radiation enclosures and accounting for the subsequent radiation heat
transfer can be the most complicated and computationally expensive thermal calculation. As
with the radiation boundary condition, the material surface properties can be constant,
temperature dependent, and/ or wavelength dependent. One of the more troublesome aspects
of enclosure exchange is the geometric concept of view factors that relate the relative levels of
radiant exchange between any and all individual surfaces in the enclosure set. A number of
options are available for the calculation of view factors for black or gray diffuse surface
character. “View Factor Calculation Methods” on page 409 describes the basis for enclosure
exchange and the view factor calculation methods.
1. Enclosure options:
MSC.Nastran is used to calculate the diffuse view factors using one of its two view
factor modules. Once generated, the RADLST/ RADMTX punch files can be retained
for use in subsequent thermal runs that utilize the same geometry. Since view factor
calculations tend to be lengthy, calculating them once and then reusing them is the
preferable procedure. The INCLUDE Bulk Data entry is used to identify the view factor
files to be used in the subsequent thermal analyses.
View factors or exchange factors can be determined independently outside of
MSC.Nastran and used in MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis if the formats are consistent
with the RADLST/ RADMTX files that MSC.Nastran generates. The RADLST Bulk
Data entry defines the type of matrix being used.
2. Calculation process  Radiant enclosure exchange where the view factors exist
a. All conduction element surfaces involved in a radiation enclosure must be
identified with surface elements (CHBDYi). The CHBDYi description of the surface
element identifies the surface material entry (RADM). Multiple (and mutually
exclusive) cavities may be defined within MSC.Nastran for modeling convenience,
and to minimize the computation time.
b. When the RADLST/ RADMTX entries are available for the analysis, view factors
need not be calculated. This is true as long as the existing RADLST/ RADMTX
entries are either already in the Bulk Data Section or are included in the input file
through the Bulk Data INCLUDE entry. A punch file of view factors may have been
generated in a prior run.
Main Index
23 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
c. Including radiant enclosure exchange in an analysis is requested using the RADSET
entry. RADSET identifies those cavities to be considered for enclosure radiation
exchange.
d. For an analysis where the view factors exist then, the following Bulk Data entries
constitute the minimum required subset:
CHBDYi
RADLST
RADMTX
RADSET
RADM / RADMT / RADBND
In addition to these entries, include the parameters SIGMA and TABS.
The above process is illustrated in the following schematic.
Main Index
24
Enclosure Radiation with Existing View Factors
RADSET Selects the radiation cavities to be included in the overall thermal analysis.
RADLST Specifies which elements are to participate in a cavity experiencing radiation
exchange.
RADMTX Provides the exchange factors for all the surface elements of a
radiation enclosure specified in the corresponding RADLST.
CHBDYG Identifies the radiation surface geometry and material.
RADM Provides the surface properties for absorptivitiy and emissivity.
RADM
RADMID
ABSOR
P
EMIS1 EMIS2
RADLST ICAVITY MTXTYP +EID
RADSET ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY
RADMTX ICAVITY
INDEX Fi,j F
i+1,j
CHBDYE
EID TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMIDF RADMIDB
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8
RADMT RADMID
TIDA TIDE1 TIDE2
RADBND NUMBER PLANCK2 LAMBD1 LAMBD2
TABLEM2
TID X1
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
F
ij
A
j
f
ji
=
Main Index
25 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
3. Calculation process  Radiant enclosure exchange where the view factors must be
calculated
a. All conduction element surfaces involved in a radiation enclosure must be
identified with surface elements (CHBDYi). The CHBDYi description of the surface
element identifies the surface material entry (RADM) as well as the cavity
identification (VIEW). Multiple cavities may be defined within MSC.Nastran for
flexible modeling, user convenience, and eliminating shadowing calculations in
determining view factors when groups of elements see only themselves to the
exclusion of other groups of elements.
b. Since no RADLST/ RADMTX exists for this problem, they will be calculated. The
calculation of view factors is instigated by including the VIEW Bulk Data entry
which is referenced from the CHBDYi entries. VIEW lumps together those surface
elements of a common cavity identification and provides some guidance regarding
how the elements interact relative to any required shadowing calculations.
c. Only one RADCAV Bulk Data entry exists for each cavity. This entry has an array
of information available on it that is used to control the global aspects of the view
factor calculation for the cavity in question.
d. If the finite difference view factor module (default which may be described as an
area subdivision method) is to be used for the view factor calculation, the entries
discussed thus far are adequate for this part of the calculation. The minimum subset
of Bulk Data entries for this method of view factor calculation is:
For view factor calculation, use
CHBDYi
VIEW
RADCAV
To complete the thermal analysis, use
RADSET
RADM / RADMT / RADBND
In addition, include the parameters TABS and SIGMA.
RADMT Provides the identification for any surface material properties that are
temperature dependent.
TABLEMi Defines a tabular function for use in generating temperaturedependent
material properties.
RADBND Provides Planck’s second constant and the wavelength break points used for
spectral radiation exchange analysis. There can only be one RADBND
statement in a given analysis, regardless of the number of cavitities. While this
forces every exchange surface to have identical waveband break points, there
may be different RADM/ RADMT for potentially every surface.
Main Index
26
e. If the Gaussian integration view factor calculation (the adaptive method) is desired,
the VIEW3D Bulk Data entry must be included. It too is associated with a cavity ID,
and includes fields which provide calculation control limits. The minimum subset
of Bulk Data entries for this method of view factor calculation is:
For view factor calculation, use
CHBDYi
VIEW
VIEW3D
RADCAV
To complete the thermal analysis, use
RADSET
RADM / RADMT / RADBND
In addition, include the parameters TABS and SIGMA.
“View Factor Calculation Methods” on page 409 describes the calculation of view
factors in added detail.
The schematic below illustrates the Bulk Data interrelationship involved in the
determination of view factors and depicts the additional entries required to complete
the thermal analysis.
Enclosure Radiation  View Factor Calculation Required Input
CHBDYG Identifies the radiation surface geometry and material.
VIEW Groups the surface elements into their respective radiation cavities and
provides control information for using the finite difference method when
determining view factors (VIEW module). The VIEW Bulk Data entry also
specifies that view factors be calculated.
CHBDYG
EID TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMIDF RADMIDB
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8
VIEW3D ICAVITY
GITB BIPS CIER ETOL ZTOL WTOL
RADCHK
RADCAV ICAVITY ELEAMB SHADOW
SCALE
PRTPCH
NFECI RMAX
SET11 SET12 SET21 SET22
VIEW IVIEW ICAVIT
Y
SHADE NB NG DISLIN
Main Index
27 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
Additional Enclosure Radiation Input Required to Determine the Radiation
Exchange Thermal Response
RADCAV Identifies the characteristics of each radiation cavity and provides control
information for using the finite difference method when determining view
factors (VIEW module).
VIEW3D Provides the control quantities involved in using the Gaussian integration
adaptive view factor module (VIEW3D module).
RADM Provides the surface properties for absorptivity and emissivity.
RADSET Selects the radiation cavities to be included in the overall thermal analysis.
RADM
RADMID ABSORP EMIS1 EMIS2 EMIS3 EMIS4 EMIS5 EMIS6
EMIS7
RADSET ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY ICAVITY
ICAVITY
See CHBDYG
Main Index
28
2.6 Temperature Boundary Conditions and Constraints
A temperature boundary condition can be useful in defining independent GRID point or
SPOINT temperature in an analysis. This applies to grid points associated with conduction
elements, surface elements, ambient points, control nodes, or film nodes as well as to scalar
points. The methods available for specifying these temperatures are discussed below.
Temperature boundary conditions are treated like loads because they are selected from the Case
Control Section.
Available Temperature Boundary Conditions and Constraints
SPC The singlepoint constraint is selected in the Case Control Section with
SPC = SID. For heat transfer, an SPC may be used to define a temperature for
steady state analysis or transient analysis if the boundary condition over all
time is to remain at a constant value. This is the recommended approach to
fixed temperature specification for both steady state and transient analysis. In
the constant value case, these degrees of freedom are eliminated from the
analysis set and therefore cannot influence the iterative convergence criteria. In
steady state analysis, SPCs are subcase selectable. In transient analysis, SPCs
must be selected above the subcase level. When used with SPCD, SPC1 can also
be used to specify nonzero temperature boundary conditions.
TEMPBC This form of boundary temperature specification is more flexible than the SPC
definition since it can be used to define a temperature that varies with time
throughout a transient analysis. The basic procedure for transient specification
when the value varies with time is to use the dynamic load process as discussed
in the load section (see “Thermal Loads” on page 12). The SID on the TEMPBC
is referenced by a TLOADi Bulk Data entry (DAREA field). The TLOADi entry
must be selected using the Case Control command (DLOAD = SID). Field 3 for
TYPE is specified either as STAT or TRAN as desired. For steady state (STAT
type) analysis, the Case Control command is SPC = SID where the SID is field 2
of the TEMPBC entry.
For transient (type = TRAN) analysis, this boundary specification cannot
eliminate the degrees of freedom from the analysis set. Rather, it internally
implements a penalty method for maintaining the desired temperature value.
The fixed matrix conductance term has a set value of 1.0E+10. In some
instances, this magnitude may overwhelm the convergence criteria. In these
cases, there is another approach to specified temperatures that can circumvent
the problem (see the following discussion of CELASi).
Main Index
29 CHAPTER 2
Thermal Capabilities
Key Points  Temperature Boundary Conditions
Key points for temperature boundary conditions are:
• No Bulk Data file may utilize more than one method for temperature specification. For
example, an SPC entry and a TEMPBC entry of the type = STAT cannot exist in the
same file.
• Whenever a TEMPBC entry of type = TRAN temperature boundary condition is
specified in an analysis, the CONV field of the solution control entry (TSTEPNL) must
be a U specification.
• Temperature initialization (see “Initial Conditions” on page 30) should always be set
for all TEMPBC entries of type = TRAN temperature boundary conditions.
Additionally, all temperature initial conditions must agree with the specified boundary
conditions. For the MPC relationship then the initial temperature specifications must
satisfy the given identity.
• In SOL 153, singularities in the stiffness matrix can be constrained automatically by
Bulk Data entry PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES. However, AUTOSPC does not provide the
correct action for the nonlinear stiffness matrix in SOL 159.
CELASi These 1D elements provide a convenient resistive network element that can be
used for thermal system modeling as well as for driving temperature boundary
conditions. They may automatically have one end set to a zero or grounded
value. A heat load (QHBDY) applied at the free end can be constant or time
varying. The load and matrix conductance values can be adjusted to minimize
the influence over the iterative convergence criteria.
MPC Otherwise known as a multipoint constraint. This constraint can be used to
specify a grid point temperature to be a weighted combination of any number
of other grid point temperatures. An MPC is requested in the Case Control
Section with the MPC = SID command. For transient analysis, an MPC must be
requested above the subcase level.
Main Index
30
2.7 Initial Conditions
Setting initial temperatures is required in several situations. In steady state analysis,
temperatures are usually required as a starting point for the nonlinear iteration process. In
transient analysis, initial temperature specifications define the state from which the solution
evolves.
Steady State Analysis
Since most heat transfer problems are nonlinear due to material properties, variable boundary
conditions, or radiation exchange, iteration is employed in the solution of the system equations.
An initial temperature guess is required to initialize any temperaturedependent properties or
boundary conditions. A good initial estimate can be helpful in achieving a converged solution.
Transient Analysis
Transient analysis, whether linear or nonlinear, employs a starting temperature as the initial
condition from which the solution evolves. These starting temperatures are not, in general,
arbitrary temperatures. Any noninitialized temperatures are presumed to have a value of zero.
Case Control Required: TEMP(INIT) = SID
Bulk Data Entries: TEMP  Defines starting temperature on specific grid points.
TEMPD  Automatically defines starting temperature on any
remaining grid points not specified with a TEMP entry.
Case Control Required: IC = SID.
Bulk Data Entries: TEMP  Defines initial temperature on specific grid points.
TEMPD  Automatically defines initial temperature on any grid
points not set with a TEMP Bulk Data entry.
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
CHAPTER
3
Interface and File Communication
s Introduction to Interface and File Communication
s Execution of MSC.Nastran
s Input Data
s Files Generated by MSC.Nastran
s Plotting
Main Index
32
3.1 Introduction to Interface and File Communication
The formalities associated with MSC.Nastran inputs and outputs are developed in this chapter.
The input is described in terms of an input data file that may be generated by hand or by a
suitable preprocessor. Among the five separate sections involved in the general input is a
complete description of the model, including:
• The type of analysis being performed.
• The problem geometry as modeled.
• The conduction elements that approximate the structure.
• The surface elements that allow the structure to communicate with the boundary
conditions.
• The boundary conditions associated with convection and radiation.
• The loads associated with applied fluxes for all load conditions of interest.
• The specification of the known temperatures in the analysis.
• Requests for the desired output quantities along with their format and form.
Main Index
33 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
3.2 Execution of MSC.Nastran
The MSC.Nastran input file is a text file that is given a filename and a .dat extension (e.g.,
EXAMPLE1.dat). To execute MSC.Nastran, the user types a system command followed by the
name of the input file. The .dat extension is automatically assumed by MSC.Nastran if there is
no file extension associated with the specified filename. A typical execution is
NASTRAN EXAMPLE1
Main Index
34
3.3 Input Data
MSC.Nastran input requires records that are 80 characters (or columns) in length. The input file
is comprised of five sections that must be assembled in the following sequence:
Figure 31 Structure of the MSC.Nastran Input File
The records of the first four sections are input in freefield format, and only columns 1 through
72 are used for data. Any information in columns 73 through 80 may appear in the printed echo,
but is not used by the program. If the last character in a record is a comma, then the record is
continued to the next record.
The Bulk Data entries have special freefield rules, but may be specified as fixed field. Both
options are described in the MSC.Nast ran Reference Manual. The Bulk Data entries may also
make limited use of columns 73 through 80 for the purpose of continuation.
Optional
Optional
Required Section
CEND Required Delimiter
Required Section
BEGIN BULK Required Delimiter
Required Section
ENDDATA Required Delimiter
NASTRAN statement
File Management
statements
Executive Control
statements
Case Control
commands
Bulk Data
entries
Main Index
35 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
NASTRAN Definition(s) (Optional Statement)
The NASTRAN definition statement is optional and is used in special circumstances (see the
“nastran Command and NASTRAN Statement” on page 1 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference
Guide ).
File Management Statements (Optional Section)
The File Management Section is optional and follows the NASTRAN definition(s). It ends with
the specification of an Executive Control statement. This section provides for database
initialization and management along with job identification and restart conditions. The File
Management statements are described in the “File Management Statements” on page 31 of the
MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
Executive Control Statements (Required)
The Executive Control Section begins with the first Executive Control statement and ends with
the CEND delimiter. It identifies the job and the type of solution to be performed. It also declares
the general conditions under which the job is to be executed, such as maximum time allowed and
the type of system diagnostics desired. If the job is to be executed with a solution sequence, the
actual solution sequence is declared along with any alterations to the solution sequence that may
be desired. If Direct Matrix Abstraction is used, the complete DMAP sequence must appear in
the Executive Control Section. The Executive Control statements and examples of their use are
described in the “File Management Statements” on page 31 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference
Guide.
Case Control Commands (Required)
The Case Control Section follows CEND and ends with the BEGIN BULK delimiter. It defines
the subcase structure for the problem, defines sets of Bulk Data, and makes output requests for
printing, punching, and plotting. A general discussion of the functions of the Case Control
Section and a detailed description of the commands used in this section are given in the “Case
Control Commands” on page 175 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide . Those commands
used most commonly in thermal analysis are complied in “Thermal Analysis Case Control
Commands” on page 244. Also, the Case Control highlights for heat transfer are given here.
Steady State Heat Transfer  SOL 153
• A separate subcase must be defined for each unique combination of thermal loads
(LOAD Case Control command), temperature constraints (SPC and MPC command),
and nonlinear iteration strategy (NLPARM command).
• The LOAD Case Control command references the static thermal load entries: QVOL,
QVECT, QHBDY, and QBDYi. Each subcase defines a set of loads that can then be
subdivided into a number of increments for the nonlinear solution process (NLPARM
Bulk Data entry).
Main Index
36
The load step is labeled by the cumulative load factor. The load factor varies from 0 to
1 in each subcase. Specifically, the load step ends with 1, 2, 3, etc. for the first, the
second, and the third subcase, respectively. The data blocks containing solutions can be
generated at each increment or at the end of each subcase, depending on the
intermediate output option specified on the INTOUT field of the NLPARM Bulk Data
entry. Data blocks are stored in the database for the output process and restarts.
• The SPC Case Control command references the temperature boundary conditions in
the SPC Bulk Data entry. The applied temperature boundary condition is also
subdivided in the subcase in an incremental fashion.
• The MPC Case Control command references the algebraic temperature constraints in
the MPC Bulk Data entry. In heat transfer we can think of MPCs as perfect conductor
networks.
• The TEMP(INIT) Case Control command references the initial temperatures that are
required for all nonlinear analyses. An initialized temperature distribution must be
defined using TEMP and/ or TEMPD Bulk Data entries.
• Output requests for each subcase are processed independently. Requested output
quantities for all the subcases are appended after the computational process for actual
output operation. Available outputs are as follows:
• MSC.Nastran data may be output in either SORT1 or SORT2 formats. SORT1 output
provides a tabular listing of all grid points or elements for each loading condition.
SORT2 output is tabular listings of loading conditions for each grid point or element.
SORT1 output is the steady state default format. SORT2 is generated by requesting
XYPLOTS. See “Case Control Commands for Output” on page 25 of the MSC.Nastran
Reference Guide for a discussion of SORT1 and SORT2 formats and their defaults.
• Restarts are controlled by the PARAMeters SUBID and LOOPID. The Case Control
command THERMAL(PUNCH) can be used to generate temperature punch files
suitable for restart initial conditions or thermal stress analysis loads.
Transient Heat Transfer  SOL 159
• Only one set of temperature constraints (via the MPC and SPC Case Control command)
may be requested and must be specified above the subcase level. Any DMIG and/ or
TF used must also be selected above the subcase level.
• A subcase must be defined for each unique combination of transient thermal load
conditions (DLOAD command) and nonlinear iteration strategy (TSTEPNL
command).
THERMAL Temperatures for GRID points and SPOINTs.
FLUX Inner element temperature gradients. Heat flows for
CHBDYi elements.
OLOAD Applied linear loads.
SPCF Steady state heat of constraint for maintaining specified
temperature boundary conditions.
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37 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
Each subcase defines a time interval starting from the last time step of the previous
subcase, and the time interval requested is subdivided into the appropriate time steps.
The data blocks containing solutions are generated at the end of each subcase to store
in the database for output process and restarts.
• The DLOAD and/ or NONLINEAR command must be used to specify timedependent
loading conditions. The static thermal load entries QVOL, QVECT, QHBDY, and
QBDYi may be used in defining a dynamic load as specified by the TLOADi entry. The
set identification number (SID) on the static load entries is specified in the DAREA field
of the TLOADi entry. The TEMPBC (of TRAN type) Bulk Data entry may be requested
in the same fashion.
The input loading functions may be changed for each subcase or continued by
repeating the same DLOAD request. However, it is recommended to use the same
TLOADi Bulk Data entry for all subcases in order to maintain continuity, since the
TLOADi entry defines the loading history as a function of cumulative time.
• Temperature initial conditions are requested above the subcase level with the IC Case
Control command. Initial temperatures are specified on TEMP and/ or TEMPD Bulk
Data entries.
• Output requests for each subcase are processed independently. Requested output
quantities for all the subcases are appended after the computational process for the
actual output operation. The available output is as follows:
• MSC.Nastran data may be output in either SORT1 or SORT2 output format. SORT1
output is a tabular listing of all grid points or elements for each time step in transient
analysis. In transient analysis, SORT1 output is requested by placing a
PARAM,CURVPLOT,+1 in the Bulk Data. See “Case Control Commands for Output”
on page 25 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide for a discussion of SORT1 and SORT2
formats and their defaults.
SORT2 is the default format for transient analysis.
• Restarts are controlled by the parameters STIME, LOOPID, and SLOOPID. See the
MSC.Nast ran Handbook for Nonlinear Analysis, Section 9.2.2 for a discussion of
restarts for nonlinear transient analysis. The Case Control command
THERMAL(PUNCH) can be used to generate temperature punch files suitable for
restart initial conditions or for thermal stress analysis loads.
ENTHALPY Grid point enthalpies.
THERMAL Grid point temperatures.
FLUX Element gradient and fluxes.
OLOAD Applied linear loads.
SPCF Heat of constraint.
HDOT Enthalpy gradient with respect to time.
Main Index
38
Bulk Data Entries (Required)
The Bulk Data Section follows BEGIN BULK and ends with the ENDDATA delimiter. It contains
all of the details of the model and the conditions for the solution. BEGIN BULK and ENDDATA
must be present even though no new Bulk Data is being introduced into the problem or if all of
the Bulk Data is coming from an alternate source, such as usergenerated input. The format of
the BEGIN BULK entry is in freefield format. The ENDDATA delimiter must begin in column
1 or column 2. In general, only one model can be defined in the Bulk Data Section. However,
some of the Bulk Data, such as the entries associated with loading conditions, direct input
matrices, and transfer functions, may exist in multiple sets. Only sets selected in the Case Control
Section are used in any particular solution. The Bulk Data entries associated primarily with
thermal analysis are included in “Commonly Used Bulk Data Entries” in Appendix D.
Miscellaneous Input
The input file might also include required resident operating system job control language (JCL)
statements. The type and number of JCL statements varies with the particular computer
installation.
The input file may be formed by the insertion of other files with the INCLUDE statement. This
INCLUDE statement may be specified in any of the five parts of the input file.
Comments may be inserted in any of the parts of the input file. They are identified by a dollar
sign ($) in column 1. Columns 2 through 72 may contain any desired text.
Main Index
39 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
3.4 Files Generated by MSC.Nastran
Upon successful execution of an MSC.Nastran job, a variety of files are automatically created.
These files have the following filename extensions and descriptions as shown below:
SCR (scratch) Command. If no restarts or database manipulations are planned, then the
MASTER, DBALL, USRSOU, and USROBJ files can be automatically deleted (scratched) upon
completion of the run by adding the statement SCR = YES to the execution command. For
example,
Failure to delete these files may prohibit subsequent reruns of the same input file.
The .dat, .f06, .f04, .log, and .pch files are ASCII files and can be viewed using any text editor.
The remaining files are binary, and as such, cannot be viewed. The binary files are not intended
to be used directly; they are used for additional analysis, such as restarts or postprocessing. If no
.dat The input file describing the model, the type of solution, the output requests,
etc. Generated with a text editor or preprocessor.
.f06 The main output file containing the printed output such as temperature,
temperature gradients, heat flows, etc.
.f04 A history of the assigned files, disk space usage, and modules used during the
analysis. Useful for debugging.
.log A summary of the command lines options used and the execution links.
.DBALL A database containing the input files, assembled matrices, and solutions. Used
for restarting the job for additional analysis.
.MASTER The file containing the master directory of the files used by the run and the
physical location of the files on the system. This file is also needed for a restart
job.
.USRSOU Used only for advanced DMAP applications. This file may be deleted after the
run is finished. It is not needed for restarts.
.USROBJ Used only for advanced DMAP applications. This file may be deleted after the
run is finished. It is not needed for restarts.
.plt Contains the plot information requested with the NASPLT command specified
in the input file.
.pch Contains the punch output as requested in the input file.
.xdb Graphics database used by MSC.XL and MSC.Aries for postprocessing of the
results.
miscellaneous
scratch files
Several scratch files are generated during the analysis which MSC.Nastran
automatically deletes upon completion of the run.
NASTRAN EXAMPLE1 SCR=YES
Main Index
40
restarts are planned, you may specify “scr = yes” when submitting the input file for execution.
The .DBALL, .MASTER, .USROBJ, and .USRSOU files are placed on the scratch directory and are
automatically deleted upon completion of the run.
The .USEROBJ and .USRSOU files are intended only for DMAP users and may be deleted after
the run is complete. The .plt file is a binary file that contains the plotting information generated
by NASPLT, the MSC.Nastran internal plotting feature. If NASPLT is not used, the .plt file is
deleted following the completion of the run. If punch output is specified, the .pch file is retained
when the run is complete. The .xdb binary file is the graphic database used by MSC.XL,
MSC.Aries, and other graphics pre and postprocessors. It is requested using PARAM,POST in
the Bulk Data Section. (Refer to the description of PARAM,POST in “Parameters” on page 601
of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.)
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41 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
3.5 Plotting
MSC.Nastran has the ability to generate structural plots or XY plots rom batch program
executions. Such plots are requested by placing data commands at the end of the Case Control
Section. Plot requests are separated from the Case Control by the OUTPUT(PLOT),
OUTPUT(XYPLOT), or OUTPUT(XYOUT) commands. Data above this command is not
recognized by the plotter.
For virtually any type of plotter hardware, the plotter programs are executed by
for a “CALCOMPlike” plot, or by
for a “TEKTRONIXlike” plot. The ‘name.plt’ is the filename of the plot file generated from
MSC.Nastran. These programs are delivered with the utility files.
The following discussion is limited to a description of all of the commands required to obtain
undeformed structure, thermal contour, and XY plots in thermal analysis.
Structural Plotting
In thermal analysis, structural plotting is applied to display the model geometry (undeformed
structure plots) and the temperature distribution across the model (thermal contour plots). The
structural plotting is requested in the Case Control Section by the plotting commands from an
OUTPUT(PLOT) command to either a BEGIN BULK, OUTPUT(XYPLOT), or OUTPUT(XYOUT)
command.
Plot Set Selection. MSC.Nastran plots consist of element images. Grid points are identified by
the intersection of the elements. Note that the surface elements CHBDYE, CONV, CONVM, and
RADBC cannot be plotted. The SET command is required to specify sets of elements for plotting.
Examples are as follows:
In these examples, SET 1 includes all elements, SET 2 includes all CBAR and CQUAD4 elements
except elements 10, 50, 70, and 90, SET 3 includes a subset of elements selected by their ID
numbers, and SET 4 includes all elements except CHBDYi surface elements.
Only one set of elements can be selected for a particular plot. To request an undeformed
structural plot, the following two commands are required:
NASPLT ‘name.plt’
TEKPLT ‘name.plt’
SET 1 = ALL
SET 2 = BAR, QUAD4, EXCEPT 10, 50 THRU 90 BY 20
SET 3 = 1, 5 THRU 10, 100 THRU 105, 210
SET 4 = ALL EXCEPT HBDY
FIND SCALE, ORIGIN j, SET i
PLOT SET i, ORIGIN j
Main Index
42
where i identifies one of the sets described in the SET command and j defines an origin for the
plot. If j is equal to i, the program finds the origin automatically and positions the plot in the
center of the viewing window. If some other origin is desired, the ORIGIN command should be
used. In particular, the ORIGIN command should be used if more than ten plot sets are
requested.
Parameter Definition Commands
The parameter definition commands are described in the MSC.Nast ran Reference Manual. A set
of commonly used commands is as follows:
• PLOTTER = {NAST}
Selects plotter. The default is NAST.
• AXES R, S, T
VIEW
Defines the orientation of the object in relation to the observer. The observer’s
coordinate system is defined as R, S, T, and the basic coordinate system of the object is
defined as X, Y, Z. The angular relationship between the two systems is defined by the
three angles , , and as follows:
where:
R, S, T = X or MX, Y or MY, Z or MZ (where “M” implies the negative axis)
= three angles of rotation in degrees (Real)
γ β , α ,
γ β , α ,
α β γ
S
T
Direction of View
(Always in the negative R
direction. The projection
plane is always in, or parallel
to, the ST plane.)
α
β
γ
R
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43 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
The two coordinate systems are coincident (i.e., X is coincident with R, etc.) for =
= = 0. The sequence in which the rotations are taken was arbitrarily chosen as: , the
rotation about the Taxis; followed by , the rotation about the Saxis; followed by ,
the rotation about the Raxis. Normally, is not used since it does not affect the
appearance of the ST projection, only its orientation on the page. The default values of
the rotations are = 34.27°, = 23.17°, and = 0.0°, which produce a plot in which
unit vectors on the X, Y, and Zaxes have equal lengths.
The default view described above may be altered in two ways. The structural axes that
coincide with the R, S, Taxes may be interchanged by means of the “AXES R, S, T”
command, and the view angles can be rotated by the “VIEW ” command. The
default forms of these commands are
To view the structure from the positive Yaxis, use the commands
that points the Zaxis toward the right and the Xaxis upward in the plot, or use
that points the Xaxis toward the left (in this expression MX means that the minus X
axis coincides with S) and points the Zaxis upward. Note that the expression
provides a mirror image of the structure. In order to avoid a mirror image, the sequence
of axes must obey the righthand rule.
The structure can be viewed from the position Zaxis by the expression
Other combinations of AXES and VIEW commands produce any desired views of the
structure. For example,
provides a view midway between the positive X and Yaxes of the basic coordinate
system.
• CSCALE =
AXES X, Y, Z
VIEW 34.27, 23.17, 0.0
AXES Y, Z, X
VIEW 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
AXES Y, MX, Z
VIEW 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
AXES Y, X, Z
AXES Z, X, Y
VIEW 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
VIEW 45.0, 0.0, 0.0
γ β
α γ
β α
α
γ β α
γ β , α ,
0.5
cs

¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
Main Index
44
• Controls the spacing of the characters; the default value is 0.5. A value of 1.8 produces
good spacing of output characters. The CSCALE command must immediately precede
the PLOTTER selection command. If a second CSCALE command is used, a second
PLOTTER selection command must also be used.
• PTITLE = {any legitimate character string}
Title to be printed at the top of the plot on the line below the sequence number. The
default value for the text is all blanks.
Undeformed Structural Plots
Requests for undeformed plots take the following general form:
PLOT , THRU , , etc., SET j, ORIGIN k, LABEL
The following entries are optional:
• , THRU , , etc.  List of subcases; the default is to plot all subcases.
• LABEL  Label either the grid points and/ or the
elements with the ID numbers.
Thermal Contour Plots
Requests for thermal contour plots are similar to requests for undeformed structural plots. All
axes, view, and set commands are the same. The only changes are the addition of one
CONTOUR command and one modification to the PLOT command.
The CONTOUR command specifies that contour data is to be prepared for a subsequent plot
command. For thermal analysis, this command has the form
where “MAGNIT” is a mnemonic for a “magnitude” data request that satisfies the data
processing requirement for thermal temperature contours. The CONTOUR command should be
placed immediately before the associated PLOT execution command. A THERMAL Case
Control command must appear for all grid points that are specified in the plot set definition of
contour plots.
The only change necessary to the PLOT command is the specification of CONTOUR plots. The
PLOT command then appears as:
CONTOUR MAGNIT
i
1
i
2
i
3
i
4
GRID POINTS
ELEMENTS
BOTH
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
i
1
i
2
i
3
i
4
GRID POINTS
ELEMENTS
BOTH
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
Main Index
45 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
The OUTLINE entry (optional) requests that only the outline of all the elements in the specified
set be displayed. If this entry is not specified, all of the elements included in the specified set are
displayed.
To plot thermal contours at any time step of a transient analysis, the PLOT command must
specify the desired time or time range. The PLOT command then takes the form
Here the contour plot(s) is created for all parts of the model in SET i and at time steps within the
range of and . If only is specified, the plot is generated at .
Examples of Structure Plot Requests
The following examples are typical plot packets for thermal analysis. BEGIN BULK or
OUTPUT(XYPLOT) command is shown as a reminder to the user to place the plot request packet
properly in the Case Control Section, i.e., at the end of the Case Control Section or just before any
XY output requests.
Example
The following sequence causes an undeformed structural plot to be selected for the entire model,
using the default values for AXES and VIEW.
Example
The following sequence causes temperature contours over the entire model to be plotted using
all default orientation view angles.
Example
The following sequence causes three plots to be generated.
PLOT CONTOUR, SET i, OUTLINE
PLOT CONTOUR, TIME t
1
, t
2
, SET i, OUTLINE
OUTPUT (PLOT)
SET 1 = ALL
FIND SCALE, ORIGIN 1, SET 1
PLOT SET 1
BEGIN BULK
OUTPUT (PLOT)
SET 1 = ALL
FIND SCALE, ORIGIN 1, SET 1
CONTOUR MAGNIT
PLOT CONTOUR, SET 1
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
t
1
t
2
t
1
t = t
1
Main Index
46
The first plot uses the default values for AXES and VIEW. The second plot uses the indicated
overrides. The third plot uses the same view options as the previous plot, which is the default
for multiple plots. It also uses the option to label both grid points and elements. Note that in all
cases the FIND command immediately precedes the PLOT command and follows any AXES or
VIEW commands that are explicitly present. Any other sequence for these commands results in
improperly scaled plots.
Example
The following sequence generates three plots using more spacing of characters.
The first plot is a simple undeformed structural plot of the entire model and has the title “BASIC
MODEL”. The second plot is the same type of plot for all CQUAD4 elements in the model. The
plot title is “LABEL GRIDS”. This plot has its own scale and magnification factor as requested
OUTPUT (PLOT)
SET 1 = ALL
SET 2 = BAR, QUAD4
SET 3 = 14 THRU 44, 100 THRU 147, 210
$FIRST PLOT
FIND SCALE, ORIGIN 1, SET 1
PLOT SET 1, ORIGIN 1
$SECOND PLOT
AXES Z, X, Y
VIEW 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
FIND SCALE, ORIGIN 2, SET 2
PLOT SET 2, ORIGIN 2
$THIRD PLOT
FIND SCALE ORIGIN 3, SET 3
PLOT SET 3, ORIGIN 3, LABEL BOTH
BEGIN BULK
OUTPUT (PLOT)
CSCALE = 1.8
PLOTTER NAST
SET 1 = ALL
SET 2 = QUAD4
$FIRST PLOT
PTITLE = BASIC MODEL
FIND SCALE, ORIGIN 1, SET 1
PLOT SET 1, ORIGIN 1
$SECOND PLOT
PTITLE = LABEL GRIDS
FIND SCALE, ORIGIN 2, SET 2
PLOT SET 2 LABEL GRIDS
$THIRD PLOT
PTITLE = THERMAL CONTOURS
CONTOUR MAGNIT
PLOT CONTOUR, TIME 5.0, ORIGIN 1, SET 1, OUTLINE
BEGIN BULK
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47 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
by its unique FIND SCALE command. The third plot is a contour plot over the entire model for
the temperatures at time 5.0. Since this plot does not have its own FIND SCALE command, the
view has the same orientation as does the first plot. Its title is “THERMAL CONTOURS.”
XY Plotting
In transient thermal analysis, XY plotting is used to track the temperaturetime history or the
heat flux/ time history of grid points. It can also be applied in steady state analysis to plot
temperature versus a set of grid points. In addition to the plots, XY tabular output may be
printed or punched, and a summary of data (e.g., maximum and minimum values as well as the
locations of these values) may be obtained for any XY output.
The XY output is requested via a packet in the Case Control Section. This packet includes all of
the commands between either OUTPUT(XYPLOT) or OUTPUT(XYOUT) and either BEGIN
BULK or OUTPUT(PLOT).
XY Plotter Terminology
A single set of plotted XY pairs is known as a “curve.” Curves are the entities that the user
requests to be plotted. The surface (paper, microfilm frame, etc.) on which one or more curves is
plotted is known as a “frame.” Curves may be plotted on a whole frame, an upperhalf frame, or
a lowerhalf frame. Grid lines, tic marks, axes, and axis labeling may be chosen by the user. The
program selects defaults for parameters that are not selected by the user. Only two commands
are required for an XY output request. They are
• XY output section delimiter  OUTPUT(XYPLOT) or OUTPUT(XYOUT).
• At least one operation command.
The terms OUTPUT(XYPLOT) and OUTPUT(XYOUT) are interchangeable and either form may
be used for any of the XY output requests. If the output is limited to printing and/ or punching,
a plotter selection command is not required. The operation command(s) is used to request
various forms of XY output.
If only the required commands are used, the graphic control options assume all the default
values. Curves using default parameters have the following general characteristics:
• Tic marks are drawn on all edges of the frame. Five spaces are provided on each edge
of the frame.
• All tic marks are labeled with their values.
• Linear scales are used.
• Scales are selected such that all points fall within the frame.
• The plotter points are connected with straight lines.
• The plotted points are not identified with symbols.
The above characteristics may be modified by inserting any number of parameter definition
commands before the operation command(s). The following is an overview of the parameter
definition commands and the operation commands for thermal analysis. A more complete
description is contained in “XY PLOT Commands” on page 525 of the .
Main Index
48
Parameter Definition Commands
The parameter definition commands are described in “XY Output Command Summary” on
page 526 of the . A set of commonly used commands is listed as follows:
• PLOTTER = {NAST}
Selects plotter. The default is NAST.
• CLEAR
Causes all parameter values except titles (XTITLE, YTITLE, YTTITLE, YBTITLE,
TCURVE) to revert to their default values.
• CSCALE = cs (Real)
See the Parameter Definition Commands Section of Structural Plotting.
• CURVELINESYMBOL = cls (Integer)
Request for points to be connected by lines (cls = 0), identified by symbol  cls (cls <
0), or both (cls > 0); default value is 0. The following symbols are available:
If more than one curve per frame is required, the symbol number is incremented by 1
for each curve.
• TCURVE = {any legitimate character string}
Curve title.
• XTITLE = {any legitimate character string}
Title to be used with the xaxis.
• YTITLE = {any legitimate character string}
Title to be used with yaxis. This command pertains only to whole frame curves.
Symbol
Number
Symbol
0 no symbol
1 ¥
2 ²
3 +
4 
5
6
7
8
9
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49 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
• XMIN = x1 (Real)
XMAX = x2 (Real)
Specifies the limits of the abscissa of the curve; the default values are chosen to
accommodate all points.
• YMIN = y1 (Real)
YMAX = y2 (Real)
Specifies the limits of the ordinate of the curve; the default values are chosen to
accommodate all points. This command pertains only to whole frame curves.
• XGRID =
Request for drawing in the grid lines parallel to the yaxis at locations requested for tic
marks; the default value is NO. This command pertains only to whole frame curves.
• YGRID =
Request for drawing in the grid lines parallel to the xaxis at locations requested for tic
marks; the default value is NO. This command pertains only to whole frame curves.
Operation Commands
When a command operation is encountered, one or more frames is generated using the current
parameter specifications. The form of this command as applied in thermal analysis is
YES
NO
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
YES
NO
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
Main Index
50
Operation
The entries in the operation field have the following meanings:
Curve Type
Only one type of curve field may appear in a single operation command. However, there is no
limit to the number of such commands. The entries in the curve type field have the following
meaning:
Operation
one or more
(required)
Curve Type
one only
(required)
Subcase
List
(optional)
Curve
Request(s)
(required)
XYPLOT FLUX
XYPRINT OLOAD
“frames”
XYPUNCH SPCF
XYPEAK TEMP
XYPAPLOT VELO Default is all
subcases
Note: Continuation commands may not be used until the subcase list section is reached.
XYPLOT Generates XY plots for the selected plotter.
XYPRINT Generates tabular printer output for the XY pairs.
XYPUNCH Generates punched command output for the XY pairs. Each
command contains the following information:
x XY pair sequence number.
x Xvalue.
x Yvalue.
x Command sequence number.
XYPEAK Output is limited to the printed summary page for each curve. This
page contains the maximum and minimum values of y for the range
of x.
XYPAPLOT Generates XY plots on the printer. The xaxis moves horizontally
along the page and the yaxis moves vertically along the page.
Symbol ‘*’ identifies the points associated with the first curve of a
frame, then for successive curves on a frame the points are
designated by symbols O, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H.
i
1
i
2
i
3
, , ,
i
4
, THRU i
5
,
i
6
, etc.
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51 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
Subcase List
The subcase list generates output for the subcase numbers that are listed. The subcase list must
be in ascending order. Default is all subcases for which solutions were obtained.
Curve Request(s)
The word “frames” represents a series of curve identifiers of the following general form:
The information between slashes (/ ) specifies curves that are to be drawn on the same frame.
The symbol a1 identifies the grid point or element number associated with the first plot on the
first frame. The symbol a2 identifies the grid point or element number associated with the
second plot on the first frame. The symbols d1 and d2 identify similar items for plots on the
second frame, etc. AII plot requests on one command are sorted by grid point or element ID to
improve the efficiency of the plotting process. Symbols are assigned in order by grid points or
element identification number.
The symbols b1 and b2 are codes for the items to be plotted on the upper half of the first frame,
and c1 and c2 are codes for the items to be plotted on the lower half of the first frame. If any of
the symbols b1, c1, b2, or c2 are missing, the corresponding curve is not generated. If the comma
(, ) and c1 are absent along with the comma (, ) and c2, full frame plots are prepared on the first
frame for the items represented by b1 and b2. For any single frame, curve identifiers must all be
of the whole frame type or all of the half frame type, i.e., the comma (, ) following b1 and b2 must
be present for all entries or absent for all entries in a single frame. The symbols e1, f1, e2, and f2
serve a similar purpose for the second frame, etc. If continuation commands are needed, the
previous command may be terminated with any one of the slashes (/ ) or commas (, ) in the
general format.
Item codes are fully described in “Item Codes” on page 777 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference
Guide. For curve types OLOAD, SPCF, TEMP, and VELO in thermal analysis, use item code T1.
For XYplots of heat fluxes (curve type FLUX), the item codes are
Curve Type Meaning
FLUX Element flux output
OLOAD Load
SPCF Singlepoint force of constraint
TEMP Temperature in the physical set
VELO Enthalpy in the physical set
/a1(b1,c1) ,a2(b2,c2),etc./d1(e1,f1) ,d2(e2,f2) ,etc./etc.
Main Index
52
Examples of XY Output Request Packets
The following examples are applied in transient thermal analysis to display the temperature or
heat flux as a function of time. The BEGIN BULK or OUTPUT(PLOT) command is shown as a
reminder to the user to place the XY output request packet properly in the Case Control Section,
i.e., at the end of the Case Control Section or just ahead of any structure plot requests.
Example
The following sequence causes a single whole frame to be plotted for the temperature of grid
point 5, using the default parameter values:
Example
The following sequence causes a single frame (consisting of an upper half frame and a lower half
frame) to be plotted using the default parameter values:
Each half frame contains two curves. The xdirection heat fluxes of the CHEXA element number
70 and the CPENTA element number 80 are plotted on the upper half frame. The zdirection heat
fluxes are plotted on the lower half frame for these two elements.
Element Type Code Item
Conductive Elements 4 x gradient
5 y gradient
6 z gradient
7 x flux
8 y flux
9 z flux
CHBDYi Elements 4 Applied load
5 Free convection
6 Forced convection
7 Radiation
8 Total
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XYPLOT TEMP/5 (T1)
BEGIN BULK
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XYPLOT FLUX/70 (7,9) ,80(7,9)
OUTPUT (PLOT)
Main Index
53 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
Example
The following sequence causes three whole frames to be plotted using the default parameter
values:
Each frame contains two curves. The first plot is the enthalpy at grid points 11 and 12. The
second plot is the linear loads applied at grid points 21 and 22. The third plot is the singlepoint
forces of constraint applied at grid points 31 and 32.
Example
The following sequence causes two whole frame plots to be generated, one for CHBDYi element
numbers 10 and 20 and the other for CHBDYi element numbers 30 and 40:
Each plot contains the free convection and radiation heat flows for two CHBDYi elements. The
default parameters are modified to include titles and grid lines in both the xdirection and y
direction. Distinct symbols are used for each curve. The first curve is identified by circles ( ),
the second curve by squares ( ), the third curve by diamonds ( ), and the fourth curve by
triangles ( ).
Example
The following sequence causes three whole frames to be generated:
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XYPLOT VELO /11(T1),12(T1)
XYPLOT OLOAD/21(T1),22(T1)
XYPLOT SPCF /31(T1),32(T1)
OUTPUT (PLOT)
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME IN SECONDS
YTITLE = FREE CONVECTION AND RADIATION OF THE CHBDYi ELEMENTS
XGRID = YES
YGRID = YES
CURVELINESYMB = 6
XYPLOT FLUX/10(5),10(7) ,20(5) ,20 (7) /30(5) ,30(7) ,40(5) ,40(7)
BEGIN BULK
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME
YTITLE = TEMPERATURE
XGRID = YES
YGRID = YES
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1),2(T1),3(T1)
YTITLE = YFLUX OF THE QUAD4 ELEMENTS
XYPLOT FLUX/10(8)
YTITLE = FORCED CONVECTION OF THE CHBDYi ELEMENTS
XYPLOT FLUX/31(6), 32(6)
BEGIN BULK
Main Index
54
The first plot is the temperatures for grid points 1, 2, and 3. The second plot is the heat flux in the
ydirection for CQUAD4 element number 10. The third plot is the forced convection heat flows
for CHBDYi element numbers 31 and 32. The default parameters are modified to include titles
and grid lines in both the xdirection and ydirection.
XY Plots for SORT1 Output
It is often convenient to display the distribution of temperature versus a sequence of grid points.
The identification numbers of the sequence of grid points to be plotted should be listed on a SET1
Bulk Data entry.
The requests for XY plots appear in the Case Control Section in the standard form. For example,
This example generates an XY plot from grid point temperatures. The abscissa of the curve
reflects the grid point IDs listed on the SET1 Bulk Data entry with an SID of 99, and the ordinate
reflects the temperatures at these grid points. In the Bulk Data, PARAM,CURVPLOT,1
suppresses SORT2type processing and requests that XY plots be made with the abscissas
relating to grid point locations. Parameter DOPT controls the x spacing of these curves. The
allowable values of this parameter are shown in the following table:
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = ZAXIS
YTITLE = TEMPERATURE
XGRID = YES
YGRID = YES
CURVELINESYMB = 6
XYPLOT TEMP/99(T1)
BEGIN BULK
.
.
.
PARAM,CURVPLOT,1
PARAM,DOPT,3
SET1,99,1,THRU,10
Value of DOPT Scaling for Abscissa
0 (default)
1
2
3
4 1
g
j
g
i
–
x
j
x
i
–
y
j
y
i
–
z
j
z
i
–
Main Index
55 CHAPTER 3
Interface and File Communication
The default for DOPT is the length between grid points, with the first grid point listed on the
referenced SET1 command at the origin. For DOPT values 1, 2, or 3, the spacing between adjacent
points on the abscissa is proportional to one component of the distance between their grid
points. DOPT = 4 spaces the grid points equally along the abscissa.
Main Index
56
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
CHAPTER
4
Method of Solution
s Introduction to Solution Methods
s Nonlinear Iteration Scheme
s Steady State Analysis
s Transient Analysis
Main Index
58
4.1 Introduction to Solution Methods
This chapter describes the solution methods of MSC.Nastran thermal analysis. Two types of heat
transfer problems, steady state analysis and transient analysis, are solved by MSC.Nastran. The
solutions of these analysis types, their respective MSC.Nastran solution sequences, and iteration
methods are discussed in the following sections.
Main Index
59 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
4.2 Nonlinear Iteration Scheme
MSC.Nastran applies a NewtonRaphson iteration scheme to solve thermal (and structural)
analysis problems. In finite element analysis, the general equilibrium equation is
Eq. 41
where:
Applying Newton’s method involves the specification of a correction vector
Eq. 42
and the approximation of the vanished correction vector at the (i + 1)th iteration, i.e.,
Eq. 43
where
Eq. 44
is the ith incremental displacement vector. The above equation can be rewritten as
Eq. 45
where:
At each iteration, the lefthand side matrix and the righthand side vector are
computed based on the temperature vector . By solving the unknown vector , the
displacement vector at the (i + 1)th iteration can be calculated from
Eq. 46
Since matrix decomposition is time consuming, MSC.Nastran does not update the lefthand side
matrix at each iteration. The tangential matrix is updated only when the solution fails to
converge or the iteration efficiency can be improved. However, the residual vector is updated at
each iteration.
In concert with Newton’s method, the following options are provided to improve the efficiency
of the iteration:
= the conduction matrix (stiffness matrix)
= the unknown grid point temperature vector to be solved (displacement)
= the vector of known heat flows (forces)
= the tangential matrix which includes components related to conduction,
convection advection, and radiation.
= the residual vector
K [ ] u { } F { } =
K [ ]
u { }
F { }
ψ { } K [ ] u { } F { } – =
ψ { }
i 1 +
ψ { }
i ∂ψ
∂u

i
∆u { }
i
0 = + ≈
∆u { }
i
u
i 1 +
u
i
– { } =
K
T
[ ]
i
∆u { }
i
R { }
i
=
K
T
[ ] =
∂ψ
∂u

R { } = ψ { } –
K
T
[ ]
i
R { }
i
u { }
i
∆u { }
i
u { }
i 1 +
u { }
i
∆u { }
i
+ =
Main Index
60
• Tangential matrix update strategy.
• Line search method.
• Bisection of loads.
• QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates.
These options are specified on NLPARM (steady state analysis) or TSTEPNL (transient analysis)
Bulk Data entries. In general, if the solution diverges, a line search algorithm, a bisection of
loads, and a quasiNewton update are implemented in an effort to improve the solution. If the
solution still fails to converge with all the above methods, the tangential stiffness is updated to
resume the iteration. The user may refer to the MSC.Nast ran Handbook for Nonlinear Analysis
for detailed algorithms.
Main Index
61 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
4.3 Steady State Analysis
Basic Equations. The steady state heat balance equation is
Eq. 47
where:
The components of the applied heat flow vector are associated either with surface heat
transfer or with heat generated inside the volume heat conduction elements. The vector of
nonlinear heat flows results from boundary radiation, surface convection, and
temperaturedependent thermal loads.
The equilibrium equation is solved by a Newton iteration scheme where the tangential stiffness
matrix is approximated by
Eq. 48
and the residual vector is
Eq. 49
Steady State Analysis Solution Sequence
In MSC.Nastran, steady state thermal analysis is solved by Solution Sequence 153. Since Solution
153 can be used for both structural (default) and thermal analyses, the user must include the
command
in the Case Control Section of the input data for thermal analysis. The input data file may then
appear as:
= a heat conduction matrix
= a radiation exchange matrix
= a vector of applied heat loads that are independent of temperature
= a vector of nonlinear heat loads that are temperature dependent
= a vector of grid point temperatures
= the absolute temperature scale adjustment required for radiation heat transfer
exchange or radiation boundary conditions when all other temperatures and units are
specified in degF or degC.
ANALYSIS = HEAT
K [ ] u { } ℜ [ ] u T
abs
+ { }
4
P { } N { } + = +
K [ ]
ℜ [ ]
P { }
N { }
u { }
T
abs
P { }
N { }
K
T
[ ]
i
K [ ]
i
4 ℜ [ ]
i
u
i
T
abs
+ { }
3 ∂N
∂u

¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
i
– + ≈
R { }
i
P { } N { }
i
K [ ]
i
u { }
i
ℜ [ ]
i
u
i
T
abs
+ { }
4
– – + =
Main Index
62
The NLPARM entry is required to control the incremental and iterative solution processes. For
nonlinear problems, a set of temperatures should be provided for an initial guess. These
temperatures are specified on TEMP and TEMPD Bulk Data entries and are selected by a
TEMP(INIT) Case Control command.
Convergence Criteria
The convergence criteria are characterized by the dimensionless error functions and the
convergence tolerances. To ensure accuracy and efficiency, multiple criteria with errors
measured about temperatures, loads, and energy are provided.
1. Temperature error function
Since the error in temperatures is not known, a contraction factor q is introduced to
formulate the temperature error function, which is defined as
Eq. 410
To avoid fluctuation and illconditioning, an averaging scheme is applied to compute
the contraction factor
Eq. 411
with an initial value = 0.99. If is assumed to be constant with a value less than
unity, the absolute error in temperatures can be estimated by
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE
ANALYSIS = HEAT
NLPARM = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
.
.
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,10,....
.
.
TEMP,20,.....
TEMPD,20,....
ENDDATA
q
u
i 1 +
u
i
–
u
i
u
i 1 –
–

∆u
i
∆u
i 1 –
 = =
q
i
2
3

∆u
i
∆u
i 1 –

1
3
 q
i 1 –
+ =
q
0
q
Main Index
63 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
Eq. 412
The temperature error function is formulated by introducing the weighted
normalization to the above equation, i.e.,
Eq. 413
where the weighting function is defined as the square root of the diagonal terms
of the tangential matrix , i.e.,
Eq. 414
2. Load error function
The load error function is defined as
Eq. 415
with
Eq. 416
where is the applied thermal load at the previous loading step, and is
the incremental load.
3. Energy error function
The energy (or work) error function is defined as
Eq. 417
At every iteration, error functions are computed and printed in the convergence table under the
headings EUI, EPI, and EWI. The convergence test is performed by comparing the error
functions with the convergence tolerances, i.e.,
u u
i 1 +
– u u
i n +
– u
i n +
u
i n 1 – +
– … u
i 2 +
u
i 1 +
– + + + ≤
∆u
i
q
n
q
n 1 –
… q + + + ( ) =
∆u
i
q
1 q –
 =
E
u
q
1 q –

ω ∆u ⋅
ω u ⋅

q
1 q –

ω
j
∆u
j
j
∑
ω
j
u
j
j
∑
 = =
ω { }
K
T
[ ]
ω
j
K
T
j j
=
E
p
R u ⋅
P' u ⋅

R
j
u
j
j
∑
P'
j
u
j
j
∑
 = =
P' { } P
ld
{ } ∆P
ld
{ } + =
P
ld
{ } ∆P
ld
{ }
E
w
R ∆u ⋅
P' u ⋅

R
j
∆u
j
j
∑
P'
j
u
j
j
∑
 =
Main Index
64
where EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW are tolerances specified on the NLPARM Bulk Data entry. The
solution has converged if these tests are satisfied. However, only those criteria selected by the
user (specified in the CONV field of the NLPARM entry) are checked for convergence. Note that
the tolerances should not be too tight to waste iteration time or too loose to affect accuracy. It is
recommended that the default values be used until better values are found through iteration
experience.
Iteration Control
The incremental and iterative solution processes are controlled by the parameters specified on
the NLPARM Bulk Data entry, with the data format and default values described as follows:
In thermal analysis, the arclength method (specified by NLPCI command) is disabled. The DT,
FSTRESS, MAXR, and RTOLB fields are also ignored and should be left blank for heat transfer.
The ID field specifies an integer selected by the Case Control request NLPARM. For each
subcase, load and SPC temperature changes are processed incrementally with a number of equal
subdivisions defined by the NINC value.
The KMETHOD and KSTEP fields specify the tangential matrix update strategy. Three separate
options for KMETHOD may be selected.
• AUTO
The program automatically selects the most efficient strategy based on convergence
rates. At each iteration, the number of steps required to converge as well as the
computing time with and without matrix update are estimated. The tangential matrix
is updated if (a) the estimated number of iterations to converge exceeds MAXITER,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NLPARM ID NINC DT
KMETHOD
KSTEP MAXITER CONV INTOUT
NLPARM AUTO 5 25 PW NO +NP1
EPSU EPSP EPSW MAXDIV MAXQN MAXLS FSTRESS LSTOL
+NP1 1.0E3 1.0E3 1.0E7 3
MAXITER
4 0.5 +NP2
MAXBIS MAXR RTOLB
+NP2 5
E
u
EPSU default 10
3 –
= ( ) <
E
p
EPSP default 10
3 –
= ( ) <
E
w
EPSW default 10
7 –
= ( ) <
Main Index
65 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
(b) the estimated time required for convergence with current matrix exceeds the
estimated time to converge with matrix update, or (c) the solution diverges. The
tangential matrix is also updated on convergence if KSTEP is less than the number of
steps required for convergence with the current matrix.
• SEMI
This option is identical to the AUTO option except that the program updates the
tangential matrix after the first iteration.
• ITER
The program updates the tangential matrix at every KSTEP iteration and on
convergence if KSTEP < MAXITER. However, the tangential matrix is never updated if
KSTEP > MAXITER. Note that the NewtonRaphson method is obtained if KSTEP = 1,
and the modified NewtonRaphson method is selected by setting KSTEP = MAXITER.
The number of iterations for a load increment is limited to MAXITER. If the solution does not
converge in MAXITER iterations, the load increment is bisected and the analysis is repeated. If
the load increment cannot be bisected (i.e., MAXBIS is reached or MAXBIS = 0) and MAXDIV is
positive, the best attainable solution is computed, and the analysis is continued to the next load
increment. If MAXDIV is negative, the analysis is terminated.
The convergence criteria are defined through the test flags in the CONV field and the tolerances
in the EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW fields. The requested criteria (combination of temperature
error U, load error P, and energy error W) are satisfied upon convergence.
The INTOUT controls the output requests for temperatures, heat fluxes, and heat flows. If the
option ALL or YES is selected, the output requests specified in the Case Control Data are
processed for every computed load increment. If the option is NO, the output requests are
processed only for the last load step of the subcase.
The MAXDIV limits the divergence conditions allowed for each iteration. The divergence rate
is defined by the ratio of energy errors before and after the iteration, i.e.,
Eq. 418
Depending on the divergence rate, the number of diverging iterations NDIV is incremented as
follows:
The solution is assumed to diverge when NDIV >  MAXDIV . If the solution diverges and the
load increment cannot be bisected (i.e., MAXBIS is reached or MAXBIS = 0), the tangential
matrix is updated and the analysis is continued. If the solution diverges again and MAXDIV is
positive, the best attainable solution is computed, and the analysis is continued to the next load
increment. If MAXDIV is negative, the analysis is terminated on the second divergence.
E
i
E
i
∆u
i
{ }
T
R
i
{ }
∆u
i
{ }
T
R
i 1 –
{ }
 =
If E
i
1 or E
i
10
12
– < then NDIV NDIV 2 + = , ≥
If 10
12
E
i
1 – < < – then NDIV NDIV 1 + = ,
Main Index
66
The BFGS update is performed if MAXQN > 0. As many as MAXQN quasiNewton vectors can
be accumulated. The BFGS update with these QN vectors provides a secant modulus in the
search direction. If MAXQN is reached, the tangential matrix is updated, and the accumulated
QN vectors are purged. The accumulation resumes at the next iteration.
The line search is performed if MAXLS > 0. In the line search, the temperature increment is
scaled to minimize the energy error. The line search is not performed if the absolute value of the
relative energy error is less than the tolerance LSTOL or if the number of line searches reaches
MAXLS.
The number of bisections for a load increment is limited to  MAXBIS . Different actions are
taken when the solution diverges, depending on the sign of MAXBIS. If MAXBIS is positive, the
tangential matrix is updated on the first divergence, and the load is bisected on the second
divergence. If MAXBIS is negative, the load is bisected every time the solution diverges until the
limit on bisection is reached. If the solution does not converge after  MAXBIS bisections, the
analysis is continued or terminated depending on the sign of MAXDIV.
Iteration Output
At each iteration, the related output data is printed under the following heading:
The solver also prints diagnostic messages requested by DIAG 50 or 51 in the Executive Control
Section. DIAG 50 only prints subcase status and NLPARM data, while DIAG 51 prints all data
at each iteration. In general, the user should be cautioned against using DIAG 51, because it is
used for debugging purposes and the volume of output is significant. It is recommended that
DIAG 51 be used only for small test problems. The diagnostic output is summarized as follows:
For each entry into NLITER, the following is produced:
ITERATION Iteration count i.
EUI Relative error in terms of temperatures.
EPI Relative error in terms of loads.
EWI Relative error in terms of energy.
LAMBDA Rate of convergence.
DLMAG
Absolute norm of the residual vector .
FACTOR Final value of the line search parameter.
EFIRST Divergence rate, initial error before line search.
EFINAL Error at the end of line search.
NQNV Number of quasiNewton vectors appended.
NLS Number of line searches performed during the iteration.
ENIC Expected number of iterations for convergence.
NDV Number of occurrences of probable divergence during the iteration.
MDV Number of occurrences of bisection conditions during the iteration.
R
l
i
( )
Main Index
67 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
• Subcase status data
• NLPARM data
• Core statistics (ICORE, etc.)
• Problem statistics (gsize, etc.)
• File control blocks
• Input file status
• External load increment for subcase:
• Initial nonlinear force vector: . In thermal analysis, is the heat flow vector
associated with nonlinear conduction, convection (CONV and CONVM), and
boundary radiation (RADBC), i.e.,
• Initial sum of nonlinear forces including follower forces: . In heat transfer, is
the heat flow vector associated with nonlinear conduction, convection, radiation, and
nonlinear thermal loads (QBDY3, QVECT, and QVOL), i.e.,
• Initial temperature vector:
• KFSNL • DELYS:
• Initial residual vector:
For each iteration, the following is produced:
• Temperature increment:
• Initial energy:
• New temperature vector:
• Nonlinear force vector:
• Sum of nonlinear forces including follower forces:
• New temperature vector:
• New residual vector:
• Denominator of EUI
• Denominator of EPI
• Contraction factor:
• Remaining time
For each quasiNewton vector set, the following is produced:
• Condition number:
• QuasiNewton vector:
∆P
l d
{ }
F
g
{ } F
g
{ }
F
g
{ } K
g
[ ]
nl
u
g
{ } N
g
{ }
CONV
N
g
{ }
CONVM
N
g
{ }
RADBC
– – – =
F
l
{ } F
l
{ }
F
l
{ } K
l
[ ]
nl
u
l
{ } ℜ
l
[ ] u
l
T
abs
+ ( )
4
N
l
{ } – + =
u
l
{ }
K
f
s
[ ]
T
∆u
s
{ }
R
l
{ }
∆u
l
{ }
∆u
l
{ }
T
R
l
{ }
u
g
{ }
F
g
{ }
F
l
{ }
u
l
{ }
R
l
{ }
q
λ
2
δ
Main Index
68
• QuasiNewton vector:
• Energy error: z =
For each line search, the following is produced:
• Previous line search factor:
• Previous error:
• New line search factor:
Recommendations
The following are recommendations, designed to aid the user.
• Initial temperature estimate:
For highly nonlinear problems, the iterative solution is sensitive to the initial
temperature guess. It is recommended to overshoot (i.e., make a high initial guess) the
estimated temperature vector in a radiationdominated problem.
• Incremental load:
Incremental loading reduces the imbalance of the equilibrium equation caused by
applied loads. The singlepoint constraints (temperature specified by SPC in the Bulk
Data) and the applied loads (specified by QBDY1, QBDY2, QBDY3, QHBDY, QVECT,
and QVOL) can be incremented. If the solution takes more iterations than the default
values of the maximum number of iterations allowed for convergence (MAXITER), the
increment size should be decreased. For linear problems, no incremental load steps are
required.
• Convergence criteria:
At the beginning stages of a new analysis, it is recommended that the defaults be used
on all options. However, the UPW option may be selected to improve the efficiency of
convergence. For problems with poor convergence, the tolerances EPSU, EPSP, and
EPSW can be increased within the limits of reasonable accuracy.
γ
1
δ
j
T
γ
j

α
k
E
k
α
k 1 +
Main Index
69 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
4.4 Transient Analysis
Basic Equations. The general equation solved in transient analysis has the form
Eq. 419
To take phase change into consideration, the heat diffusion equation is converted into
Eq. 420
where:
The equilibrium equation is solved by Newmark’s method with adaptive time stepping.
Based on this onestep integration scheme, the time derivative of the nodal temperatures at the
(i + 1)th iteration of the time step (n + 1) is expressed as
Eq. 421
where
Eq. 422
and
Eq. 423
Note: In “” on page 69, H represents enthalpy, not the convection heat transfer coefficient.
= a heat capacity matrix
= a heat conduction matrix
= a radiation exchange matrix
= a vector of applied heat loads that are constant or functions of time, but not functions
of temperature
= a vector of nonlinear heat loads that depend on temperature
= an enthalpy vector
=
= a vector of grid point temperature
=
= the absolute temperature scale adjustment required for radiation heat transfer
exchange or radiation boundary conditions when all other temperatures and units are
specified in degF or degC.
B [ ] u
·
{ } K [ ] u { } ℜ { } u T
abs
+ { }
4
P { } N { } + = + +
H
·
{ } K [ ] u { } ℜ [ ] u T
abs
+ { }
4
P { } N { } + = + +
B [ ]
K [ ]
ℜ [ ]
P { }
N { }
H { }
H
·
{ }
dH dt ⁄ { }
u { }
u
·
{ } du dt ⁄ { }
T
abs
u
·
n 1 +
{ }
i 1 +
1
θ∆t
 u
n 1 +
i 1 +
u
n
–
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
1
1
θ
 –
\ .
 
u
·
n
{ } + =
u
n 1 +
{ }
i 1 +
u
n 1 +
{ }
i
∆u
n 1 +
{ }
i
+ =
1
θ
 2 2η – =
Main Index
70
The parameter is specified on the PARAM,NDAMP Bulk Data entry. When = 0, ( = 0.5),
no numerical damping is requested. In this case, Newmark’s method is equivalent to the Crank
Nicolson method.
For the NewtonRaphson scheme, the iteration equation is
Eq. 424
The lefthand side matrices may be approximated by
Eq. 425
where is the tangential stiffness matrix evaluated at the previous time step, i.e.,
Eq. 426
The residual vector is
Eq. 427
At the first iteration, the initial conditions are
Eq. 428
Thus, the initial residual vector can be expressed as
Eq. 429
Transient Analysis Solution Sequence
In MSC.Nastran, transient thermal analysis is solved by Solution Sequence 159. Since
Solution 159 can be used for both structural (default) and thermal analyses, the user must
include the command
ANALYSIS = HEAT
η η θ
1
θ∆t
 B
n 1 +
[ ]
i
K
T
n 1 +
[ ]
i
+
\ .
 
∆u
n 1 +
{ }
i
R
n 1 +
{ }
i
=
1
θ∆t
 B
n 1 +
[ ]
i
K
T
n 1 +
[ ]
i
1
θ∆t
 B
n
[ ] K
T
n
[ ] + ≈ +
K
T
n
[ ]
K
T
n
[ ] K
n
[ ] 4 ℜ
n
[ ] u
n
T
abs
+ { }
3
∂N
n
∂u
n

¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
– + ≈
1
}
i
P
n 1 +
{ } N
n 1 +
{ }
i
+ = K
n 1 +
[ ]
i
u
n 1 +
{ }
i
ℜ
n 1 +
[ ]
i
u
n 1 +
i
T
a
+
¹
´
¦
– –
1
θ
 1 –
\ .
 
P
n
{ } N
n
{ } K
n
[ ] u
n
{ } ℜ
n
[ ] u
n
T
abs
+ { – – + ( +
1
θ∆t
 H
n 1 +
{ }
i
H
n
{ } – ( ) –
u
n 1 +
{ }
0
u
n
{ } K
n 1 +
[ ]
0
, K
n
[ ] ℜ
n 1 +
[ ]
0
, ℜ
n
[ ] and H
n 1 +
[ ]
0
, H
n
{ } = = = =
R
n 1 +
{ }
0
P
n 1 +
{ } N
n 1 +
{ }
0
1
θ
 1 –
\ .
 
P
n
{ } N
n
{ } + ( ) + + =
1
θ
 K
n
[ ] u
n
{ } ℜ
n
[ ] u
n
T
abs
+ { }
4
+ ( ) –
Main Index
71 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
in the Case Control Section of the input data for thermal analysis. Additionally, the initial
conditions (temperatures) and the time integration (solution time, time step size, convergence
criteria) must be specified. The input data file may then appear as
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE
ANALYSIS = HEAT
TSTEPNL = 10
IC = 20
.
.
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,10,....
.
.
TEMP,20,.....
TEMPD,20,....
ENDDATA
The TSTEPNL entry is required to specify the initial time step and the iteration control. Initial
temperatures are specified on TEMP and TEMPD Bulk Data entries and are selected by an “IC”
Case Control command. As the solution progresses, the time steps are adjusted automatically by
an adaptive time stepping scheme, which is described in the following section. It is up to the user
to specify a reasonable initial time step size. A conservative estimate can be determined as
follows.
Let:
Eq. 430
where:
and,
= initial time step size
= smallest element dimension in the model
=
largest thermal diffusivity,
= thermal conductivity,
= density
= specific heat
∆t
o
χ
2
10 α ⋅
 ≅
∆t
o
χ
α α k ρC
p
⁄ =
k
ρ
C
p
Main Index
72
Automatic Time Stepping
MSC.Nastran estimates optimal time stepsize and the stepsize evolves based on the convergence
condition. The time step is doubled as becomes small,
i.e.,
Eq. 431
where is the maximum value of the norms computed from previous time steps and UTOL
is a tolerance on the temperature increment specified on the TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry.
If the temperature increment exceeds the tolerance, a proper time step size can be predicted from
the following calculation where is the inverse of the characteristic time.
Eq. 432
In thermal analysis, is the heat flow vector associated with conduction, convection (CONV
and CONVM), and radiation (RADBC and RADSET), i.e.,
Eq. 433
The next time step is adjusted by
Eq. 434
where r is a scaling factor defined as
Eq. 435
with
Values of MSTEP and RB are specified on the TSTEPNL Bulk Data. If MSTEP is not specified, the
default value is estimated by the stiffness ratio defined as
Eq. 436
f = 0.25 for r < 0.5 • RB
f = 0.5 for 0.5 • RB < r < RB
f = 1.0 for RB < r < 2.0
f = 2.0 for 2.0 < r < 3.0/ RB
f = 4.0 for r > 3.0/ RB
∆t
n 1 +
2∆t
n
= ( ) ∆u
n
{ } u
n
u
n 1 –
– { } =
u
·
n
u
·
max
 UTOL default 0.1 = ( ) <
u
·
max
ω
n
ω
n
∆u
n
{ }
T
K
T
n
[ ] ∆u
n
{ }
∆u
n
{ }
T
∆H
n
{ }
 ~
∆u
n
{ }
T
F
n
F
n 1 –
– { }
∆u
n
{ }
T
∆H
n
{ }
 =
F
n
{ }
K
n
[ ] u
n
{ } ℜ
n
[ ] u
n
T
abs
+ { }
4
N
n
{ }
CONV
N
n
{ }
CONVM
N
n
{ }
R
– – – +
∆t
n 1 +
f r ( )∆t
n
=
r
1
MSTEP

2π
ω
n

\ .
 
1
∆t
n

\ .
 
=
λ
∆u
n
{ }
T
F
n
F
n 1 –
– { }
∆u
n
{ }
T
K
T
n
[ ] ∆u
n
{ }
 =
Main Index
73 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
The default value of MSTEP is determined based on the following criteria:
Eq. 437
and
Eq. 438
The adjusted time step size is limited to the upper and lower bounds, i.e.,
Eq. 439
where DT is the userspecified time increment and MAXR and MAXBIS are userdefined entries
specified on the TSTEPNL entry. The time step is set to the limit if it falls outside the bounds.
When the time marches to a value close to the last time specified by the user, the adaptive
stepping scheme stops for the current subcase. The termination criterion is
Eq. 440
where is the userspecified time duration for the current subcase. The adjusted time
step remains effective across the subcases.
Integration and Iteration Control
The incremental and iterative solution processes are controlled by the parameters specified on
the TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry with the data format and default values described as follows:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TSTEPNL ID NDT DT NO METHOD KSTEP MAXITER CONV
TSTEPNL 1 ADAPT 2 10 PW +TNL1
EPSU EPSP EPSW MAXDIV MAXQN MAXLS FSTRESS
+TNL1 1.0E2 1.0E3 1.0E6 2 10 2 +TNL2
MAXBIS ADJUST MSTEP
RB
MAXR UTOL RTOLB
+TNL2 5 5 0 0.75 16.0 0.1
λ
* 1
λ

if λ 1 < =
λ
*
λ if λ 1 ≥ =
MSTEP 40 for 5 λ
*
≤ 1000 < =
No Adjust for λ
*
1000 ≥
MSTEP 20 for λ
*
5 < =
MIN
DT
2
MAXBIS

DT
MAXR
 ,
\ .
 
∆t MAXR DT ⋅ ≤ ≤
∆t
n
∆t
N
2
 DT NDT ⋅ ≤ +
n 1 =
N
∑
DT NDT ⋅
Main Index
74
In thermal analysis, the options AUTO and TSTEP (specified in METHOD field) are disabled.
The FSTRESS and RTOLB fields are also ignored and should be left blank for heat transfer.
The ID field specifies an integer selected by the Case Control command TSTEPNL. The initial
time increment and the number of time steps are specified by DT and NDT. Since the time
increment is adjusted during the analysis, the actual number of time steps may not be equal to
NDT. However, the total time duration is close to .
For printing and plotting purposes, data recovery is performed at time steps O, NO, 2 • NO, ...,
and the last converged step. The Case Control command OTIME may also be used to control the
output times.
Since both linear and nonlinear problems are solved by the same solution sequence, only the
ADAPT option can be selected in the METHOD field for heat transfer. The ADAPT method
automatically adjusts the incremental time and uses bisection. During the bisection process, the
heat capacitance matrix and the tangential stiffness matrix are updated every KSTEPth
converged bisection solution.
The number of iterations for a time step is limited to MAXITER. If MAXITER is negative, the
analysis is terminated on the second divergence condition during the same time step or when
the solution diverges for five consecutive time steps. If MAXITER is positive, the program
computes the best solution and continues the analysis until divergence occurs again. If the
solution does not converge in MAXITER iterations, the process is considered divergent. Either
bisection or matrix update is activated when the process diverges.
The convergence criteria are defined through the test flags in the CONV field and the tolerances
in the EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW fields. The requested criteria (combination of temperature
error U, load error P, and work error W) are satisfied upon convergence. Note that at least two
iterations are required to check the temperature convergence criterion.
MAXDIV limits the divergence conditions allowed for each iteration. Depending on the
divergence rate, the number of diverging iteration NDIV is incremented as follows:
Eq. 441
where:
The solution is assumed to diverge when NDIV reaches MAXDIV. If the bisection option is used,
the time step is bisected upon divergence. Otherwise, the lefthand side matrices are updated,
and the computation for the current time step is repeated. If NDIV reaches MAXDIV again
within the same time step, the analysis is terminated.
=
=
NDT DT ⋅
NDIV NDIV 1 if 10
12
– E
1
i
< 1 – or E
2
i
1 > ≥ + =
NDIV NDIV 2 if E
1
i
1 or E
1
i
10
12
– < ≥ + =
E
1
i
∆u
i
{ }
T
R
i
{ }
∆u
i
{ } R
i 1 –
{ }

E
2
i
E
p
i
E
p
i 1 –

Main Index
75 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
The BFGS update and the line search process are performed in the same way as in steady state
analysis. Nonzero values of MAXQN and MAXLS activate the quasiNewton update and the
line search process, respectively.
The number of bisections for a load increment is limited to  MAXBIS . Different actions are
taken when the solution diverges, depending on the sign of MAXBIS. If MAXBIS is positive and
the solution does not converge after MAXBIS bisections, the best solution is computed and the
analysis is continued to the next time step. If MAXBIS is negative and the solution does not
converge in  MAXBIS bisections, the analysis is terminated.
ADJUST controls the automatic time stepping in the following ways:
1. If ADJUST = 0, the automatic adjustment is deactivated.
2. If ADJUST > 0, the time increment is continually adjusted for the first few steps until a
good value of is obtained. After this initial adjustment, the time increment is
adjusted every ADJUSTth time step only.
3. If ADJUST is one order greater than NDT, the automatic adjustment is deactivated after
the initial adjustment.
Parameters MSTEP and RB are used to adjust the time increment. The upper and lower bounds
of time step size are defined with MAXR. If the solution approaches steady state (checked by
tolerance UTOL), the time step size is doubled. Detailed computations involving these
parameters are described in the previous section.
Iteration Output
At each iteration or time step, the related output data are printed under the following heading:
Eq. 442
Eq. 443
TIME Cumulative time for the duration of the analysis.
ITER Iteration count for each time step.
DISP Relative error in terms of temperatures defined as
where .
LOAD Relative error in terms of loads defined as
where
and
are internal heat flows and external applied heat loads,
respectively.
∆t
E
u
i
λ
i
u
i
u
i 1 –
–
1 λ
i
– ( )u
max
 =
u
max
max u
1
u
2
… u
n
, , , ( ) and λ
i
E
p
i
E
p
i 1 –
⁄ = =
E
p
i
R
i
max F
n
P
t
n
, ( )
 =
F
n
{ } P
t
n
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
Main Index
76
Eq. 444
Eq. 445
Diagnostic messages are requested by DIAG 50 or 51 in the Executive Control Section. DIAG 50
only prints subcase status, TSTEPNL data, and iteration summary, while DIAG 51 prints all data
at each iteration. In general, the user should be cautioned against using DIAG 51, because it is
used for debugging purposes only and the volume of output is significant. It is recommended
that DIAG 51 be used only for small test problems. The diagnostic output is summarized as
follows:
For each entry into NLTRD2, the following is produced:
• Subcase status data.
In thermal analysis, is a heat flow vector defined in the Automatic Time
Stepping section, and
is the total heat flow associated with conduction, convection, radiation,
and applied loads, i.e.,
where
WORK Relative error in terms of work defined as
LAMDBA(I)
Rate of convergence .
DLMAG
Absolute norm of the residual vector . The absolute convergence is
defined using DLMAG by .
FACTOR Final value of the line search parameter.
EFIRST Divergence rate, initial error before line search.
EFINAL Error at the end of line search.
NQNV Number of quasiNewton vectors appended.
NLS Number of line searches performed during the iteration.
ITR DIV Number of occurrences of divergence detected during the adaptive iteration.
MAT DIV Number of occurrences of bisection conditions during the iteration.
NO. BIS Number of bisections executed for the current time interval.
ADJUST Ratio of time step adjustment relative to DT.
F
n
{ }
P
t
n
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
P
t
n
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
P
n
{ } N
n
{ }
l d
F
n
{ } – + =
N
n
{ }
l d
N
n
{ }
QBDY3
N
n
{ }
QVECT
N
n
{ }
QVOL
+ + =
E
w
i
u
i
u
i 1 –
– { }
T
R { }
i
max u
n
{ }
T
F
n
{ } u
n
{ }
T
, P
t
n
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
\ .

 
 =
λ
i
E
p
i
E
p
i 1 –
⁄ = ( )
R ( )
R 10
12 –
<
Main Index
77 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
• TSTEPNL data.
• Core statistics (ICORE, etc).
• Problem statistics (gsize, etc.).
• File control block.
• Input file status.
For each time step, the following is produced:
• NOLINi vector:
• External load vector:
• Load vector including follower forces and NOLINs:
• Constant portion of residual vector:
• Total internal force:
• Initial residual vector:
For each iteration, the following is produced:
• Initial energy for line search:
• Nonlinear internal force: , which is
Eq. 446
• Temperature vector:
• Nonlinear internal force: , which is
Eq. 447
• Total internal force: , which is
Eq. 448
• NOLINi vector:
• Enthalpy vector:
• Load vector including follower forces and NOLINs: , which is
Eq. 449
where
• Residual vector:
• Iteration summary (convergence factors, line search data, etc.)
For each quasiNewton vector set, the following is produced:
• Condition number:
• quasiNewton vector:
N
d
{ }
P
d
{ }
P
t d
{ }
R'
d
{ }
F
d
{ }
R
d
{ }
∆u
d
{ }
T
R
d
{ }
F
g
{ }
F
g
{ } K
g
{ }
nl
u
g
{ } N
g
{ }
CONV
N
g
{ }
CONVM
N
g
{ }
RADBC
– – – =
u
d
{ }
F
d
{ }
nl
l
K
d
[ ]
nl
u
d
{ } ℜ
d
[ ] u
d
T
abs
+ { }
4
N
d
{ }
CONV
N
d
{ }
CONVM
N
d
{ }
R
– – – + =
F
d
{ }
F
d
{ } K
d
[ ]
l
u
d
{ } F
d
{ }
nl
+ =
N
d
{ }
H
d
{ }
P
t d
{ }
P
t d
{ } P
d
{ } N
d
{ }
l d
F
d
{ } – + =
N
d
{ }
l d
N
d
{ }
QBDY3
N
d
{ }
QVECT
N
d
{ }
QVOL
+ + =
R
d
{ }
λ
2
δ
Main Index
78
• quasiNewton vector:
• Energy error:
For each line search; the following is produced:
• Previous line search factor:
• Previous error:
• New line search factor:
For each converged time step, the following is produced:
• Time derivative of temperature:
For each time step adjustment, the following is produced:
• Magnitude of the time derivative of temperature:
• Magnitude of the new time derivative of temperature:
• General conductance: DENOM1 =
• General enthalpy: DENOM2 =
• Work:
• Inverse of Characteristic time:
• Conductance ratio:
• Number of steps for the period of dominant frequency: MSTEP
• Controlling ratio for time step adjustment: r
Recommendations
The following are recommendations designed to aid the user.
• Time step size
To avoid inaccurate or unstable results, a proper initial time step associated with
spatial mesh size is suggested. The selection criterion is
Eq. 450
where is the time step, n is the modification number of the time scale, is the mesh
size (smallest element dimension), is the material density, is the specific heat, and
k is the thermal conductivity. A suggested value of n is 10. For highly nonlinear
problems, a small step size is recommended.
γ
1
δ
j
T
γ
j
 =
α
k
E
k
α
k 1 +
u
·
d
{ }
u
·
n
{ }
u
·
n 1 +
{ }
∆u
n
{ }
T
K
T
n
[ ] ∆u
n
{ }
∆u
n
{ }
T
∆H
n
{ }
∆u
n
{ }
T
∆F
n
{ }
ω
n
λ
∆t
1
n
 ∆x
2
ρc
p
k
 =
∆t ∆x
ρ c
p
Main Index
79 CHAPTER 4
Method of Solution
• Numerical stability
Numerical stability is controlled by the parameter (specified on the
PARAM,NDAMP Bulk Data entry). For linear problems, = 0 (i.e., no numerical
damping) is adequate, but for nonlinear problems a larger value of may be advisable.
Increasing the value of improves numerical stability; however, the solution accuracy
is reduced. The recommended range of values is from 0.0 to 0.1 (default value is 0.01).
• Initial temperatures and boundary temperatures
The specification of initial temperatures and boundary condition temperatures should
be consistent. For a given point, the initial temperature should be equal to the boundary
condition temperature at t = 0.
• Convergence criteria
At the beginning stages of a new analysis, it is recommended that the defaults be used
on all options. However, the UPW option may be selected to improve the efficiency of
convergence. For nonlinear problems with timevarying boundary conditions, the U
option must be selected, because the large conductance (internally generated) affects
the calculations of the PW error functions. For problems with poor convergence, the
tolerances EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW can be increased within the limits of reasonable
accuracy.
• Fixed time step
If a fixed time step is desired, the adaptive time stepping can be deactivated by setting
ADJUST = 0 on the TSTEPNL Bulk Data.
η
η
η
η
Main Index
80
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
CHAPTER
5
Examples
s Steady State and Transient Analysis Examples
s Example 1a  Linear Conduction
s Example 1b  Nonlinear Free Convection Relationships
s Example 1c  Temperature Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient
s Example 1d  Film Nodes for Free Convection
s Example 1e  Radiation Boundary Condition
s Example 2a  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Free Convection
s Example 2b  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Control Nodes
s Example 2c  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Film Nodes
s Example 3  Axisymmetric Elements and Boundary Conditions
s Example 4a  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Nondirectional Solar Load with
Radiation Boundary Condition
s Example 4b  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Directional Solar Load with
Radiation Boundary Condition
s Example 4c  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Directional Solar Load, Spectral
Surface Behavior
s Example 5a  Single Cavity Enclosure Radiation with Shadowing
s Example 5b  Single Cavity Enclosure Radiation with an Ambient Element
Specification
s Example 5c  Multiple Cavity Enclosure Radiation
Main Index
82
s Example 6  Forced Convection Tube Flow  Constant Property Flow
s Example 7a  Transient Cool Down, Convection Boundary
s Example 7b  Convection, Time Varying Ambient Temperature
s Example 7c  Time Varying Loads
s Example 7d  Time Varying Heat Transfer Coefficient
s Example 7e  Temperature Dependent Free Convection Heat Transfer
Coefficient
s Example 7f  Phase Change
s Example 8  Temperature Boundary Conditions in Transient Analyses
s Example 9a  Diurnal Thermal Cycles
s Example 9b  Diurnal Thermal Cycles
s Example 10  Thermostat Control
s Example 11  Transient Forced Convection
Main Index
83 CHAPTER 5
Examples
5.1 Steady State and Transient Analysis Examples
This chapter provides several examples of steady state and transient analysis. In each case, the
general “demonstrated principals” are listed at the beginning, followed by an example
discussion and concluding with a description of results. Where appropriate, plots and notes are
provided.
Main Index
84
5.2 Example 1a  Linear Conduction
Demonstrated Principles
• Specifying Grid Point Geometry
• Defining Element Connectivity
• Describing Material Properties
• Applying the “Load”
• Accessing the Results
Discussion
This simplest of examples demonstrates the organization of the MSC.Nastran input data file
including the Executive, Case Control, and Bulk Data Sections for a typical heat transfer analysis.
A complete description of all available input data is available in the MSC.Nastran Quick
Reference Guide. The “Executive Control Section” on page 229, “Case Control Commands” on
page 243, and “Bulk Data Entries” on page 275 of this User’s Guide describe the input data most
commonly applied to heat transfer problems.
Figure 51 Example 1a
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 51.
1 2 3 4 5 6
CROD elements
T
6
300 K
o
=
K 204.0 W m K
o
⁄ =
A
cross section
.007854 m
2
=
L 0.5 m =
T
1
1300 K
o
=
Main Index
85 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Results
The abbreviated EX1A.f06 output file is shown in Listing 52. A plot of temperature versus
distance is shown in Figure 52.
Listing 51 Example 1a Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 1a
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
$
CROD,1,5,1,2
CROD,2,5,2,3
CROD,3,5,3,4
CROD,4,5,4,5
CROD,5,5,5,6
PROD,5,15,.0078540
MAT4,15,204.0
$
SPC,10,1,,1300.0
SPC,10,6,,300.0
TEMPD,20,1300.0
$
ENDDATA
Note: SSPC and NLPARM are requested in the Case Control Section.
SPCs are used to set the temperature boundary condition.
Main Index
86
Listing 52 Example 1a Results File
EXAMPLE 1A NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.300000E+03 1.100000E+03 9.000000E+02 7.000000E+02 5.000000E+02 3.000000E+02
EXAMPLE 1A NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 3.204432E+03 .0 .0 .0 .0 3.204432E+03
EXAMPLE 1A NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 ROD 2.000000E+03 4.080000E+05
2 ROD 2.000000E+03 4.080000E+05
3 ROD 2.000000E+03 4.079999E+05
4 ROD 2.000000E+03 4.080000E+05
5 ROD 2.000000E+03 4.080001E+05
Main Index
87 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Figure 52 Temperature versus Distance
Temperature
(°K)
Distance (meters)
(0.0, 1300.)
(0.1, 1100.)
(0.2, 900.)
(0.3, 700.)
(0.4, 500.)
(0.5, 300.)
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1
1300
1400
0
1200
700
600
200
100
0
500
400
300
1000
900
800
1100
0.3
Main Index
88
5.3 Example 1b  Nonlinear Free Convection Relationships
Demonstrated Principles
• Surface Elements and Boundary Conditions
• Free Convection Forms
• Ambient Nodes
Discussion
We introduce the CHBDY surface element for the purpose of applying free convection boundary
conditions along the length of the rod. The Bulk Data entry CONV defines the convection
character and the ambient grid points. To take advantage of empirical relationships for this type
of flow field, a hand calculation is necessary to acquire the appropriate free convection heat
transfer coefficient form. To facilitate this process, we will assume a fluid film temperature of 800
degrees and use the fluid properties for air at that temperature in our calculations. In “Example
1c  Temperature Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient” on page 95 we will account for the
variation of film temperature and corresponding fluid properties along the length of the rod.
Figure 53 Example 1b
Calculating Heat Transfer Coefficients
First we must calculate the input coefficients and convert to MSC.Nastran format. The symbols
used in the description of the analysis are defined herein.
Specific heat
Kinematic viscosity
Thermal conductivity
Prandtl number
Grashof number
Nusselt number
Wall temperature
Ambient temperature
Diameter
1 2 3 4 5 6
q
CONV
h
AVG
T T
∞
– ( )
.25
T T
∞
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅ =
T
1
1300 K
o
=
h
AVG
1.83 W m
2
K
o
⁄ =
T
∞
300 K
o
=
C
p
ν
k
Pr
Gr
Nu
T
w
T
∞
d
Main Index
89 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Assume air properties at 800°K.
for
so
or
Volume coefficient of expansion
(For an ideal gas where T is the absolute temperature of the gas)
Acceleration due to gravity
=
=
=
= .689
=
=
=
and for horizontal cylinders,
(see J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer)
Note: The equation for h is nonlinear.
β
β = 1 T ⁄ ( )
g
C
p
1.098 KJ Kg K
o
⁄
ν
.823 10
4 –
× m
2
s ⁄
k
.058 W m K
o
⁄
Pr
Gr
gβd
3
T
w
T
∞
– ( )
ν
2

9.80
m
s
2

1
800 K
o
 .10 ( )
3
m
3
1000 K
o
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
.823 10
4 –
× ( )
m
4
s
2


1.8 10
6
×
Gr Pr 1.25 10
6
× = ⋅
10
4
Gr Pr 10
9
≤ ⋅ ≤
COEF .53 =
m .25 =
Nu
hd
k
 COEF
gβd
3
ν
2
 Pr T T
∞
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅
\ .
 
m
= =
h
.53 .058 ( )
.10

9.80 1 800 ⁄ ( ) .10 ( )
3
.689 ( )
.823 10
4 –
× ( )
2

¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
.25
T T
∞
– ( )
.25
=
Main Index
90
therefore
This form may be input on the PCONV and MAT4 Bulk Data entries.
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 53.
Listing 53 Example 1b Input Files
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 1b
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CROD,1,5,1,2
CROD,2,5,2,3
CROD,3,5,3,4
CROD,4,5,4,5
CROD,5,5,5,6
PROD,5,15,.0078540
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.83
$
CHBDYP,10,25,LINE,,,1,2,,+CHP10
+CHP10,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,20,25,LINE,,,2,3,,+CHP20
+CHP20,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,30,25,LINE,,,3,4,,+CHP30
h 1.83 T T
∞
– ( )
.25
W m
2
K
o
⁄ ≅
Main Index
91 CHAPTER 5
Examples
+CHP30,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,40,25,LINE,,,4,5,,+CHP40
+CHP40,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,50,25,LINE,,,5,6,,+CHP50
+CHP50,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
PHBDY,25,.3141593
$
CONV,10,35,,,99,99
CONV,20,35,,,99,99
CONV,30,35,,,99,99
CONV,40,35,,,99,99
CONV,50,35,,,99,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.25
$
SPC,10,1,,1300.0
SPC,10,99,,300.0
TEMPD,20,1300.0
$
ENDDATA
Note: COEF is given on the MAT4 entry.
Exponent is given on the PCONV entry.
Listing 53 Example 1b Input Files (continued)
Main Index
92
Results
The abbreviated EX1B.f06 output file is shown in Listing 55. Because this analysis is nonlinear,
note the existence of numerical iteration until satifsfactory values of EPSP and EPSW (NLPARM
entry defaults) have been attained. A plot of temperature versus distance is shown in Figure 54.
Listing 54
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 1b
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CROD,1,5,1,2
CROD,2,5,2,3
CROD,3,5,3,4
CROD,4,5,4,5
CROD,5,5,5,6
PROD,5,15,.0078540
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.83
$
CHBDYP,10,25,LINE,,,1,2,,+CHP10
+CHP10,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,20,25,LINE,,,2,3,,+CHP20
+CHP20,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,30,25,LINE,,,3,4,,+CHP30
+CHP30,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,40,25,LINE,,,4,5,,+CHP40
+CHP40,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
Main Index
93 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Listing 55 Example 1b Results File
N O N  L I N E A R I T E R A T I O N M O D U L E O U T P U T
STIFFNESS UPDATE TIME .49 SECONDS SUBCASE 1
ITERATION TIME .01 SECONDS LOAD FACTOR 1.000
   CONVERGENCE FACTORS       LINE SEARCH DATA   
ITERATION EUI EPI EWI LAMBDA DLMAG FACTOR EFIRST EFINAL NQNV NLS ENIC NDV MDV
1 1.0228E13 9.7786E02 9.9926E17 1.0000E01 2.9097E+02 1.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0 0 0 1
2 1.6730E+01 1.9848E02 3.6841E03 1.5149E01 6.5130E+01 1.0000E+00 2.4629E01 2.4629E01 0 0 0 1
3 2.7737E02 1.3951E04 3.4216E06 7.9258E02 4.3181E01 1.0000E+00 4.7254E03 4.7254E03 1 0 0 0 1
4 2.9687E05 3.3073E06 4.8656E10 5.1482E02 1.0361E02 1.0000E+00 6.0088E03 6.0088E03 2 0 1 0 1
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 6186,
*** SOLUTION HAS CONVERGED ***
SUBID 1 LOADINC 1 LOOPID 1 LOAD STEP 1.000 LOAD FACTOR 1.00000
^^^ DMAP INFORMATION MESSAGE 9005 (NLSCSH)  THE SOLUTION FOR LOOPID= 1 IS SAVED FOR RESTART
EXAMPLE 1B NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 10
EXAMPLE 1B NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.300000E+03 1.225588E+03 1.169515E+03 1.130402E+03 1.107303E+03 1.099665E+03
99 S 3.000000E+02
EXAMPLE 1B NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 1B NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.352363E+03 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
99 S 1.352382E+03
EXAMPLE 1B NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 3.083314E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.083314E+02
20 0.000000E+00 2.824394E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.824394E+02
30 0.000000E+00 2.638446E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.638446E+02
40 0.000000E+00 2.518305E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.518305E+02
50 0.000000E+00 2.459362E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.459362E+02
EXAMPLE 1B NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 ROD 7.441187E+02 1.518002E+05
2 ROD 5.607344E+02 1.143898E+05
3 ROD 3.911244E+02 7.978937E+04
4 ROD 2.309877E+02 4.712150E+04
5 ROD 7.638958E+01 1.558347E+04
Main Index
94
Figure 54 Temperature versus Distance  Example 1b
Temperature
(°K)
Distance (meters)
(0.0, 1300.)
(0.1, 1226.)
(0.2, 1170.)
(0.3, 1130.)
(0.4, 1107.)
(0.5, 1100.)
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1
1300
1400
0
1200
1000
900
800
1100
0.3
Main Index
95 CHAPTER 5
Examples
5.4 Example 1c  Temperature Dependent Heat Transfer
Coefficient
Demonstrated Principles
• Temperature dependent free convection heat transfer coefficient
• Film node
Discussion
This problem introduces the generalized method for representation of temperature dependent
properties (MATT4,TABLEMi). In this case we wish to account for the fluid film temperature
variation along the length of our rod and consider its effect on the local heat transfer coefficient.
By default, the lookup temperature of the film node is the average temperature of the CHBDY
surface and the ambient points. This temperature varies along the length of the rod.
Figure 55 Example 1c
1 2 3 4 5 6
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
400 600 800
(400., 2.27)
(600., 2.03)
(800., 1.83)
W
m
2
K
o

\ .
 
h T ( )
T K
o
( )
T
1
1300 K
o
=
T
∞
300 K
o
=
h T ( )
q
CONV
h T ( ) T T
∞
– ( )
.25
T T
∞
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅ =
Main Index
96
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 56.
Listing 56 Example 1c Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 1c
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CROD,1,5,1,2
CROD,2,5,2,3
CROD,3,5,3,4
CROD,4,5,4,5
CROD,5,5,5,6
PROD,5,15,.0078540
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.0
MATT4,15,,,,40
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM
+TBM,400.0,2.27,600.0,2.03,800.0,1.83,ENDT
$
CHBDYP,10,25,LINE,,,1,2,,+CHP10
+CHP10,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,20,25,LINE,,,2,3,,+CHP20
+CHP20,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,30,25,LINE,,,3,4,,+CHP30
+CHP30,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,40,25,LINE,,,4,5,,+CHP40
+CHP40,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,50,25,LINE,,,5,6,,+CHP50
+CHP50,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
PHBDY,25,.3141593
Main Index
97 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Results
The abbreviated EX1C.f06 output file is shown in Listing 57. A plot of temperature versus
distance is shown in Figure 56.
CONV,10,35,,,99,99
CONV,20,35,,,99,99
CONV,30,35,,,99,99
CONV,40,35,,,99,99
CONV,50,35,,,99,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.25
$
SPC,10,1,,1300.0
SPC,10,99,,300.0
TEMPD,20,1300.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 56 Example 1c Input File (continued)
Note: MAT4/ MATT4/ TABLEM2 supply the temperature dependence of the heat transfer
coefficient.
Main Index
98
Listing 57 Example 1c Results File
EXAMPLE 1C NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.300000E+03 1.223213E+03 1.165064E+03 1.124369E+03 1.100287E+03 1.092315E+03
99 S 3.000000E+02
EXAMPLE 1C NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 1C NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.392052E+03 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
99 S 1.392069E+03
EXAMPLE 1C NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 3.110855E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.110855E+02
20 0.000000E+00 2.892279E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.892279E+02
30 0.000000E+00 2.729202E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.729202E+02
40 0.000000E+00 2.621092E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.621092E+02
50 0.000000E+00 2.567259E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.567259E+02
EXAMPLE 1C NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 ROD 7.678735E+02 1.566462E+05
2 ROD 5.814849E+02 1.186229E+05
3 ROD 4.069491E+02 8.301761E+04
4 ROD 2.408249E+02 4.912827E+04
5 ROD 7.971770E+01 1.626241E+04
Main Index
99 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Figure 56 Temperature versus Distance  Example 1c
Temperature
(°K)
Distance (meters)
(0.0, 1300.)
(0.1, 1223.)
(0.2, 1165.)
(0.3, 1124.)
(0.4, 1100.)
(0.5, 1092.)
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1
1300
1400
0
1200
1000
900
800
1100
0.3
Main Index
100
5.5 Example 1d  Film Nodes for Free Convection
Demonstrated Principles
• Film nodes
• MPCs
Discussion
In the spirit of the previous example, we allow the free convection heat transfer coefficient to be
temperature dependent; however, we extend the notion of the film node to provide a film
temperature lookup value more heavily weighted toward the local surface temperatures than
the ambient temperature. The MPC (multipoint constraint) relationship is available for this
purpose. In this example, the film node temperatures become the average of the two CHBDY
surface grid points each with a weight of 1.0, and the ambient temperature is also given a
weighting of 1.0. Note that the default film node has a temperature which is the average of the
average of the surface temperature and ambient point temperatures.
For example, consider the first CHBDY element:
Default calculation (see Listing 56):
MPC calculation:
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 58.
T
Fi lmNode
T
1
T
2
+
2

T
∞
1
T
∞
2
+
2
 +
\ .

 
2 ⁄ =
T
1
T
2
2T
∞
+ +
4
 =
T
Fi lm Node
T
1
T
2
T
∞
+ +
3
 =
Main Index
101 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Listing 58 Example 1d Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 1d
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
MPC = 30
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,91,,91.0,91.0,91.0
GRID,92,,92.0,92.0,92.0
GRID,93,,93.0,93.0,93.0
GRID,94,,94.0,94.0,94.0
GRID,95,,95.0,95.0,95.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CROD,1,5,1,2
CROD,2,5,2,3
CROD,3,5,3,4
CROD,4,5,4,5
CROD,5,5,5,6
PROD,5,15,.0078540
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.0
MATT4,15,,,,40
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM
+TBM,400.0,2.27,600.0,2.03,800.0,1.83,ENDT
$
CHBDYP,10,25,LINE,,,1,2,,+CHP10
+CHP10,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,20,25,LINE,,,2,3,,+CHP20
+CHP20,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,30,25,LINE,,,3,4,,+CHP30
+CHP30,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,40,25,LINE,,,4,5,,+CHP40
+CHP40,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,50,25,LINE,,,5,6,,+CHP50
+CHP50,,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
PHBDY,25,.3141593
$
CONV,10,35,91,,99,99
CONV,20,35,92,,99,99
CONV,30,35,93,,99,99
CONV,40,35,94,,99,99
CONV,50,35,95,,99,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.25
$
Main Index
102
Results
The abbreviated EX1D.f06 output file is shown in Listing 59. A plot of temperature versus
distance is shown in Figure 57.
MPC,30,91,,3.0,1,,1.0,,+MPC91
+MPC91,,2,,1.0,99,,1.0
MPC,30,92,,3.0,2,,1.0,,+MPC92
+MPC92,,3,,1.0,99,,1.0
MPC,30,93,,3.0,3,,1.0,,+MPC93
+MPC93,,4,,1.0,99,,1.0
MPC,30,94,,3.0,4,,1.0,,+MPC94
+MPC94,,5,,1.0,99,,1.0
MPC,30,95,,3.0,5,,1.0,,+MPC95
+MPC95,,6,,1.0,99,,1.0
$
SPC,10,1,,1300.0
SPC,10,99,,300.0
TEMPD,20,1299.9
$
ENDDATA
Listing 58 Example 1d Input File
Note: MPC must be requested in Case Control.
GRID points 9195 represent the film nodes.
Main Index
103 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Listing 59 Example 1d Results File
EXAMPLE 1D NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.300000E+03 1.228207E+03 1.173591E+03 1.135242E+03 1.112498E+03 1.104961E+03
91 S 9.427355E+02 9.005992E+02 8.696109E+02 8.492465E+02 8.391531E+02
99 S 3.000000E+02
EXAMPLE 1D NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 16
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
91 S .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 1D NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 17
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.297968E+03 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
91 S .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
99 S 1.297969E+03
EXAMPLE 1D NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 18
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 2.847656E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.847656E+02
20 0.000000E+00 2.681580E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.681580E+02
30 0.000000E+00 2.554733E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.554733E+02
40 0.000000E+00 2.469317E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.469317E+02
50 0.000000E+00 2.426400E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.426400E+02
EXAMPLE 1D NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 19
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 ROD 7.179333E+02 1.464584E+05
2 ROD 5.461558E+02 1.114158E+05
3 ROD 3.834945E+02 7.823288E+04
4 ROD 2.274367E+02 4.639708E+04
5 ROD 7.536760E+01 1.537499E+04
Main Index
104
Figure 57 Temperature versus Distance
Temperature
(°K)
(0.0, 1300.)
(0.1, 1228.)
(0.2, 1174.)
(0.3, 1135.)
(0.4, 1112.)
(0.5, 1105.)
1300
1400
1200
1000
900
800
1100
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 0.3
Distance (meters)
Main Index
105 CHAPTER 5
Examples
5.6 Example 1e  Radiation Boundary Condition
Demonstrated Principles
• Radiation Boundary Condition
• Temperature Dependent Emissivity
• Temperature Dependent Conductivity
Discussion
Radiation heat transfer is added along the length of the rod from our previous examples. For this
case we treat the problem as one in which radiant exchange occurs between the rod and an
ambient environment at 300 °K. This can be modeled simply with a radiation boundary
condition specification. Surface emissivity variation with temperature is also accounted for.
Radiation exchange from the end of the rod has been included to illustrate the POINT type
CHBDY element.
Main Index
106
Figure 58 Example 1e  Emissivity as a Function of Temperature
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 510.
T (°K)
Radiation Boundary Condition
1 2 3 4 5 6
(450., .75)
(800., .6)
(1100., .5)
(1500., .39)
(1900., .32)
Radiation
Boundary
Condition
1250 1500 750 500 250 1000 1750 2000
(700., .65)
ε T ( )
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.7
0.6
T
∞
1300 K
o
=
T
1
1300 K
o
=
Main Index
107 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Listing 510 Example 1e Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 1e
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E8
PARAM,TABS,0.0
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CROD,1,5,1,2
CROD,2,5,2,3
CROD,3,5,3,4
CROD,4,5,4,5
CROD,5,5,5,6
PROD,5,15,.0078540
MAT4,15,1.0
MATT4,15,40
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM1
+TBM1,173.16,215.0,273.16,202.0,373.16,206.0,473.16,215.0,+TBM2
+TBM2,573.16,228.0,673.16,249.0,ENDT
$
Main Index
108
Results
The abbreviated EX1E.f06 output file is shown in Listing 511. A plot of temperature versus
distance is shown in Figure 59.
CHBDYP,10,25,LINE,,,1,2,,+CHP10
+CHP10,45,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,20,25,LINE,,,2,3,,+CHP20
+CHP20,45,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,30,25,LINE,,,3,4,,+CHP30
+CHP30,45,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,40,25,LINE,,,4,5,,+CHP40
+CHP40,45,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,50,25,LINE,,,5,6,,+CHP50
+CHP50,45,,,,0.0,1.0,0.0
CHBDYP,60,26,POINT,,,6,,,+CHP60
+CHP60,45,,,,1.0,0.0,0.0
PHBDY,25,.3141593
PHBDY,26,.0078540
$
RADBC,99,1.0,,10,THRU,60,BY,10
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADMT,45,41,41
TABLEM2,41,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM3
+TBM3,450.0,0.75,700.0,0.65,800.0,0.60,1100.0,0.50,+TBM4
+TBM4,1500.0,0.39,1900.0,0.32,ENDT
$
SPC,10,1,,1300.0
SPC,10,99,,300.0
TEMPD,20,1300.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 510 Example 1e Input File (continued)
Note: Parameters SIGMA and TABS are required for any radiation problem.
POINT type CHBDYP for radiation to space from the end of the rod.
Main Index
109 CHAPTER 5
Examples
Listing 511 Example 1e Results File
EXAMPLE 1E SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.300000E+03 1.140835E+03 1.026327E+03 9.476805E+02 8.996806E+02 8.795513E+02
99 S 3.000000E+02
EXAMPLE 1E SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 1E SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 5.468448E+03 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 1E SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.838179E+03 1.838179E+03
20 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.234006E+03 1.234006E+03
30 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 9.011517E+02 9.011517E+02
40 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 7.164666E+02 7.164666E+02
50 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 6.278596E+02 6.278596E+02
60 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.507721E+02 1.507721E+02
EXAMPLE 1E SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
NONLINEAR
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 ROD 1.591654E+03 5.792411E+05
2 ROD 1.145073E+03 3.838152E+05
3 ROD 7.864676E+02 2.476643E+05
4 ROD 4.799988E+02 1.447721E+05
5 ROD 2.012931E+02 5.927191E+04
Main Index
110
Figure 59 Temperature versus Distance
Temperature
(°K)
Distance (meters)
(0.0, 1300.)
(0.1, 1141.)
(0.2, 1026.)
(0.3, 948.)
(0.4, 900.)
(0.5, 880.)
1300
1400
1200
1000
900
800
1100
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 0.3
Main Index
111 CHAPTER
5.7 Example 2a  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Free
Convection
Demonstrated Principles
• Heat Transfer “Loads” and their Descriptions
• TemperatureDependent Loads
• AREA Type CHBDYs
• Film Node
• Free Convection Exponent
Discussion
Examples 2a, 2b, and 2c describe MSC.Nastran heat transfer “loads”. While we tend to think of
boundary conditions in regard to heat transfer, there are several surface conditions which we
define as loads. In an MSC.Nastran sense, a load has the flexibility of being subcase selectable.
This concept, an early carryover from structural analysis, allows the load vector to vary while
the stiffness matrix and its decomposition remain unchanged. This provided an economical
method for evaluating the effects of multiple loading states and superposition of loads. The load
set/ subcase capability is less significant for heat transfer since many boundary conditions have
contributions to the coefficient matrix and are fundamentally nonlinear, eliminating any
potential for superposition of loads. In this series of examples, a single CHEXA element is used
to demonstrate the application of internal heat generation, free convection, control nodes, film
nodes, and various nonlinear effects. The temperature dependence of the heat transfer
coefficient and the heat generation rate illustrated are used.
Example 2a  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Free Convection demonstrates the selection of
the internal heat generation load QVOL. A control node, which is a member of the element grid
point set, has been chosen to multiply the heat generation term as well as be the film node. We
refer to this as local control. The free convection exponent, EXPF, is set to 0.0 (FORM = 0). The
analytic expression for this example is given in Eq. 51.
The basic energy balance can be expressed as:
Main Index
112
Figure 510 Example 2a
Analytic Solution of Example 2a
Eq. 51
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 512.
Control Node
and Film Node
QVOL = 1000.0
Z
X
Y
T
h = T
h(T)
1000.
0
T
1000.
1
2
3
4
8
5
7
6
1000.
0
1000.
+
Temperature Dependent Tabular Inputs
Free Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Internal Volumetric Heat Generation Rate
T
∞
0.0 =
Q
·
T ( )
Q
·
1000. T – =
L U
CN
HGEN VOLUME ⋅ h AREA T T
∞
– ( )
EXPF
T T
∞
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
1000. T 1000. T – ( ) 1.0 T 6.0 T EXPF 0.0 = ( ) ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ( )
lting in, T 994.036 C
o
=
Main Index
113 CHAPTER
Listing 512 Example 2a Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 2a
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.0,,1.0
MATT4,15,,,,40,,41
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM40
+TBM40,0.0,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,ENDT
TABLEM2,41,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM41
+TBM41,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,0.0,ENDT
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
Main Index
114
Results
The abbreviated EX2A.f06 output file is shown in Listing 513.
$
CONV,10,35,1,,99
CONV,20,35,1,,99
CONV,30,35,1,,99
CONV,40,35,1,,99
CONV,50,35,1,,99
CONV,60,35,1,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
QVOL,200,1000.0,1,1
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,100.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 512 Example 2a Input File (continued)
Note: The load, in this case QVOL, must be requested in Case Control.
The temperature dependence on internal heat generation is requested through HGEN
on the MAT4/ MATT4 entries.
Main Index
115 CHAPTER
Listing 513 Example 2a Results File
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 9.940355E+02 9.940355E+02 9.940355E+02 9.940355E+02 9.940355E+02 9.940355E+02
7 S 9.940355E+02 9.940355E+02
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S 5.928640E+06
EXAMPLE 2A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05
20 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05
30 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05
40 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05
50 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05
60 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 9.881066E+05
EXAMPLE 2A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 HEXA 1.136868E13 1.136868E13 5.684342E14 2.319211E11 2.319211E11 1.159606E11
Main Index
116
5.8 Example 2b  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Control Nodes
Demonstrated Principles
• Control Node Applied to Loads and Convection Boundaries
• Free Convection Forms
Discussion of Variation 1
This problem extends Example 2a  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Free Convection in the
implementation of local control for the internal heat generation control node and the film node
for convection. However, the same control node is now used to multiply the convection heat
transfer coefficient. The free convection exponent EXPF remains at 0.0 (FORM = 0).
The basic energy balance can be expressed as:
Eq. 52
The MSC.Nastran input file for Variation 1 is shown in Listing 514.
L U
CN
HGEN VOLUME h AREA T T
∞
– ( ) T T
∞
– ( )
EXPF
U
CN
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1000 T 1000 T – ( ) 1.0 T 6.0 T T
∞
– ( ) T ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ (
lting in, T 333.33 C
o
=
Listing 514 Example 2b1 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE2b1
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
Main Index
117 CHAPTER
Results of Variation 1
The abbreviated EX2B1.f06 output file is shown in Listing 515.
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.0,,1.0
MATT4,15,,,,40,,41
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM40
+TBM40,0.0,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,ENDT
TABLEM2,41,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM41
+TBM41,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,0.0,ENDT
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,1,1,99
CONV,20,35,1,1,99
CONV,30,35,1,1,99
CONV,40,35,1,1,99
CONV,50,35,1,1,99
CONV,60,35,1,1,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
QVOL,200,1000.0,1,1
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,100.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 514 Example 2b1 Input File (continued)
Main Index
118
Discussion of Variation 2
A slight variation of Example 2a  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Free Convection is depicted
in Eq. 53. The free convection relationship has been altered by introducing an EXPF value of 1.0
(FORM = 0).
The basic energy balance can be written as:
Eq. 53
The MSC.Nastran input file for Variation 2 is shown in Listing 516.
Listing 515 Example 2b1 Results File
EXAMPLE 2B1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 3.333339E+02 3.333339E+02 3.333339E+02 3.333339E+02 3.333339E+02 3.333339E+02
7 S 3.333339E+02 3.333339E+02
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2B1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2B1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S 2.222233E+08
EXAMPLE 2B1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07
20 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07
30 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07
40 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07
50 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07
60 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.703721E+07
EXAMPLE 2B1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 HEXA 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.842171E14 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 5.798029E12
QVOL U
CN
HGEN VOLUME h AREA T T
∞
– ( )
EXPF
T T
∞
– ( ) U
CN
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
or, 1000 T 1000 T – ( ) 1.0 T 6.0 T T
∞
– ( ) T T
∞
– ( ) T ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ( )
Resulting in, T 54.02 =
Main Index
119 CHAPTER
Listing 516 Example 2b2 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 2b2
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.0,,1.0
MATT4,15,,,,40,,41
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM40
+TBM40,0.0,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,ENDT
TABLEM2,41,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM41
+TBM41,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,0.0,ENDT
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
Main Index
120
Results of Variation 2
The abbreviated EX2b2.f06 output file is shown in Listing 517.
$
CONV,10,35,1,1,99
CONV,20,35,1,1,99
CONV,30,35,1,1,99
CONV,40,35,1,1,99
CONV,50,35,1,1,99
CONV,60,35,1,1,99
PCONV,35,15,0,1.0
$
QVOL,200,1000.0,1,1
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,100.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 516 Example 2b2 Input File (continued)
Main Index
121 CHAPTER
Listing 517 Example 2b2 Results File
EXAMPLE 2B2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 5.402279E+01 5.402279E+01 5.402279E+01 5.402279E+01 5.402279E+01 5.402279E+01
7 S 5.402279E+01 5.402279E+01
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2B2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2B2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S 5.110450E+07
EXAMPLE 2B2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06
20 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06
30 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06
40 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06
50 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06
60 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.517416E+06
EXAMPLE 2B2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 HEXA 0.000000E+00 5.329071E15 8.881784E15 0.000000E+00 1.087130E12 1.811884E12
Main Index
122
5.9 Example 2c  Nonlinear Internal Heating and Film Nodes
Demonstrated Principles
• Free Convection Film Nodes
• Free Convection Forms
Discussion of Variation 1
This problem provides another example of the use of film nodes. In our previous examples, the
film node was chosen to be an element grid point, meaning that the TABLEM lookup
temperature for the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient was the actual body
temperature. More often than not, the lookup temperature should be some weighted average
of the surface temperature and ambient temperature. In this case, the default value (a blank
entry) for the film node depicts that the average of the CHBDY surface element and the
associated ambient point temperatures provide the TABLEM look up temperature (FORM = 0).
The analytic expression for this case is given in Eq. 54:
The basic energy balance can be expressed as:
Eq. 54
The MSC.Nastran input file for Variation 1 is shown in Listing 518.
L U
CN
HGEN VOLUME h AREA T T
∞
– ( ) U
CN
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1000 T 1000 T – ( )
T
2

\ .
 
= 6.0 T T
∞
– ( ) T ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
\ .
 
lting in, T 434.26 C
o
=
Listing 518 Example 2c1 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 2c1
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
Main Index
123 CHAPTER
Results for Variation 1
The abbreviated EX2C1.f06 output file for Variation 1 is shown in Listing 519.
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.0,,1.0
MATT4,15,,,,40,,41
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM40
+TBM40,0.0,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,ENDT
TABLEM2,41,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM41
+TBM41,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,0.0,ENDT
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,1,99
CONV,20,35,,1,99
CONV,30,35,,1,99
CONV,40,35,,1,99
CONV,50,35,,1,99
CONV,60,35,,1,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
QVOL,200,1000.0,1,1
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,100.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 518 Example 2c1 Input File (continued)
Main Index
124
Discussion of Variation 2
Eq. 55 describes a variation of this problem which has the control nodes removed and the value
of 0.2 introduced for EXPF (FORM = 0). It should be noted that the elimination of the control
nodes alone would have no effect on the analysis since they would have cancelled out of the
prior equations.
The basic energy balance can be expressed as:
Eq. 55
Listing 519 Example 2c1 Results File
EXAMPLE 2C1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 4.342588E+02 4.342588E+02 4.342588E+02 4.342588E+02 4.342588E+02 4.342588E+02
7 S 4.342588E+02 4.342588E+02
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2C1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2C1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S 2.456784E+08
EXAMPLE 2C1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07
20 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07
30 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07
40 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07
50 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07
60 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.094640E+07
EXAMPLE 2C1 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 HEXA 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.842171E14 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 5.798029E12
QVOL HGEN VOLUME h AREA T T
∞
– ( )
.20
T T
∞
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
or, 1000 1000 T – ( )
T
2

\ .
 
= 6.0 T ( )
.20
T ( ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
\ .
 
Resulting in, T 280. C
o
=
Main Index
125 CHAPTER
The MSC.Nastran input file for Variation 2 is shown in Listing 520.
Listing 520 Example 2c2 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 2c2
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,,,1.0,,1.0
MATT4,15,,,,40,,41
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM40
+TBM40,0.0,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,ENDT
TABLEM2,41,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM41
+TBM41,0.0,1000.0,1000.0,0.0,ENDT
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,1,99
CONV,20,35,,1,99
CONV,30,35,,1,99
CONV,40,35,,1,99
Main Index
126
Results of Variation 2
The abbreviated EX2c2.f06 output file for Variation 2 is shown in Listing 521.
CONV,50,35,,1,99
CONV,60,35,,1,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.2
$
QVOL,200,1000.0,1,1
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,100.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 520 Example 2c2 Input File (continued)
Listing 521 Example 2c2 Results File
EXAMPLE 2C2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.791197E+02 2.791197E+02 2.791197E+02 2.791197E+02 2.791197E+02 2.791197E+02
7 S 2.791197E+02 2.791197E+02
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2C2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 2C2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S 2.012106E+08
EXAMPLE 2C2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07
20 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07
30 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07
40 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07
50 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07
60 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.353510E+07
EXAMPLE 2C2 SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 HEXA 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.842171E14 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 5.798029E12
Main Index
127 CHAPTER
5.10 Example 3  Axisymmetric Elements and Boundary
Conditions
Demonstrated Principles
• Axisymmetric Modeling
• Axisymmetric Surface Elements
Discussion
Axisymmetric geometric models may be constructed using the CTRIAX6 element only. For this
element, the grid point locations are input as R,THETA,Z where the axis of symmetry is the Z
axis. The grid points lie in the RZ plane (THETA = 0.0). In this example we demonstrate the
CHBDYE statement for identifying the surface element to which the boundary condition is to be
applied. The surface type is automatically accounted for with this specification. If the CHBDYG
had been used, a TYPE field of REV would be specified. For reference, any applied loads of a
flux nature have a total load applied to the structure that is calculated based on the entire
circumferential surface area.
Figure 511 Example 3
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 522.
6 10
1 2 3 4 5
11 12 13 14 15
C
L
z
K 204.0 W m K
o
⁄ =
T
∞
1300 K
o
=
h 10.0 W m
2
K
o
⁄ =
T 300 K
o
=
R
o
2.0 m =
R
i
1.5 m =
Main Index
128
Listing 522 Example 3 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 3
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,1.500,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,1.625,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,1.750,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,1.875,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,2.000,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,1.500,0.0,0.125
GRID,7,,1.625,0.0,0.125
GRID,8,,1.750,0.0,0.125
GRID,9,,1.875,0.0,0.125
GRID,10,,2.000,0.0,0.125
GRID,11,,1.500,0.0,0.250
GRID,12,,1.625,0.0,0.250
GRID,13,,1.750,0.0,0.250
GRID,14,,1.875,0.0,0.250
GRID,15,,2.000,0.0,0.250
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CTRIAX6,1,15,1,2,3,8,13,7
CTRIAX6,2,15,11,12,13,7,1,6
CTRIAX6,3,15,3,4,5,10,15,9
CTRIAX6,4,15,13,14,15,9,3,8
MAT4,15,204.0,,,10.0
$
CHBDYE,10,3,2
CONV,10,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
SPC,10,99,,1300.0
SPC,10,1,,300.0,6,,300.0
SPC,10,11,,300.0
TEMP,20,99,1300.0
TEMPD,20,300.0
$
ENDDATA
Main Index
129 CHAPTER
Results
The abbreviated EX3.f06 output file is shown in Listing 523.
Listing 523 Example 3 Results File
EXAMPLE 3 NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 3.000000E+02 3.076283E+02 3.147016E+02 3.212750E+02 3.274322E+02 3.000000E+02
7 S 3.076319E+02 3.146983E+02 3.212766E+02 3.274309E+02 3.000000E+02 3.076353E+02
13 S 3.146945E+02 3.212776E+02 3.274268E+02
99 S 1.300000E+03
EXAMPLE 3 NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
13 S .0 .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 3 NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 5.102459E+03 .0 .0 .0 .0 2.036143E+04
7 S .0 .0 .0 .0 5.090287E+03 .0
13 S .0 .0 .0
99 S 3.055418E+04
EXAMPLE 3 NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 3.055420E+04 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.055420E+04
EXAMPLE 3 NOVEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/ 1/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 TRIAX6 5.728976E+01 0.000000E+00 9.583211E03 1.168711E+04 0.000000E+00 1.954975E+00
2 TRIAX6 6.029604E+01 0.000000E+00 1.792225E02 1.230039E+04 0.000000E+00 3.656140E+00
3 TRIAX6 4.979697E+01 0.000000E+00 1.273317E03 1.015858E+04 0.000000E+00 2.597566E01
4 TRIAX6 5.206061E+01 0.000000E+00 4.323532E03 1.062036E+04 0.000000E+00 8.820006E01
Main Index
130
5.11 Example 4a  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Nondirectional
Solar Load with Radiation Boundary Condition
Demonstrated Principles
• Flux Load Application
• Radiation to Space
Discussion
This series of radiative equilibrium problems illustrates various methods of flux load application
and radiation exchange with space. The first example uses a nondirectional heat flux load to
represent a solar source. A simple radiation boundary condition to space represents the loss
mechanism. A blackbody surface is initially presumed.
Figure 512 Example 4a
The basic energy balance can be expressed as:
Eq. 56
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 524.
3
1
5
2
6
7
4
8
T
∞
0.0 R
o
=
ε α 1.0 = =
Q
o
442. Btu hr ft
2
⁄ =
AREA 1.0 ft
2
=
or, 442. Btu hr ⁄ .1714 10
8 –
Btu hr ⁄ ft
2
R
4
o
1.0 ft
2
1.0 1.0 T
e
4
460. ( )
4
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ × =
Resulting in, T
e
281.7 F
o
≅
Q σ A ε F T
e
4
T
∞
4
– ( ) =
Main Index
131 CHAPTER
Listing 524 Example 4a Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 4a
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,459.67
PARAM,SIGMA,.1714E8
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,0.0,0.5
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,0.0,0.5
GRID,8,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CQUAD8,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CQD8
+CQD8,7,8
PSHELL,5,15,0.1
MAT4,15,204.0
$
CHBDYG,10,,AREA8,,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADBC,99,1.0,,10
$
QHBDY,200,AREA8,442.0,,1,2,3,4,+QHBDY
+QHBDY,5,6,7,8
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Main Index
132
Results
The abbreviated EX4a.f06 output file is shown in Listing 525.
Listing 525 Example 4a Results File
EXAMPLE 4A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.819637E+02 2.819637E+02 2.819637E+02 2.819637E+02 2.819637E+02 2.819637E+02
7 S 2.819637E+02 2.819637E+02
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 3.683333E+01 3.683333E+01 3.683334E+01 3.683333E+01 1.473333E+02 1.473333E+02
7 S 1.473333E+02 1.473333E+02
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.420000E+02 4.420000E+02
EXAMPLE 4A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 QUAD8 5.454024E08 7.243386E09 1.112621E05 1.477651E06
Main Index
133 CHAPTER
5.12 Example 4b  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Directional
Solar Load with Radiation Boundary Condition
Demonstrated Principle
• Directional Solar Heat Flux Loads
Discussion
Heat loads from a distant source can be treated in a directional sense with the QVECT Bulk Data
entry. The absorptivity is made available from a RADM Bulk Data entry. In this case, the
radiation boundary condition also uses this absorptivity in its exchange relationship. For
illustrative purposes, the angle of incidence was varied to create a plot of equilibrium
temperature versus .
Figure 513 Example 4b
θ
1
2
3
4
θ
n
ˆ
Q
0
y
x
QVECT
Q
y
Q
x
= θ sin = E1
Q
y
= θ cos = E2
Q
Z
= 0 = E3
)
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¹
vary θ
θ
Q
0
442. Btu hr ⁄ ft
2
=
ε α 1.0 T
∞
, 0.0 F
o
= = =
Q
x
Main Index
134
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 526.
Table 51 Equilibrium Temperature versus Angle of Incident Radiation
θ (deg) T plate (°F) E1 E2
0 282.0 0.0 1.0
10 279.6 0.173648 0.984808
20 272.2 0.342020 0.939693
30 259.8 0.5 0.866025
40 241.8 0.642788 0.766044
50 217.6 0.766044 0.642788
60 185.8 0.866025 0.5
70 144.1 0.939693 0.342020
80 87.2 0.984808 0.173648
90 0.0 1.0 0.0
Note:
= case is illustrated in the input file listing.
Direction Cosines
θ 80°
Main Index
135 CHAPTER
Results
The abbreviated EX4b.f06 output file is shown in Listing 527. Figure 514 describes equilibrium
temperature versus angle of incident radiation.
Listing 526 Example 4b Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 4b
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,459.67
PARAM,SIGMA,.1714E8
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CQUAD4,1,5,1,2,3,4
PSHELL,5,15,0.1
MAT4,15,204.0
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
$
CHBDYG,10,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4
QVECT,200,442.0,,,.984808,.173648,0.0,,+QVCT1
+QVCT1,10
RADBC,99,1.0,,10
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Main Index
136
Listing 527 Example 4b Results File
EXAMPLE 4B SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 8.717700E+01 8.717700E+01 8.717700E+01 8.717700E+01
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4B SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.918810E+01 1.918810E+01 1.918810E+01 1.918810E+01
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4B SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S .0 .0 .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4B SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 7.675242E+01 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 7.675240E+01 2.288818E05
EXAMPLE 4B SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 15
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 QUAD4 7.105427E15 7.105427E15 1.449507E12 1.449507E12
Main Index
137 CHAPTER
Figure 514 Temperature versus Angle of Incident Radiation
Temperature
(°F)
(0.0, 282.0)
(10.0, 279.6)
(20.0, 272.2)
(30.0, 259.8)
(40.0, 241.8)
(50.0, 217.6)
(60.0, 185.8)
(70.0, 144.1)
(80.0, 87.2)
(90.0, 0.0)
θ (degrees)
80 90 60 50
250
300
40
200
100
50
0
150
70 10 20 30 0
Main Index
138
5.13 Example 4c  Plate in Radiative Equilibrium, Directional
Solar Load, Spectral Surface Behavior
Demonstrated Principles
• Solar Loads
• Spectral Radiation Surface Behavior
Discussion
Wavelength dependent surface properties can be incorporated in the radiation boundary
condition or any radiation enclosure. For this simple radiative equilibrium problem, we
demonstrate the principles by using a perfectly selective surfacea surface that behaves like a
perfect blackbody ( = 1.0) below some finite cutoff wavelength and does not participate above
that wavelength. Appendix G describes the mathematics underlying the waveband
approximation to spectral radiation exchange. The RADBND Bulk Data entry supplies the
wavelength break points and the RADM Bulk Data entry provides the band emissivities. The
solar source (QVECT) for the analysis is treated as a blackbody at a temperature of 10400 .
Figure 515 Surface Absorptivity versus Wavelength  Example 4c
ε
°R
1
2
3
4
1.0
Q
e
Q
a
λ λ
c
α
λ
λ ( )
Main Index
139 CHAPTER
Figure 516 Radiative Equilibrium Temperature versus Cutoff Wavelength
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 528.
713
T eq (°R)
(3275)
(2760)
(2410)
(2150)
(1890)
The input listing
corresponds to the
λ
c
= 0.6 µm
condition.
α ε 1.0 0 λ ∞ ≤ ≤ , = =
λ
c
µm ( )
1.4 1.6 1.0 0.8 0.6 1.2 0.4
4000
3000
1000
0
2000
Main Index
140
Listing 528 Example 4c Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 4c
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPCF = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
LOAD = 200
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,.1714E8
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CQUAD4,1,5,1,2,3,4
PSHELL,5,15,0.1
MAT4,15,204.0
$
CHBDYG,10,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0,0.0
RADBND,3,25898.0,0.6,0.6
RADBC,99,1.0,,10
$
QVECT,200,442.0,10400.0,,0.0,0.0,1.0,0,+QVECT
+QVECT,10
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,2500.0
$
ENDDATA
Note: Only one RADBND may exist in any analysis.
Main Index
141 CHAPTER
Results
The abbreviated EX4c.f06 output file is shown in Listing 529.
Listing 529 Example 4c Results File
EXAMPLE 4C DECEMBER 10, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 9/93 PAGE 8
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 3.275139E+03 3.275139E+03 3.275139E+03 3.275139E+03
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4C DECEMBER 10, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 9/93 PAGE 9
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 4.153704E+01 4.153704E+01 4.153704E+01 4.153704E+01
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4C DECEMBER 10, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 9/93 PAGE 10
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S .0 .0 .0 .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 4C DECEMBER 10, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 9/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 1.661482E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.661480E+02 1.678467E04
EXAMPLE 4C DECEMBER 10, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 9/93 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
EXAMPLE 4C DECEMBER 10, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 9/93 PAGE 13
EXAMPLE 4C DECEMBER 10, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 9/93 PAGE 14
Main Index
142
5.14 Example 5a  Single Cavity Enclosure Radiation with
Shadowing
Demonstrated Principles
• Surface to Surface Radiation Exchange
• Radiation Cavity / Enclosure
• View Factor Calculation with Shadowing
Discussion
A simple geometry composed of four plate elements is used to demonstrate radiant exchange in
an enclosure. Every surface to participate in the exchange is identified with an CHBDYi Bulk
Data entry surface element, in this case providing five surface elements. Only one RADCAV
Bulk Data entry is defined in this example indicating that a single enclosure cavity has been
defined. For this configuration, shadowing must be considered when calculating the view
factors.
The statements essential to the radiation solution process are described as follows:
RADSET Requests which cavities are to be included as radiation enclosures for
the thermal analysis.
RADLST / RADMTX Provides the view factors required for generation of the radiation
matrix. Since they are not provided by the user in this example, they are
determined by use of the view module in the course of the analysis.
RADCAV Provides various global controls used for the calculation of view factors
within the identified cavity.
VIEW Provides the connection between a surface element and its assigned
cavity and requests that view factors be calculated among those surface
elements assigned to the same cavity.
VIEW3D Requests that the view factors be calculated using the adaptive gaussian
integration view factor routine as opposed to the default finite
difference calculation.
CHBDYi Describes the surface elements used in the enclosure, and associates
them with the VIEW and RADM Bulk Data entries.
RADM Provides the radiative surface properties (emissivity), in this case a
constant value of 1.0.
Main Index
143 CHAPTER
Figure 517 Example 5a.
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 530.
2000 °K
z
y
x
1
2
3
4
5
8
7
6
9
12
11
10
13
14 15
16
~
Listing 530 Example 5a Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 5a
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E08
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,4,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,5,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
Main Index
144
GRID,8,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,9,,2.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,10,,2.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,11,,2.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,12,,2.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,13,,1.5,0.0,1.0
GRID,14,,1.5,1.0,1.0
GRID,15,,0.5,1.0,1.0
GRID,16,,0.5,0.0,1.0
$
CQUAD4,1,5,1,2,3,4
CQUAD4,2,5,5,6,7,8
CQUAD4,3,5,9,12,11,10
CQUAD4,4,5,13,14,15,16
PSHELL,5,15,0.1
MAT4,15,204.0
$
CHBDYG,10,,AREA4,55,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4
CHBDYG,20,,AREA4,56,,45,,,+CHG20
+CHG20,5,6,7,8
CHBDYG,21,,AREA4,56,,45,,,+CHG21
+CHG21,5,8,7,6
CHBDYG,30,,AREA4,55,,45,,,+CHG30
+CHG30,9,12,11,10
CHBDYG,40,,AREA4,57,,45,,,+CHG40
+CHG40,13,14,15,16
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADSET,65
RADCAV,65,,YES
VIEW,55,65,KBSHD
VIEW,56,65,KSHD
VIEW,57,65,NONE
VIEW3D,65,,,,,,,3
$
SPC,10,1,,2000.0,2,,2000.0
SPC,10,3,,2000.0,4,,2000.0
TEMPD,20,2000.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 530 Example 5a Input File (continued)
Note: The CQUAD4 element with an EID = 2 has two surface elements associated with it.
The direction of the CHBDYG surface normals are important for any radiation
exchange.
Shadowing flags can save vast amounts of computation time for large problems.
Main Index
145 CHAPTER
Results
The abbreviated EX5a.f06 output file is shown in Listing 531. Included in this output is a
tabulation of the view factor calculation. The details of this output are discussed in“View Factor
Calculation Methods” on page 409. Because the view factor summations are less than 1.0, there
is considerable energy lost to space. The punch file of radiation view factors is shown in
Listing 532.
Main Index
146
Listing 531 Example 5a Results File
EXAMPLE 5A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 6
*** VIEW FACTOR MODULE *** OUTPUT DATA *** CAVITY ID = 65 ***
ELEMENT TO ELEMENT VIEW FACTORS C* PARTIAL
SURFI SURFJ AREAI AI*FIJ FIJ ERROR SHADING ERROR SCALE
10  21 1.0000E+00 1.97750E01 1.97750E01 2.5529E01 NO YES
10 30 1.0000E+00 6.84135E02 6.84135E02 7.3895E02 NO NO
10 40 1.0000E+00 4.08547E02 4.08547E02 6.6278E02 NO NO
10 30 1.0000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0/256
10 21 1.0000E+00 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
10 SUM OF 2.40799E01 2.40799E01
20  30 1.0000E+00 1.97750E01 1.97750E01 2.5529E01 NO YES
20 40 1.0000E+00 1.31841E02 1.31841E02 2.0133E02 YES NO
20 40 1.0000E+00 1.16713E02 1.16713E02
20 30 1.0000E+00 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
20 SUM OF 2.11616E01 2.11616E01
21  40 1.0000E+00 1.31841E02 1.31841E02 2.0133E02 YES NO
21 40 1.0000E+00 1.16713E02 1.16713E02
21 SUM OF 2.11616E01 2.11616E01
30  40 1.0000E+00 4.08547E02 4.08547E02 6.6278E02 NO NO
30 SUM OF 2.40799E01 2.40799E01
40 SUM OF 1.05052E01 1.05052E01
^^^ DMAP INFORMATION MESSAGE 9048 (NLSCSH)  LINEAR ELEMENTS ARE CONNECTED TO THE ANALYSIS SET (ASET).
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4534, 5 ELEMENTS HAVE A TOTAL VIEW FACTOR (FA/A) LESS THAN 0.99, ENERGY MAY BE LOST TO SPACE.
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 1.132229E+03 1.132229E+03
7 S 1.132229E+03 1.132229E+03 7.732046E+02 7.732046E+02 7.732046E+02 7.732046E+02
13 S 9.168311E+02 9.168311E+02 9.168311E+02 9.168311E+02
EXAMPLE 5A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 24
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
13 S .0 .0 .0 .0
EXAMPLE 5A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 25
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.217105E+05 2.217105E+05 2.217105E+05 2.217105E+05 .0 .0
13 S .0 .0 .0 .0
EXAMPLE 5A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 26
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.868420E+05 8.868420E+05
20 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.865096E+04 8.865096E+04
21 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.865097E+04 8.865097E+04
30 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.671037E04 3.671037E04
40 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 6.051011E03 6.051011E03
EXAMPLE 5A SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 27
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
2 QUAD4 2.273737E13 1.136868E13 4.638423E11 2.319211E11
3 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
4 QUAD4 5.684342E14 0.000000E+00 1.159606E11 0.000000E+00
Main Index
147 CHAPTER
Listing 532 Example 5a Punch File (EX5a.pch)
RADMTX 65 1 0.0 0.0 .199944 0.0 .040855
RADMTX 65 2 0.0 0.0 .199944 .011671
RADMTX 65 3 0.0 0.0 .011671
RADMTX 65 4 0.0 .040855
RADMTX 65 5 0.0
RADLST 65 1 10 20 21 30 40
Main Index
148
5.15 Example 5b  Single Cavity Enclosure Radiation with an
Ambient Element Specification
Demonstrated Principles
• Enclosure Radiation Exchange
• Radiation Ambient Element
Discussion
Example 5a involves four plates in radiative equilibrium which exhibit considerable energy loss
to space since there is no defined exchange mechanism between them and their environment.
This undefined environment behaves mathematically the same as blackbody space at a
temperature of absolute zero. A convenient method for introducing an ambient environment
into the problem capitalizes on the use of the ambient element as selected on the RADCAV Bulk
Data entry. For any group of surface elements we wish to consider as a partial enclosure, we can
define a single unique ambient element which will mathematically complete the enclosure. This
surface element must have a specified temperature boundary condition.
The ambient element concept relies on our knowledge that the individual elemental view factors
must add up to a value of 1.0 for a complete enclosure. Any elemental surfaces which have a
view factor sum of less than 1.0 as determined by the view module will automatically have the
remainder assigned to the ambient element. This environmental view factor is not listed in the
view module output, but is identified in the generated RADLST/ RADMTX punch files. If the
ambient element is to model space, it should be made appropriately large relative to the other
elements in the enclosure. As discussed in “View Factor Calculation Methods” on page 409,
whenever an ambient element is requested for a cavity, a symmetric conservative radiation
matrix is generated.
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 533.
Main Index
149 CHAPTER
Listing 533 Example 5b Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 5b
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E08
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,4,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,5,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,9,,2.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,10,,2.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,11,,2.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,12,,2.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,13,,1.5,0.0,1.0
GRID,14,,1.5,1.0,1.0
GRID,15,,0.5,1.0,1.0
GRID,16,,0.5,0.0,1.0
GRID,17,,0.0,100.0,0.0
GRID,18,,100.0,100.0,0.0
GRID,19,,100.0,100.0,100.0
GRID,20,,0.0,100.0,100.0
$
CQUAD4,1,5,1,2,3,4
CQUAD4,2,5,5,6,7,8
CQUAD4,3,5,9,12,11,10
CQUAD4,4,5,13,14,15,16
CQUAD4,5,5,17,18,19,20
PSHELL,5,15,0.1
MAT4,15,204.0
$
Main Index
150
Results
The abbreviated EX5b.f06 output file is shown in Listing 534. Note that the ambient element
does not appear in the view factor .f06 output. The punch file is shown in Listing 535, and does
include the ambient element.
CHBDYG,10,,AREA4,55,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4
CHBDYG,20,,AREA4,56,,45,,,+CHG20
+CHG20,5,6,7,8
CHBDYG,21,,AREA4,56,,45,,,+CHG21
+CHG21,5,8,7,6
CHBDYG,30,,AREA4,55,,45,,,+CHG30
+CHG30,9,12,11,10
CHBDYG,40,,AREA4,57,,45,,,+CHG40
+CHG40,13,14,15,16
CHBDYG,99,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG99
+CHG99,17,18,19,20
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADSET,65
RADCAV,65,99,YES
VIEW,55,65,KBSHD
VIEW,56,65,KSHD
VIEW,57,65,NONE
VIEW3D,65,,,,,,,3
$
SPC,10,1,,2000.0,2,,2000.0
SPC,10,3,,2000.0,4,,2000.0
SPC,10,17,,500.0,18,,500.0
SPC,10,19,,500.0,20,,500.0
TEMPD,20,2000.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 533 Example 5b Input File (continued)
Note: Ambient element EID = 99 is defined with a large area to represent space.
Main Index
151 CHAPTER
Listing 534 Example 5b Results File
EXAMPLE 5B FEBRUARY 14, 1994 MSC/NASTRAN 2/ 4/94 PAGE 7
*** VIEW FACTOR MODULE *** OUTPUT DATA *** CAVITY ID = 65 ***
ELEMENT TO ELEMENT VIEW FACTORS C* PARTIAL
SURFI SURFJ AREAI AI*FIJ FIJ ERROR SHADING ERROR SCALE
10  21 1.0000E+00 1.97750E01 1.97750E01 2.5529E01 NO YES
10 30 1.0000E+00 6.84135E02 6.84135E02 7.3895E02 NO NO
10 40 1.0000E+00 4.08547E02 4.08547E02 6.6278E02 NO NO
10 30 1.0000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0/256
10 21 1.0000E+00 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
10 SUM OF 2.40799E01 2.40799E01
20  30 1.0000E+00 1.97750E01 1.97750E01 2.5529E01 NO YES
20 40 1.0000E+00 1.31841E02 1.31841E02 2.0133E02 YES NO
20 40 1.0000E+00 1.16713E02 1.16713E02
20 30 1.0000E+00 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
20 SUM OF 2.11616E01 2.11616E01
21  40 1.0000E+00 1.31841E02 1.31841E02 2.0133E02 YES NO
21 40 1.0000E+00 1.16713E02 1.16713E02
21 SUM OF 2.11616E01 2.11616E01
30  40 1.0000E+00 4.08547E02 4.08547E02 6.6278E02 NO NO
30 SUM OF 2.40799E01 2.40799E01
40 SUM OF 1.05052E01 1.05052E01
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 1.141790E+03 1.141790E+03
7 S 1.141790E+03 1.141790E+03 8.044109E+02 8.044109E+02 8.044109E+02 8.044109E+02
13 S 9.356503E+02 9.356503E+02 9.356503E+02 9.356503E+02 5.000000E+02 5.000000E+02
19 S 5.000000E+02 5.000000E+02
EXAMPLE 5B FEBRUARY 14, 1994 MSC/NASTRAN 2/ 4/94 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
19 S .0 .0
EXAMPLE 5B FEBRUARY 14, 1994 MSC/NASTRAN 2/ 4/94 PAGE 12
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.208269E+05 2.208269E+05 2.208269E+05 2.208269E+05 .0 .0
13 S .0 .0 .0 .0 2.208285E+05 2.208285E+05
19 S 2.208285E+05 2.208285E+05
EXAMPLE 5B FEBRUARY 14, 1994 MSC/NASTRAN 2/ 4/94 PAGE 13
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.833074E+05 8.833074E+05
20 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.830299E+04 8.830299E+04
21 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.830428E+04 8.830428E+04
30 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 7.230929E+00 7.230929E+00
40 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 5.820249E01 5.820249E01
99 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.833141E+05 8.833141E+05
EXAMPLE 5B FEBRUARY 14, 1994 MSC/NASTRAN 2/ 4/94 PAGE 14
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
2 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
3 QUAD4 5.684342E14 1.136868E13 1.159606E11 2.319211E11
4 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
5 QUAD4 5.204170E17 5.204170E17 1.061651E14 1.061651E14
Main Index
152
Listing 535 Example 5b Punch File (EX5b.pch)
RADMTX 65 1 0.0 0.0 .199944 0.0 .040855 .759201
RADMTX 65 2 0.0 0.0 .199944 .011671 .788384
RADMTX 65 3 0.0 0.0 .011671 .788384
RADMTX 65 4 0.0 .040855 .759201
RADMTX 65 5 0.0 .894948
RADMTX 65 6 0.0
RADLST 65 4 10 20 21 30 40 99
Main Index
153 CHAPTER
5.16 Example 5c  Multiple Cavity Enclosure Radiation
Demonstrated Principles
• Multiple Radiation Cavities
• View Factor Calculation for Multiple Cavities
Discussion
The concept of multiple radiation cavities is investigated in this problem. The primary use of this
capability is to reduce the computation time associated with the identification and calculation of
view factors when total separation exists between regions. If defined as a single enclosure, this
problem would involve third body shadowing calculations, the most laborious and expensive
part of any view factor calculation. As a three cavity problem, these calculations are eliminated.
RADSET selects three cavities and the RADCAV entry for SHADOW is denoted as NO
indicating that no third body shadowing calculations are to be performed within the individual
cavities. The fields on the VIEW Bulk Data entry concerning SHADE are ignored when
SHADOW is set to NO on the RADCAV Bulk Data entry. When hundreds or thousands of
surfaces are involved, the savings may be crucial to the economics of the total analysis.
Figure 518 Example 5c
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 536.
2000 °K
z
y
x
1
2
3
4
5
8
7
6
9
12
11
10
13
14
15
16
~
Main Index
154
Listing 536 Example 5c Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 5c
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E08
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,4,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,5,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,9,,2.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,10,,2.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,11,,2.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,12,,2.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,13,,3.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,14,,3.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,15,,3.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,16,,3.0,0.0,1.0
$
CQUAD4,1,5,1,2,3,4
CQUAD4,2,5,5,6,7,8
CQUAD4,3,5,9,10,11,12
CQUAD4,4,5,13,16,15,14
PSHELL,5,15,0.1
MAT4,15,204.0
$
Main Index
155 CHAPTER
Results
The abbreviated EX5c.f06 output file is shown in Listing 537. The punch file is shown in
Listing 538. Note the multiple cavity information.
CHBDYG,10,,AREA4,55,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4
CHBDYG,20,,AREA4,55,,45,,,+CHG20
+CHG20,5,8,7,6
CHBDYG,30,,AREA4,56,,45,,,+CHG30
+CHG30,5,6,7,8
CHBDYG,40,,AREA4,56,,45,,,+CHG40
+CHG40,9,12,11,10
CHBDYG,50,,AREA4,57,,45,,,+CHG50
+CHG50,9,10,11,12
CHBDYG,60,,AREA4,57,,45,,,+CHG60
+CHG60,13,16,15,14
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADSET,65,75,85
RADCAV,65,,NO
RADCAV,75,,NO
RADCAV,85,,NO
VIEW,55,65
VIEW,56,75
VIEW,57,85
VIEW3D,65,,,,,,,3
VIEW3D,75,,,,,,,3
VIEW3D,85,,,,,,,3
$
SPC,10,1,,2000.0,2,,2000.0
SPC,10,3,,2000.0,4,,2000.0
TEMPD,20,2000.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 536 Example 5c Input File (continued)
Main Index
156
Listing 537 Example 5c Results File
EXAMPLE 5C SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 7
*** VIEW FACTOR MODULE *** OUTPUT DATA *** CAVITY ID = 65 ***
ELEMENT TO ELEMENT VIEW FACTORS C* PARTIAL
SURFI SURFJ AREAI AI*FIJ FIJ ERROR SHADING ERROR SCALE
10  20 1.0000E+00 1.97750E01 1.97750E01 2.5529E01 NO YES
10 20 1.0000E+00 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
10 SUM OF 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
20 SUM OF 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
EXAMPLE 5C SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 8
*** VIEW FACTOR MODULE *** OUTPUT DATA *** CAVITY ID = 75 ***
ELEMENT TO ELEMENT VIEW FACTORS C* PARTIAL
SURFI SURFJ AREAI AI*FIJ FIJ ERROR SHADING ERROR SCALE
30  40 1.0000E+00 1.97750E01 1.97750E01 2.5529E01 NO YES
30 40 1.0000E+00 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
30 SUM OF 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
40 SUM OF 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
EXAMPLE 5C SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 9
*** VIEW FACTOR MODULE *** OUTPUT DATA *** CAVITY ID = 85 ***
ELEMENT TO ELEMENT VIEW FACTORS C* PARTIAL
SURFI SURFJ AREAI AI*FIJ FIJ ERROR SHADING ERROR SCALE
50  60 1.0000E+00 1.97750E01 1.97750E01 2.5529E01 NO YES
50 60 1.0000E+00 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
50 SUM OF 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
60 SUM OF 1.99944E01 1.99944E01
^^^ DMAP INFORMATION MESSAGE 9048 (NLSCSH)  LINEAR ELEMENTS ARE CONNECTED TO THE ANALYSIS SET (ASET).
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4534, 2 ELEMENTS HAVE A TOTAL VIEW FACTOR (FA/A) LESS THAN 0.99, ENERGY MAY BE LOST TO SPACE.
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 2.000000E+03 1.127462E+03 1.127462E+03
7 S 1.127462E+03 1.127462E+03 6.371667E+02 6.371667E+02 6.371667E+02 6.371667E+02
13 S 4.260592E+02 4.260592E+02 4.260592E+02 4.260592E+02
EXAMPLE 5C SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 43
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
13 S .0 .0 .0 .0
EXAMPLE 5C SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 44
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 2.221976E+05 2.221976E+05 2.221976E+05 2.221976E+05 .0 .0
13 S .0 .0 .0 .0
EXAMPLE 5C SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 45
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.887904E+05 8.887904E+05
20 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.974247E+04 8.974247E+04
30 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.974246E+04 8.974246E+04
40 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.970887E+03 8.970887E+03
50 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 8.970880E+03 8.970880E+03
60 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 5.437486E04 5.437486E04
Main Index
157 CHAPTER
EXAMPLE 5C SEPTEMBER 24, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/23/93 PAGE 46
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F I N I T E E L E M E N T T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T S A N D F L U X E S
ELEMENTID ELTYPE XGRADIENT YGRADIENT ZGRADIENT XFLUX YFLUX ZFLUX
1 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
2 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
3 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
4 QUAD4 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
Listing 537 Example 5c Results File (continued)
Listing 538 Example 5c Punch File
RADMTX 65 1 0.0 .199944
RADMTX 65 2 0.0
RADLST 65 1 10 20
RADMTX 75 1 0.0 .199944
RADMTX 75 2 0.0
RADLST 75 1 30 40
RADMTX 85 1 0.0 .199944
RADMTX 85 2 0.0
RADLST 85 1 50 60
Main Index
158
5.17 Example 6  Forced Convection Tube Flow  Constant
Property Flow
Demonstrated Principles
• Forced Convection Fluid Elements
• Control Node for Mass Flow Rate
• Relationships for Tube Flows
• Film Nodes for Forced Convection
• Constant Heat Transfer Coefficient
Discussion
A forced convection element (CONVM) is available for the simulation of 1D fluid flow
networks. The formulation takes into account conduction and convection in the streamwise
direction as well as the convection resistance between the fluid and the adjoining structure or
environment. The mass flow rate is specified by the value of the control node (CNTMDOT).
Fluid properties which vary with temperature are available through the MAT4/ MATT4 entries
for conductivity, specific heat, and dynamic viscosity. In this example, the forced convection
heat transfer coefficient has been input at a constant value of 200. . For tube flow, the
heat transfer coefficient could easily have been calculated internally based on the relationships
available through the CONVM/ PCONVM.
It may be desirable to consider a fluid flow problem in an evolutionary sense. This allows for a
much broader interpretation of load incrementing through time stepping, as well introducing
the stabilizing effects associated with heat capacitance and implicit time integration. The steady
state solution may then be likened to the long time solution from a transient analysis.
Figure 519 Example 6
Working Fluid = Water:
K =
=
=
m
2
⁄ °C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
5.0 m
T
in
100 C
o
=
T
w
0 C
o
=
T
exit
.065 W m C
o
⁄
C
p
4200. J kg C
o
⁄
ρρ
1000. kg m
3
⁄
Main Index
159 CHAPTER
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 539.
=
h =
=
DIA = .05 m
µ
1.0 10
3 –
kg m ⁄ sec ×
200. W m
2
C
o
= constant ⁄
m
·
0.1 kg sec ⁄
Listing 539 Example 6 Input File, = .10
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 153
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 6
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
TEMP(INIT) = 20
NLPARM = 100
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,100
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,1.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,2.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,2.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,7,,3.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,8,,3.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,9,,4.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,10,,4.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,11,,5.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,50,,50.0,50.0,50.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
m
·
Main Index
160
Results
The abbreviated EX6.f06 output file is shown in Listing 540. A plot of temperature versus mass
flow rate is shown in Figure 520.
CHBDYP,10,25,FTUBE,,,1,2
CHBDYP,20,25,FTUBE,,,2,3
CHBDYP,30,25,FTUBE,,,3,4
CHBDYP,40,25,FTUBE,,,4,5
CHBDYP,50,25,FTUBE,,,5,6
CHBDYP,60,25,FTUBE,,,6,7
CHBDYP,70,25,FTUBE,,,7,8
CHBDYP,80,25,FTUBE,,,8,9
CHBDYP,90,25,FTUBE,,,9,10
CHBDYP,100,25,FTUBE,,,10,11
PHBDY,25,,0.05,0.05
$
CONVM,10,95,,50,99
CONVM,20,95,,50,99
CONVM,30,95,,50,99
CONVM,40,95,,50,99
CONVM,50,95,,50,99
CONVM,60,95,,50,99
CONVM,70,95,,50,99
CONVM,80,95,,50,99
CONVM,90,95,,50,99
CONVM,100,95,,50,99
$
PCONVM,95,15,0,1,200.0,0.0,0.0,0.0
MAT4,15,0.65,4200.0,1000.0,,1.0E03
$
SPC,10,1,,100.0
SPC,10,99,,0.0
SPC,10,50,,0.1
$
TEMP,20,1,100.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMP,20,50,0.1
TEMPD,20,100.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 539 Example 6 Input File, = .10 (continued) m
·
Note:
The input file reflects a mass flow rate of = .10 kg/ sec. m
·
Main Index
161 CHAPTER
Listing 540 Example 6 Results File, = .10 Case
EXAMPLE 6 DECEMBER 3, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 2/93 PAGE 8
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
1 S 1.000000E+02 9.639484E+01 9.291965E+01 8.956976E+01 8.634062E+01 8.322791E+01
7 S 8.022740E+01 7.733508E+01 7.454703E+01 7.185950E+01 6.926884E+01
50 S 1.000000E01
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 6 DECEMBER 3, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 2/93 PAGE 9
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
L O A D V E C T O R
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
50 S .0
99 S .0
EXAMPLE 6 DECEMBER 3, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 2/93 PAGE 10
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E  P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
7 S .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
50 S .0
99 S 1.338981E+04
EXAMPLE 6 DECEMBER 3, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 2/93 PAGE 11
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
H E A T F L O W I N T O H B D Y E L E M E N T S (CHBDY)
ELEMENTID APPLIEDLOAD FREECONVECTION FORCEDCONVECTION RADIATION TOTAL
10 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.542481E+03 0.000000E+00 1.542481E+03
20 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.486873E+03 0.000000E+00 1.486873E+03
30 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.433269E+03 0.000000E+00 1.433269E+03
40 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.381597E+03 0.000000E+00 1.381597E+03
50 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.331788E+03 0.000000E+00 1.331788E+03
60 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.283775E+03 0.000000E+00 1.283775E+03
70 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.237493E+03 0.000000E+00 1.237493E+03
80 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.192879E+03 0.000000E+00 1.192879E+03
90 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.149874E+03 0.000000E+00 1.149874E+03
100 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.108419E+03 0.000000E+00 1.108419E+03
m
·
Main Index
162
Figure 520 Exit Temperature versus Mass Flow Rate
(0.05, 48.6)
(0.10, 69.3)
(0.15, 78.2)
(0.20, 83.1)
(0.25, 86.2)
(0.30, 88.3)
(0.35, 90.0)
(0.40, 91.1)
(0.45, 92.1)
(0.50, 92.8)
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 0.3
m
·
kg sec ⁄ ( )
T
exit
C
o
( )
90
100
80
60
50
40
70
Main Index
163 CHAPTER
5.18 Example 7a  Transient Cool Down, Convection Boundary
Demonstrated Principles
• Transient Solution Sequence
• Transient Solution Control
• Transient Temperature Specification
• Initial Conditions
• Transient Plots
Discussion
This example demonstrates the simplest of transient thermal responses. A single CHEXA
element at an initial temperature of 1000. is exposed to a free convection environment
maintained at 0.0 °C. Transient analysis involves the timedependent storage as well as transport
of thermal energy. Therefore, relative to steady state analysis, the heat capacitance (storage)
must be accounted for as well as any time dependencies on loads and boundary conditions. A
starting point or initial condition is required and a solution duration is specified.
There are various techniques available for specifying temperature boundary conditions or
ambient node temperatures for transient analyses. If the temperature is to remain constant
throughout the analysis, an SPC should be used to set the boundary condition just as in steady
state analysis.
Fundamental MSC.Nastran XY plotting is demonstrated here for simple transient plots.
“Interface and File Communication” on page 31 discusses this capability in more detail.
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 541.
°C
Listing 541 Example 7a Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 7A
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
Main Index
164
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,100,1500,100.0,1
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0,10.0
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,,99
CONV,20,35,,,99
CONV,30,35,,,99
CONV,40,35,,,99
CONV,50,35,,,99
CONV,60,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,1000.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 541 Example 7a Input File (continued)
Note: TSTEPNL is identified in the Case Control Section, as are the NASPLT plot requests.
TSTEPNL provides the solution timing information in the Bulk Data Section.
MAT4 must have density and specific heat field data for transient analysis.
Main Index
165 CHAPTER
Results
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of temperature versus time is shown in Figure 521. These plots were
examined by typing NASPLT EX7A.plt subsequent to the analysis. The EX7A.f06 file has large
lists of temperature vs. time for each grid point, and have been omitted here for the sake of
brevity.
Figure 521 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
166
5.19 Example 7b  Convection, Time Varying Ambient
Temperature
Demonstrated Principles
• General Time Varying Methodology
• TimeVarying Ambient Temperature
Discussion
The simple CHEXA element example is extended to illustrate convection with a timevarying
ambient temperature. In this case, the nonconstant temperature disallows the use of an SPC for
this specification. The transient form of the TEMPBC Bulk Data entry is demonstrated. The
TEMPBC is treated with the same methodology as a thermal load for transient analysis (see
Figure 522 for input schematic). Note the Case Control request for DLOAD = SID.
Figure 522 Example 7b
y
x
z
1
2 3
4
5
6 7
8
h 100. W m
2
C
o
⁄ =
T
∞
f t ( ) =
T
el ement
t 0.0 = ( ) 0 C
o
=
(see Figure 523)
Main Index
167 CHAPTER
Figure 523 versus Time
Figure 524 General Transient Load Methodology
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 542.
1000. 2000. 3000.
500.
T
∞
t ( )
t sec ( )
T
∞
CASE CONTROL
DLOAD = SID
TLOADn SID DAREA DELAY TYPE TID
“LOAD” SID
DELAY SID P1 C1 T1 P2 C2 T2
TABLEDi
ID X1
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4
Main Index
168
Listing 542 Example 7b Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 7B
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = AMBIENT TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = AMBIENT TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/99(T1)
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,100,7500,1.0,1,,,,U
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0,100.0
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
Main Index
169 CHAPTER
Results
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of ambient temperature versus time is shown in Figure 525. An
MSC.Nastran XY plot of grid 1 temperature versus time is shown in Figure 526.
$
CONV,10,35,,,99
CONV,20,35,,,99
CONV,30,35,,,99
CONV,40,35,,,99
CONV,50,35,,,99
CONV,60,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
TLOAD1,200,300,,,400
TABLED1,400,,,,,,,,+TBD1
+TBD1,0.0,0.0,1000.0,1.0,2000.0,1.0,3000.0,0.0,+TBD2
+TBD2,4000.0,0.0,ENDT
TEMPBC,300,TRAN,500.0,99
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 542 Example 7b Input File (continued)
Main Index
170
Figure 525 Ambient Temperature versus Time
Main Index
171 CHAPTER
Figure 526 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
172
5.20 Example 7c  Time Varying Loads
Demonstrated Principle
• TimeVarying Loads
Discussion
As discussed in regard to steady state analysis (see “Thermal Loads” on page 12), internal heat
generation is considered to be a thermal load and as such is Case Control selectable. In a
transient analysis, this allows for using the time loading scheme illustrated in the previous
example (see Figure 524). This methodology can be applied to any SID selectable load.
Figure 527 Example 7c
Figure 528 Internal Heat Generation Rate versus Time
y
x
z
1
2 3
4
5
6 7
8
T
∞
0. C
o
=
T
el ement
t 0.0 = ( ) 0. C
o
=
h 100. W m
2
C
o
⁄ =
HGEN 10. =
1000. 2000.
10,000.
QVOL
W m
3
⁄ ( )
t sec ( )
Main Index
173 CHAPTER
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 543.
Listing 543 Example 7c Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 7C
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,100,5900,1.0,1
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
Main Index
174
Results
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of grid 1 temperature versus time is shown in Figure 529.
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0,100.0,,10.0
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,,99
CONV,20,35,,,99
CONV,30,35,,,99
CONV,40,35,,,99
CONV,50,35,,,99
CONV,60,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
TLOAD1,200,300,,,400
TABLED1,400,,,,,,,,+TBD1
+TBD1,0.0,0.0,1000.0,1.0,2000.0,0.0,3000.0,0.0,+TBD2
+TBD2,ENDT
QVOL,300,10000.0,,1
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 543 Example 7c Input File (continued)
Note: HGEN field on MAT4 is 10.0. It multiplies the QVOL entry.
Main Index
175 CHAPTER
Figure 529 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
176
5.21 Example 7d  Time Varying Heat Transfer Coefficient
Demonstrated Principles
• Specification of Multiple Loads.
Discussion
There are a number of boundary conditions which are not defined as loads (“Thermal
Capabilities” on page 5) and as a result cannot be made time varying in the same fashion as
described in “Example 7c  Time Varying Loads” on page 172. In most cases, transient behavior
can be introduced into the boundary condition (convection or radiation) through specification
of a control node. The control node can be a simple free grid point, an SPOINT, or an active
degree of freedom in the system. In this example we drive the value of the control node explicitly
via TEMPBC and related TLOAD1 and TABLED1 statements to produce a free convection heat
transfer coefficient which varies with time. We also demonstrate the use of the DLOAD
statement in the Bulk Data for applying more than one TLOADi in the same analysis.
Figure 530 Example 7d
y
x
z
1
2 3
4
5
6
7
8
Q
0
6. (50,000.) W ⋅ =
T
el ement
t 0.0 = ( ) 0. C
o
=
h 1000. W m
2
C
o
⁄ =
T
∞
0. C
o
(grid point 99) =
Main Index
177 CHAPTER
Figure 531 Control Node (Grid Point 50) for Free Convection Boundary Condition
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 544.
1000. 2000.
1.0
0.0
t sec ( )
U
CN
Listing 544 Example 7d Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 7D
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 50 TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = GRID 50 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/50(T1)
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,100,490,10.0,,,,U
$
Main Index
178
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,50,,50.0,50.0,50.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0,1000.0
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,50,99
CONV,20,35,,50,99
CONV,30,35,,50,99
CONV,40,35,,50,99
CONV,50,35,,50,99
CONV,60,35,,50,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
DLOAD,200,1.0,1.0,300,1.0,400
$
TLOAD1,300,500,,,700
TABLED1,700,,,,,,,,+TBD700
+TBD700,0.0,1.0,1000.0,1.0,ENDT
QBDY3,500,50000.0,,10,THRU,60,BY,10
$
TLOAD1,400,600,,,800
TABLED1,800,,,,,,,,+TBD800
+TBD800,0.0,0.0,1000.0,0.0,2000.0,1.0,5000.0,1.0,+TBD801
+TBD801,ENDT
TEMPBC,600,TRAN,1.0,50
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 544 Example 7d Input File (continued)
Main Index
179 CHAPTER
Results
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of the control node, grid point 50, temperature versus time is shown
in Figure 532. An MSC.Nastran XY plot of grid point 1 temperature versus time is shown in
Figure 533.
Figure 532 Grid 50 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
180
Figure 533 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time Examples
Main Index
181 CHAPTER
5.22 Example 7e  Temperature Dependent Free Convection
Heat Transfer Coefficient
Demonstrated Principle
• Temperature Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient
Discussion
The extension of the temperature dependent free convection heat transfer coefficient is
demonstrated for transient analysis. The user specification of this capability is treated the same
as in the steady state case, but due to the evolutionary nature of the transient problem, the heat
transfer coefficient becomes an implicit function of time.
Figure 534 Example 7e
y
x
z
1
2 3
4
5
6
7
8
Q
0
6. (50,000.) W ⋅ =
T
el ement
t 0.0 = ( ) 0. C
o
=
h T ( ) 0. W m
2
C
o
⁄ =
h T ( ) 10. T 1000. W m
2
C
o
⁄ – ⋅ =
T 100. C
o
≤ ( )
100. C
o
T 200. C
o
> > ( )
T 200. C
o
≥ ( ) h T ( ) 1000. W m
2
C
o
⁄ =
T
∞
0. C
o
(grid point 99) =
Main Index
182
Figure 535 h(T) versus T
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 545.
100. 200.
1000.
W m
2
C
o
⁄ ( )
h T ( )
T C
o
( )
Listing 545 Example 7e Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 7E
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 300
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/ 1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,100,390,10.0,1
$
Main Index
183 CHAPTER
Results
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of grid 1 temperature versus time is shown in Figure 536.
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,3,,1.0,0.0,1.0
GRID,4,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,7,,1.0,1.0,1.0
GRID,8,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0,1000.0
MATT4,15,,,,40
TABLEM2,40,0.0,,,,,,,+TBM1
+TBM1,0.0,0.0,100.0,0.0,200.0,1.0,1000.0,1.0,+TBM2
+TBM2,ENDT
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,,99
CONV,20,35,,,99
CONV,30,35,,,99
CONV,40,35,,,99
CONV,50,35,,,99
CONV,60,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
TLOAD1,300,500,,,700
TABLED1,700,,,,,,,,+TBD700
+TBD700,0.0,1.0,1000.0,1.0,ENDT
QBDY3,500,50000.0,,10,THRU,60,BY,10
$
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 545 Example 7e Input File (continued)
Main Index
184
Figure 536 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
185 CHAPTER
5.23 Example 7f  Phase Change
Demonstrated Principles
• Capturing Latent Heat Effects
• Appropriate Convergence Criteria
• Numerical Damping
• Consistent Units
• Enthalpy
Discussion
Latent heat effects can be captured by specifying phase change material properties on the MAT4
Bulk Data entry. The information required includes the latent heat and a finite temperature
range over which the phase change is to occur. For pure materials, this range can physically be
quite small whereas for solutions or alloys the range can be quite large. Numerically, the wider
the range the better. It is not recommended to make this range less than a few degrees.
Phase change involves the release of considerable amounts of heat while the temperature
remains nearly constant. In this case, it is beneficial to consider the change in enthalpy as
illustrated in Figure 537. The calculated enthalpies are available with the use of DIAG 50, 51,
or by the Case Control command ENTHALPY = ALL. The solution sequence for the phase
change specific algorithm is discussed in “Method of Solution” on page 57.
In the cases that follow, the first variation illustrates freezing. Variation 2 demonstrates melting.
Main Index
186
Figure 537 Example 7f1 Variation 1
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 546.
y
x
z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
T
∞
20. – C
o
=
T
element
t 0 = ( ) 20. – C
o
=
h 100. W m
2
C
o
⁄ =
QLAT 3.34 10
5
J kg ⁄ × =
TCH 0. C
o
=
TDELTA 2. C
o
=
Listing 546 Example 7f1 Variation 1 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
DIAG 51
TIME 10
CEND
$
TITLE = EXAMPLE 7F1
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
ENTHALPY = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
Main Index
187 CHAPTER
YTITLE = TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,NDAMP,0.1
TSTEPNL,100,980,5.0,1,,,,,+TSTP
+TSTP,0.001
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,0.1
GRID,3,,0.1,0.0,0.1
GRID,4,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,0.1,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,0.1,0.1
GRID,7,,0.1,0.1,0.1
GRID,8,,0.1,0.1,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,0.569,4217.0,1000.0,100.0,,,0.0,+MAT4
+MAT4,0.0,2.0,3.34E5
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,,99
CONV,20,35,,,99
CONV,30,35,,,99
CONV,40,35,,,99
CONV,50,35,,,99
CONV,60,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
SPC,10,99,,20.0
TEMP,20,99,20.0
TEMPD,20,20.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 546 Example 7f1 Variation 1 Input File (continued)
Note: NDAMP provides numerical damping for the phase change phenomenon.
Main Index
188
Results  Variation 1
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of temperature versus time is shown in Figure 538.
Figure 538 Temperature versus Time (Variation 1)
Main Index
189 CHAPTER
Variation 2
Figure 539 Example 7f2 Variation 2
y
x
z
1
2 3
4
5
6
7
8
T
∞
20. – C
o
=
T
element
t 0 = ( ) 20. C
o
=
h 100. W m
2
C
o
⁄ =
QLAT 3.34 10
5
J kg ⁄ × =
TCH 0. C
o
=
TDELTA 2. C
o
=
Main Index
190
Listing 547 Example 7f2 Variation 2 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
DIAG 51
TIME 10
CEND
$
TITLE = EXAMPLE 7F2
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
Main Index
191 CHAPTER
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,NDAMP,0.1
TSTEPNL,100,980,5.0,1,,,,U,+TSTP
+TSTP,0.001
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.0,0.0,0.1
GRID,3,,0.1,0.0,0.1
GRID,4,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.0,0.1,0.0
GRID,6,,0.0,0.1,0.1
GRID,7,,0.1,0.1,0.1
GRID,8,,0.1,0.1,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHEXA,1,5,1,2,3,4,5,6,+CHX1
+CHX1,7,8
PSOLID,5,15
MAT4,15,1.88,2040.0,920.0,100.0,,,0.0,+MAT4
+MAT4,0.0,2.0,3.34E5
$
CHBDYE,10,1,1
CHBDYE,20,1,2
CHBDYE,30,1,3
CHBDYE,40,1,4
CHBDYE,50,1,5
CHBDYE,60,1,6
$
CONV,10,35,,,99
CONV,20,35,,,99
CONV,30,35,,,99
CONV,40,35,,,99
CONV,50,35,,,99
CONV,60,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
SPC,10,99,,20.0
TEMP,20,99,20.0
TEMPD,20,20.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 547 Example 7f2 Variation 2 Input File (continued)
Main Index
192
Results  Variation 2
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of temperature versus time is shown in Figure 540.
Figure 540 Temperature versus Time (Variation 2)
Main Index
193 CHAPTER
5.24 Example 8  Temperature Boundary Conditions in
Transient Analyses
Demonstrated Principles
• SPC for Transient Analysis
• TEMPBC for Transient Analysis
• SLOAD and CELASi for Transient Analysis
• Nodal Lumped Heat Capacitance
• POINT type CHBDYi
Discussion
A radiative equilibrium analysis is used to demonstrate different methods of temperature
specification for transient analyses. As discussed in “Thermal Capabilities” on page 5, an SPC
is used when the temperature is to remain constant for the duration of the analysis (Variation 1).
When the temperature is to vary during the analysis, two methods are available. A TEMPBC of
type TRAN, or a CELASi with applied SLOAD can be used.
When a TEMPBC is implemented (Variation 2), a thermal conductivity matrix element of
magnitude of 1.0E+10 is imposed internally in the form of a penalty method. For many problems
this will be adequate for maintaining the grid point temperature while facilitating convergence.
In some cases, however, the size of this conductance can be overwhelming with respect to those
of the rest of the model. In such a case, it may be difficult to satisfy the convergence criteria due
to the dominance of one matrix conductance value.
The alternative approach to this problem is to use a CELASi element and specify a consistent
conductance or stiffness value for the model in question (Variation 3). The QHBDY power level
can be adjusted to maintain the desired temperature.
Figure 541 Example 8
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 548.
RADBC T
∞
300 C
o
=
T
el ement
t 0 = ( ) 0 K
o
=
Q
0
10,000. W m
2
⁄ =
QHBDY
Area 1.0 m
2
=
ε α 1.0 = =
m 10. kg =
Main Index
194
Listing 548 Example 8a Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 8A
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE KELVIN
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E8
TSTEPNL,100,1500,1.0,1
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CDAMP5,1,5,1
PDAMP5,5,15,10.0
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0
$
CHBDYP,10,25,POINT,,,1,,,+CHP10
+CHP10,45,,,,1.0,0.0,0.0
PHBDY,25,1.0
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADBC,99,1.0,,10
$
TLOAD1,200,300,,,400
TABLED1,400,,,,,,,,+TBD400
+TBD400,0.0,1.0,1000.0,1.0,ENDT
QHBDY,300,POINT,10000.0,1.0,1
$
SPC,10,99,,300.0
TEMP,20,99,300.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Main Index
195 CHAPTER
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of grid 1 temperature versus time is shown in Figure 542.
Figure 542 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
196
Listing 549 Example 8b Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 8B
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 700
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE KELVIN
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E8
TSTEPNL,100,1500,1.0,1,,,,U
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CDAMP5,1,5,1
PDAMP5,5,15,10.0
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0
$
CHBDYP,10,25,POINT,,,1,,,+CHP10
+CHP10,45,,,,1.0,0.0,0.0
PHBDY,25,1.0
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADBC,99,1.0,,10
$
DLOAD,700,1.0,1.0,200,1.0,500
TABLED1,400,,,,,,,,+TBD400
+TBD400,0.0,1.0,1000.0,1.0,ENDT
$
TLOAD1,200,300,,,400
QHBDY,300,POINT,10000.0,1.0,1
$
TLOAD1,500,600,,,400
TEMPBC,600,TRAN,300.0,99
TEMP,20,99,300.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Main Index
197 CHAPTER
Figure 543 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
198
Listing 550 Example 8c Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 8C
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 700
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE KELVIN
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E8
TSTEPNL,100,1500,1.0,1
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CDAMP5,1,5,1
PDAMP5,5,15,10.0
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0
$
CHBDYP,10,25,POINT,,,1,,,+CHP10
+CHP10,45,,,,1.0,0.0,0.0
PHBDY,25,1.0
$
RADM,45,1.0,1.0
RADBC,99,1.0,,10
$
DLOAD,700,1.0,1.0,200,1.0,500
TABLED1,400,,,,,,,,+TBD400
+TBD400,0.0,1.0,1000.0,1.0,ENDT
$
TLOAD1,200,300,,,400
QHBDY,300,POINT,10000.0,1.0,1
$
TLOAD1,500,600,,,400
CELAS2,999,1.0E5,99,1
SLOAD,600,99,300.0E5
TEMP,20,99,300.0
TEMPD,20,0.0
$
ENDDATA
Main Index
199 CHAPTER
Figure 544 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
200
5.25 Example 9a  Diurnal Thermal Cycles
Demonstrated Principles
• Diurnal Heat Loads
• Multiple Loads / Multiple CHBDYi’s
Discussion
A diurnal heat transfer analysis is performed over a two day cycle. The TLOAD2 Bulk Data
entry is used to specify the load function (QVECT) in convenient sinusoidal format. A radiation
boundary condition provides the heat loss mechanism to an ambient environment at 300
degrees. In Example 9a, the absorptivity and emissivity are constant and the loading is a
function of time based on the load magnitude which reflects a projected area without treating
the QVECT as a vector load.
In “Example 9b  Diurnal Thermal Cycles” on page 204, the variation of absorptivity with
respect to time is added to the problem.
Figure 545 Example 9a
• Sun heating aluminum plate over two days.
• Solar flux = 750 W/m
2
at noon. Plate is one square meter and 0.005 meters thick.
Ambient temperature is 300°K.
Day 1 Day 2
Sunrise t = 0 t = 86,400
Noon t = 21,600 t = 108,000
Sunset t = 43,200 t = 129,600
Night 43,200 < t < 86,400 129,600 < t < 172,800
21,600
1
2
3
4
QVECT
RADBC
0
750.0
43,200 64,800 86,400 108,000 129,600 151,200 172,800
Period T = 24 hr = 86,400 sec
Day 1 Day 2
Frequency F =
1
T
 = 1.157 10
5 –
Hz ×
W m
2
⁄ ( )
QVECT
t sec ( )
Main Index
201 CHAPTER
• Solar flux magnitude varies sinusoidally with an amplitude of 750.0 , and a
period of one day.
• CHBDYG 10 absorbs heat for the first day.
• CHBDYG 20 absorbs heat for the second day.
• CHBDYG 30 radiates heat both days.
Example 9b only:
• Grid 50 is the control node on the QVECT entry. It is forced to vary with time as
absorptivity (a) varies with the “attack” angle of the sun, i.e.,
• So the value of equals at any given time (or any given angle:
).
• Absorptivity is set to 1.0 on the RADM card so that will act as absorptivity:
• Ex9a. 
• Ex9b. 
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 551.
W m
2
⁄
α θ ( ) U
CNTRLND
θ t
U
CNTRLND
α θ ( )
180
o
12 hr 43,200 sec, 1
o
240 sec → = →
U
CNTRLND
P
i n
α e t ( ) n ⋅ [ ] F t τ – ( ) Q
0
U
CNTRLND
=
{
1.0 α θ ( )
P
i n
α e t ( ) n ⋅ [ ] F t τ – ( ) Q
0
α θ ( ) =
α constant =
α f θ ( ) =
Main Index
202
.
Listing 551 Example 9a Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 9A
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
FLUX = ALL
SPCF = ALL
OLOAD = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = PLATE TEMPERATURE KELVIN
TCURVE = PLATE TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E08
TSTEPNL,100,1728,100.0,1,,,,U
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CQUAD4,1,5,1,2,3,4
PSHELL,5,15,0.005
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0
$
CHBDYG,10,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4
CHBDYG,20,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG20
+CHG20,1,2,3,4
CHBDYG,30,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG30
+CHG30,4,3,2,1
$
DLOAD,200,1.0,1.0,300,1.0,400
TLOAD2,300,1000,,,0.0,43200.0,1.157E5,90.0,+TLD300
+TLD300,0.0,0.0
TLOAD2,400,2000,,,86400.0,129600.0,1.157E5,90.0,+TLD400
+TLD400,0.0,0.0
QVECT,1000,750.0,,,0.0,0.0,1.0,,+QVCT1
+QVCT1,10
Main Index
203 CHAPTER
Results
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of plate temperature versus time is shown in Figure 546.
Figure 546 Plate Temperature versus Time
QVECT,2000,750.0,,,0.0,0.0,1.0,,+QVCT2
+QVCT2,20
RADM,45,0.6,0.6
RADBC,99,1.0,,30
$
SPC,10,99,,300.0
TEMPD,20,300.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 551 Example 9a Input File (continued)
Main Index
204
5.26 Example 9b  Diurnal Thermal Cycles
Demonstrated Principles
• Diurnal Heat Loads
• Multiple Loads / Multiple CHBDYi’s
• Control Node for Directionally Dependent Radiation Surface Properties
Discussion
The loading pattern is substantially unchanged from the previous example; however, the effect
of variation of surface absorptivity with angle of incident solar radiation is taken into account
implicitly via the control node. As in the previous example, we provide independent CHBDY
surface elements for each load and boundary condition specification resulting in a total of three
surface elements attached to the conduction element. This can sometimes be convenient for
postprocessing if we wish to isolate applied load segments of the same type.
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 552.
Main Index
205 CHAPTER
Listing 552 Example 9b Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 9B
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
TSTEPNL = 100
DLOAD = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = PLATE TEMPERATURE KELVIN
TCURVE = PLATE TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDSTHETA, DEGREES  (1.0 DEGREE = 240.0 SECONDS)
YTITLE = ABSORPTIVITY
TCURVE = ABSORPTIVITY VS. TIMETHETA
XYPLOT TEMP/50(T1)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDSTHETA, DEGREES  (1.0 DEGREE = 240.0 SECONDS)
YTITLE = ABSORPTIVITY
TCURVE = ABSORPTIVITY VS. TIMETHETA
XMIN = 21600.0
XMAX = 43200.0
XYPLOT TEMP/50(T1)
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,TABS,0.0
PARAM,SIGMA,5.67E08
TSTEPNL,100,1728,100.0,1,,,,U
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,1.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.0,1.0,0.0
GRID,50,,50.0,50.0,50.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CQUAD4,1,5,1,2,3,4
PSHELL,5,15,0.005
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0
RADM,45,1.0,0.6
RADM,46,0.6,0.6
$
Main Index
206
Results
MSC.Nastran XY plots showing absorptivity versus time are shown in Figure 547 and
Figure 548. Plate temperature versus time is shown in Figure 549.
CHBDYG,10,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG10
+CHG10,1,2,3,4
CHBDYG,20,,AREA4,,,45,,,+CHG20
+CHG20,1,2,3,4
CHBDYG,30,,AREA4,,,46,,,+CHG30
+CHG30,4,3,2,1
DLOAD,200,1.0,1.0,300,1.0,400,1.0,500
TLOAD2,300,1000,,,0.0,43200.0,1.157E5,90.0,+TLD300
+TLD300,0.0,0.0
TLOAD2,400,2000,,,86400.0,129600.0,1.157E5,90.0,+TLD400
+TLD400,0.0,0.0
QVECT,1000,750.0,,,0.0,0.0,1.0,50,+QVCT1
+QVCT1,10
QVECT,2000,750.0,,,0.0,0.0,1.0,50,+QVCT2
+QVCT2,20
RADBC,99,1.0,,30
$
TLOAD1,500,600,,,700
TABLED1,700,,,,,,,,+TBD1
+TBD1,0.0,0.15,2400.0,0.50,3600.0,0.60,4800.0,0.55,+TBD2
+TBD2,7200.0,0.375,9600.0,0.275,12000.0,0.225,14400.0,0.20,+TBD3
+TBD3,16800.0,0.16,19200.0,0.15,21600.0,0.15,24000.0,0.15,+TBD4
+TBD4,26400.0,0.16,28800.0,0.20,31200.0,0.225,33600.0,0.275,+TBD5
+TBD5,36000.0,0.375,38400.0,0.55,39600.0,0.60,40800.0,0.50,+TBD6
+TBD6,43200.0,0.15,86400.0,0.15,88800.0,0.50,90000.0,0.60,+TBD7
+TBD7,91200.0,0.55,93600.0,0.375,96000.0,0.275,98400.0,0.225,+TBD8
+TBD8,100800.0,0.20,103200.0,0.16,105600.0,0.15,108000.0,0.15,+TBD9
+TBD9,110400.0,0.15,112800.0,0.16,115200.0,0.20,117600.0,0.225,+TBD10
+TBD10,120000.0,0.275,122400.0,0.375,124800.0,0.55,126000.0,0.60,+TBD11
+TBD11,127200.0,0.50,129600.0,0.15,172800.0,0.15,ENDT
TEMPBC,600,TRAN,1.0,50
$
SPC,10,99,,300.0
TEMP,20,50,0.15
TEMPD,20,300.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 552 Example 9b Input File (continued)
Main Index
207 CHAPTER
Figure 547 versus
QVECT
θ
n
ˆ
α θ ( ) θ
Main Index
208
Figure 548
α θ ( ) = 0.15
= constant
α θ ( ) = 0.15
= constant
Noon Sunset Sunrise
Noon Sunset Sunrise
α θ ( ) versus θ
Main Index
209 CHAPTER
Figure 549 Plate Temperature versus Time
Main Index
210
5.27 Example 10  Thermostat Control
Demonstrated Principles
• NOLINs and MPCs
• Thermostat Control
Discussion
A thermostat is modeled using the nonlinear transient forcing function (NOLIN3) as a heating
element and the multipoint constraint (MPC) relationship to provide the thermostat
connections. One end of the rod element structure has the thermocouple attached to it and is
subject to convective losses to the ambient environment at 0.0 . When this local temperature
drops below 100.0 , heating occurs at the opposite end of the structure at a constant rate.
Conversely, when the thermocouple temperature exceeds 100.0 , the heat load is removed.
There is an inherent delay in this system associated with the distance between the thermocouple
and the point of application of the heat load as well as the delay generated as a result of the
thermal diffusivity of the material.
Figure 550 Example 10
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 553.
°C
°C
°C
MPC
1 2 3 4 5 6 (NOLIN3)
(Initial Condition)
Dummy Grid Points: 50, 51, 99
P
IN
t ( )
50,000. , T
50
0 >
0.0 , T
50
0 ≤
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
T
50
– 100. T
51
T
6
0 = – ⋅ +
Let T
51
1.0 =
T
∞
0.0 =
T
50
1.0 – 100. – T
6
+ ( ) =
T
0
110
o
=
P
IN
t ( )
h 200. =
Main Index
211 CHAPTER
Listing 553 Example 10 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 10
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
SPC = 10
IC = 20
MPC = 30
TSTEPNL = 100
NONLINEAR = 300
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = GRID 1 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/1(T1)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = GRID 6 TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = GRID 6 TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/6(T1)
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,100,30000,1.0,1
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,50,,50.0,50.0,50.0
GRID,51,,51.0,51.0,51.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CROD,1,5,1,2
CROD,2,5,2,3
CROD,3,5,3,4
CROD,4,5,4,5
CROD,5,5,5,6
PROD,5,15,1.0
MAT4,15,204.0,896.0,2707.0,200.0
$
CHBDYE,60,5,3
$
CONV,60,35,,,99
PCONV,35,15,0,0.0
$
NOLIN3,300,1,,50000.0,50,1,0.0
Main Index
212
Results
An MSC.Nastran XY plot of grid 1 temperature versus time is shown in Figure 552. An
MSC.Nastran XY plot of grid 6 temperature versus time is shown in Figure 553.
SPC,10,51,,1.0
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,51,1.0
$
MPC,30,6,,1.0,50,,1.0,,+MPC
+MPC,,51,,100.0
$
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMP,20,50,10.0
TEMPD,20,110.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 553 Example 10 Input File (continued)
Main Index
213 CHAPTER
Figure 551 Grid 1 Temperature versus Time
Figure 552 Grid 6 Temperature versus Time
Main Index
214
5.28 Example 11  Transient Forced Convection
Demonstrated Principle
• Evolving Fluid Transients
Discussion
It may be desirable to consider fluid flow problems from a transient view point. In particular,
fluid loops when used in conjunction with the thermostat control described in “Example 10 
Thermostat Control” on page 210 are most useful in transient analysis. Accurate temporal
response requires some user control be exerted over the Courant Number as discussed in
“Thermal Capabilities” on page 5.
In some cases, where steady state convergence is difficult or impossible to achieve, it may prove
beneficial to let the transient system evolve toward its long time solution, thereby achieving the
steady state equivalent. The transient analysis has inherent damping associated with the heat
capacitance and can also utilize numerical damping through the NDAMP parameter.
Additionally, loading patterns can be applied gradually with respect to time in an ad hoc load
incrementing scheme which may prove more flexible than the load incrementing which is
available in the steady state solution sequence.
Fluid Problems  Consistent Units
H
2
0 Example:
C
p
4200. J kg ⁄ C
o
1J 1W sec ⁄ = ( ) ∼
ρ 1000. kg m
3
⁄ ∼
µ 10
3 –
kg
m sec ⋅
 ∼
m
·
kg sec ⁄ ∼
l m ∼
ν m sec ⁄ ∼
h W m
2
⁄ C
o
∼
k W m ⁄ C
o
.65 W m ⁄ C
o
( ) ∼
Re
Dνρ
µ

m m sec ⁄ kg m
3
⁄ ⋅ ⋅
kg m sec ⁄
 NONDIMENSIONAL ⇒ ⇒ =
Main Index
215 CHAPTER
Use water properties at T = 82.22 (Heat Transfer, J. P. Holman).
Figure 553 Example 11
The MSC.Nastran input file is shown in Listing 554.
m
·
ρνA kg m
3
⁄ m sec ⁄ m
2
kg s ⁄ ⇒ ⋅ ⋅ ⇒ =
Pr
C
p
µ
k

J kg ⁄ C
o
kg m sec ⁄ ⋅
W m ⁄ C
o
 NONDIMENSIONAL ⇒ ⇒ =
u
hx
k

W m
2
⁄ C
o
m ⋅
W m ⁄ C
o
 NONDIMENSIONAL ⇒ ⇒ =
4 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
T
wal l
0 C
o
=
T
in
100 C
o
=
T
exi t
L 1.0 m, =
H 0.023
K
D
 Re
0.8
Pr
n
=
n 0.4 (heating of fluid) =
valid for 0.7 Pr 160. ≤ ≤
Re 10,000. ≤
L
D
 10. ≥
D 0.01 m, = m
·
0.1 kg sec ⁄ =
n 0.3 (cooling of fluid) =
°C
Main Index
216
Listing 554 Example 11 Input File
ID MSCNASTRAN V68
SOL 159
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE = EXAMPLE 11
ANALYSIS = HEAT
THERMAL = ALL
SPC = 10
IC =20
TSTEPNL = 100
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME, SECONDS
YTITLE = EXIT TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS
TCURVE = EXIT TEMPERATURE VS. TIME
XYPLOT TEMP/11(T1)
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,100,400,0.005,1,,,,U,+TSTP
+TSTP,0.05
$
GRID,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,2,,0.1,0.0,0.0
GRID,3,,0.2,0.0,0.0
GRID,4,,0.3,0.0,0.0
GRID,5,,0.4,0.0,0.0
GRID,6,,0.5,0.0,0.0
GRID,7,,0.6,0.0,0.0
GRID,8,,0.7,0.0,0.0
GRID,9,,0.8,0.0,0.0
GRID,10,,0.9,0.0,0.0
GRID,11,,1.0,0.0,0.0
GRID,50,,50.0,50.0,50.0
GRID,99,,99.0,99.0,99.0
$
CHBDYP,10,25,FTUBE,,,1,2
CHBDYP,20,25,FTUBE,,,2,3
CHBDYP,30,25,FTUBE,,,3,4
CHBDYP,40,25,FTUBE,,,4,5
CHBDYP,50,25,FTUBE,,,5,6
CHBDYP,60,25,FTUBE,,,6,7
CHBDYP,70,25,FTUBE,,,7,8
CHBDYP,80,25,FTUBE,,,8,9
CHBDYP,90,25,FTUBE,,,9,10
CHBDYP,100,25,FTUBE,,,10,11
PHBDY,25,,0.01,0.01
$
CONVM,10,35,,50,99
CONVM,20,35,,50,99
CONVM,30,35,,50,99
Main Index
217 CHAPTER
Results
Temperature versus distance is shown in Figure 554. Exit temperature versus time is shown in
Figure 555. Exit temperature versus mass flow rate is shown in Figure 556.
CONVM,40,35,,50,99
CONVM,50,35,,50,99
CONVM,60,35,,50,99
CONVM,70,35,,50,99
CONVM,80,35,,50,99
CONVM,90,35,,50,99
CONVM,100,35,,50,99
PCONVM,35,15,1,1,0.023,0.8,0.4,0.3
MAT4,15,0.673,4195.0,970.2,,8.6E4
$
SPC,10,1,,100.0
SPC,10,50,,0.1
SPC,10,99,,0.0
TEMP,20,1,100.0
TEMP,20,50,0.1
TEMP,20,99,0.0
TEMPD,20,100.0
$
ENDDATA
Listing 554 Example 11 Input File (continued)
Main Index
218
Figure 554 Temperature versus Distance
Distance (meters)
(0.0, 100.)
(0.1, 95.3)
(0.2, 90.8)
(0.3, 86.6)
(0.4, 82.5)
(0.5, 78.6)
(0.6, 75.0)
(0.7, 71.4)
(0.8, 68.1)
(0.9, 64.9)
(1.0, 61.8)
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 0.3
90
100
80
60
50
70
0.9 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.8
T
C
o
( )
Main Index
219 CHAPTER
Figure 555 Exit Temperature versus Time
Main Index
220
Figure 556 Exit Temperature versus Mass Flow Rate at Equilibrium
(Constant Properties)
(0.05, 58.2)
(0.075, 60.2)
(0.1, 61.8)
(0.2, 65.7)
(0.3, 67.9)
(0.4, 69.3)
(0.5, 70.4)
(0.6, 71.3)
(0.7, 72.0)
(0.8, 72.6)
(0.9, 73.2)
(1.0, 73.7)
(1.1, 74.1)
(1.2, 74.4)
(1.3, 74.8)
0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 0.3
75
80
70
60
55
65
0.9 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.2
m
·
kg sec ⁄ ( )
T
exit
C
o
( )
Main Index
221 CHAPTER
5.29 Example 12  Thermostat Control with Deadband Applied to
a Heat Source
Demonstated Principles
• Thermal Control Mechanisms
Discussion
Thermal loads (QVOL, QVECT, QBDY3) can be thermostatically controlled by including a
CONTRLT Bulk Data entry in the model. A schematic of the process is given in Figure 557.
Figure 557
This capability provides thermal control for heating elements with these features:
1. Sensor temperature can be measured from any GRID or scalar point in the model.
2. Numerous switch formats are available with userdefined deadbands.
3. The sensor (thermacouple) can be continuously monitored or it can be evaluated at a
userdefined sampling rate starting from TIME = 0.0 When the sensor is sampled, the
control logic is evaluated and any necessary control action is enforced.
4. The control device can account for physical actuator time delay and rise and decay time
constants.
Switch Status = Off
Switch Status = On
P
L
P
H
T
Sensor
Main Index
222
5. Automatic time stepping is handled internaly giving priority to any controller action
which is in effect. Outside of the control action regions, the time steps size reverts back
to the time step size, DT, specified by the user on the TSTEPNL statement. The standard
nonlinear timestep adjustment algorithm is not implemented for control logic
analysis.
Example  Lumped Heat Capacitance with Thermostat Control of a
Volumetric Heat Source
Figure 558
Input
=
QVOL = 12000. W
T(o) = 0.0
= 100.0
= 0.0
= 80.0
= 100.0
B =
=
= 100.0
QVOL
h, T
∞
ρ Vol C
p
⋅ ⋅ 6000. J °C ⁄
°C
h A ⋅ W °C ⁄
T
∞
°C
P
L
°C
P
H
°C
h A ⋅
ρ Vol C
p
⋅ ⋅

1
60

1
sec
 =
T t ( ) 120. 1 e
Bt –
– ( ) ⋅
T 107.5 ( ) °C
Main Index
223 CHAPTER
5.30 Example 13  Cryogenic Heat Shielding
Demonstrated Principles
• Axisymmetric View Factors
• Multiple Cavities
• Radiation Matrix Control
Discussion
A study is performed to examine the effects of multiple radiation shields for maintaining a
cryogenic environment. The number of cylindrical layers of material as well as the surface
emissivities are varied and the total heat flow for each variation is recovered.
The radiation exchange can be modeled in several ways. If each radiation gap is treated as an
individual cavity, then the minimum number of view factor calculations will be performed. In
this case, the surface exchange elements should be designated as can shade for the element on
the inner radius and can be shaded for the element on the outer radius. These designations are
made on the shade field on the VIEW Bulk Data entry. For axisymmetric view factor
calculations, it will often be difficult to set the shadowing flags correctly. The user may find it
easier to make shade = both in these instances and pay a penalty in CPUs.
If a multiple cavity approach is used, then there will be a RADLST and RADMTX for each cavity.
Using a single cavity approach, all the radiation surface elements are entered on a single
RADLST, and the VIEW3D routine automatically sorts out those that can see each other and
determines the magnitude of the axisymmetric view factors between each active pair. The
accuracy of the axisymmetric view factors can be controlled in several ways. The process used
in MSC.Nastran relies on internally creating a semicircle of computational elements and
applying symmetry arguments in forming the view factor between REV type surface elements.
This is described in greater detail in Appendix . Since the core or component view factors are
computed using the generalized 3D methods (Gaussian/ contour integrations with error
corrections), similar modeling principles apply. A good model will select NCOMP (field 9 on
RADCAV) to generate elements that are approximately square.
The model represents azslice of a container configuration, however, nothing special has been
included in the model to prevent the exchange surfaces from communicating with the external
environment. This can be controlled by setting the MTXTYP = 4 on the RADLST Bulk Data entry.
The flow of heat is then purely radial with no exchange with space.
Main Index
224
Model Geometry  Axisymmetric Analysis with Radiation
Exchange
Listing 555 shield_scale
Get from Dan Chu
Results
View Factor Calculation:
=
=
=
=
= .1, .5, .9
= 1, 2, 3, 4
1.0
1.50
.25
.25
.50
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n 1 = n 2 =
T
i
k
T
o
h
o
,
R
Z
Dimensions in Centimeters
. . .
T
i
77°k
T
o
293°k
h
o
10.0 w m
2
⁄ °k
k
.01 w m
2
⁄ k
∈
n
Main Index
225 CHAPTER
Main Index
226
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
APPENDIX
A
Nomenclature for Thermal Analysis
s Commonly Used Terms
Main Index
228
A.1 Commonly Used Terms
This appendix provides nomenclature for terms commonly used in thermal analysis.
k Thermal conductivity
Density
Specific heat
h, H Free convection heat transfer coefficient
H Enthalpy
V Velocity
Dynamic viscosity
Kinematic viscosity
Nu Nusselt’s number
Re Reynolds’ number
Pr Prandtl’s number
Gr Grashof’s number
Volume coefficient of expansion
q Heat flux
Q Heat flow
T, u Temperature
g Acceleration due to gravity
Wall temperature
Ambient temperature
StefanBoltzmann constant
Planck’s Second constant
View factor
t Time
Emissivity
Absorptivity
Mass flow rate
ρ
C
p
µ
υ
β
T
w
T
∞
σ
υ
F
i j
ε
α
m
·
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
APPENDIX
B
Executive Control Section
s Frequently Used Executive Control Statements
Main Index
230
2.1 Frequently Used Executive Control Statements
This appendix lists the Executive Control statements that are often used for thermal analysis.
The Executive Control statements are listed alphabetically. The description of each statement is
similar to that found in the MSC.Nast ran Quick Reference Guide.
The MSC.Nast ran Quick Reference Guide describes all of the Executive Control statements.
Main Index
231 CHAPTER B
Executive Control Section
Designates the end of the Executive Control Section.
Format:
CEND
Remark:
1. CEND is required unless an ENDJOB statement appears in the File Management
Section.
CEND
End of Executive Control Delimiter
Main Index
232
Requests diagnostic output or special options.
Format:
DIAG [=] k1[k2, ..., kn]
Remarks:
1. The DIAG statement is optional.
2. Multiple DIAG statements are allowed.
3. The following table lists the possible values for ki and their corresponding actions:
DIAG
Request Diagnostic Output
Describer Meaning
ki A list separated by commas and/ or spaces of desired diagnostics.
k=1 Dumps memory when a nonpreface fatal message is generated.
k=2 Prints database directory information before and after each DMAP
statement. Prints bufferpooling information.
k=3 Prints “DATABASE USAGE STATISTICS” after execution of each
functional module. This message is the same as the output that
appears after the run terminates. See the “Output Description” on
page 373 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
k=4 Prints crossreference tables for compiled sequences. Equivalent to
the COMPILER REF statement.
k=5 Prints the BEGIN time on the operator’s console for each functional
module. See the “Output Description” on page 373 of the
MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
k=6 Prints the END time for each functional module in the log file or
day file and on the operator’s console. Modules that consume less
time than the threshold set by SYSTEM(20) do not create a
message. See the “Output Description” on page 373 of the
MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
k=7 Prints eigenvalue extraction diagnostics for the Complex
Determinate method.
k=8 Prints matrix trailers as the matrices are generated in the Execution
Summary Table. See the “Output Description” on page 373 of the
MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
k=9 Not used.
k=10 Uses alternate nonlinear loading in linear transient analysis.
Replaces with
k=11 DBLOAD, DBUNLOAD, and DBLOCATE diagnostics.
N
n 1 +
N
n 1 +
N
n
N
n 1 –
+ + ( ) 3 ⁄
Main Index
233 CHAPTER B
Executive Control Section
k=12 Prints eigenvalue extraction diagnostics for complex Inverse
Power and complex Lanczos methods.
k=13 Prints the open core length (the value of REAL on VAX computers).
See the “Output Description” on page 373 of the MSC.Nastran
Reference Guide.
k=14 Prints solution sequence. Equivalent to the COMPILER LIST
statement.
k=15 Prints table trailers.
k=16 Traces real inverse power eigenvalue extraction operations
k=17 Punches solution sequences. Equivalent to the COMPILER DECK
statement.
k=18 In aeroelastic analysis, prints internal grid points specified on SET2
Bulk Data entries.
k=19 Prints data for MPYAD and FBS method selection in the Execution
Summary Table.
k=20 Similar to DIAG 2 except the output appears in the Execution
Summary Table and has a briefer and more userfriendly format.
However, the .f04 file will be quite large if DIAG 20 is specified
with an MSC.Nastran solution sequence. A DMAP Alter with
DIAGON(20) and DIAGOFF(20) is recommended. DIAG 20 also
prints DBMGR, DBFETCH, and DBSTORE subDMAP diagnostics.
See the MSC.Nastran 2005 DMAP Programmer’s Guide.
k=21 Prints diagnostics of DBDIR and DBENTRY table.
k=22 EQUIV and EQUIVX module diagnostics.
k=23 Not used.
k=24 Prints files that are left open at the end of a module execution. Also
prints DBVIEW diagnostics.
k=25 Outputs internal plot diagnostics.
k=26 Dynamic file allocation diagnostics on IBM/ MVS computers.
k=27 Prints Input File Processor (IFP) table. See the MSC.Nastran
Programmer’s Manual, Section 4.5.9.
k=28 Punches the link specification table. (XBSBD). The Bulk Data and
Case Control Sections are ignored, and no analysis is performed.
k=29 Process link specification table update. The Bulk Data and Case
Control Sections are ignored, and no analysis is performed. See the
MSC.Nastran Programmer’s Manual, Section 6.10.3.1.
Main Index
234
k=30 In link 1, punches the XSEMii data (i.e., set ii via DIAG 1 through
15). The Bulk Data and Case Control Sections are ignored, and no
analysis is performed. After link 1, this turns on BUG output. Used
also by MATPRN module. See also Remark 5 on the “TSTEP” on
page 2137 Bulk Data entry.
k=31 Prints link specification table and module properties list (MPL)
data. The Bulk Data and Case Control Sections are ignored, and no
analysis is performed.
k=32 Prints diagnostics for XSTORE and PVA expansion.
k=33 Not used.
k=34 Turns off plot line optimization.
k=35 Prints diagnostics for 3D slideline contact analysis in SOLs 106 and
129.
k=36 Prints extensive tables generated by the GP0 module in pversion
analysis.
k=37 Disables the superelement congruence test option and ignores User
Fatal Messages 4277 and 4278. A better alternative is available with
PARAMeter CONFAC. See “Parameters” on page 601.
k=38 Prints material angles for CQUAD4, CQUAD8, CTRIA3, and
CTRIA6 elements. The angle is printed only for elements that
specify MCID in field 8 of the connection entry.
k=39 Traces module FA1 operations and aerodynamic splining in SOLs
145 and 146.
k=40 Print constraint override/ average information for edges and faces
in padaptive analysis
k=41 Traces GINO OPEN/ CLOSE operations.
k=42 Not used.
k=43 Not used.
k=44 Prints a minidump for fatal errors and suppresses user message
exit.
k=45 Prints the same database directory information as DIAG 2 except
that it prints only after each DMAP statement.
k=46 Used by MSC development for GINO printout.
k=47 Prints DBMGR, DBFETCH, and DBSTORE subDMAP diagnostics.
k=48 Used by MSC development for GINO printout.
k=49 DIAG 49 is obsolete and should not be used. The utility f04rprt
should be used to summarize the f04 Execution Summary instead..
Main Index
235 CHAPTER B
Executive Control Section
Examples:
DIAG 8,53
or
DIAG 8
DIAG 53
k=50 Traces the nonlinear solution in SOLs 106, 129, 153, and 159. Prints
subcase status; echoes NLPARM, NLPCI, and TSTEPNL entry
fields; and prints initial arclength. Prints iteration summary only
in SOLs 129, and 159.
In static aeroelastic analysis (SOL 144), prints transformation
information associated with the generation of the DJX matrix in the
ADG module and intermediate solutions information in the ASG
module.
k=51 Prints intermediate displacement, load error vectors, and
additional iteration information helpful to debugging in SOLs 106,
129, 153, and 159.
k=52 Disables the printing of errors at each time step in SOLs 129 and
159.
k=53 MESSAGE module output will also be printed in the execution
summary table. See the “Output Description” on page 373 of the
MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
k=54 Linker debug print.
k=55 Performance timing.
k=56 Extended print of Execution Summary table (prints all DMAP
statements and RESTART deletions). See the “Output
Description” on page 373 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
k=57 Executive table (XDIRLD) performance timing and lasttimeused
(LTU) diagnostics.
k=58 Data block deletion debug and timing constants echo.
k=59 Buffpool debug printout.
k=60 Prints diagnostics for data block cleanup at the end of each module
execution in subroutines DBCLN, DBEADD, and DBERPL.
k=61 GINO block allocator diagnostics.
k=62 GINO block manager diagnostics.
k=63 Prints each item checked by the RESTART module and its NDDL
description.
k=64 Requests upward compatibility DMAP conversion from
Version 65 only. Ignored in Version 70.5 and later systems.
Main Index
236
Controls the echo (printout) of the Executive Control Section.
Formats:
ECHOOFF
ECHOON
Remarks:
1. The ECHO statement is optional.
2. ECHOOFF suppresses the echo of subsequent Executive Control statements.
ECHOON reactivates the echo after an ECHOOFF statement.
ECHO
Control Printed Echo
Main Index
237 CHAPTER B
Executive Control Section
Specifies a comment.
Format:
ID [=] i1, i2
Remark:
1. The ID statement is optional and not used by the program.
ID
Comment
Describer Meaning
i1, i2 Character strings (1 to 8 characters in length and the first character must be
alphabetic).
Main Index
238
.
Specifies the solution sequence or main subDMAP to be executed.
Format:
Remarks:
1. If SOLIN keyword is not given and if there are no LINK statements within the input
data, the program will perform an automatic link. The program will first collect the
objects created in the current run by the COMPILE statement and the remaining objects
stored in the MSCOBJ DBset. The program will then perform an automatic link of the
collected objects.
2. If the SOLIN keyword is not given but a LINK statement is provided, the SOLIN
default will be obtained from the SOLOUT keyword on the LINK statement.
3. The OSCAR (Operation Sequence Control ARray) defines the problem solution
sequence. The OSCAR consists of a sequence of entries with each entry containing all
of the information needed to execute one step of the problem solution. The OSCAR is
generated from information supplied by the user’s entries in the Executive Control
Section.
4. The SOLIN keyword will skip the automatic link and execute the OSCAR on the
specified DBset.
5. The DOMAINSOLVER may be used in conjunction with Solution Sequences 101, 103,
108, and 111 to select domain decomposition solution methods.
6. The following Solution Sequences are currently available in MSC.Nastran:
SOL
Execute a Solution Sequence
Describer Meaning
n Solution number. See Remark 6. for the list of valid numbers.
(Integer >0)
subDMAPname The name of a main subDMAP. See the MSC.Nastran 2005 DMAP
Programmer’s Guide. (Character; 1 to 8 alphanumeric characters in length
and the first character must be alphabetic.)
objDBset The character name of a DBset where the OSCAR is stored. See Remarks
1. and 2. (Character; 1 to 8 alphanumeric characters in length and the
first character must be alphabetic.)
NOEXE Suppresses execution after compilation and/ or linkage of the solution is
complete. Also, the Bulk Data and Case Control Sections are not read or
processed.
SOL
n
subDMAPname
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
SOLIN = objDBset NOEXE [ ]
Main Index
239 CHAPTER B
Executive Control Section
Table 21 Structured Solution Sequences
SOL
Number
SOL Name Description
101 SESTATIC Statics with Options:
Linear Steady State Heat Transfer
Alternate Reduction
Inertia Relief
Design Sensitivity  Statics
103 SEMODES Normal Modes with Option:
Design Sensitivity  Modes
105 SEBUCKL Buckling with options:
Static Analysis
Alternate Reduction
Inertia Relief
Design Sensitivity  Buckling
106 NLSTATIC Nonlinear or Linear Statics
107 SEDCEIG Direct Complex Eigenvalues
108 SEDFREQ Direct Frequency Response
109 SEDTRAN Direct Transient Response
110 SEMCEIG Modal Complex Eigenvalues
111 SEMFREQ Modal Frequency Response
112 SEMTRAN Modal Transient Response
114 CYCSTATX Cyclic Statics with Option:
Alternate Reduction
115 CYCMODE Cyclic Normal Modes
116 CYCBUCKL Cyclic Buckling
118 CYCFREQ Cyclic Direct Frequency Response
129 NLTRAN Nonlinear or Linear Transient Response
144 AESTAT Static Aeroelastic Response
145 SEFLUTTR Aerodynamic Flutter
146 SEAERO Aeroelastic Response
153 NLSCSH Static Structural and/ or Steady State Heat Transfer
Analysis with Options:
Linear or Nonlinear Analysis
159 NLTCSH Transient Structural and/ or Transient Heat Transfer
Analysis with Options:
Linear or Nonlinear Analysis
Main Index
240
Examples:
1. In the following example, SOL 103 is executed from MSCOBJ.
SOL 103
2. In the following example, the PHASE0 subDMAP is altered, SOL 103 is relinked onto
the OBJSCR DBset (which is the default for SOLOUT), and SOL 103 is executed.
SOL 103
COMPILE PHASE1
ALTER ’DTIIN’
TABPT SETREE,,,,// $
.
.
.
ENDALTER $
190 DBTRANS Database Transfer, “Output Description” on page 373
of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
200 DESOPT Design Optimization
Table 22 Unstructured Solution Sequences
SOL
Number
SOL
Name
Description
1 STATICS1 Statics and Linear Heat Transfer
3 MODES Normal Modes
4 GNOLIN Geometric Nonlinear
5 BUCKLING Buckling
7 DCEIG Direct Complex Eigenvalues
8 DFREQ Direct Frequency Response
9 DTRAN Direct Transient Response
10 MCEIG Modal Complex Eigenvalues
11 MFREQ Modal Frequency Response
12 MTRAN Modal Transient Response
14 CYCSTAT Cyclic Statics
15 CYCMODES Cyclic Modes
16 CYCBUCK Cyclic Buckling
Table 21 Structured Solution Sequences (continued)
SOL
Number
SOL Name Description
Main Index
241 CHAPTER B
Executive Control Section
3. In the following example, the solution sequence called DYNAMICS is executed from
the USROBJ DBset.
SOL DYNAMICS SOLIN = USROBJ
Main Index
242
Sets the maximum CPU and I/ O time.
Format:
TIME[=]t1[,t2]
Remarks:
1. The TIME statement is optional.
2. If t2 is specified then t1 must be specified.
Examples:
1. The following example designates a runtime of 8 hours:
TIME 480
2. The following example designates 90 seconds:
TIME 1.5
TIME
Describer Meaning
t 1 Maximum allowable execution time in CPU minutes. (Real or Integer >0;
Default =1.89E9 seconds)
t 2 Maximum allowable I/ O limit in minutes. (Real or Integer >0; Default is
infinity, which is machine dependent.)
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
APPENDIX
C
Case Control Commands
s Thermal Analysis Case Control Commands
Main Index
244
3.1 Thermal Analysis Case Control Commands
This appendix lists the Case Control commands that are often used for thermal analysis.
The Case Control commands are listed alphabetically. The description of each command
is similar to that found in the MSC.Nast ran Quick Reference Guide.
The MSC.Nast ran Quick Reference Guide describes all of the Case Control commands.
Main Index
245 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Used to insert comments into the input file. Comment statements may appear anywhere
within the input file.
Format:
$ followed by any characters out to column 80.
Example:
$ TEST FIXTURETHIRD MODE
Remarks:
1. Comments are ignored by the program.
2. Comments will appear only in the unsorted echo of the Bulk Data.
$
Comment
Main Index
246
Specifies the type of analysis being performed for the current subcase.
Format:
ANALYSIS=type
Examples:
ANALYSIS=STATICS
ANALYSIS=MODES
Remarks:
1. ANALYSIS=STRUC is the default in SOLs 153 and 159.
2. In SOL 200, all subcases, including superelement subcases, must be assigned by
an ANALYSIS command either in the subcase or above all subcases. Also, all
subcases assigned by ANALYSIS=MODES must contain a DESSUB.
3. ANALYSIS=DIVERG is only available for analysis in SOL 200. Sensitivity and
optimization are not supported for this analysis type.
4. In order to obtain normal modes data recovery in SOLs 110, 111, and 112,
ANALYSIS = MODES must be specified under one or more separate subcases(s)
which contain requests for data recovery intended for normal modes only. For
example, in SOL 111:
ANALYSIS
Analysis Discipline Subcase Assignment
Describer Meaning
type Analysis type. Allowable values and applicable solution sequences
(Character):
STATICS
MODES
BUCK
DFREQ
MFREQ
MTRAN
DCEIG
MCEIG
SAERO
DIVERGE
FLUTTER
HEAT
STRUCTURE
Statics
Normal Modes also in
SOL 110, 111, 112
Buckling
Direct Frequency
Modal Frequency
Modal Transient
Direct Complex
Eigenvalue Analysis
Modal Complex
Eigenvalue Analysis
Static Aeroelasticity
Static Aeroelastic
Divergence
Flutter
Heat Transfer Analysis
Structural Analysis
(SOL 200 only)
(SOLs 153 and 159 only)
Main Index
247 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
All commands which control the boundary conditions (SPC, MPC, and SUPORT)
and METHOD selection should be copied inside the ANALYSIS=MODES
subcase or specified above the subcase level.
METH=40
SPC=1
SUBCASE 1 $ Normal Modes
ANALYSIS=MODES
DISP=ALL
SUBCASE 2 $ Frequency response
STRESS=ALL
DLOAD=12
FREQ=4
Main Index
248
Selects a dynamic load or an acoustic source to be applied in a transient or frequency
response problem.
Format:
DLOAD=n
Example:
DLOAD=73
Remarks:
1. RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 may only be selected in a frequency response problem.
2. TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 may be selected in a transient or frequency response
problem.
3. Either a RLOADi or TLOADi entry (but not both) must be selected in an
aeroelastic response problem. If RLOADi is selected, a frequency response is
calculated. If TLOADi is selected, then transient response is computed by Fourier
transform. When there are only gust loads (GUST entry), the DLOAD selects a
TLOADi or RLOADi entry with zero load along with field 3 of the GUST
command.
4. The DLOAD command will be ignored if specified for upstream superelements
in dynamic analysis. To apply loads to upstream superelements, please see the
LOADSET command.
DLOAD
Dynamic Load Set Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification of a DLOAD, RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1, TLOAD2,
or ACSRCE Bulk Data entry. (Integer >0)
Main Index
249 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Requests form of enthalpy vector output in transient heat transfer analysis (SOL 159).
Format:
Example:
ENTHALPY=5
Remark:
1. ENTHALPY=NONE is used to override a previous ENTHALPY=n or
ENTHALPY=ALL command.
ENTHALPY
Heat Transfer Enthalpy Output Request
Describer Meaning
SORT1 Output will be presented as a tabular listing of grid points for each time.
SORT2 Output will be presented as a tabular listing of time for each grid point.
PRINT The printer will be the output medium.
PUNCH The punch file will be the output medium.
PLOT Generates but does not print enthalpies.
ALL Enthalpy for all points will be output.
NONE Enthalpy for no points will be output.
n Set identification of previously appearing SET command. Only
enthalpies of points with identification numbers that appear on this SET
command will be output. (Integer >0)
ENTHALPY
SORT1
SORT2
PRINT, PUNCH
PLOT
,
\ .

 
ALL
n
NONE
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
250
Requests the form and type of gradient and flux output in heat transfer analysis.
Format:
Examples:
FLUX=ALL
FLUX(PUNCH,PRINT)=17
FLUX=25
Remarks:
1. FLUX=ALL in SOL 159 may produce excessive output.
2. FLUX=NONE overrides an overall request.
FLUX
Heat Transfer Gradient and Flux Output Request
Describer Meaning
PRINT The printer will be the output medium.
PUNCH The punch file will be the output medium.
PLOT The output will be sent to the plot file.
ALL Flux for all elements will be output.
NONE Flux for no elements will be output.
n Set identification of a previously appearing SET command. Only fluxes
of elements with identification numbers that appear on this SET
command will be output. (Integer >0)
FLUX PRINT, PLOT, PUNCH ( ) [ ]
ALL
n
NONE
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
251 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Requests form of rate of change of enthalpy vector output in transient heat transfer analysis
(SOL 159).
Format:
Example:
HDOT=5
Remark:
1. HDOT=NONE is used to override a previous HDOT=n or HDOT=ALL
command.
HDOT
Heat Transfer Rate of Change of Enthalpy Output Request
Describer Meaning
SORT1 Output will be presented as a tabular listing of grid points for each time.
SORT2 Output will be presented as a tabular listing of time for each grid point.
PRINT The printer will be the output medium.
PUNCH The punch file will be the output medium.
PLOT Generates but does not print rate of change of enthalpy.
ALL Rate of change of enthalpy for all points will be output.
NONE Rate of change of enthalpy for no points will be output.
n Set identification of previously appearing SET command. Only rates of
change of enthalpy for points with identification numbers that appear
on this SET command will be output. (Integer >0)
HDOT
SORT1
SORT2
PRINT, PUNCH
PLOT
,
\ .

 
ALL
n
NONE
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
252
Selects the initial conditions for transient analysis (SOLs 109, 112, 129 and 159).
Format:
Examples:
IC = 10
IC(PHYSICAL) = 100
IC(MODAL) = 200
IC(STATSUB) = 1000
IC(STATSUB,DIFFK) = 2000
Remarks:
1. For structural analysis, TIC entries will not be used (therefore, no initial
conditions) unless selected in the Case Control Section.
2. Only the PHYSICAL option (the default) may be specified in heat transfer
analysis (SOL 159).
3. IC(MODAL) may be specified only in modal transient analysis (SOL 112).
4. IC(STATSUB) and IC(STATSUB,DIFFK) may not both be specified in the same
execution.
5. The DIFFK keyword is meaningful only when used in conjunction with the
STATSUB keyword.
IC
Transient Analysis Initial Condition Set Selection
Describer Meaning
PHYSICAL The TIC Bulk Data entries selected by set n define initial conditions for
coordinates involving grid, scalar and extra points. (Default).
MODAL The TIC Bulk Data entries selected by set n define initial conditions for
modal coordinates and extra points. See Remark 3.
STATSUB Use the solution of the static analysis subcase n as the initial condition.
See Remark 4.
DIFFK Include the effects of differential stiffness in the solution. See Remarks 4.
and 5.
n For the PHYSICAL (the default) and MODAL options, n is the set
identification number of TIC Bulk Data entries for structural analysis
(SOL 109, 112 and 129) or TEMP and TEMPD entries for heat transfer
analysis (SOL 159). For the STATSUB option, n is the ID of a static
analysis subcase. (Integer > 0)
IC
PHYSICAL
MODAL
STATSUB[,DIFFK]
n =
Main Index
253 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
6. The following examples illustrate the usage of the various options of the IC Case
Control command.
$ SPECIFY INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR PHYSICAL COORDINATES
$ IN SOL 109 OR SOL 112
IC(PHYSICAL) = 100
or
IC = 100
$ SPECIFY INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR MODAL COORDINATES
$ IN SOL 112
IC(MODAL) = 200
$ SPECIFY STATIC SOLUTION AS INITIAL CONDITION
$ IN SOL 109 OR SOL 112
$ (DIFFERENTIAL STIFFNESS EFFECT NOT INCLUDED)
SUBCASE 10 $ STATIC ANALYSIS
LOAD = 100
SUBCASE 20 $ TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
IC(STATSUB) = 10 $ POINTS TO STATIC ANALYSIS SUBCASE ID
$ SPECIFY STATIC SOLUTION AS INITIAL CONDITION
$ IN SOL 109 OR SOL 112
$ (DIFFERENTIAL STIFFNESS EFFECT INCLUDED
SUBCASE 100 $ STATIC ANALYSIS
LOAD = 1000
SUBCASE 200 $ TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
IC(STATSUB,DIFFK) = 100 $ POINTS TO STATIC ANALYSIS SUBCASE ID
Main Index
254
Inserts an external file into the input file. The INCLUDE statement may appear anywhere
within the input data file.
Format:
INCLUDE ’filename’
Example:
The following INCLUDE statement is used to obtain the Bulk Data from another file called
MYBULK.DATA:
SOL 101
CEND
TITLE = STATIC ANALYSIS
LOAD = 100
INCLUDE ’MYCASE.DATA’
BEGIN BULK
ENDDATA
Remarks:
1. INCLUDE statements may be nested; that is, INCLUDE statements may appear
inside the external file. The nested depth level must not be greater than 10.
2. The total length of any line in an INCLUDE statement must not exceed 72
characters. Long file names may be split across multiple lines. For example the
file:
/ dir123/ dir456/ dir789/ filename.dat
may be included with the following input:
INCLUDE ‘/ dir123
/ dir456
/ dir789/ filename.dat’
3. See the MSC.Nastran 2005 Installation and Operations Guide for more
examples.
INCLUDE
Insert External File
Describer Meaning
filename Physical filename of the external file to be inserted. The user must
supply the name according to installation or machine requirements. It is
recommended that the filename be enclosed by single righthand
quotation marks (’).
Main Index
255 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Selects an external static load set.
Format:
LOAD=n
Example:
LOAD=15
Remarks:
1. A GRAV entry cannot have the same set identification number as any of the other
loading entry types. If it is desired to apply a gravity load along with other static
loads, a LOAD Bulk Data entry must be used.
2. LOAD is only applicable in linear and nonlinear statics, inertia relief, differential
stiffness, buckling, and heat transfer problems.
3. The total load applied will be the sum of external (LOAD), thermal
(TEMP(LOAD)), element deformation (DEFORM), and constrained displacement
(SPC) loads.
4. Static, thermal, and element deformation loads should have unique set
identification numbers.
LOAD
External Static Load Set Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification of at least one external load Bulk Data entry. The set
identification must appear on at least one FORCE, FORCE1, FORCE2,
FORCEAX, GRAV, MOMAX, MOMENT, MOMENT1, MOMENT2,
LOAD, PLOAD, PLOAD1, PLOAD2, PLOAD4, PLOADX, QVOL,
QVECT, QHBDY, QBDY1, QBDY2, QBDY3, PRESAX, RFORCE, SPCD, or
SLOAD entry. (Integer >0)
Main Index
256
Selects a multipoint constraint set.
Format:
MPC=n
Example:
MPC=17
Remarks:
1. In cyclic symmetry analysis, this command must appear above the first SUBCASE
command.
2. Multiple boundary (MPC sets) conditions are not allowed in superelement
analysis. If more than one MPC set is specified per superelement (including the
residual), then the second and subsequent sets will be ignored.
MPC
Multipoint Constraint Set Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification number of a multipoint constraint set. This set
identification number must appear on at least one MPC or MPCADD Bulk
Data entry. (Integer >0)
Main Index
257 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Selects the parameters used for nonlinear static analysis.
Format:
NLPARM=n
Example:
NLPARM=10
Remarks:
1. NLPARM and NLPCI entries in the Bulk Data will not be used unless selected.
2. NLPARM may appear above or within a subcase.
NLPARM
Nonlinear Static Analysis Parameter Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification of NLPARM and NLPCI Bulk Data entries. (Integer >0)
Main Index
258
Selects nonlinear dynamic load set for transient problems.
Format:
NONLINEAR=n
Example:
NONLINEAR=75
Remark:
1. NOLINi Bulk Data entry will be ignored unless selected in the Case Control
Section.
NONLINEAR
Nonlinear Dynamic Load Set Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification of NOLINi or NLRGAP Bulk Data entry. (Integer >0)
Main Index
259 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Requests the form and type of applied load vector output.
Format:
Examples:
OLOAD=ALL‘
OLOAD(SORT1, PHASE)=5‘
OLOAD(SORT2, PRINT, PSDF, CRMS, RPUNCH=20
OLOAD(PRINT, RALL, NORPRINT)=ALL
OLOAD
Applied Load Output Request
Describer Meaning
SORT1 Output will be presented as a tabular listing of grid points for each
load, frequency, eigenvalue, or time, depending on the solution
sequence.
SORT2 Output will be presented as a tabular listing of frequency or time for
each grid point.
PRINT The printer will be the output medium.
PUNCH The punch file will be the output medium.
REAL or IMAG Requests rectangular format (real and imaginary) of complex output.
Use of either REAL or IMAG yields the same output.
PHASE Requests polar format (magnitude and phase) of complex output.
Phase output is in degrees.
PSDF Requests the power spectral density function be calculated and
stored in the database for random analysis postprocessing. Request
must be made above the subcase level and RANDOM must be
selected in the Case Control.
ATOC Requests the autocorrelation function be calculated and stored in the
database for random analysis postprocessing. Request must be made
above the subcase level and RANDOM must be selected in the Case
Control.
CRMS Requests all of PSDF, ATOC and CRMS be calculated for random
analysis postprocessing. Request must be made above the subcase
level and RANDOM must be selected in the Case Control.
OLOAD
SORT1
SORT2 \

PRINT, PUNCH
PLOT
REAL or IMAG
PHASE
PSDF, ATOC, CRMS
or RALL
, , , ,
RPRINT
NORPRINT
RPUNCH , CID [ ] ,
.

ALL
n
NONE
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
260
Remarks:
1. Both PRINT and PUNCH may be requested.
2. See Remark 2 under “DISPLACEMENT” on page 239 for a discussion of SORT1
and SORT2. In the SORT1 format, only nonzero values will be output.
3. In a statics problem, a request for SORT2 causes loads at all requested points (zero
and nonzero) to be output.
4. OLOAD=NONE overrides an overall output request.
5. In the statics superelement solution sequences, and in the dynamics SOLs 107
through 112, 118, 145, 146, and 200. OLOADs are available for superelements and
the residual structure only externally applied loads are printed, and not loads
transmitted from upstream superelements. Transmitted loads can be obtained
with GPFORCE requests.
• In the nonlinear transient analysis solution sequences SOLs 129 and 159,
OLOADs are available only for residual structure points and include loads
transmitted by upstream superelements.
6. In nonlinear analysis, OLOAD output will not reflect changes due to follower
forces.
7. Loads generated via the SPCD Bulk Data entry do not appear in OLOAD output.
8. In SORT1 format, OLOADs recovered at consecutively numbered scalar points
are printed in groups of six (sextets) per line of output. But if a scalar point is not
consecutively numbered, then it will begin a new sextet on a new line of output.
If a sextet can be formed and it is zero, then the line will not be printed. If a sextet
cannot be formed, then zero values may be output.
9. OLOAD results are output in the global coordinate system (see field CD on the
GRID Bulk Data entry).
RALL Requests all of PSDF, ATOC and CRMS be calculated for random
analysis postprocessing. Request must be made above the subcase
level and RANDOM must be selected in the Case Control.
RPRINT Writes random analysis results in the print file (Default).
NORPRINT Disables the writing of random analysis results in the print file.
RPUNCH Writes random analysis results in the punch file.
CID Request to print output coordinate system ID in printed output file,
F06 file.
ALL Applied loads for all points will be output. See Remarks 2. and 8.
NONE Applied load for no points will be output.
n Set identification of a previously appearing SET command. Only
loads on points with identification numbers that appear on this SET
command will be output. (Integer > 0)
Describer Meaning
Main Index
261 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
10. In inertia relief analysis the OLOAD output is interpreted differently for SOLs 1,
101, and 200:
• In SOL 1, the output shows only the applied loads.
• In SOLs 101 and 200, the output includes both the inertia loads and applied
loads.
11. The option of PSDF, ATOC, CRMS and RALL, or any combination of them, can
be selected for random analysis. The results can be either printed in the .f06 file or
punched n the punch file, or output in both files.
12. Note that the CID keyword affects only grid point related output, such as
DISPlacement, VELOcity, ACCEleration, OLOAD, SPCForce and MPCForce. In
addition, CID keyword needs to appear only once in a grid related output request
anywhere in the Case Control Section to turn on the printing algorithm.
Main Index
262
Delimits the various types of commands for the structure plotter, curve plotter, grid point
stress, and MSGSTRESS.
Format:
Examples:
OUTPUT
OUTPUT(PLOT)
OUTPUT(XYOUT)
Remarks:
1. The structure plotter request OUTPUT(PLOT), the curve plotter request
OUTPUT(XYOUT or XYPLOT), and the grid point stress requests
(OUTPUT(POST)) must follow the standard Case Control commands.
2. If OUTPUT is specified without a describer, then the subsequent commands are
standard Case Control commands.
3. Case Control commands specified after OUTPUT(POST) are SURFACE and
VOLUME.
OUTPUT
Case Control Delimiter
Describer Meaning
PLOT Beginning of the structure plotter request. This command must precede all
structure plotter control commands. Plotter commands are described in
“OUTPUT(PLOT) Commands” on page 483.
POST Beginning of grid point stress SURFACE and VOLUME commands. This
command must precede all SURFACE and VOLUME commands.
XYOUT or
XYPLOT
Beginning of curve plotter request. This command must precede all curve
plotter control commands. XYPLOT and XYOUT are entirely equivalent.
Curve plotter commands are described in “XY PLOT Commands” on
page 525.
CARDS The OUTPUT(CARDS) packet is used by the MSGSTRESS program. See
the MSGMESH Analyst’s Guide for details. These commands have no
format rules. This package must terminate with the command
ENDCARDS (starting in column 1).
OUTPUT
PLOT
POST
XYOUT
XYPLOT
CARDS
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
\ .







 
Main Index
263 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Specifies values for parameters. Parameters are described in “Parameters” on page 601.
Format:
PARAM,n,V1,V2
Examples:
PARAM,GRDPNT,0
PARAM,K6ROT,1.0
Remarks:
1. The PARAM command is normally used in the Bulk Data Section and is described
in the “Bulk Data Entries” on page 849.
2. The parameter values that may be defined in the Case Control Section are
described in “Parameters” on page 601. Case Control PARAM commands in
userwritten DMAPs requires the use of the PVT module, described in the
MSC.Nastran 2005 DMAP Programmer’s Guide.
PARAM
Parameter Specification
Describer Meaning
n Parameter name (one to eight alphanumeric characters, the first of which
is alphabetic).
V1, V2 Parameter value based on parameter type, as follows:
Type V1 V2
Integer Integer Blank
Real, single precision Real Blank
Character Character Blank
Real, double precision Real, Double Precision Blank
Complex, single precision Real or Blank Real or Blank
Complex, double precision Real, Double Precision Real, Double Precision
Main Index
264
Sets are used to define the following lists:
1. Identification numbers (point, element, or superelement) for processing and
output requests.
2. Frequencies for which output will be printed in frequency response problems or
times for transient response, using the OFREQ and OTIME commands,
respectively.
3. Surface or volume identification numbers to be used in GPSTRESS or STRFIELD
commands.
Formats:
SET n=ALL
Examples:
SET 77=5
SET 88=5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 THRU 55 EXCEPT 15, 16, 77, 78, 79, 100 THRU 300
SET 99=1 THRU 100000
SET101=1.0, 2.0, 3.0
SET105=1.009, 10.2, 13.4, 14.0, 15.0
SET
Set Definition, General Form
Describer Meaning
n Set identification number. Any set may be redefined by reassigning its
identification number. SETs specified under a SUBCASE command are
recognized for that SUBCASE only. (Integer >0)
Identification numbers. If no such identification number exists, the
request is ignored. (Integer >0)
Identification numbers . (Integer >0)
EXCEPT Set identification numbers following EXCEPT will be deleted from
output list as long as they are in the range of the set defined by the
immediately preceding THRU. An EXCEPT list may not include a
THRU list or ALL.
SET n i
1
,i
2
i
3
THRU i
4
EXCEPT i
5
i
6
i
7
i
8
THRU i
9
, , , , , , , [ ] { } =
SET n r
1
r
2
r
3
r
4
, , [ ] , { } =
i
1
i
2
etc. , ,
i
3
THRUi
4
i
4
i
3
> ( )
Main Index
265 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Remarks:
1. A SET command may be more than one physical command. A comma at the end
of a physical command signifies a continuation command. Commas may not end
a set. THRU may not be used for continuation. Place a number after the THRU.
2. Set identification numbers following EXCEPT within the range of the THRU must
be in ascending order.
3. In SET 88 above, the numbers 77, 78, etc., are included in the set because they are
outside the prior THRU range.
Frequencies or times for output. The nearest solution frequency or time
will be output. EXCEPT and THRU cannot be used. If an OFREQ or
OTIME command references the set then the values must be listed in
ascending sequences, ...etc., otherwise some output may
be missing. If an OFREQ or OTIME command is not present, all
frequencies or times will be output. (Real >0.0)
ALL All members of the set will be processed.
Describer Meaning
r
1
r
2
etc. , ,
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
4
< < <
Main Index
266
Selects a singlepoint constraint set to be applied.
Format:
SPC=n
Example:
SPC=10
Remarks:
1. In cyclic symmetry analysis, this command must appear above the first SUBCASE
command.
2. Multiple boundary conditions are only supported in SOLs 101, 103, 105, 145 and
200. Multiple boundary conditions are not allowed for upstream superelements.
the BC command must be specified to define multiple boundary conditions for
the residual structure in SOLs 103, 105, 145 and 200.
SPC
SinglePoint Constraint Set Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification number of a singlepoint constraint that appears on a
SPC, SPC1, or SPCADD Bulk Data entry. (Integer >0)
Main Index
267 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Delimits and identifies a subcase.
Format:
SUBCASE=n
Example:
SUBCASE=101
Remarks:
1. The subcase identification number, n, must be greater than all previous subcase
identification numbers.
2. Plot requests and RANDPS requests refer to n.
3. See the MODES command for use of this command in normal modes analysis.
4. If a comment follows n, then the first few characters of the comment will appear
in the subcase label in the upper righthand corner of the output.
SUBCASE
Subcase Delimiter
Describer Meaning
n Subcase identification number. (Integer >0)
Main Index
268
Selects the temperature set to be used in either material property calculations or thermal
loading in heat transfer and structural analysis.
Format:
Examples:
TEMPERATURE(LOAD)=15
TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL)=7
TEMPERATURE=7
Remarks:
1. In linear analysis, only one temperaturedependent material request should be
made in any problem and should be specified above the subcase level. If multiple
requests are made, then only the last request will be processed. See also Remarks
6. and 7.
2. The total load applied will be the sum of external (LOAD command), thermal
(TEMP(LOAD) command), element deformation (DEFORM command) and
constrained displacement (SPC command) loads.
3. Static, thermal, and element deformation loads should have unique set
identification numbers.
4. INITIAL is used in steady state heat transfer analysis for conduction material
properties and provides starting values for iteration.
TEMPERATURE
Temperature Set Selection
Describer Meaning
MATERIAL The selected temperature set will be used to determine temperature
dependent material properties indicated on the MATTi Bulk Data
entries. See Remarks 6., 7. and 8.
LOAD The selected temperature set will be used to determine an equivalent
static load and to update material properties in a nonlinear analysis. See
Remarks 2., 5., 6. and 7.
BOTH Both MATERIAL and LOAD will use the same temperature set.
n Set identification number of TEMP, TEMPD, TEMPP1, TEMPRB, TEMPF,
or TEMPAX Bulk Data entries. (Integer > 0)
INITIAL The selected temperature table will be used to determine initial
temperature distribution in nonlinear static analysis. See Remarks 4., 6.,
7., 8. and 9.
TEMPERATURE
INITIAL
MATERIAL
LOAD
BOTH
\ .




 
n =
Main Index
269 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
5. In superelement data recovery restarts, TEMPERATURE(LOAD) requests must
be respecified in the Case Control Section.
6. In linear static analysis, temperature strains are calculated with:
where is the thermal expansion coefficient defined on the MATi Bulk Data
entries, is the load temperature defined with TEMPERATURE(LOAD) and
is the initial temperature defined with TEMPERATURE(INITIAL). The following
rules apply for TEMPERATURE(INITIAL), TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL), and
TREF on the MATi entries:
• If TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) and TREF are specified, then the
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) set will be used as the initial temperature to
calculate both the loads and the material properties.
• If TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL) and TREF are specified, then TREF will
be used as the initial temperature in calculating the load and the
TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL) set will be used for the calculation of
material properties.
• If no TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) or TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL) is
present, TREF will be used to calculate both the load and the material
properties.
7. In nonlinear static analysis, temperature strains are calculated with
where is the thermal expansion coefficient defined on the MATi Bulk Data
entries. is the load temperature defined with TEMPERATURE(LOAD) and
is the initial temperature defined with TEMPERATURE(INITIAL). The following
rules apply
• The specification of TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) is required above the
subcase level. The specification of TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL) or
TEMPERATURE(BOTH) will cause a fatal error.
• If a subcase does not contain a TEMPERATURE(LOAD) request, then the
thermal load set will default to the TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) set.
• TEMPERATURE(LOAD) will also cause the update of temperature
dependent material properties due to the temperatures selected in the
thermal load set. Temperaturedependent material properties are
specified with MATi, MATTi, MATS1, and/ or TABLEST Bulk Data
entries.
• If TREF and TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) are specified, then the
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) set will be used as the initial temperature to
calculate both the loads and the material properties. Both are used in the
definition of thermal strain.
ε
T
A T
o
( ) = T T
o
– ( ) ⋅
A T
o
( )
T T
o
ε
T
A T ( ) = T TREF – ( ) ⋅ A T
o
( ) – T
o
TREF – ( ) ⋅
A T ( )
T T
o
Main Index
270
8. TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL) and TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) cannot be
specified simultaneously in the same run.
9. TEMP(INIT) is not used with TEMPAX.
10. Temperature loads cause incorrect stresses in dynamic analysis.
Main Index
271 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Selects the transfer function set(s) to be added to the direct input matrices.
Format:
TFL=n
Example:
TFL=77
TFL = 1, 25, 77
Remarks:
1. Transfer functions will not be used unless selected in the Case Control Section.
2. Transfer functions are supported in dynamics problems only.
3. Transfer functions are described in the MSC.Nastran Advanced Dynamic Analysis
User’s Guide.
4. It is recommended that PARAM,AUTOSPC,NO be specified when using transfer
functions. See “Constraint and Mechanism Problem Identification in
SubDMAP SEKR” on page 409 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. The transfer functions are additive if multiple TF values are referenced on the TFL
command.
TFL
Transfer Function Set Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification of a TF Bulk Data entry. (Integer >0)
Main Index
272
Requests the form and type of temperature output.
Format:
Examples:
THERMAL=5
THER(PRINT,PUNCH)=ALL
Remarks:
1. The THERMAL output request is designed for use with the heat transfer option.
The printed output will have temperature headings. The PUNCH option
produces TEMP Bulk Data entries, and the SID on the entries will be the subcase
number (=1 if no SUBCASES are specified).
2. SORT1 is the default in steady state heat transfer analysis. SORT2 is the default
in transient heat transfer analysis.
3. In a transient heat transfer analysis, the SID on the punched TEMP Bulk Data
entries, equal the time step number.
THERMAL
Temperature Output Request
Describer Meaning
SORT1 Output is presented as a tabular listing of point temperatures for each
load or time step.
SORT2 Output is presented as a tabular listing of loads or time steps for each.
PRINT The printer will be the output medium.
PUNCH The punch file will be the output medium.
PLOT Compute temperatures but do not print.
ALL Temperatures for all points will be output.
NONE Temperatures for no points will be output.
n Set identification of a previously appearing SET command. Only
temperatures of points with identification numbers that appear on this
SET command will be output. (Integer >0)
THERMAL
SORT1
SORT2
PRINT, PUNCH
PLOT
,
\ .

 
ALL
n
NONE
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
273 CHAPTER C
Case Control Commands
Selects integration and output time steps for linear or nonlinear transient analysis.
Format:
TSTEP=n
Example:
TSTEP=731
Remarks:
1. A TSTEP entry must be selected to execute a linear transient analysis (SOLs 9, 12,
109, or 112) and TSTEPNL for a nonlinear transient analysis (SOLs 129 and 159).
2. A TSTEPNL entry must be selected in each subcase to execute a nonlinear
transient problem.
3. For the application of timedependent loads in modal frequency response
analysis (SOLs 111 and 146), or TSTEP entry must be selected by the TSTEP
command. The timedependent loads will be recomputed in frequency domain
by a Fourier Transform.
TSTEP
Transient Time Step Set Selection
Describer Meaning
n Set identification number of a TSTEP or TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry.
(Integer >0)
Main Index
274
See the description of the “TSTEP” on page 461.
TSTEPNL
Transient Time Step Set Selection for Nonlinear Analysis
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
APPENDIX
D
Bulk Data Entries
s Commonly Used Bulk Data Entries
Main Index
276
4.1 Commonly Used Bulk Data Entries
This appendix lists the Bulk Data entries that are often used for thermal analysis. Bulk Data
entries are listed alphabetically. The description of each entry is similar to that found in the
MSC.Nast ran Quick Reference Guide.
The MSC.Nast ran Quick Reference Guide describes all of the Bulk Data entries.
Figure 41 illustrates the interaction between the various Case Control commands and Bulk Data
entries involved in the specification of thermal loads.
Figure 42 illustrates the Bulk Data entry interaction for the application of heat transfer
boundary conditions involving radiation and convection.
Main Index
277 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Figure 41 Thermal Loads – Bulk Data and Case Control Interaction
NLPARM
TSTEPNL
TFL
MPC
TEMP(INIT)
IC
SPC
NONLINEAR
DLOAD
LOAD
Case Control Bulk Data
NLPARM
TSTEPNL
TF
MPC
TEMP
TEMPD
TEMPP1
TEMPP2
TEMPRB
SPC
SPC1
SPCD
TEMPBC
GRID
NOLIN1
TABLED1
TABLED2
TABLED3
TABLED4
NOLIN2
NOLIN3
NOLIN4
TABLED1
TABLED2
TABLED3
TABLED4
SLOAD
GRID
SPOINT
QVOL
CBAR
CBEAM
CBEND
CHEXA
CHEX1
CHEX2
CONROD
CPENTA
CQUAD4
CQUAD8
CROD
CTETRA
CTRIA3
CTRIA6
CTRIAX6
CTUBE
QVECT
CHBDYE
CHBDYG
CHBDYP
QBDY1
CHBDYE
CHBDYG
CHBDYP
QBDY3
CHBDYE
CHBDYG
CHBDYP
QHBDY
QBDY2
GRID
PBAR
PBEAM
PBEND
PSOLID
PROD
PSHELL
PTUBE
MAT4
MAT5
MATT4
MATT5
TABLEM1
TABLEM2
TABLEM3
TABLEM4
PHBDY
BDYOR
RADM
TABLEM1
TABLEM2
TABLEM3
TABLEM4
PHBDY
BDYOR
TABLED1
TABLED2
TABLED3
TABLED4
DELAY
TEMPBC
TLOAD1
TLOAD2
DLOAD
RADBND
RADMT
QVECT
Main Index
278
Figure 42 Thermal Boundary Conditions – Bulk Data Interaction
RADM
BDYOR
MAT4
MAT5
MATT4
MATT5
TABLEM1
TABLEM2
TABLEM3
TABLEM4
RADBC
CHBDYE
CHBDYG
CHBDYP
PHBDY
BDYOR
CONV
CHBDYE
CHBDYG
CHBDYP
PCONV
CONVM
CHBDYP
GRID
Free and Forced Convection
TABLEM1
TABLEM2
TABLEM3
TABLEM4
RADSET
CHBDYE
CHBDYG
CHBDYP
RADMTX
RADLST
Radiation
BDYOR
RADMT
RADBND
Radiation Exchange
View Factor Calculation
CHBDYE
CHBDYG
CHBDYP
VIEW
Radiation Boundary Condition
TABLEM1
TABLEM2
TABLEM3
TABLEM4
RADM RADMT
RADBND
RADCAV
SPC
PCONVM
BDYOR
PHBDY
PHBDY
PHBDY
Main Index
279 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Used to insert comments into the input file. Comment statements may appear anywhere within
the input file.
Format:
$ followed by any characters out to column 80.
Example:
$ TEST FIXTURETHIRD MODE
Remarks:
1. Comments are ignored by the program.
2. Comments will appear only in the unsorted echo of the Bulk Data.
$
Comment
Main Index
280
Defines default values for the CHBDYP, CHBDYG, and CHBDYE entries.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Only one BDYOR entry may be specified in the Bulk Data Section.
2. TYPE specifies the type of CHBDYi element surface; allowable values are: POINT,
LINE, REV, AREA3, AREA4, ELCYL, FTUBE, AREA6, AREA8, and TUBE.
3. IVIEWF and IVIEWB are specified for view factor calculations only (see VIEW entry).
4. GO is only used from BDYOR if neither GO nor the orientation vector is defined on the
CHBDYP entry and GO is > 0.
5. E1, E2, E3 is not used if GO is defined on either the BDYOR entry or the CHBDYP entry.
BDYOR
CHBDYi Entry Default Values
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
BDYOR TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMINF RADMIDB
PID GO
CE E1 E2 E3
BDYOR AREA4 2 2 3 3 10
Field Contents
TYPE Default surface type. See Remark 2. (Character)
IVIEWF Default identification number of front VIEW entry. (Integer > 0 or blank)
IVIEWB Default identification number of back VIEW entry. (Integer > 0 or blank)
RADMIDF Default identification number of a RADM entry for front face. (Integer > 0 or
blank)
RADMIDB Default identification number of a RADM entry for back face. (Integer > 0 or
blank)
PID Default PHBDY property entry identification number. (Integer > 0 or blank)
GO Default orientation grid point. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
CE Default coordinate system for defining the orientation vector. (Integer > 0 or
blank)
E1, E2, E3 Default components of the orientation vector in coordinate system CE. The origin
of this vector is grid point G1 on a CHBDYP entry. (Real or blank)
Main Index
281 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a scalar damper element.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/ or G2, in which case the corresponding C1
and/ or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded
terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal
is a point with a displacement that is constrained to zero.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2), must be distinct.
4. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. When CDAMP1 is used in heat transfer analysis, it generates a lumped heat capacity.
6. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
7. If Gi refers to a grid point then Ci refers to degreesoffreedom(s) in the displacement
coordinate system specified by CD on the GRID entry.
CDAMP1
Scalar Damper Connection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CDAMP1 EID PID G1 C1 G2 C2
CDAMP1 19 6 0 23 2
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
PID Property identification number of a PDAMP property entry. (Integer > 0;
Default = EID)
G1, G2 Geometric grid point identification number. (Integer > 0)
C1, C2 Component number. (0 < Integer < 6; 0 or up to six unique integers, 1 through 6
may be specified in the field with no embedded blanks. 0 applies to scalar points
and 1 through 6 applies to grid points.)
Main Index
282
Defines a scalar damper element without reference to a material or property entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/ or G2, in which case the corresponding C1
and/ or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded
terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal
is a point with a displacement that is constrained to zero.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2), must be distinct.
4. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. When CDAMP2 is used in heat transfer analysis, it generates a lumped heat capacity.
6. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
7. If Gi refers to a grid point then Ci refers to degreesoffreedom(s) in the displacement
coordinate system specified by CD on the GRID entry.
CDAMP2
Scalar Damper Property and Connection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CDAMP2 EID B G1 C1 G2 C2
CDAMP2 16 2.98 32 1
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
B Value of the scalar damper. (Real)
G1, G2 Geometric grid point identification number. (Integer > 0)
C1, C2 Component number. (0 < Integer < 6; 0 or up to six unique integers, 1 through 6
may be specified in the field with no embedded blanks. 0 applies to scalar points
and 1 through 6 applies to grid points.)
Main Index
283 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a scalar damper element that is connected only to scalar points.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. S1 or S2 may be blank or zero, indicating a constrained coordinate.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. Only one scalar damper element may be defined on a single entry.
4. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. When CDAMP3 is used in heat transfer analysis, it generates a lumped heat capacity.
6. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
CDAMP3
Scalar Damper Connection to Scalar Points Only
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CDAMP3 EID PID S1 S2
CDAMP3 16 978 24 36
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
PID Property identification number of a PDAMP entry. (Integer > 0; Default = EID)
S1, S2 Scalar point identification numbers. (Integer > 0; ) S1 S2 ≠
Main Index
284
Defines a scalar damper element that connected only to scalar points and without reference to a
material or property entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. S1 or S2 may be blank or zero, indicating a constrained coordinate.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. Only one scalar damper element may be defined on a single entry.
4. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. If this entry is used in heat transfer analysis, it generates a lumped heat capacity.
6. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
CDAMP4
Scalar Damper Property and Connection to Scalar Points Only
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CDAMP4 EID B S1 S2
CDAMP
4
16 2.6 4 9
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
B Scalar damper value. (Real)
S1, S2 Scalar point identification numbers. (Integer > 0; ) S1 S2 ≠
Main Index
285 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a damping element that refers to a material property entry and connection to grid or
scalar points. This element is intended for heat transfer analysis only.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. G1 or G2 may be blank or zero indicating a constraint.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. CDAMP5 generates a lumped heat capacity in heat transfer analysis.
4. A scalar point specified on CDAMP5 need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
CDAMP5
Scalar Damper with Material Property
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CDAMP5 EID PID G1 G2
CDAMP5 1 4 10 20
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
PID Identification number of a PDAMP5 property entry. (Integer > 0; Default = EID)
G1, G2 Grid or scalar point identification numbers. (Integer > 0 and ) G1 G2 ≠
Main Index
286
Defines a scalar spring element.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/ or G2, in which case the corresponding C1
and/ or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded
terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal
is a point with a displacement that is constrained to zero. If only scalar points and/ or
ground are involved, it is more efficient to use the CELAS3 entry.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2) must be distinct.
4. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
6. If Gi refers to a grid point then Ci refers to degreesoffreedom(s) in the displacement
coordinate system specified by CD on the GRID entry.
CELAS1
Scalar Spring Connection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CELAS1 EID PID G1 C1 G2 C2
CELAS1 2 6 8 1
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
PID Property identification number of a PELAS entry. (Integer > 0; Default = EID)
G1, G2 Geometric grid point identification number. (Integer > 0)
C1, C2 Component number. (0 < Integer < 6; blank or zero if scalar point.)
Main Index
287 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a scalar spring element without reference to a property entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/ or G2, in which case the corresponding C1
and/ or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded
terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal
is a point with a displacement that is constrained to zero. If only scalar points and/ or
ground are involved, it is more efficient to use the CELAS4 entry.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2) must be distinct.
4. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
6. If PARAM,W4 is not specified, GE is ignored in transient analysis. See “Parameters”
on page 601.
7. If Gi refers to a grid point then Ci refers to degreesoffreedom in the displacement
coordinate system specified by CD on the GRID entry.
8. To obtain the damping coefficient GE, multiply the critical damping ratio by 2.0.
CELAS2
Scalar Spring Property and Connection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CELAS2 EID K G1 C1 G2 C2 GE S
CELAS2 28 6.2+3 32 19 4
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
K Stiffness of the scalar spring. (Real)
G1, G2 Geometric grid point or scalar identification number. (Integer > 0)
C1, C2 Component number. (0 < Integer < 6; 0 blank or zero if scalar point.)
GE Damping coefficient. See Remarks 6. and 8. (Real)
S Stress coefficient. (Real)
C C
0
⁄
Main Index
288
Defines a scalar spring element that connects only to scalar points.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. S1 or S2 may be blank or zero, indicating a constrained coordinate.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. Only one scalar spring element may be defined on a single entry.
4. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
CELAS3
Scalar Spring Connection to Scalar Points Only
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CELAS3 EID PID S1 S2
CELAS3 19 2 14 15
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
PID Property identification number of a PELAS entry. (Integer > 0; Default = EID)
S1, S2 Scalar point identification numbers. (Integer > 0; ) S1 S2 ≠
Main Index
289 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a scalar spring element that is connected only to scalar points, without reference to a
property entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. S1 or S2, but not both, may be blank or zero indicating a constrained coordinate.
2. Element identification numbers should be unique with respect to all other element
identification numbers.
3. A structural damping coefficient is not available with CELAS4. The value of g is
assumed to be 0.0.
4. No stress coefficient is available with CELAS4.
5. Only one scalar spring element may be defined on a single entry.
6. For a discussion of the scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
7. A scalar point specified on this entry need not be defined on an SPOINT entry.
CELAS4
Scalar Spring Property and Connection to Scalar Points Only
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CELAS4 EID K S1 S2
CELAS4 42 6.23 2
Field Contents
EID Unique element identification number. (0 < Integer < 100,000,000)
K Stiffness of the scalar spring. (Real)
S1, S2 Scalar point identification numbers. (Integer > 0; ) S1 S2 ≠
Main Index
290
Defines a boundary condition surface element with reference to a heat conduction element.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. EID is a unique elemental ID associated with a particular surface element. EID2
identifies the general heat conduction element being considered for this surface
element.
2. The defaults for IVIEWF, IVIEWB, RADMIDF, and RADMIDB may be specified on the
BDYOR entry. If a particular field is blank both on the CHBDYE entry and the BDYOR
entry, then the default is zero.
3. For the front face of shell elements, the righthand rule is used as one progresses
around the element surface from G1 to G2 to ... Gn. For the edges of shell elements or
the ends of line elements, an outward normal is used to define the front surface.
4. If the surface element is to be used in the calculation of view factors, it must have an
associated VIEW entry.
5. All conduction elements to which any boundary condition is to be applied must be
individually identified with the application of one of the surface element entries:
CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or CHBDYP.
CHBDYE
Geometric Surface Element Definition (Element Form)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHBDYE EID EID2 SIDE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMIDF RADMIDB
CHBDYE 2 10 1 3 3 2 2
Field Contents
EID Surface element identification number for a specific side of a particular element.
See Remarks 1. and 9. (Unique (0 < Integer < 100,000,000) among all elements.)
EID2 A heat conduction element identification number. (Integer > 0)
SIDE A consistent element side identification number. See Remark 6. (1 < Integer < 6)
IVIEWF A VIEW entry identification number for the front face of surface element.
(Integer > 0, see Remark 2. for default.)
IVIEWB A VIEW entry identification number for the back face of surface element.
(Integer > 0, see Remark 2. for default.)
RADMIDF RADM identification number for front face of surface element. (Integer > 0, see
Remark 2. for default.)
RADMIDB RADM identification number for back face of surface element. (Integer > 0, see
Remark 2. for default.)
Main Index
291 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
6. Side conventions for solid elements.
The sides of the solid elements are numbered consecutively according to the order of
the grid point numbers on the solid element entry. The sides of solid elements are
either quadrilaterals or triangles. For each element type, tabulate the grid points (gp)
at the corners of each side.
8node or 20node CHEXA
CPENTA
CTETRA
7. Side conventions for shell elements.
Side 1 of shell elements (top) are of an AREA type, and additional sides (2 through a
maximum of 5 for a QUAD) are of LINE type. (See “CHBDYG” on page 293 for surface
type definition.)
Area Type Sides –The first side is that given by the righthand rule on the shell elements
grid points.
side gp gp gp gp
1 4 3 2 1
2 1 2 6 5
3 2 3 7 6
4 3 4 8 7
5 4 1 5 8
6 5 6 7 8
side gp gp gp gp
1 3 2 1
2 1 2 5 4
3 2 3 6 5
4 3 1 4 6
5 4 5 6
side gp gp gp
1 3 2 1
2 1 2 4
3 2 3 4
4 3 1 4
Main Index
292
Line Type Sides –The second side (first line) proceeds from grid point 1 to grid point 2
of the shell element, and the remaining lines are numbered consecutively. The
thickness of the line is that of the shell element, and the normal to the line is outward
from the shell element in the plane of the shell. Note that any midside nodes are
ignored in this specification.
8. Side conventions for line elements.
LINE elements have one linear side (side 1) with geometry that is the same as that of
the element and two POINTtype sides corresponding to the two points bounding the
linear element (first grid pointside 2; second grid pointside 3).
The TUBEtype element has two linear sides of type TUBE. The first side represents the
outside with diameters equal to that of the outside of the tube. The second side
represents the inside with diameters equal to that of the inside of the tube.
Point Sides – Point sides may be used with any linear element. The direction of the
outward normals of these points is in line with the element axis, but pointing away
from the element. The area assigned to these POINTtype sides is consistent with the
element geometry.
Rev Sides –The CTRIAX6 element has associated with it three REV sides. The first side
is associated with Grid Points G1, G2, and G3. The positive face identification normals
point away from the element.
9. Application of boundary conditions to CHBDYE is referenced through the EID.
Boundary conditions can reference either the front or back face of the CHBDYE by
specifying +EID or EID respectively. Correspondingly, the back face is minus the
normal vector of the front face. Similarly, IVIEWF and RADMIDF are associated with
+EID and IVIEWB and RADMIDB with EID. For radiation problems, if the RADMIDF
or RADMIDB is zero, default radiant properties assume perfect black body behavior.
Main Index
293 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a boundary condition surface element without reference to a property entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. EID is a unique ID associated with a particular surface element as defined by the grid
points.
2. The defaults for TYPE, IVIEWF, IVIEWB, RADMIDF, and RADMIDB may be specified
on the BDYOR entry. If a particular field is blank on both the CHBDYG entry and the
BDYOR entry, then the default is zero.
3. TYPE specifies the kind of element surface; allowed types are: REV, AREA3, AREA4,
AREA6, and AREA8. See Figure 43, Figure 44, and Figure 45.
• TYPE = REV
CHBDYG
Geometric Surface Element Definition (Grid Form)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHBDYG EID TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB
RADMIDF RADMIDB
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8
CHBDYG 2 AREA4 3 3 2 2
100 103 102 101
Field Contents
EID Surface element identification number. (Unique (0 < Integer < 100,000,000) among
all elemental entries.)
TYPE Surface type. See Remark 3. (Character)
IVIEWF A VIEW entry identification number for the front face. (Integer > 0; see Remark 2.
for default.)
IVIEWB A VIEW entry identification number for the back face. (Integer > 0; see Remark 2.
for default.)
RADMIDF RADM identification number for front face of surface element. (Integer > 0; see
Remark 2. for default.)
RADMIDB RADM identification number for back face of surface element. (Integer > 0; see
Remark 2. for default.)
Gi Grid point IDs of grids bounding the surface. (Integer > 0)
Main Index
294
The “REV” type has two primary grid points that must lie in the xz plane of the
basic coordinate system with x>0. A midside grid point G3 is optional and
supports convection or heat flux from the edge of the sixnoded CTRIAX6
element. The defined area is a conical section with z as the axis of symmetry. A
property entry is required for convection, radiation, or thermal vector flux.
Automatic view factor calculations with VIEW data are not supported for the
REV option.
Figure 43 .Normal Vector for CHBDYG Element of Type “REV”
The unit normal lies in the xz plane, and is given by
is the unit vector in the y direction.
• TYPE = AREA3, AREA4, AREA6, or AREA8
These types have three and four primary grid points, respectively, that define a
triangular or quadrilateral surface and must be ordered to go around the
boundary. A property entry is required for convection, radiation, or thermal
vector flux.
G2
z
x
G1
y
G3
n
T
n ey T × ( ) ey T × ⁄ =
ey
G3
G2 G1
G3 G4
G2 G1
AREA3 AREA4
G3
G2 G1
G3 G4
G2 G1 G4
G6 G5
G5
G7
G6 G8
AREA8
(Grid points G5 through G8 optional)
AREA6
(Grid points G4 through G6 optional)
Main Index
295 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Figure 44 TYPE Examples
Figure 45 Normal Vector for CHBDYG Element of Types “AREAi”
The unit normal vector is given by
(G3 is used for triangles, and G4 is used for quadrilaterals.)
4. For defining the front face, the righthand rule is used on the sequence G1 to G2 to ...
Gn of grid points.
5. If the surface element is to be used in the calculation of view factors, it must have an
associated VIEW entry.
6. All conduction elements to which any boundary condition is to be applied must be
individually identified with one of the surface element entries: CHBDYE, CHBDYG,
or CHBDYP.
See Remark 9. of CHBDYE for application of boundary conditions using CHBDYG entries and a
discussion of front and back faces.
G2
G1
G3 or G4
n
T12
T1x
n
T12 T1x × ( )
T12 T1x ×
 =
Main Index
296
Defines a boundary condition surface element with reference to a PHBDY entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. EID is a unique ID associated with a particular surface element as defined by the grid
point(s).
2. The defaults for PID, TYPE, IVIEWF, IVIEWB, GO, RADMIDF, RADMIDB, CE, and Ei
may be specified on the BDYOR entry. If a particular field is blank on both the
CHBDYP entry and the BDYOR entry, then the default is zero.
CHBDYP
Geometric Surface Element Definition (Property Form)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHBDYP EID PID TYPE IVIEWF IVIEWB G1 G2 G0
RADMIDF RADMIDB
GMID CE E1 E2 E3
CHBDYP 2 5 POINT 2 2 101 500
3 3 0.0 0.0 1.0
Field Contents
EID Surface element identification number. (Unique (0 < Integer < 100,000,000) among
all element identification numbers.)
PID PHBDY property entry identification numbers. (Integer > 0)
TYPE Surface type. See Remark 3. (Character)
IVIEWF VIEW entry identification number for the front face. (Integer > 0 or blank)
IVIEWB VIEW entry identification number for the back face. (Integer > 0 or blank)
G1, G2 Grid point identification numbers of grids bounding the surface. (Integer > 0)
GO Orientation grid point. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
RADMIDF RADM entry identification number for front face. (Integer > 0 or blank)
RADMIDB RADM entry identification number for back face. (Integer > 0 or blank)
GMID Grid point identification number of a midside node if it is used with the line type
surface element.
CE Coordinate system for defining orientation vector. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
Ei Components of the orientation vector in coordinate system CE. The origin of the
orientation vector is grid point G1. (Real or blank)
Main Index
297 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
3. TYPE specifies the kind of element surface; the allowed types are: “POINT,” “LINE,”
“ELCYL,” “FTUBE,” and “TUBE.” For TYPE = “FTUBE” and TYPE = “TUBE,” the
geometric orientation is completely determined by G1 and G2; the GO, CE, E1, E2, and
E3 fields are ignored.
• TYPE = “POINT”
TYPE = “POINT” has one primary grid point, requires a property entry, and the
normal vector Vi must be specified if thermal flux is to be used.
Figure 46 Normal Vector for CHBDYP Element of Type “POINT”
(See Remarks 4. and 5)
The unit normal vector is given by where is specified in the Ei
field and given in the basic system at the referenced grid point. See Remarks 4
and 5 for the determination of .
• TYPE = “LINE,” “FTUBE,” or “TUBE”
The TYPE = “LINE” type has two primary grid points, requires a property entry,
and the vector is required. TYPE = “FTUBE” and TYPE = “TUBE” are similar to
TYPE = “LINE” except they can have linear taper with no automatic view factor
calculations. GMID is an option for the TYPE = “LINE” surface element only
and is ignored for TYPE = “FTUBE” and “TUBE”.
Figure 47 Normal Vector for CHBDYP Element with TYPE=“LINE”,
TYPE=“FTUBE”, or TYPE=“TUBE”
(See Remarks 4 and 5)
The unit normal lies in the plane and , is perpendicular to , and is given by:
• TYPE = “ELCYL”
G1
n
V
n V V ⁄ = V
V
G2
G1
GMID
V
T n
V T T
n
T V T × ( ) ×
T V T × ( ) ×
 =
Main Index
298
TYPE = “ELCYL” (elliptic cylinder) has two connected primary grid points and
requires a property entry. The vector must be nonzero. Automatic view factor
calculations are not available.
Figure 48 Normal Vector for CHBDYP Element of TYPE=“ELCYL”
(See Remarks 4 and 5)
The same logic is used to determine as for TYPE = LINE. The “radius” R
1
is
in the
direction, and R2 is the perpendicular to and (see fields 7 and 8 of
PHBDY entry).
4. For TYPE = “POINT,” TYPE = “LINE,” and TYPE = “ELCYL,” geometric orientation is
required. The required information is sought in the following order:
• If GO > 0 is found on the CHBDYP entry, it is used.
• Otherwise, if a nonblank CE is found on the CHBDYP continuation entry, this
CE and the corresponding vectors E1, E2, and E3 are used.
• If neither of the above, the same information is sought in the same way from the
BDYOR entry.
• If none of the above apply, a warning message is issued.
5. The geometric orientation can be defined by either GO or the vector E1, E2, E3.
• If GO > zero:
For a TYPE = “POINT” surface, the normal to the front face is the vector from G1
to GO. For the TYPE = “LINE” surface, the plane passes through G1, G2, GO
and the righthand rule is used on this sequence to get the normal to the front
face. For TYPE = “ELCYL” surface the first axis of the ellipse lies on the G1, G2,
GO plane, and the second axis is normal to this plane. For TYPE = “FTUBE” or
“TUBE” surface, no orientation is required, and GO is superfluous.
• If GO is zero:
For a TYPE = “POINT” surface, the normal to the front face is the orientation
vector. For the TYPE = “LINE” surface, the plane passes through G1, G2, and
the orientation vector; the front face is based on the righthand rule for the
vectors G2G1 and the orientation vector. For TYPE = “ELCYL” surface, the first
axis of the ellipse lies on the G1, G2, orientation vector plane, and the second axis
is normal to this plane.
R
1
R
2
V
n
T
n
n n T
Main Index
299 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
6. The continuation entry is optional.
7. If the surface element is to be used in the calculation of view factors, it must have an
associated VIEW entry.
8. All conduction elements to which any boundary condition is to be applied must be
individually identified with the application of one of the surface element entries:
CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or CHBDYP entries.
Main Index
300
Defines the control mechanism for QVECT, QVOL, QBCY3, in heat transfer analysis (SOL 159).
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The CONTRLT ID is referenced by CNTRLND entry identified on any of the QVECT,
QVOL, QBDY3, Bulk Data entries. If any grid or scalar point ID is the same as the
CONTRLT ID, then the combined logic associated with the controller and the control
node will be in force for the LBC referenced. Any number of CONTROLT statements
may exist in a single model.
2. Sensor point, where a feedback temperature or rate of change of temperature is
measured. May be a dependent DOF in a MPC relationship.
3. Sensor output may only be temperature (T)
4. Control type can only be TSTAT. The PZERO field cannot have any other value but 0.0
or 1.0.
5. The upper and lower limit values (Pl and Ph) define a dead band for a thermostat. The
available thermostat controller (TSTAT) formats are (PTYPE = 1 thru 6).
CONTRLT
Thermal Control ELement for Heat Transfer Analysis
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CONTRLT
ID Sensor SFORM CTYPE Pl Ph PTYPE PZERO
DT Delay TAUc TA8
CONTRLT
100 20 3 68. 73. 1 0.
Field Contents
ID Control node ID as well as CONTROLT ID (Integer > 0, no default). See Remark 1.
Sensor Grid or scalar point ID of the sensor (Integer > 0, no default). See Remark 2.
SFORM Sensor output form (Character, T, default = T). See Remark 3.
CTYPE Control type (Character, TSTAT for thermostat, default = TSTAT). See Remark 4.
Pl, Ph Lower and upper limit value for desired temperature in the thermostat (real, no
default). See Remark 5.
PTYPE Process type (Integer value 1 thru 6). No default, see Remark 5.
PZERO Initial controller value (0. < Real < 1., Default = 0.) See Remark 4.
DT Monitoring time interval, or sampling period (Real > 0., Default = 0) See Remark 6.
Delay Time delay after the switch is triggered or time for delayed control action in PID
control. (Real < 0., Default = 0.) See Remark 7.
TAUc Decay time constant for actuator response (Real > 0., default = 0.) See Remark 7.
Main Index
301 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Specifies a free convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through connection to
a surface element (CHBDYi entry).
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The basic exchange relationship can be expressed in one of the following forms:
• , CNTRLND = 0
• ,
• , CNTRLND = 0
• ,
EXPF is specified on the PCONV entry.
(See “PCONV” on page 1843 entry for additional clarification of forms.)
2. The continuation entry is not required.
3. CONV is used with an CHBDYi (CHBDYG, CHBDYE, or CHBDYP) entry having the
same EID.
4. The temperature of the film convection point provides the look up temperature to
determine the convection film coefficient. If FLMND=0, the reference temperature has
several options. It can be the average of surface and ambient temperatures, the surface
temperature, or the ambient temperature, as defined in the FORM field of the PCONV
Bulk Data entry.
CONV
Heat Boundary Element Free Convection Entry
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CONV EID PCONID FLMND
CNTRLND
TA1 TA2 TA3 TA4
TA5 TA6 TA7 TA8
CONV 2 101 3 201 301
Field Contents
EID CHBDYG, CHBDYE, or CHBDYP surface element identification number.
(Integer > 0)
PCONID Convection property identification number of a PCONV entry. (Integer > 0)
FLMND Point for film convection fluid property temperature. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
CNTRLND Control point for free convection boundary condition. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
TAi Ambient points used for convection. (Integer > 0 for TA1 and Integer > 0 for TA2
through TA8; Default for TA2 through TA8 is TA1.)
q H T TAMB – ( ) ⋅
EXPF
T TAMB – ( ) =
q H u
CNTRLND
⋅ ( ) T TAMB – ( )
EXPF
T TAMB – ( ) = CNTRLND 0 ≠
q H T
EXPF
TAMB
EXPF
– ( ) =
q H u
CNTRLND
⋅ ( ) T
EXPF
TAMB
EXPF
– ( ) = CNTRLND 0 ≠
Main Index
302
5. If only one ambient point is specified then all the ambient points are assumed to have
the same temperature. If midside ambient points are missing, the temperature of these
points is assumed to be the average of the connecting corner points.
6. See the Bulk Data entry, “PCONV” on page 1843, for an explanation of the
mathematical relationships involved in free convection and the reference temperature
for convection film coefficient.
Main Index
303 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Specifies a forced convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through connection
to a surface element (CHBDYi entry).
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. CONVM is used with an CHBDYP entry of type FTUBE having the same EID.
2. The temperature of the fluid film point may be specified to determine the material
properties for the fluid. If FLMND=0, the reference temperature has several options.
It can be the average of surface and ambient temperatures, the surface temperatures, or
the ambient temperature, as defined in the FORM field of the PCONVM Bulk Data
entry.
3. CNTMDOT must be set to the desired mass flow rate (mdot) to effect the advection of
energy downstream at an rate. In addition to the effect that mdot has on
the transfer of thermal energy in the streamwise direction, this control point value is
also used in computing the tube Reynolds number and subsequently the forced
convection heat transfer coefficient if requested. This enables the fluid stream to
exchange heat with its surroundings.
4. If only the first ambient point is specified then, the second ambient point is assumed to
have the same temperature.
5. See the Bulk Data entry, “PCONVM” on page 1845, for an explanation of the
mathematical relationships available for forced convection and the reference
temperature for fluid material properties.
CONVM
Heat Boundary Element Forced Convection Entry
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CONVM EID PCONID FLMND
CNTMDOT
TA1 TA2
CONVM 101 1 201 301 20 21
Field Contents
EID CHBDYP element identification number. (Integer > 0)
PCONID Convection property identification number of a PCONVM entry. (Integer > 0)
FLMND Point used for fluid film temperature. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
CNTMDOT Control point used for controlling mass flow. (Integer > 0)
TA1, TA2 Ambient points used for convection. (Integer > 0 for TA1 and Integer > 0 for TA2;
Default for TA2 is TA1.)
mdot C
p
T ⋅ ⋅
Main Index
304
Defines the time delay term τ in the equations of the dynamic loading function.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. One or two dynamic load time delays may be defined on a single entry.
2. SID must also be specified on a RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1, TLOAD2, or ACSRCE
entry. See those entry descriptions for the formulas that define the manner in which
the time delay τ is used.
3. A DAREA and/ or LSEQ entry should be used to define a load at Pi and Ci.
4. In superelement analysis, DELAY entries may only be applied to loads on points in the
residual structure.
DELAY
Dynamic Load Time Delay
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DELAY SID P1 C1 T1 P2 C2 T2
DELAY 5 21 6 4.25 7 6 8.1
Field Contents
SID Identification number of the DELAY entry. (Integer > 0)
Pi Grid, extra, or scalar point identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ci Component number. (Integer 1 through 6 for grid point, blank or 0 for extra point
or scalar point.)
Ti Time delay τ for designated point Pi and component Ci. (Real)
Main Index
305 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a dynamic loading condition for frequency response or transient response problems as
a linear combination of load sets defined via RLOAD1 or RLOAD2 entries for frequency
response or TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries for transient response.
Format:
Examples:
Remarks:
1. Dynamic load sets must be selected in the Case Control Section with DLOAD = SID.
2. The load vector being defined by this entry is given by
3. Each Li must be unique from any other Li on the same entry.
4. SID must be unique from all TLOADi and RLOADi entries.
5. Nonlinear transient load sets (NOLINi entries) may not be specified on DLOAD
entries. NOLINi entries are selected separately in the Case Control Section by the
NONLINEAR command.
6. A DLOAD entry may not reference a set identification number defined by another
DLOAD entry.
7. TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 loads may be combined only through the use of the DLOAD
entry.
8. RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 loads may be combined only through the use of the DLOAD
entry.
DLOAD
Dynamic Load Combination or Superposition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DLOAD SID S S1 L1 S2 L2 S3 L3
S4 L4 etc. *
DLOAD 17 1.0 2.0 6 2.0 7 2.0 8
2.0 9
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
S Scale factor. (Real)
Si Scale factors. (Real)
Li Load set identification numbers of RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1, TLOAD2, and
ACSRC entries. (Integer > 0)
P { } S Si P
i
{ }
i
∑
=
Main Index
306
Defines matrix data blocks. Generates a matrix of the following form:
where the elements may be real or complex . The matrix is
defined by a single header entry and one or more column entries. Only one header entry is
required. A column entry is required for each column with nonzero elements.
Header Entry Format:
Column Entry Format for Real Matrices:
Column Entry Format for Complex Matrices:
Example of a Real Matrix:
Example of a Complex Matrix:
DMI
Direct Matrix Input
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DMI NAME “0” FORM TIN TOUT M N
DMI NAME J I1 A(I1,J) A(I1+1,J) etc. I2
A(I2,J) etc.
DMI NAME J I1 A(I1,J) B(I1,J) A(I1+1,J) B(I1+1,J) etc.
I2 A(I2,J) B(I2,J) etc.
DMI BBB 0 2 1 1 4 2
DMI BBB 1 1 1. 3. 5.
DMI BBB 2 2 6. 4 8.
DMI QQQ 0 2 3 3 4 2
DMI QQQ 1 1 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.0 3
NAME [ ]
X
11
X
12
… X
1n
X
21
X
22
… X
2n
· · · ·
X
m1
… … X
mn
=
X
ij
X
ij
A
ij
= ( ) X
ij
A
ij
iB
ij
+ = ( )
BBB
1.0 0.0
3.0 6.0
5.0 0.0
0.0 8.0
=
Main Index
307 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
5.0 6.0
DMI QQQ 2 2 6.0 7.0 4 8.0 9.0
Field Contents
NAME Name of the matrix. See Remark 1. Name is used to reference the data block in the
DMAP sequence. (One to eight alphanumeric characters, the first of which must be
alphabetic.)
FORM Form of matrix, as follows: (Integer)
1 = Square matrix (not symmetric)
2 = General rectangular matrix
3 = Diagonal matrix (M=number of rows, N = 1)
4 = Lower triangular factor
5 = Upper triangular factor
6 = Symmetric matrix
8 = Identity matrix (M=number of rows, N = M)
TIN Type of matrix being input, as follows: (Integer)
1 = Real, single precision (one field used/ element)
2 = Real, double precision (one field used/ element)
3 = Complex, single precision (two fields used/ element)
4 = Complex, double precision (two fields used/ element)
QQQ [ ]
1.0 2.0i + , 0.0 0.0i +
3.0 0.0i + , 6.0 7.0i +
5.0 6.0i + , 0.0 0.0i +
0.0 0.0i + , 8.0 9.0i +
=
Main Index
308
Remarks:
1. In order to use the DMI feature, the user must write a DMAP, or make alterations to a
solution sequence that includes the DMIIN module. See the MSC.Nastran 2005 DMAP
Programmer’s Guide. All of the rules governing the use of data blocks in DMAP
sequences apply.
2. The total number of DMIs and DTIs may not exceed 1000.
3. Field 3 of the header entry must contain an integer of zero (0).
4. For symmetric matrices, the entire matrix must be input.
5. Only nonzero terms need be entered.
6. Leading and trailing zeros in a column do not have to be entered. However, a blank
field between nonzero fields on this entry is not equivalent to a zero. If a zero input is
required, the appropriate type zero must be entered (i.e., 0.0 or 0.0D0).
7. Complex input must have both the real and imaginary parts entered if either part is
nonzero; i.e., the zero component must be input explicitly.
8. If A(Ix,J) is followed by "THRU" in the next field and an integer row number "IX" after
the THRU, then A(lx,J) will be repeated in each row through IX. The "THRU" must
follow an element value. For example, the entries for a real matrix RRR would appear
as follows:
TOUT Type of matrix being output, as follows: (Integer)
0 = Set by precision cell
1 = Real, single precision
2 = Real, double precision
3 = Complex, single precision
4 = Complex, double precision
M Number of rows in NAME. (Integer > 0)
N Number of columns in NAME. Except for FORM 3 and 8. (Integer > 0)
"0" Indicates the header entry.
J Column number of NAME. (Integer > 0)
I1, I2, etc. Row number of NAME, which indicates the beginning of a group of nonzero
elements in the column. See Remark 13. (Integer > 0)
A(Ix,J) Real part of element (see TIN). (Real)
B(Ix,J) Imaginary part of element (see TIN). (Real)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DMI NAME J I1 A(I1,J) I1 A(I2,J)
DMI RRR 1 2 1.0 THRU 10 12 2.0
Field Contents
Main Index
309 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
These entries will cause the first column of the matrix RRR to have a zero in row 1, the
values 1.0 in rows 2 through 10, a zero in row 11, and 2.0 in row 12.
9. Each column must be a single logical entry. The terms in each column must be
specified in increasing row number order.
10. The "FORM" options 4, 5, and 8 are nonstandard forms and may be used only in
conjunction with the modules indicated in Table 41.
11. Form 3 matrices are converted to Form 6 matrices, which may be used by any module.
12. Form 7 matrices may not be defined on this entry.
13. I1 must be specified. I2, etc. are not required if their matrix elements follow the
preceding element in the next row of the matrix. For example, in the column entry for
column 1 of QQQ, neither I2 nor I3 is specified.
14. The DMIG entry is more convenient for matrices with rows and columns that are
referenced by grid or scalar point degreesoffreedom.
Table 41 DMI FORM Options
FORM Matrix Description
Modules
ADD FBS MATPRN MPYAD
4 Lower Triangular Factor X X
5 Upper Triangular Factor X X
8 Identity X X X X
Main Index
310
Defines direct input matrices related to grid, extra, and/ or scalar points. The matrix is defined
by a single header entry and one or more column entries. A column entry is required for each
column with nonzero elements.
Header Entry Format:
Column Entry Format:
Example:
DMIG
Direct Matrix Input at Points
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DMIG NAME “0" IFO TIN TOUT POLAR NCOL
DMIG NAME GJ CJ G1 C1 A1 B1
G2 C2 A2 B2 etc.
DMIG STIF 0 1 3 4
DMIG STIF 27 1 2 3 3.+5 3.+3
2 4 2.5+10 0. 50 1.0 0.
Field Contents
NAME Name of the matrix. See Remark 1. (One to eight alphanumeric characters, the first
of which is alphabetic.)
IFO Form of matrix input. IFO = 6 must be specified for matrices selected by the K2GG,
M2GG, and B2GG Case Control commands. (Integer)
1 = Square
9 or 2 = Rectangular
6 = Symmetric
TIN Type of matrix being input: (Integer)
1 = Real, single precision (One field is used per element.)
2 = Real, double precision (One field is used per element.)
3 = Complex, single precision (Two fields are used per element.)
4 = Complex, double precision (Two fields are used per element.)
TOUT Type of matrix that will be created: (Integer)
0 = Set by precision system cell (Default)
1 = Real, single precision
2 = Real, double precision
3 = Complex, single precision
4 = Complex, double precision
POLAR Input format of Ai, Bi. (Integer=blank or 0 indicates real, imaginary format;
Integer > 0 indicates amplitude, phase format.)
Main Index
311 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Remarks:
1. Matrices defined on this entry may be used in dynamics by selection in the Case
Control with K2PP = NAME, B2PP = NAME, M2PP = NAME for [K
pp
], [B
pp
], or [M
pp
],
respectively. Matrices may also be selected for all solution sequences by
K2GG = NAME, B2GG = NAME, and M2GG = NAME. The gset matrices are added
to the structural matrices before constraints are applied, while pset matrices are added
in dynamics after constraints are applied. Load matrices may be selected by
P2G = NAME for dynamic and superelement analyses.
2. The header entry containing IFO, TIN and TOUT is required. Each nonnull column is
started with a GJ, CJ pair. The entries for each row of that column follows. Only
nonzero terms need be entered. The terms may be input in arbitrary order. A GJ, CJ
pair may be entered more than once, but input of an element of the matrix more than
once will produce a fatal message.
3. Field 3 of the header entry must contain an integer 0.
4. For symmetric matrices (IFO = 6), a given offdiagonal element may be input either
below or above the diagonal. While upper and lower triangle terms may be mixed, a
fatal message will be issued if an element is input both below and above the diagonal.
5. The recommended format for rectangular matrices requires the use of NCOL and
IFO = 9. The number of columns in the matrix is NCOL. (The number of rows in all
DMIG matrices is always either pset or gset size, depending on the context.) The GJ
term is used for the column index. The CJ term is ignored.
6. If NCOL is not used for rectangular matrices, two different conventions are available:
• If IFO = 9, GJ and CJ will determine the sorted sequence, but will otherwise be
ignored; a rectangular matrix will be generated with the columns submitted
being in the 1 to N positions, where N is the number of logical entries submitted
(not counting the header entry).
• If IFO = 2, the number of columns of the rectangular matrix will be equal to the
index of the highest numbered nonnull column (in internal sort). Trailing null
columns of the g or psize matrix will be truncated.
NCOL Number of columns in a rectangular matrix. Used only for IFO = 9. See Remarks
5. and 6. (Integer > 0)
GJ Grid, scalar or extra point identification number for column index. (Integer > 0)
CJ Component number for grid point GJ. (0 < Integer < 6; blank or zero if GJ is a
scalar or extra point.)
Gi Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number for row index. (Integer > 0)
Ci Component number for Gi for a grid point. ( ; blank or zero if Gi is a
scalar or extra point.)
Ai, Bi Real and imaginary (or amplitude and phase) parts of a matrix element. If the
matrix is real (TIN = 1 or 2), then Bi must be blank. (Real)
Field Contents
0 CJ < 6 ≤
Main Index
312
7. The matrix names must be unique among all DMIGs.
8. TIN should be set consistent with the number of decimal digits required to read the
input data adequately. For a singleprecision specification on a shortword machine,
the input will be truncated after about eight decimal digits, even when more digits are
present in a doublefield format. If more digits are needed, a double precision
specification should be used instead. However, note that a double precision
specification requires a “D” type exponent even for terms that do not need an
exponent. For example, unity may be input as 1.0 in single precision, but the longer
form 1.0D0 is required for double precision.
9. On longword machines, almost all matrix calculations are performed in single
precision and on shortword machines, in double precision. It is recommended that
DMIG matrices also follow these conventions for a balance of efficiency and reliability.
The recommended value for TOUT is 0, which instructs the program to inspect the
system cell that measures the machine precision at run time and sets the precision of
the matrix to the same value. TOUT = 0 allows the same DMIG input to be used on any
machine. If TOUT is contrary to the machine type specified (for example, a TOUT of 1
on a shortword machine), unreliable results may occur.
10. If any DMIG entry is changed or added on restart then a complete reanalysis is
performed. Therefore, DMIG entry changes or additions are not recommended on
restart.
Main Index
313 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines the phase lead term θ in the equation of the dynamic loading function.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. One or two dynamic load phase lead terms may be defined on a single entry.
2. SID must be referenced on a RLOADi entry. Refer to the RLOAD1 or RLOAD2 entry
for the formulas that define how the phase lead θ is used.
3. A DAREA and/ or LSEQ entry should be used to define a load at Pi and Ci.
4. In superelement analysis, DPHASE entries may only be applied to loads on points in
the residual structure.
DPHASE
Dynamic Load Phase Lead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DPHASE SID P1 C1 TH1 P2 C2 TH2
DPHASE 4 21 6 2.1 8 6 7.2
Field Contents
SID Identification number of DPHASE entry. (Integer > 0)
Pi Grid, extra, or scalar point identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ci Component number. (Integers 1 through 6 for grid points; zero or blank for extra
or scalar points)
THi Phase lead θ in degrees. (Real)
Main Index
314
Inserts an external file into the input file. The INCLUDE statement may appear anywhere within
the input data file.
Format:
INCLUDE’filename’
Describer:
Example:
The following INCLUDE statement is used to obtain the Bulk Data from another file called
MYBULK.DATA:
SOL 101
CEND
TITLE = STATIC ANALYSIS
LOAD = 100
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE ’MYBULK.DATA’
ENDDATA
Remarks:
1. INCLUDE statements may be nested; that is, INCLUDE statements may appear inside
the external file. The nested depth level must not be greater than 10.
2. The total length of any line in an INCLUDE statement must not exceed 72 characters.
Long file names may be split across multiple lines. For example the file:
/ dir123/ dir456/ dir789/ filename.dat
may be included with the following input:
INCLUDE ‘/ dir123
/ dir456
/ dir789/ filename.dat’
3. See the MSC.Nastran 2005 Installation and Operations Guide for more examples.
INCLUDE
Insert External File
filename Physical filename of the external file to be inserted. The user must supply the
name according to installation or machine requirements. It is recommended
that the filename be enclosed by single righthand quotation marks.
Main Index
315 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a static load as a linear combination of load sets defined via FORCE, MOMENT,
FORCE1, MOMENT1, FORCE2, MOMENT2, PLOAD, PLOAD1, PLOAD2, PLOAD4,
PLOADX1, SLOAD, RFORCE, and GRAV entries.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The load vector is defined by
2. Load set IDs (Li) must be unique.
3. This entry must be used if acceleration loads (GRAV entry) are to be used with any of
the other types.
4. In the static solution sequences, the load set ID must be selected by the Case Control
command LOAD=SID. In the dynamic solution sequences, SID must be referenced in
the LID field of an LSEQ entry, which in turn must be selected by the Case Control
command LOADSET.
5. A LOAD entry may not reference a set identification number defined by another LOAD
entry.
LOAD
Static Load Combination (Superposition)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
LOAD SID S S1 L1 S2 L2 S3 L3
S4 L4 etc.
LOAD 101 0.5 1.0 3 6.2 4
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
S Overall scale factor. (Real)
Si Scale factor on Li. (Real)
Li Load set identification numbers defined on entry types listed above. (Integer > 0)
P { }
P { } S Si P
Li
{ }
i
∑
=
Main Index
316
Defines the constant or temperaturedependent thermal material properties for conductivity,
heat capacity, density, dynamic viscosity, heat generation, reference enthalpy, and latent heat
associated with a singlephase change.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The MID must be unique with respect to all other MAT4 and MAT5 entries. MAT4 may
specify material properties for any conduction elements as well as properties for a
forced convection fluid (see CONVM). MAT4 also provides the heat transfer
coefficient for free convection (see CONV).
2. For a forced convection fluid, µ must be specified.
MAT4
Heat Transfer Material Properties, Isotropic
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MAT4 MID K CP r H m HGEN REFENTH
TCH TDELTA QLAT
MAT4 1 204. .900 2700.
Field Contents
MID Material identification number. (Integer > 0)
K Thermal conductivity. (Blank or Real > 0.0)
CP Heat capacity per unit mass at constant pressure (specific heat). (Blank or
Real > 0.0)
Density. (Real > 0.0; Default = 1.0)
H Free convection heat transfer coefficient. (Real or blank)
m Dynamic viscosity. See Remark 2. (Real > 0.0 or blank)
HGEN Heat generation capability used with QVOL entries. (Real > 0.0; Default = 1.0)
REFENTH Reference enthalpy. (Real or blank)
TCH Lower temperature limit at which phase change region is to occur. (Real or
blank)
TDELTA Total temperature change range within which a phase change is to occur.
(Real > 0.0 or blank)
QLAT Latent heat of fusion per unit mass associated with the phase change. (Real > 0.0
or blank)
ρ
Main Index
317 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
3. REFENTH is the enthalpy corresponding to zero temperature if the heat capacity CP is
a constant. If CP is obtained through a TABLEM lookup, REFENTH is the enthalpy at
the first temperature in the table.
4. Properties specified on the MAT4 entry may be defined as temperature dependent by
use of the MATT4 entry.
Main Index
318
Defines the thermal material properties for anisotropic materials.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The thermal conductivity matrix has the following form:
2. The material identification number may be the same as a MAT1, MAT2, or MAT3 entry
but must be unique with respect to other MAT4 or MAT5 entries.
3. MAT5 materials may be made temperaturedependent by use of the MATT5 entry.
4. When used for axisymmetric analysis (CTRIAX6), material properties are represented
where:
KXX= radial conductivity component
KYY= axial conductivity component
MAT5
Thermal Material Property Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MAT5 MID KXX KXY KXZ KYY KYZ KZZ CP
RHO HGEN
MAT5 24 .092 .083 0.20 0.2
2.00
Field Contents
MID Material identification number. (Integer > 0)
Kij Thermal conductivity. (Real)
CP Heat capacity per unit mass. (Real > 0.0 or blank)
RHO Density. (Real >0.0; Default =1.0)
HGEN Heat generation capability used with QVOL entries. (Real > 0.0; Default = 1.0)
K
KXX KXY KXZ
KXY KYY KYZ
KXZ KYZ KZZ
=
Main Index
319 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Specifies table references for temperaturedependent MAT4 material properties.
Format:
Example(s):
Remarks:
1. The basic quantities on the MAT4 entry are always multiplied by the corresponding
tabular function referenced by the MATT4 entry.
2. If the fields are blank or zero, then there is no temperature dependence of the
referenced quantity on the MAT4 entry.
MATT4
Thermal Material Temperature Dependence
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MATT4 MID T(K) T(CP) T(H) T(µ) T(HGEN)
MATT4 2 10 11
Field Contents
MID Identification number of a MAT4 entry that is temperature dependent.
(Integer > 0)
T(K) Identification number of a TABLEMj entry that gives the temperature dependence
of the thermal conductivity. (Integer > 0 or blank)
T(CP) Identification number of a TABLEMj entry that gives the temperature dependence
of the thermal heat capacity. (Integer > 0 or blank)
T(H) Identification number of a TABLEMj entry that gives the temperature dependence
of the free convection heat transfer coefficient. (Integer > 0 or blank)
T(µ) Identification number of a TABLEMj entry that gives the temperature dependence
of the dynamic viscosity. (Integer > 0 or blank)
T(HGEN) Identification number of a TABLEMj entry that gives the temperature dependence
of the internal heat generation property for QVOL. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Main Index
320
Specifies temperaturedependent material properties on MAT5 entry fields via TABLEMi
entries.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The basic quantities on the MAT5 entry are always multiplied by the tabular function
referenced by the MATT5 entry.
2. If the fields are blank or zero, then there is no temperature dependence of the
referenced quantity on the basic MAT5 entry.
MATT5
Thermal Anisotropic Material Temperature Dependence
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MATT5 MID T(KXX) T(KXY) T(KXZ) T(KYY) T(KYZ) T(KZZ) T(CP)
T(HGEN)
MATT5 24 73
Field Contents
MID Identification number of a MAT5 entry that is to be temperature dependent.
(Integer > 0)
T(Kij) Identification number of a TABLEMi entry. The TABLEMi entry specifies
temperature dependence of the matrix term. (Integer > 0 or blank)
T(CP) Identification number of a TABLEMi entry that specifies the temperature
dependence of the thermal heat capacity. (Integer > 0 or blank)
T(HGEN) Identification number of a TABLEMi entry that gives the temperature dependence
of the internal heat generation property for the QVOL entry. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Main Index
321 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a multipoint constraint equation of the form
where u
j
represents degreeoffreedom Cj at grid or scalar point Gj.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Multipoint constraint sets must be selected with the Case Control command
MPC = SID.
2. The first degreeoffreedom (G1, C1) in the sequence is defined to be the dependent
degreeoffreedom. A dependent degreeoffreedom assigned by one MPC entry
cannot be assigned dependent by another MPC entry or by a rigid element.
3. Forces of multipoint constraint may be recovered in all solution sequences, except
SOL 129, with the MPCFORCE Case Control command.
4. The mset degreesoffreedom specified on this entry may not be specified on other
entries that define mutually exclusive sets. See the “DegreeofFreedom Sets” on
page 1557 for a list of these entries.
5. By default, the grid point connectivity created by the MPC, MPCADD, and MPCAX
entries is not considered during resequencing, (see the PARAM,OLDSEQ description
in “Parameters” on page 1409). In order to consider the connectivity during
resequencing, SID must be specified on the PARAM,MPCX entry. Using the example
above, specify PARAM,MPCX,3.
MPC
Multipoint Constraint
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MPC SID G1 C1 A1 G2 C2 A2
G3 C3 A3 etc.
MPC 3 28 3 6.2 2 4.29
1 4 2.91
Field Contents
SID Set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Gj Identification number of grid or scalar point. (Integer > 0)
Cj Component number. (Any one of the Integers 1 through 6 for grid points; blank or
zero for scalar points.)
Aj Coefficient. (Real; Default = 0.0 except A1 must be nonzero.)
Aj u
j
j
∑
0 =
Main Index
322
Defines a multipoint constraint set as a union of multipoint constraint sets defined via MPC
entries.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Multipoint constraint sets must be selected with the Case Control command
MPC = SID.
2. The Sj must be unique and may not be the identification number of a multipoint
constraint set defined by another MPCADD entry.
3. MPCADD entries take precedence over MPC entries. If both have the same SID, only
the MPCADD entry will be used.
4. By default, the grid point connectivity created by the MPC, MPCADD, and MPCAX
entries is not considered during resequencing, (see the PARAM,OLDSEQ description
in “Parameters” on page 1409). In order to consider the connectivity during
resequencing, SID must be specified on the PARAM,MPCX entry. Using the example
above, specify PARAM,MPCX,101.
MPCADD
Multipoint Constraint Set Combination
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MPCADD SID S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
S8 S9 etc.
MPCADD 101 2 3 1 6 4
Field Contents
SID Set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Sj Set identification numbers of multipoint constraint sets defined via MPC entries.
(Integer > 0)
Main Index
323 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a set of parameters for nonlinear static analysis iteration strategy.
Format:
Example:
NLPARM
Parameters for Nonlinear Static Analysis Control
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NLPARM ID NINC DT
KMETHOD
KSTEP MAXITER CONV INTOUT
EPSU EPSP EPSW MAXDIV MAXQN MAXLS FSTRESS LSTOL
MAXBIS MAXR RTOLB
NLPARM 15 5 ITER
Field Contents
ID Identification number. (Integer > 0)
NINC Number of increments. See Remark 16. (0 < Integer < 1000; Default=10)
DT Incremental time interval for creep analysis. See Remark 3. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 0.0 for no creep.)
KMETHOD Method for controlling stiffness updates. See Remark 4. (Character = “AUTO”,
“ITER”, or “SEMI”; Default = “AUTO”.)
KSTEP Number of iterations before the stiffness update for ITER method. See Remark 5.
(Integer > 1; Default = 5)
MAXITER Limit on number of iterations for each load increment. See Remark 6. (Integer > 0;
Default = 25)
CONV Flags to select convergence criteria. See Remark 7. (Character = “U”, “P”, “W”, or
any combination; Default = “PW”.)
INTOUT Intermediate output flag. See Remark 8. (Character = “YES”, “NO”, or “ALL”;
Default = NO)
EPSU Error tolerance for displacement (U) criterion. See Remark 16. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 1.0E2;)
EPSP Error tolerance for load (P) criterion. See Remark 16. (Real > 0.0; Usual
default = 1.0E2)
EPSW Error tolerance for work (W) criterion. See Remark 16. (Real > 0.0; Usual
default = 1.0E2)
MAXDIV Limit on probable divergence conditions per iteration before the solution is
assumed to diverge. See Remark 9. (Integer 0; Default = 3)
MAXQN Maximum number of quasiNewton correction vectors to be saved on the
database. See Remark 10. (Integer > 0; Default = MAXITER)
≠
Main Index
324
Remarks:
1. The NLPARM entry is selected by the Case Control command NLPARM = ID. Each
solution subcase requires an NLPARM command.
2. In cases of static analysis (DT = 0.0) using Newton methods, NINC is the number of
equal subdivisions of the load change defined for the subcase. Applied loads, gravity
loads, temperature sets, enforced displacements, etc., define the new loading
conditions. The differences from the previous case are divided by NINC to define the
incremental values. In cases of static analysis (DT = 0.0) using arclength methods,
NINC is used to determine the initial arclength for the subcase, and the number of load
subdivisions will not be equal to NINC. In cases of creep analysis (DT > 0.0), NINC is
the number of time step increments.
3. The unit of DT must be consistent with the unit used on the CREEP entry that defines
the creep characteristics. Total creep time for the subcase is DT multiplied by the value
in the field NINC; i.e., DT*NINC.
4. The stiffness update strategy is selected in the KMETHOD field.
• If the AUTO option is selected, the program automatically selects the most
efficient strategy based on convergence rates. At each step the number of
iterations required to converge is estimated. Stiffness is updated, if (i) estimated
number of iterations to converge exceeds MAXITER, (ii) estimated time
required for convergence with current stiffness exceeds the estimated time
required for convergence with updated stiffness, and (iii) solution diverges. See
Remarks 9. and 13. for diverging solutions.
• If the SEMI option is selected, the program for each load increment (i) performs
a single iteration based upon the new load, (ii) updates the stiffness matrix, and
(iii) resumes the normal AUTO option.
MAXLS Maximum number of line searches allowed for each iteration. See Remark 11.
(Integer > 0; Default = 4)
FSTRESS Fraction of effective stress used to limit the subincrement size in the material
routines. See Remark 12. (0.0 < Real < 1.0; Default = 0.2)
LSTOL Line search tolerance. See Remark 11. (0.01 < Real < 0.9; Default = 0.5)
MAXBIS Maximum number of bisections allowed for each load increment. See Remark 13.
(10 < MAXBIS < 10; Default = 5)
MAXR Maximum ratio for the adjusted arclength increment relative to the initial value.
See Remark 14. (1.0 < MAXR < 40.0; Default = 20.0)
RTOLB Maximum value of incremental rotation (in degrees) allowed per iteration to
activate bisection. See Remark 15. (Real > 2.0; Default = 20.0)
Field Contents
σ ( )
Main Index
325 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
• If the ITER option is selected, the program updates the stiffness matrix at every
KSTEP iterations and on convergence if KSTEP < MAXITER. However, if
KSTEP > MAXITER, stiffness matrix is never updated. Note that the
NewtonRaphson iteration strategy is obtained by selecting the ITER option and
KSTEP = 1, while the Modified NewtonRaphson iteration strategy is obtained
by selecting the ITER option and KSTEP = MAXITER.
5. For AUTO and SEMI options, the stiffness matrix is updated on convergence if KSTEP
is less than the number of iterations that were required for convergence with the
current stiffness.
6. The number of iterations for a load increment is limited to MAXITER. If the solution
does not converge in MAXITER iterations, the load increment is bisected and the
analysis is repeated. If the load increment cannot be bisected (i.e., MAXBIS is attained
or MAXBIS = 0) and MAXDIV is positive, the best attainable solution is computed and
the analysis is continued to the next load increment. If MAXDIV is negative, the
analysis is terminated.
7. The test flags (U = displacement error, P = load equilibrium error, and W = work error)
and the tolerances (EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW) define the convergence criteria. All the
requested criteria (combination of U, P, and/ or W) are satisfied upon convergence. See
the MSC.Nastran Handbook for Nonlinear Analysis for more details on convergence
criteria.
8. INTOUT controls the output requests for displacements, element forces and stresses,
etc. YES or ALL must be specified in order to be able to perform a subsequent restart
from the middle of a subcase.
• For the Newton family of iteration methods (i.e., when no NLPCI command is
specified), the option ALL is equivalent to option YES since the computed load
increment is always equal to the userspecified load increment.
• For arclength methods (i.e., when the NLPCI command is specified) the
computed load increment in general is not going to be equal to the
userspecified load increment, and is not known in advance. The option ALL
allows the user to obtain solutions at the desired intermediate load increments.
9. The ratio of energy errors before and after the iteration is defined as divergence rate
, i.e.,
INTOUT Output Processed
YES For every computed load increment.
NO For the last load of the subcase.
ALL For every computed and userspecified load increment.
E
i
( )
E
i ∆u
i
{ }
T
R
i
{ }
∆u
i
{ }
T
R
i 1 –
{ }
 =
Main Index
326
Depending on the divergence rate, the number of diverging iteration (NDIV) is
incremented as follows:
If or , then NDIV = NDIV + 2
If , then NDIV = NDIV + 1
The solution is assumed to diverge when NDIV >  MAXDIV . If the solution diverges
and the load increment cannot be further bisected (i.e., MAXBIS is attained or MAXBIS
is zero), the stiffness is updated based on the previous iteration and the analysis is
continued. If the solution diverges again in the same load increment while MAXDIV
is positive, the best solution is computed and the analysis is continued to the next load
increment. If MAXDIV is negative, the analysis is terminated on the second
divergence.
10. The BFGS update is performed if MAXQN > 0. As many as MAXQN quasiNewton
vectors can be accumulated. The BFGS update with these QN vectors provides a secant
modulus in the search direction. If MAXQN is reached, no additional ON vectors will
be accumulated. Accumulated QN vectors are purged when the stiffness is updated
and the accumulation is resumed.
11. The line search is performed as required, if MAXLS > 0. In the line search, the
displacement increment is scaled to minimize the energy error. The line search is not
performed if the absolute value of the relative energy error is less than the value
specified in LSTOL.
12. The number of subincrements in the material routines (elastoplastic and creep) is
determined so that the subincrement size is approximately (equivalent
stress). FSTRESS is also used to establish a tolerance for error correction in the
elastoplastic material; i.e.,
error in yield function <
If the limit is exceeded at the converging state, the program will exit with a fatal
message. Otherwise, the stress state is adjusted to the current yield surface.
13. The number of bisections for a load increment/ arclength is limited to the absolute
value of MAXBIS. Different actions are taken when the solution diverges depending
on the sign of MAXBIS. If MAXBIS is positive, the stiffness is updated on the first
divergence, and the load is bisected on the second divergence. If MAXBIS is negative,
the load is bisected every time the solution diverges until the limit on bisection is
reached. If the solution does not converge after  MAXBIS bisections, the analysis is
continued or terminated depending on the sign of MAXDIV. See Remark 9.
14. MAXR is used in the adaptive load increment/ arclength method to define the overall
upper and lower bounds on the load increment/ arclength in the subcase; i.e.,
E
i
1 ≥ E
i
10
12
– <
10
12
– E
i
1 – < <
FSTRESS σ ⋅
FSTRESS σ ⋅
1
MAXR

∆l
n
∆l
o
 MAXR ≤ ≤
Main Index
327 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
where is the arclength at step n and is the original arclength. The arclength
method for load increments is selected by an NLPCI Bulk Data entry. This entry must
have the same ID as the NLPARM Bulk Data entry.
15. The bisection is activated if the incremental rotation for any degreeoffreedom
exceeds the value specified by RTOLB. This bisection strategy is
based on the incremental rotation and controlled by MAXBIS.
16. Default tolerance sets are determined based on model type and desired accuracy.
Accuracy is under user control and can be specified on the PARAM, NLTOL entry.
NLTOL’s value is used only if the CONV, EPSU, EPSP and EPSW fields are blank, and
if NINC is set to a value of 10 or larger. Otherwise, the NLTOL selection will be
overridden. The tables below list tolerances according to NLTOL selections:
∆l
n
∆l
o
∆θ
x
∆θ
y
or ∆θ
z
, , ( )
Main Index
328
Table 42 Default Tolerances for Static Nonlinear SOL 106 Models Without Gaps, Contact
or Heat Transfer
NLTOL Designation CONV EPSU EPSP EPSW
0 Very high PW _______ 1.0E3 1.0E7
1 High PW _______ 1.0E2 1.0E3
2 Engineering PW _______ 1.0E2 1.0E2
3 Prelim Design PW _______ 1.0E1 1.0E1
None Engineering PW _______ 1.0E2 1.0E2
Table 43 Default Tolerances for Static Nonlinear SOL 106 Models With Gaps or Contact
(Enter NLTOL Values of 0 or 2 Only or Omit the Parameter)
NLTOL Designation CONV EPSU EPSP EPSW
0 Very high PW _______ 1.0E3 1.0E7
2 Engineering PW _______ 1.0E3 1.0E5
None Engineering PW _______ 1.0E3 1.0E5
Table 44 Default Tolerances for Static Nonlinear SOL 106 or 153 Models With Heat
Transfer (Enter NLTOL Value of 0 Only or Omit the Parameter)
NLTOL Designation CONV EPSU EPSP EPSW
0 Very high PW _______ 1.0E3 1.0E7
None Very high PW _______ 1.0E3 1.0E7
Main Index
329 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form
Function of displacement: Eq. 41
Function of velocity: Eq. 42
where and are the displacement and velocity at point GJ in the direction of CJ.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Nonlinear loads must be selected with the Case Control command
NONLINEAR = SID.
2. Nonlinear loads may not be referenced on DLOAD entry.
NOLIN1
Nonlinear Transient Load as a Tabular Function
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NOLIN1 SID GI CI S GJ CJ TID
NOLIN1 21 3 4 2.1 3 10 6
Field Contents
SID Nonlinear load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
GI Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number at which nonlinear load is to be
applied. (Integer > 0)
CI Component number for GI. (0 < Integer < 6; blank or zero if GI is a scalar or extra
point.)
S Scale factor. (Real)
GJ Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number. (Integer > 0)
CJ Component number for GJ according to the following table:
Type of Point Displacement Velocity
Grid 1 < Integer < 6 11 < Integer < 16
Scalar Blank or zero Integer = 10
Extra Blank or zero Integer = 10
TID Identification number of a TABLEDi entry. (Integer > 0)
P
i
t ( ) S = T u
j
t ( ) ( ) ⋅
P
i
t ( ) S = T u
·
j
t ( ) ( ) ⋅
u
j
t ( ) u
·
j
t ( )
Main Index
330
3. All degreesoffreedom referenced on NOLIN1 entries must be members of the
solution set. This means the eset (EPOINT entry) for modal formulation and the dset
for direct formulation.
4. Nonlinear loads as a function of velocity (Equation 2) are denoted by components ten
greater than the actual component number; i.e., a component of 11 is component 1
(velocity). The velocity is determined by
where is the time step interval and is the displacement of GJCJ for the
previous time step.
u
·
j t ,
u
j t ,
u
j t 1 – ,
–
∆t
 =
∆t u
j t 1 – ,
Main Index
331 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form
where and can be either displacement or velocity at points GJ and GK in the
directions of CJ and CK.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Nonlinear loads must be selected with the Case Control command NONLINEAR=SID.
2. Nonlinear loads may not be referenced on a DLOAD entry.
3. All degreesoffreedom referenced on NOLIN2 entries must be members of the
solution set. This means the eset for modal formulation and the dset for direct
formulation.
4. GICI, GJCJ, and G
KCK may be the same point.
NOLIN2
Nonlinear Transient Load as the Product of Two Variables
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NOLIN2 SID GI CI S GJ CJ GK CK
NOLIN2 14 2 1 2.9 2 1 2
Field Contents
SID Nonlinear load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
GI Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number at which nonlinear load is to be
applied. (Integer > 0)
CI Component number for GI. (0 < Integer < 6; blank or zero if GI is a scalar or extra
point.)
S Scale factor. (Real)
GJ, GK Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number. (Integer > 0)
CJ, CK Component number for GJ, GK according to the following table:
Type of Point Displacement Velocity
Grid 1 < Integer < 6 11 < Integer < 16
Scalar Blank or zero Integer = 10
Extra Blank or zero Integer = 10
P
i
t ( ) S = X
j
t ( ) X
k
t ( ) ⋅ ⋅
X
j
t ( ) X
k
t ( )
Main Index
332
5. Nonlinear loads may be a function of displacement or velocity .
Velocities are denoted by a component number ten greater than the actual component
number; i.e., a component of 10 is component 0 (velocity). The velocity is determined
by
where is the time step interval and is the displacement of GJCJ or GKCK for
the previous time step.
X u = ( ) X u
·
= ( )
u
·
t
u
t
u
t 1 –
–
∆t
 =
∆t u
t 1 –
Main Index
333 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form
where may be a displacement or a velocity at point GJ in the direction of CJ.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Nonlinear loads must be selected with the Case Control command
NONLINEAR = SID.
2. Nonlinear loads may not be referenced on a DLOAD entry.
NOLIN3
Nonlinear Transient Load as a Positive Variable Raised to a Power
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NOLIN3 SID GI CI S GJ CJ A
NOLIN3 4 102 6.1 2 15 3.5
Field Contents
SID Nonlinear load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
GI Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number at which the nonlinear load is to
be applied. (Integer > 0)
CI Component number for GI. (0 < Integer < 6; blank or zero if GI is a scalar or extra
point.)
S Scale factor. (Real)
GJ Grid, scalar, extra point identification number. (Integer > 0)
CJ Component number for GJ according to the following table:
Type of Point Displacement Velocity
Grid 1 < Integer < 6 11 < Integer < 16
Scalar Blank or zero Integer = 10
Extra Blank or zero Integer = 10
A Exponent of the forcing function. (ReaI)
P
i
t ( )
S X
j
t ( ) [ ]
A
X
j
t ( ) 0 > , ⋅
0 X
j
t ( ) 0 ≤ ,
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
X
j
t ( )
Main Index
334
3. All degreesoffreedom referenced on NOLIN3 entries must be members of the
solution set. This means the eset for modal formulation and the dset for direct
formulation.
4. Nonlinear loads may be a function of displacement or velocity .
Velocities are denoted by a component number ten greater than the actual component
number; e.g., a component of 16 is component 6 (velocity). The velocity is determined
by
where is the time step interval and is the displacement of GJCJ for the
previous time step.
5. Use a NOLIN4 entry for the negative range of .
X
j
u
j
= ( ) X
j
u
j
·
= ( )
u
·
j t ,
u
j t ,
u
j t 1 – ,
–
∆t
 =
∆t u
j t 1 – ,
X
j
t ( )
Main Index
335 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form
where may be a displacement or a velocity at point GJ in the direction of CJ.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Nonlinear loads must be selected with the Case Control command
NONLINEAR = SID.
2. Nonlinear loads may not be referenced on a DLOAD entry.
NOLIN4
Nonlinear Transient Load as a Negative Variable Raised to a Power
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NOLIN4 SID GI CI S GJ CJ A
NOLIN4 2 4 6 2.0 101 16.3
Field Contents
SID Nonlinear load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
GI Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number at which nonlinear load is to be
applied. (Integer > 0)
CI Component number for GI. (0 < Integer < 6; blank or zero if GI is a scalar or extra
point.)
S Scale factor. (Real)
GJ Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number. (Integer > 0)
CJ Component number for GJ according to the following table:
Type of Point Displacement Veloicty
Grid 1 < Integer < 6 11 < Integer < 16
Scalar Blank or zero Integer = 10
Extra Blank or zero Integer = 10
A Exponent of forcing function. (Real)
P
i
t ( )
S – X –
j
t ( ) [ ]
A
X
j
t ( ) 0 < , ⋅
0 X
j
t ( ) 0 ≥ ,
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
X
j
t ( )
Main Index
336
3. All degreesoffreedom referenced on NOLIN4 entries must be members of the
solution set. This means the eset for modal formulation and the dset for direct
formulation.
4. Nonlinear loads may be a function of displacement or velocity .
Velocities are denoted by a component number ten greater than the actual component
number; i.e., a component of 10 is component 0 (velocity). The velocity is determined
by
where is the time step interval and is the displacement of GJCJ for the
previous time step.
Use a NOLIN3 entry for the positive range of .
X
j
u
j
= ( ) X
j
u
j
·
= ( )
u
·
j t ,
u
j t ,
u
j t 1 – ,
–
∆t
 =
∆t u
j t 1 – ,
X
j
t ( )
Main Index
337 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Specifies values for parameters used in solution sequences or userwritten DMAP programs.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. See “Parameters” on page 601 for a list of parameters used in solution sequences that
may be set by the user on PARAM entries.
2. If the large field entry format is used, the second physical entry must be present, even
though fields 6 through 9 are blank.
PARAM
Parameter
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PARAM N V1 V2
PARAM IRES 1
Field Contents
N Parameter name (one to eight alphanumeric characters, the first of which is
alphabetic).
V1, V2 Parameter value based on parameter type, as follows:
Type V1 V2
Integer Integer Blank
Real, singleprecision Real Blank
Character Character Blank
Real, doubleprecision Doubleprecision real Blank
Complex, singleprecision Real or blank Real or blank
Complex, doubleprecision Doubleprecision real Doubleprecision real
Main Index
338
Specifies the free convection boundary condition properties of a boundary condition surface
element used for heat transfer analysis.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Every surface to which free convection is to be applied must reference a PCONV entry.
PCONV is referenced on the CONV Bulk Data entry.
2. MID is used to supply the convection heat transfer coefficient (H).
3. EXPF is the free convection temperature exponent.
• If FORM = 0, 10, or 20, EXPF is an exponent of (T– TAMB), where the convective
heat transfer is represented as
.
• If FORM = 1, 11, or 21,
where T represents the elemental grid point temperatures and TAMB is the associated
ambient temperature.
4. FORM specifies the formula type and the reference temperature location used in
calculating the convection film coefficient if FLMND = 0.
• If FORM = 0 or 1, the reference temperature is the average of element grid point
temperatures (average) and the ambient point temperatures (average).
PCONV
Convection Property Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PCONV PCONID MID FORM EXPF
PCONV 3 2 0 .25
Field Contents
PCONID Convection property identification number. (Integer > 0)
MID Material property identification number. (Integer > 0)
FORM Type of formula used for free convection. (Integer 0, 1, 10, 11, 20, or 21;
Default = 0)
EXPF Free convection exponent as implemented within the context of the particular
form that is chosen. See Remark 3. (Real > 0.0; Default = 0.0)
q H = u
CNTRLND
T TAMB – ( )
EXPF
T TAMB – ( ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
q H = u
CNTRLND
T
EXPF
TAMB
EXPF
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅
Main Index
339 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
• If FORM = 10 or 11, the reference temperature is the surface temperature
(average of element grid point temperatures).
• If FORM = 20 or 21, the reference temperature is the ambient temperature
(average of ambient point temperatures).
Main Index
340
Specifies the forced convection boundary condition properties of a boundary condition surface
element used for heat transfer analysis.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Every surface to which forced convection is applied must reference a PCONVM entry.
PCONVM is referenced on the CONVM entry.
2. MID specifies material properties of the working fluid at the temperature of the point
FLMND. FLMND is specified on the CONVM entry.
3. The material properties are used in conjunction with the average diameter and mass
flow rate (mdot). MID references the material properties and supplies the fluid
conductivity (k), heat capacity (cp), and viscosity needed to compute the Reynolds
(Re) and Prandtl (Pr) numbers as follows:
4. FORM controls the type of formula used in determination of the forced convection film
coefficient h. There are two cases:
PCONVM
Forced Convection Property Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PCONV
M
PCONID MID FORM FLAG COEF EXPR EXPPI EXPPO
PCONV
M
3 2 1 1 .023 0.80 0.40 0.30
Field Contents
PCONID Convection property identification number. (Integer > 0)
MID Material property identification number. (Integer > 0)
FORM Type of formula used for convection. (Integer = 0, 1, 10, 11, 20, or 21; Default = 0)
FLAG Flag for mass flow convection. (Integer = 0 or 1; Default = 0)
COEF Constant coefficient used for forced convection. (Real > 0.0)
EXPR Reynolds number convection exponent. (Real > 0.0; Default = 0.0)
EXPPI Prandtl number convection exponent for heat transfer into the working fluid.
(Real > 0.0; Default = 0.0)
EXPPO Prandtl number convection exponent for heat transfer out of the working fluid.
(Real > 0.0; Default = 0.0)
µ ( )
Re 4 = mdot ⋅ π diameter µ ⋅ ⋅ ( ) ⁄
Pr cp = µ k ⁄ ⋅
Main Index
341 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
• If FORM = 0, 10, or 20 than .
• If FORM = 1, 11, or 21 then the above h is multiplied by k and divided by the
average hydraulic diameter.
• FORM also specifies the reference temperature used in calculating material
properties for the fluid if FLMND = 0.
• If FORM = 0 or 1, the reference temperature is the average of element grid point
temperatures (average) and the ambient point temperature (average).
• If FORM = 10 or 11, the reference temperature is the surface temperature
(average of element grid point temperatures).
• If FORM = 20 or 21, the reference temperature is the ambient temperature
(average of ambient point temperature).
5. In the above expression, EXPP is EXPPI or EXPPO, respectively, for heat flowing into
or out of the working fluid. This determination is performed internally.
6. FLAG controls the convective heat transfer into the downstream point (the second
point as identified on the CHBDYi statement is downstream if mdot is positive).
• FLAG = 0, no convective flow (stationary fluid).
• FLAG = 1, convective energy flow that is consistent with the Streamwise
Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) element formulation.
7. No phase change or internal heat generation capabilities exist for this element.
h coef = Re
EXPR
Pr
EXPP
⋅ ⋅
Main Index
342
Specifies the damping value of a scalar damper element using defined CDAMP1 or CDAMP3
entries.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Damping values are defined directly on the CDAMP2 and CDAMP4 entries, and
therefore do not require a PDAMP entry.
2. A structural viscous damper, CVISC, may also be used for geometric grid points.
3. Up to four damping properties may be defined on a single entry.
4. For a discussion of scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
PDAMP
Scalar Damper Property
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PDAMP PID1 B1 PID2 B2 PID3 B3 PID4 B4
PDAMP 14 2.3 2 6.1
Field Contents
PIDi Property identification number. (Integer > 0)
Bi Force per unit velocity. (Real)
Main Index
343 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines the damping multiplier and references the material properties for damping. CDAMP5
is intended for heat transfer analysis only.
Format:
Example:
Remark:
1. B is the mass that multiplies the heat capacity CP on the MAT4 or MAT5 entry.
PDAMP5
Scalar Damper Property for CDAMP5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PDAMP5 PID MID B
PDAMP5 2 3 4.0
Field Contents
PID Property identification number. (Integer > 0)
MID Material identification number of a MAT4 or MAT5 entry. (Integer > 0)
B Damping multiplier. (Real > 0.0)
Main Index
344
Specifies the stiffness, damping coefficient, and stress coefficient of a scalar elastic (spring)
element (CELAS1 or CELAS3 entry).
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Be careful using negative spring values.
2. Spring values are defined directly on the CELAS2 and CELAS4 entries, and therefore
do not require a PELAS entry.
3. One or two elastic spring properties may be defined on a single entry.
4. For a discussion of scalar elements, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi,
CDAMPi)” on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
5. If PARAM,W4 is not specified, GEi is ignored in transient analysis. See “Parameters”
on page 601.
6. To obtain the damping coefficient GE, multiply the critical damping ratio by 2.0.
7. If PELAS is used in conjunction with PELAST, Ki > 0, and the initial slope of the
nonlinear forcedisplacement relationship defined by the PELAST should agree with
Ki.
PELAS
Scalar Elastic Property
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PELAS PID1 K1 GE1 S1 PID2 K2 GE2 S2
PELAS 7 4.29 0.06 7.92 27 2.17 0.0032
Field Contents
PIDi Property identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ki Elastic property value. (Real)
GEi Damping coefficient,
.
See Remarks 5. and 6. (Real)
Si Stress coefficient. (Real)
g
e
C C
0
⁄
Main Index
345 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
A property entry referenced by CHBDYP entries to give auxiliary geometric information for
boundary condition surface elements.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The PHBDY entry is used with CHBDYP entries.
2. AF
• For TYPE = “POINT” surfaces, AF is the area.
• For TYPE = “LINE” or TYPE = “ELCYL” surfaces, AF is the effective width:
area = .
• For TYPE = “FTUBE” and outer TYPE = “TUBE” surfaces
area =
3. D1 and D2 are used only with TYPE = “ELCYL”, TYPE = “TUBE”, and
TYPE = “FTUBE” surfaces.
• For TYPE = “ELCYL” surfaces, D1 and D2 are the two diameters associated with
the ellipse.
• For TYPE = “FTUBE” and outer TYPE = “TUBE” surfaces, D1 and D2 are the
diameters associated with the first and second grid points, respectively.
PHBDY
CHBDYP Geometric Element Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PHBDY PID AF D1 D2
PHBDY 2 .02 1.0 1.0
Field Contents
PID Property identification number. (Unique Integer among all PHBDY entries).
(Integer > 0)
AF Area factor of the surface used only for CHBDYP element TYPE = “POINT”,
TYPE = “LINE”, TYPE = “TUBE”, or TYPE = “ELCYL”. For TYPE = “TUBE”, AF
is the constant thickness of the hollow tube. (Real >0.0 or blank)
D1, D2 Diameters associated with the surface. Used with CHBDYP element
TYPE = “ELCYL”, “TUBE”, and “FTUBE”. (Real > 0.0 or blank; Default for
D2 = D1)
AF length ( ) ⋅
π
D1 D2 +
2

\ .
 
LGTH ( )
2 D1 D2 –
2

\ .
 
2
+ ⋅ ⋅
Main Index
346
• For inner TYPE = “TUBE” surfaces, the diameters are reduced by twice the
thickness . 2 AF ⋅ ( )
Main Index
347 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a uniform heat flux into CHBDYj elements.
Format:
Example:
Alternate Format and Example:
Remarks:
1. QBDY1 entries must be selected with the Case Control command LOAD = SID in order
to be used in static analysis. The total power into an element is given by the equation:
2. QBDY1 entries must be referenced on a TLOAD entry for use in transient analysis. The
total power into an element is given by the equation:
where the function of time is specified on a TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entry.
3. The sign convention for Q0 is positive for heat input.
QBDY1
Boundary Heat Flux Load for CHBDYj Elements, Form 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
QBDY1 SID Q0 EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6
QBDY1 109 1.5 721
QBDY1 SID Q0 EID1 “THRU” EID2
QBDY1 109 1.5 725 THRU 735
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Q0 Heat flux into element. (Real)
EIDi CHBDYj element identification numbers. (Integer 0 or “THRU”. For “THRU”
option EID2 > EID1.)
≠
P
i n
Effective area ( ) = Q0 ⋅
P
in
t ( ) Effective area ( ) = Q0 F t τ – ( ) ⋅ ⋅
F t τ – ( )
Main Index
348
Defines grid point heat flux into CHBDYj elements.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. QBDY2 entries must be selected with the Case Control command LOAD=SID in order
to be used in static analysis. The total power into each point i on an element is given by
2. QBDY2 entries must be referenced on a TLOAD entry for use in transient analysis. All
connected grid points will have the same time function but may have individual
delays. The total power into each point i on an element is given by
where is a function of time specified on a TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entry.
3. The sign convention for Q0i is positive for heat flux input to the element.
QBDY2
Boundary Heat Flux Load for CHBDYj Elements, Form 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
QBDY2 SID EID Q01 Q02 Q03 Q04 Q05 Q06
Q07 Q08
QBDY2 109 721 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer >0)
EID Identification number of an CHBDYj element. (Integer > 0)
Q0i Heat flux at the ith grid point on the referenced CHBDYj element. (Real or
blank)
P
i
AREA
i
= Q0i ⋅
P
i
t ( ) AREA
i
= Q0i F t τ
i
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅
F t τ
i
– ( )
Main Index
349 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a uniform heat flux load for a boundary surface.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. QBDY3 entries must be selected in Case Control (LOAD = SID) to be used in steady
state. The total power into a surface is given by the equation:
• if then
• if then
where is the temperature of the control point and is used as a load
multiplier.
2. In transient analysis SID is referenced by a TLOADi Bulk Data entry through the
DAREA entry. A function of time defined on the TLOADi multiplies the
general load, with τ specifying time delay. The load set identifier on the TLOADi entry
must be selected in Case Control (DLOAD = SID) for use in transient analysis. If
multiple types of transient loads exist, they must be combined by the DLOAD Bulk
Data entry.
3. The CNTRLND multiplier cannot be used with any higherorder elements.
4. When using “THRU” or “BY”, all intermediate CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or CHBDYP
elements must exist.
QBDY3
Boundary Heat Flux Load for a Surface
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
QBDY3 SID Q0 CNTRLN
D
EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5
EID6 etc.
QBDY3 2 20.0 10 1 THRU 50 BY 2
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Q0 Thermal heat flux load, or load multiplier. Q0 is positive for heat flow into a
surface. (Real)
CNTRLND Control point for thermal flux load. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
EIDi CHBDYj element identification numbers. (Integer 0 or “THRU” or “BY”) ≠
CNTRLND 0 ≤ P
in
Effective area ( ) Q0 ⋅ =
CNTRLND 0 > P
in
Effective area ( ) Q0 u
CNTRLND
⋅ ⋅ =
u
CNTRLND
F t τ – ( )
Main Index
350
Defines a uniform heat flux into a set of grid points.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The continuation entry is optional.
2. For use in steady state analysis, the load set is selected in the Case Control Section
(LOAD = SID).
3. In transient analysis SID is referenced by a TLOADi Bulk Data entry through the
DAREA entry. A function of time defined on the TLOADi entry multiplies the general
load. specifies time delay. The load set identifier on the TLOADi entry must be
selected in Case Control (DLOAD = SID) for use in transient analysis. If multiple types
of transient loads exist, they must be combined by the DLOAD Bulk Data entry.
4. The heat flux applied to the area is transformed to loads on the points. These points
need not correspond to an HBDY surface element.
5. The flux is applied to each point i by the equation
6. The number of connected points for the types are 1 (POINT), 2 (LINE, REV), 3 (AREA3),
4 (AREA4), 46 (AREA6), 58 (AREA8).
7. The area factor AF is used to determine the effective area for the POINT and LINE
types. It equals the area and effective width, respectively. It is not used for the other
types, which have their area defined implicitly and must be left blank.
QHBDY
Boundary Heat Flux Load
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
QHBDY SID FLAG Q0 AF G1 G2 G3 G4
G5 G6 G7 G8
QHBDY 2 AREA4 20.0 101 102 104 103
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
FLAG Type of face involved (must be one of the following: “POINT”, “LINE”, “REV”,
“AREA3", “AREA4", “AREA6", “AREA8")
Q0 Magnitude of thermal flux into face. Q0 is positive for heat into the surface. (Real)
AF Area factor depends on type. (Real > 0.0 or blank)
Gi Grid point identification of connected grid points. (Integer > 0 or blank)
P
i
AREA
i
= Q0 ⋅
Main Index
351 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
8. The type of face (FLAG) defines a surface in the same manner as the CHBDYi data
entry. For physical descriptions of the geometry involved, see the CHBDYG
discussion.
Main Index
352
Defines thermal vector flux from a distant source into a face of one or more CHBDYi boundary
condition surface elements.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The continuation entry is required.
2. If the coordinate system CE is not rectangular, then the thermal vector flux is in
different directions for different CHBDYi elements. The direction of the thermal vector
flux over an element is aligned to be in the direction of the flux vector at the geometric
center of the element. The geometric center is measured using the grid points and
includes any DISLIN specification on the VIEW entry for TYPE=LINE CHBDYi
elements. The flux is presumed to be uniform over the face of each element; i.e., the
source is relatively distant.
3. For use in steadystate analysis, the load set is selected in the Case Control Section
(LOAD = SID). The total power into an element is given by:
QVECT
Thermal Vector Flux Load
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
QVECT SID Q0 TSOUR CE E1 or
TID1
E2 or
TID2
E3 or
TID3
CNTRLND
EID1 EID2 etc.
QVECT 10 20.0 1000.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 101
20 21 22 23
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Q0 Magnitude of thermal flux vector into face. (Real or blank)
TSOUR Temperature of the radiant source. (Real or blank)
CE Coordinate system identification number for thermal vector flux. (Integer > 0 or
blank)
Ei Vector components (direction cosines in coordinate system CE) of the thermal
vector flux. (Real; Default = 0.0)
TIDi TABLEDi entry identification numbers defining the components as a function of
time. (Integer > 0)
CNTRLND Control point. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
EIDi Element identification number of a CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or CHBDYP entry.
(Integer 0 or “THRU”) ≠
Main Index
353 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
• If CNTRLND = 0 then, .
• If CNTRLND > 0 then, .
where
4. If the absorptivity is constant, its value is supplied by the ABSORP field on the RADM
entry. If the absorptivity is not a constant, the thermal flux is assumed to have a
wavelength distribution of a black body at the temperature TSOUR.
• For a temperaturedependent absorptivity, the element temperature is used to
determine .
• For a wavelengthdependent absorptivity, the integration of the flux times is
computed for each wavelength band. The sum of the integrated thermal fluxes
over all the wavelength bands is Q0. The wave bands are specified with the
RADBND entry.
• The user has the responsibility of enforcing Kirchhoff’s laws.
5. In transient analysis, SID is referenced by a TLOADi Bulk Data entry through the
DAREA specification. A function of time defined on the TLOADi entry
multiplies the general load. provides any required time delay. is a function
of time specified on the TLOADi entry. The value of is calculated for each loaded grid
point. The load set identifier on the TLOADi entry must be selected in Case Control
(DLOAD = SID) for use in transient analysis. If multiple types of transient loads exist,
they must be combined by the DLOAD Bulk Data entry.
The total power into an element is given by:
• If CNTRLND = 0 then, .
• If CNTRLND > 0 then,
.
6. If the referenced face is of TYPE = ELCYL, the power input is an exact integration over
the area exposed to the thermal flux vector.
7. If the referenced face is of TYPE = REV, the thermal flux vector must be parallel to the
axis of symmetry if an axisymmetric boundary condition is to be maintained.
= face absorptivity (supplied from a RADM statement).
A = face area as determined from a CHBDYi surface element.
= vector of direction cosines E1, E2, E3.
= face normal vector. See CHBDYi entries.
= 0 if the vector product is positive, (i.e., the flux is coming from
behind the face).
= temperature value of the control point used as a load multiplier.
P
i n
αA e n ⋅ ( ) – = Q0 ⋅
P
i n
αA e n ⋅ ( ) – = Q0 u
CNTRLND
⋅ ⋅
α
e
n
e n ⋅
u
cntrlnd
α
α
F t τ – ( )
τ F t τ – ( )
P
i n
αA e t ( ) n ⋅ ( ) – = Q0 F t τ – ( ) ⋅ ⋅
P
i n
αA e t ( ) n ⋅ ( ) – = F t τ – ( ) Q0 u
CNTRLND
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
Main Index
354
8. When applied to a surface element associated with a radiation enclosure cavity, any
incident energy that is not absorbed is lost from the system and is not
accounted for in a reflective sense .
α 1.0 < ( )
α ρ + 1.0 = ( )
Main Index
355 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a rate of volumetric heat addition in a conduction element.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. EIDi has material properties (MAT4) that include HGEN, the element material
property for heat generation, which may be temperature dependent. This association
is made through the element EID. If HGEN is temperature dependent, it is based on
the average element temperature.
2. QVOL provides either the constant volumetric heat generation rate or the load
multiplier. QVOL is positive for heat generation. For steadystate analysis, the total
power into an element is
• If CNTRLND = 0, then .
• If CNTRLND > 0, then .
where is the temperature multiplier.
3. For use in steadystate analysis, the load set is selected in the Case Control Section
(LOAD = SID).
4. In transient analysis SID is referenced by a TLOADi Bulk Data entry. A function of
time defined on the TLOADi entry multiplies the general load where
specifies time delay. The load set identifier on the TLOADi entry must be selected in
Case Control (DLOAD = SID) for use in transient analysis. If multiple types of transient
loads exist, they must be combined by the DLOAD Bulk Data entry.
5. For “THRU” or “BY”, all intermediate referenced heat conduction elements must exist.
6. The CNTRLND multiplier cannot be used with any higherorder elements.
QVOL
Volume Heat Addition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
QVOL SID QVOL CNTRLN
D
EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5
EID6 etc.
QVOL 5 10.0 101 10 12 11 9
Field Contents
SID Load set identification. (Integer > 0)
QVOL Power input per unit volume produced by a heat conduction element. (Real)
CNTRLND Control point used for controlling heat generation. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
EIDi A list of heat conduction elements. (Integer > 0 or “THRU” or “BY”)
P
i n
volume = HGEN QVOL ⋅ ⋅
P
i n
volume = HGEN QVOL u
CNTRLND
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
u
CNTRLND
F t τ – [ ] τ
Main Index
356
Specifies an CHBDYi element face for application of radiation boundary conditions.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The basic exchange relationship is:
• if CNTRLND = 0, then
• if CNTRLND > 0, then
2. NODAMB is treated as a black body with its own ambient temperature for radiation
exchange between the surface element and space. No surface element that is a member
of a radiation enclosure cavity may also have a radiation boundary condition applied
to it.
3. Two PARAM entries are required when stipulating radiation heat transfer:
• ABS defines the absolute temperature scale; this value is added internally to any
specified temperature given in the problem. Upon solution completion, this
value is subtracted internally from the solution vector.
• SIGMA ( ) is the StefanBoltzmann constant.
4. RADBC allows for surface radiation to space in the absence of any cavity behavior. The
emissivity and absorptivity are supplied from a RADM entry.
5. When using “THRU” or “BY”, all intermediate referenced CHBDYi surface elements
must exist.
RADBC
Space Radiation Specification
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADBC NODAMB FAMB
CNTRLND
EID1 EID2 EID3 etc.
RADBC 5 1.0 101 10
Field Contents
NODAMB Ambient point for radiation exchange. (Integer > 0)
FAMB Radiation view factor between the face and the ambient point. (Real > 0.0)
CNTRLND Control point for radiation boundary condition. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)
EIDi CHBDYi element identification number. ( or “THRU” or “BY”) Integer 0 ≠
q σ = FAMB ε
e
T
e
4
α
e
T
amb
4
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅
q σ = FAMB u
CNTRLND
ε
e
T
e
4
α
e
T
amb
4
– ( ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
σ
Main Index
357 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Specifies Planck’s second radiation constant and the wavelength breakpoints used for radiation
exchange problems.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Only one RADBND entry may be specified in the Bulk Data Section and must always
be used in conjunction with the RADM entry.
2. PLANCK2 has the units of wavelength times temperature. The same units of length
must be used for LAMBDAi as for PLANCK2. The units of temperature must be the
same as those used for the radiating surfaces. For example:
.
3. The first wavelength band extends from 0 to LAMBDA1 and the last band extends from
LAMBDAn to infinity, where .
4. Discontinuous segments in the emissivity versus wavelength piecewise linear curve
must be treated as a wavelength band of zero width.
5. LAMBDAi must be specified in ascending order, and all LAMBDAi fields where i is
greater than or equal to NUMBER must be blank.
RADBND
Radiation Wavelength Band Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADBND NUMBER PLANCK2 LAMBDA1 LAMBDA2 LAMBDA3 LAMBDA4 LAMBDA5 LAMBDA6
LAMBDA7
etc.
RADBND 6 14388.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0
Field Contents
NUMBER Number of radiation wave bands. See Remarks. (Integer > 1)
PLANCK2 Planck’s second radiation constant. See Remarks. (Real > 0.0)
LAMBDAi Highest wavelength of the ith wave band. See Remarks. (Real > 0.0)
25898. µm °R or 14388. µm °K
n NUMBER = 1 –
Main Index
358
Identifies the characteristics of each radiant enclosure.
Format:
Example:
RADCAV
Radiation Cavity Identification
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADCAV ICAVITY ELEAMB SHADOW SCALE PRTPCH NFECI RMAX NREV
SET11 SET12 SET21 SET22 SET31 SET32 etc.
RADCAV 1 1 .99
3 5 4 5 7 5
Field Contents
ICAVITY Unique cavity identification number associated with enclosure radiation. (Integer
> 0)
ELEAMB CHBDYi surface element identification number for radiation if the view factors
add up to less than 1.0. (Unique Integer > 0 among all CHBDYi elements or blank.)
SHADOW Flag to control third body shading calculation during view factor calculation for
each identified cavity. (Character = “YES” or “NO”; Default = “YES”)
SCALE View factor that the enclosure sum will be set to if a view factor is greater than 1.0.
(0.0 < Real < 1.0; Default = 0.0)
PRTPCH Facilitates the blocking of view factor printing and punching onto RADLST
and RADMTX entries. (Integer = 0, 1, 2, or 3; Default = 0):
NFECI Controls whether finite difference or contour integration methods are to be used
in the calculation of view factors in the absence of a VIEW3D Bulk Data entry.
(Character = “FD” or “CONT”; See Remark 4. for default.)
RMAX Subelement area factor. See Remark 5. (Real > 0.0; Default = 0.1)
NREV Number of computational elements used in determination of axisymmetric view
factors. See Remark 8. (Integer > 0; Default = 31)
SETij Set identification pairs for the calculation of global view factors. Up to 30 pairs
may be specified (i = 1 to 2 and j = 1 to 30). (Integer > 0)
PRTPCH Print/Punch
0 (default) print and punch
1 no print
2 no punch
3 no print or punch
Main Index
359 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Remarks:
1. For the surfaces of an incomplete enclosure (view factors add up to less than 1.0), a
complete enclosure may be achieved (SUM = 1.0) by specifying an ambient element,
ELEAMB. When multiple cavities are defined, each cavity must have a unique ambient
element if ambient elements are desired. No elements can be shared between cavities.
2. Thirdbody shadowing is ignored in the cavity if SHADOW = “NO”. In particular, if it
is known a priori that there is no thirdbody shadowing, SHADOW = NO overrides
KSHD and KBSHD fields on the VIEW Bulk Data entry as well as reduces the
calculation time immensely.
3. The view factors for a complete enclosure may add up to slightly more than 1.0 due to
calculation inaccuracies. SCALE can be used to adjust all the view factors
proportionately to acquire a summation equal to the value specified for SCALE. If
SCALE is left blank or set to 0.0, no scaling is performed.
4. If the VIEW3D Bulk Data entry is not specified, the view factors are calculated using
finite difference and contour integration methods. If NFECI = “FD”, then all view
factors are calculated using the finite difference technique. NFECI = “CONT” invokes
contour integration for all view factor calculations. If NFECI is blank, the program
selects a method to use between any two particular elements based on RMAX.
5. The comparison value for RMAX is equal to where
is the area of a
subelement and is the distance between two subelements r and s for which view
factors are being computed. When NFECI is blank, the program selects the contour
integral method only if
.
6. When a number of elements are grouped together and considered as a conglomerate
surface, view factors can be calculated between these groups. These are referred to as
global view factors. The SET1 Bulk Data entry is used to define the conglomerate.
When using this feature, negative EIDs are not allowed.
7. If a RADLST and RADMTX entry exists for this cavity ID, new view factors are not
computed and the existing RADLST and RADMTX are used in the thermal analysis.
8. The VIEW3D Bulk Data entry must be specified for the calculation of axisymmetric
view factors. The process relies on the internal construction of a semicircle of
computational elements. NREV specifies the number of such elements desired.
A
s
d
rs
2
⁄ A
s
d
rs
A
s
d
rs
2
⁄ RMAX >
Main Index
360
Identifies the individual CHBDYi surface elements that comprise the entire radiation enclosure.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. A radiation EIDi list isolates those CHBDYi surface element faces that are to
communicate in a radiation enclosure. Viewfactor calculation and RADMTX
formation for an enclosure is performed only for (or among) those faces identified
within the same RADCAV.
2. A radiation exchange matrix (RADMTX) can only reference one radiative face list
(RADLST). The companion RADCAV, RADLST, and RADMTX must share a unique
ICAVITY.
3. For each EIDi, the appropriate CHBDYi element is located, and the proper RADM
entry ID field found.
RADLST
Listing of Enclosure Radiation Faces
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADLST ICAVITY MTXTYP EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6
EID7 etc.
RADLST 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Field Contents
ICAVITY Unique cavity identification number that links a radiation exchange matrix with its
listing of enclosure radiation faces. (Integer > 0)
MTXTYP Type of radiation exchange matrix used for this cavity. (Integer < 4 and 0;
Default = 1 for an enclosure without an ambient element. Default = 4 for an
enclosure with an ambient element as specified on the RADCAV entry.)
1: Symmetric view factor matrix [F] and nonconservative radiation matrix [R].
2: Symmetric exchange factor matrix and conservative radiation matrix
[R].
3: Unsymmetric exchange factor matrix and conservative radiation
matrix [R].
4: Symmetric view factor matrix [F] and conservative radiation matrix [R].
n: The first n CHBDYi elements may lose energy to space but the remainder
may not. Symmetric exchange factor matrix [F] and nonconservative
radiation matrix [R].
EIDi Identification numbers for the CHBDYi elements in this radiation cavity.
(Integer 0 or “THRU”)
≠
ℑ [ ]
ℑ [ ]
≠
Main Index
361 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
4. If the radiation exchange matrix or any radiation boundary conditions are available
from an external source, the RADMTX must be user generated.
5. Multiple RADLST entries may be specified.
6. If any RADLST entry is changed or added on restart then a complete reanalysis may
be performed. Therefore, RADLST entry changes or additions are not recommended on
restart.
Main Index
362
Defines the radiation properties of a boundary element for heat transfer analysis.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The RADM entry is directly referenced only by one of the CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or
CHBDYP type surface element entries.
2. For radiation enclosure problems, ABSORP is set equal to emissivity. For QVECT
loads, absorptivity is specified by ABSORP.
3. If there is more than one EMISi, then:
• There must be a RADBND entry.
• The number of EMISi may not exceed the number of LAMBDAi on the
RADBND entry.
• The emissivity values are given for a wavelength specified by the corresponding
LAMBDAi on the RADBND entry. Within each discrete wavelength band, the
emissivity is assumed to be constant.
• At any specific wavelength and surface temperature, the absorptivity is exactly
equal to the emissivity.
4. To perform any radiation heat transfer exchange, the user must furnish PARAM entries
for:
• TABS to define the absolute temperature scale.
• SIGMA to define the StefanBoltzmann constant in appropriate units.
RADM
Radiation Boundary Material Property
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADM RADMID ABSORP EMIS1 EMIS2 EMIS3 EMIS4 EMIS5 EMIS6
EMIS7 etc.
RADM 11 .45 .33 .29 .20 .17 .13
Field Contents
RADMID Material identification number. (Integer > 0)
ABSORP Surface absorptivity or the temperature function curve multiplier if ABSORP is
variable. See Remark 2. (0.0 < Real < 1.0)
EMISi Surface emissivity at wavelength LAMBDAi or the temperature function curve
multiplier if EMISi is variable (See the RADBND entry.) (0.0 < Real < 1.0)
σ ( )
Main Index
363 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Specifies table references for temperature dependent RADM entry radiation boundary
properties.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. The basic quantities on the RADM entry of the same RADMID are always multiplied
by the corresponding tabular function.
2. Tables T(A) and T have an upper bound that is less than or equal to one and a lower
bound that is greater than or equal to zero.
3. The TABLEMj enforces the element temperature as the independent variable. Blank or
zero fields means there is no temperature dependence of the referenced property on the
RADM entry.
RADMT
Radiation Boundary Material Property Temperature Dependence
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADMT RADMI
D
T(A)
T(
1
) T(
2
) T(
3
) T(
4
) T(
5
) T(
6
)
T(
7
)
etc.
RADMT 11 1 2 3 4 5 6
Field Contents
RADMID Material identification number. (Integer > 0)
T(A) TABLEMj identifier for surface absorptivity. (Integer > 0 or blank)
T TABLEMj identifiers for surface emissivity. (Integer > 0 or blank)
ε ε ε ε ε ε
ε
ε
i
( )
ε
i
( )
Main Index
364
Provides the exchange factors for all the faces of a radiation enclosure specified in
the corresponding RADLST entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. If the matrix is symmetric, only the lower triangle is input, and i = j = INDEX. If the
matrix is unsymmetric, i = 1, and j = INDEX.
2. Only one ICAVITY may be referenced for those faces that are to be included in a unique
radiation matrix.
3. Coefficients are listed by column with the number of columns equal to the number of
entries in the RADLST.
4. All faces involved in any radiation enclosure must be defined with an CHBDYi
element.
5. If any RADMTX entry is changed or added on restart then a complete reanalysis may
be performed. Therefore, RADMTX entry changes or additions are not recommended
on restart.
RADMTX
Radiation Exchange Matrix
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADMTX ICAVITY INDEX Fi,j Fi+1,j Fi+2,j Fi+3,j Fi+4,j Fi+5,j
Fi+6,j etc.
RADMTX 2 1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2
Field Contents
ICAVITY Unique cavity identification number that links a radiation exchange matrix with its
listing of enclosure radiation surface elements. (Integer > 0)
INDEX Column number in the matrix. (Integer > 0)
F
k,j
If symmetric, the matrix values start on the diagonal (i = j) and continue down the
column (k = i + 1, i + 2, etc.). If unsymmetric, the values start in row (i = 1). i refers
to EIDi on the RADLST entry. (Real > 0)
F
ji
A
j
f
ji
=
Main Index
365 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Specifies which radiation cavities are to be included for radiation enclosure analysis.
Format:
Example:
Remark:
1. For multiple radiation cavities, RADSET specifies which cavities are to be included in
the analysis.
RADSET
Identifies a Set of Radiation Cavities
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADSET ICAVITY1 ICAVITY2 ICAVITY3 ICAVITY4 ICAVITY5 ICAVITY6 ICAVITY7 ICAVITY8
ICAVITY9 etc.
RADSET 1 2 3 4
Field Contents
ICAVITYi Unique identification number for a cavity to be considered for enclosure radiation
analysis. (Integer > 0)
Main Index
366
Defines a list of structural grid points for aerodynamic analysis, XYplots for SORT1 output, and
the PANEL entry.
Format:
Example:
Alternate Format and Example:
Remarks:
1. SET1 entries may be referenced by the SPLINEi entries, PANEL entries and
XYOUTPUT requests.
2. When using the “THRU” option for SPLINEi or PANEL data entries, all intermediate
grid points must exist.
3. When using the “THRU” option for XYOUTPUT requests, missing grid points are
ignored.
4. When using the “SKIN” option, MSC.Nastran will generate a panel consisting of the
structural portion of the fluidstructural boundary.
5. When the SET1 entry is used in conjunction with the ACMODL entry, under rules
defined on the ACMODL entry, the Gi may be a list of element IDs.
SET1
Set Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SET1 SID G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7
G8 etc.
SET1 3 31 62 93 124 16 17 18
19
SET1 SID G1 “THRU” G2
SET1 6 32 THRU 50
Field Contents
SID Unique identification number. (Integer > 0)
Gi List of structural grid point identification numbers. (Integer > 0 or “THRU”; for the
“THRU” option, G1 < G2 or “SKIN”; in field 3)
Main Index
367 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines concentrated static loads on scalar or grid points.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. In the static solution sequences, the load set ID (SID) is selected by the Case Control
command LOAD. In the dynamic solution sequences, SID must be referenced in the
LID field of an LSEQ entry, which in turn must be selected by the Case Control
command LOADSET.
2. Up to three loads may be defined on a single entry.
3. If Si refers to a grid point, the load is applied to component T1 of the displacement
coordinate system (see the CD field on the GRID entry).
SLOAD
Static Scalar Load
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SLOAD SID S1 F1 S2 F2 S3 F3
SLOAD 16 2 5.9 17 6.3 14 2.93
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Si Scalar or grid point identification number. (Integer > 0)
Fi Load magnitude. (Real)
Main Index
368
Defines a set of singlepoint constraints and enforced motion (enforced displacements in static
analysis and enforced displacements, velocities or acceleration in dynamic analysis).
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Singlepoint constraint sets must be selected with the Case Control command SPC =
SID.
2. Degreesoffreedom specified on this entry form members of the mutually exclusive
sset. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets.
See “DegreeofFreedom Sets” on page 843 for a list of these entries.
3. Singlepoint forces of constraint are recovered during stress data recovery.
4. From 1 to 12 degreesoffreedom may be specified on a single entry.
5. Degreesoffreedom on this entry may be redundantly specified as permanent
constraints using the PS field on the GRID entry.
6. For reasons of efficiency, the SPCD entry is the preferred method for applying enforced
motion rather than the Di field described here.
SPC
SinglePoint Constraint
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SPC SID G1 C1 D1 G2 C2 D2
SPC 2 32 3 2.6 5
Field Contents
SID Identification number of the singlepoint constraint set. (Integer > 0)
Gi Grid or scalar point identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ci Component number. (0 < Integer < 6; up to six Unique Integers, 1 through 6, may
be placed in the field with no embedded blanks. 0 applies to scalar points and 1
through 6 applies to grid points.)
Di Value of enforced motion for all degreesoffreedom designated by Gi and Ci.
(Real)
Main Index
369 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a set of singlepoint constraints.
Format:
Example:
Alternate Format and Example:
Remarks:
1. Singlepoint constraint sets must be selected with the Case Control command SPC =
SID.
2. Enforced displacements are available via this entry when used with the recommended
SPCD entry.
3. Degreesoffreedom specified on this entry form members of the mutually exclusive
sset. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets.
See “DegreeofFreedom Sets” on page 843 for a list of these entries.
4. Degreesoffreedom on this entry may be redundantly specified as permanent
constraints using the PS field on the GRID entry.
5. If the alternate format is used, points in the sequence G1 through G2 are not required
to exist. Points that do not exist will collectively produce a warning message but will
otherwise be ignored.
SPC1
SinglePoint Constraint, Alternate Form
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SPC1 SID C G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6
G7 G8 G9 etc.
SPC1 3 2 1 3 10 9 6 5
2 8
SPC1 SID C G1 “THRU” G2
SPC1 313 12456 6 THRU 32
Field Contents
SID Identification number of singlepoint constraint set. (Integer > 0)
C Component numbers. (Any unique combination of the Integers 1 through 6 with
no embedded blanks for grid points. This number must be Integer 0 or blank for
scalar points.)
Gi Grid or scalar point identification numbers. (Integer > 0 or “THRU”; For “THRU”
option, G1 < G2.)
Main Index
370
Defines a singlepoint constraint set as a union of singlepoint constraint sets defined on SPC or
SPC1 entries.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Singlepoint constraint sets must be selected with the Case Control command SPC =
SID.
2. No Si may be the identification number of a singlepoint constraint set defined by
another SPCADD entry.
3. The Si values must be unique.
4. SPCADD entries take precedence over SPC or SPC1 entries. If both have the same set
ID, only the SPCADD entry will be used.
SPCADD
SinglePoint Constraint Set Combination
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SPCADD SID S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
S8 S9 etc.
SPCADD 101 3 2 9 1
Field Contents
SID Singlepoint constraint set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Si Identification numbers of singlepoint constraint sets defined via SPC or by SPC1
entries. (Integer > 0; SID Si) ≠
Main Index
371 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines an enforced displacement value for static analysis and an enforced motion value
(displacement, velocity or acceleration) in dynamic analysis.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. In the static solution sequences, the set ID of the SPCD entry (SID) is selected by the
LOAD Case Control command.
2. In dynamic analysis, the selection of SID is determined by the presence of the
LOADSET request in Case Control as follows:
• There is no LOADSET request in Case Control
SID is selected by the EXCITEID ID of an RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 or
TLOAD2 Bulk Data entry that has enforced motion specified in its TYPE field
• There is a LOADSET request in Case Control
SID is selected by LID in the selected LSEQ entries that correspond to the
EXCITEID entry of an RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 Bulk Data
entry that has enforced motion specified in its TYPE field.
3. A global coordinate (Gi and CI) referenced on this entry must also be referenced on a
SPC or SPC1 Bulk Data entry and selected by the SPC Case Control command.
4. Values of Di will override the values specified on an SPC Bulk Data entry, if the SID is
selected as indicated above.
5. The LOAD Bulk Data entry will not combine an SPCD load entry.
6. In static analysis, this method of applying enforced displacements is more efficient
than the SPC entry when more than one enforced displacement condition is applied. It
provides equivalent answers.
SPCD
Enforced Motion Value
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SPCD SID G1 C1 D1 G2 C2 D2
SPCD 100 32 436 2.6 5 2.9
Field Contents
SID Set identification number of the SPCD entry. (Integer > 0)
Gi Grid or scalar point identification number. (integer > 0)
Ci Component numbers. (0 < Integer < 6; up to six unique Integers may be placed in
the field with no embedded blanks.)
Di Value of enforced motion for at Gi and Ci. (Real)
Main Index
372
7. In dynamic analysis, this direct method of specifying enforced motion is more accurate,
efficient and elegant than the large mass and Lagrange multiplier techniques.
Main Index
373 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines scalar points.
Format:
Example:
Alternate Format and Example:
Remarks:
1. A scalar point defined by its appearance on the connection entry for a scalar element
(see the CELASi, CMASSi, and CDAMPi entries) need not appear on an SPOINT entry.
2. All scalar point identification numbers must be unique with respect to all other
structural, scalar, and fluid points. However, duplicate scalar point identification
numbers are allowed in the input.
3. This entry is used primarily to define scalar points appearing in singlepoint or
multipoint constraint equations to which no scalar elements are connected.
4. If the alternate format is used, all scalar points ID1 through ID2 are defined.
5. For a discussion of scalar points, see “Scalar Elements (CELASi, CMASSi, CDAMPi)”
on page 193 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
SPOINT
Scalar Point Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SPOINT ID1 ID2 ID3 ID4 ID5 ID6 ID7 ID8
SPOINT 3 18 1 4 16 2
SPOINT ID1 “THRU” ID2
SPOINT 5 THRU 649
Field Contents
IDi Scalar point identification number. (0 < Integer < 100000000; For “THRU” option,
ID1 < ID2)
Main Index
374
Defines determinate reaction degreesoffreedom in free bodies for conical shell analysis.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. SUPAX is allowed only if an AXIC entry is also present.
2. Up to 12 degreesoffreedom may appear on a single entry.
3. Degreesoffreedom appearing on SUPAX entries may not appear on MPCAX, SPCAX,
or OMITAX entries.
4. For a discussion of conical shell analysis, see “Conical Shell Element (RINGAX)” on
page 155 of the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
SUPAX
Conical Shell Fictitious Support
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SUPAX RID1 HID1 C1 RID2 HID2 C2
SUPAX 4 3 2
Field Contents
RIDi Ring identification number. (Integer > 0)
HIDi Harmonic identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ci Conical shell degreeoffreedom numbers. (Any unique combination of the
Integers 1 through 6.)
Main Index
375 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a tabular function for use in generating frequencydependent and timedependent
dynamic loads.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. xi must be in either ascending or descending order, but not both.
2. Discontinuities may be specified between any two points except the two starting points
or two end points. For example, in Figure 49 discontinuities are allowed only between
points x2 through x7. Also, if y is evaluated at a discontinuity, then the average value
of y is used. In Figure 49, the value of y at x=x3 is . If the yaxis is a
LOG axis then the jump at the discontinuity is evaluated as .
3. At least one continuation must be specified.
4. Any xiyi pair may be ignored by placing the character string “SKIP” in either of the
two fields.
5. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of the character string “ENDT” in
either of the two fields following the last entry. An error is detected if any
continuations follow the entry containing the endoftable flag “ENDT”.
6. TABLED1 uses the algorithm
TABLED1
Dynamic Load Tabular Function, Form 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLED1 TID XAXIS YAXIS
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc. “ENDT”
TABLED1 32
3.0 6.9 2.0 5.6 3.0 5.6 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
XAXIS Specifies a linear or logarithmic interpolation for the xaxis. See Remark 6.
(Character: “LINEAR” or “LOG”; Default = “LINEAR”)
YAXIS Specifies a linear or logarithmic interpolation for the yaxis. See Remark 6.
(Character: “LINEAR” or “LOG”; Default = “LINEAR”)
xi, yi Tabular values. (Real)
“ENDT” Flag indicating the end of the table.
y y3 y4 + ( ) 2 ⁄ =
y y3y4 =
y y
T
x ( ) =
Main Index
376
where x is input to the table and y is returned. The table lookup is performed using
interpolation within the table and extrapolation outside the table using the two starting
or end points. See Figure 49. The algorithms used for interpolation or extrapolation
are:
where xj and yj follow xi and yi.
No warning messages are issued if table data is input incorrectly.
Figure 49 Example of Table Extrapolation and Discontinuity
7. Linear extrapolation is not used for Fourier transform methods. The function is zero
outside the range of the table.
8. For frequencydependent loads, xi is measured in cycles per unit time.
9. Tabular values on an axis if XAXIS or YAXIS = LOG must be positive. A fatal message
will be issued if an axis has a tabular value < 0.
XAXIS YAXIS y
T
(x)
LINEAR LINEAR
LOG LINEAR
LINEAR LOG
LOG LOG
xj x –
xj xi –
 yi
x xi –
xj xi –
 yj +
l n xj x ⁄ ( )
l n xj xi ⁄ ( )
 yi
ln x xi ⁄ ( )
l n xj xi ⁄ ( )
 yj +
xj x –
xj xi –
 l n yi
x xi –
xj xi –
 l n yj + exp
ln xj x ⁄ ( )
l n xj xi ⁄ ( )
 l n yi
l n x xi ⁄ ( )
ln xj xi ⁄ ( )
 l n yi + exp
x
Extrapolated
y
x
Discontinuity
Allowed
Discontinuity
Not Allowed
Linear
Extrapolation
of Segment
x1x2
x1
x value
Range of Table
x2 x3, x5 x6 x7,
x4
x8
Main Index
377 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a tabular function for use in generating frequencydependent and timedependent
dynamic loads. Also contains parametric data for use with the table.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. xi must be in either ascending or descending order, but not both.
2. Discontinuities may be specified between any two points except the two starting points
or two end points. For example, in Figure 410 discontinuities are allowed only
between points x2 and x7. Also if y is evaluated at a discontinuity, then the average
value of y is used. In Figure 410, the value of y at x=x3 is .
3. At least one continuation entry must be specified.
4. Any xiyi pair may be ignored by placing “SKIP” in either of the two fields.
5. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of “ENDT” in either of the two fields
following the last entry. An error is detected if any continuations follow the entry
containing the endoftable flag “ENDT”.
6. TABLED2 uses the algorithm
where x is input to the table and y is returned. The table lookup is performed using
linear interpolation within the table and linear extrapolation outside the table using the
two starting or end points. See Figure 410. No warning messages are issued if table
data is input incorrectly.
TABLED2
Dynamic Load Tabular Function, Form 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLED2 TID X1
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
TABLED2 15 10.5
1.0 4.5 2.0 4.2 2.0 2.8 7.0 6.5
SKIP SKIP 9.0 6.5 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
X1 Table parameter. See Remark 6. (Real)
xi, yi Tabular values. (Real)
y y3 y4 + ( ) 2 ⁄ =
y y
T
x X1 – ( ) =
Main Index
378
Figure 410 Example of Table Extrapolation and Discontinuity
7. Linear extrapolation is not used for Fourier transform methods. The function is zero
outside the range of the table.
8. For frequencydependent loads, X1 and xi are measured in cycles per unit time.
x
Extrapolated
y
x
Discontinuity
Allowed
Discontinuity
Not Allowed
Linear
Extrapolation
of Segment
x1x2
x1
x value
Range of Table
x2 x3 x5 x6 x7
x4
x8
Main Index
379 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a tabular function for use in generating frequencydependent and timedependent
dynamic loads. Also contains parametric data for use with the table.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. xi must be in either ascending or descending order, but not both.
2. Discontinuities may be specified between any two points except the two starting points
or two end points. For example, in Figure 411 discontinuities are allowed only
between points x2 and x7. Also if y is evaluated at a discontinuity, then the average
value of y is used. In Figure 411, the value of y at x=x3 is .
3. At least one continuation entry must be present.
4. Any xiyi pair may be ignored by placing “SKIP” in either of the two fields.
5. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of “ENDT” in either of the two fields
following the last entry. An error is detected if any continuations follow the entry
containing the endoftable flag “ENDT”.
6. TABLED3 uses the algorithm
where x is input to the table and y is returned. The table lookup is performed using
interpolation within the table and linear extrapolation outside the table using the two
starting or end points. See Figure 411. No warning messages are issued if table data
is input incorrectly.
TABLED3
Dynamic Load Tabular Function, Form 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLED3 TID X1 X2
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
TABLED3 62 126.9 30.0
2.9 2.9 3.6 4.7 5.2 5.7 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
X1, X2 Table parameters. (Real; X2 0.0)
xi, yi Tabular values. (Real)
≠
y y3 y4 + ( ) 2 ⁄ =
y y
T
x X1 –
X2

\ .
 
=
Main Index
380
Figure 411 Example of Table Extrapolation and Discontinuity
7. Linear extrapolation is not used for Fourier transform methods. The function is zero
outside the range of the table.
8. For frequencydependent loads, X1, X2, and xi are measured in cycles per unit time.
x
Extrapolated
y
x
Discontinuity
Allowed
Discontinuity
Not Allowed
Linear
Extrapolation
of Segment
x1x2
x1
x value
Range of Table
x2 x3 x5 x6 x7
x4
x8
Main Index
381 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines the coefficients of a power series for use in generating frequencydependent and
timedependent dynamic loads. Also contains parametric data for use with the table.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. At least one continuation entry must be specified.
2. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of “ENDT” in the field following the
last entry. An error is detected if any continuations follow the entry containing the
endoftable flag “ENDT”.
3. TABLED4 uses the algorithm
where x is input to the table, y is returned, and N is the number of pairs. Whenever
x < X3, use X3 for x; whenever x > X4, use X4 for x. There are N + 1 entries in the table.
There are no error returns from this table lookup procedure.
4. For frequencydependent loads, xi is measured in cycles per unit time.
TABLED4
Dynamic Load Tabular Function, Form 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLED4 TID X1 X2 X3 X4
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 etc.
TABLED4 28 0.0 1.0 0.0 100.
2.91 0.0329 6.515 0.0 3.47 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
Xi Table parameters. (Real; X2 0.0; X3<X4)
Ai Coefficients. (Real)
≠
y Ai
x X1 –
X2

\ .
 
i
i 0 =
N
∑
=
Main Index
382
Defines a tabular function for use in generating temperaturedependent material properties.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. xi must be in either ascending or descending order, but not both.
2. Discontinuities may be specified between any two points except the two starting points
or two end points. For example, in Figure 412 discontinuities are allowed only
between points x2 through x7. Also, if y is evaluated at a discontinuity, then the
average value of y is used. In Figure 412, the value of y at x = x3 is .
3. At least one continuation entry must be specified.
4. Any xiyi pair may be ignored by placing “SKIP” in either of the two fields.
5. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of “ENDT” in either of the two fields
following the last entry. An error is detected if any continuations follow the entry
containing the endoftable flag “ENDT”.
6. TABLEM1 uses the algorithm
where x is input to the table and y is returned. The table lookup is performed using
linear interpolation within the table and linear extrapolation outside the table using the
two starting or end points. See Figure 412. The algorithms used for interpolation or
extrapolation are:
TABLEM1
Material Property Table, Form 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLEM1 TID XAXIS YAXIS
xI y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc. “ENDT”
TABLEM1 32
3.0 6.9 2.0 5.6 3.0 5.6 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
XAXIS Specifies a linear or logarithmic interpolation for the xaxis. See Remark 6.
(Character: “LINEAR” or “LOG”; Default = “LINEAR”)
YAXIS Specifies a linear or logarithmic interpolation for the yaxis. See Remark 6.
(Character: “LINEAR” or “LOG”; Default = “LINEAR”)
xi, yi Tabular values. (Real)
“ENDT” Flag indicating the end of the table.
y y3 y4 + ( ) 2 ⁄ =
y y
T
x ( ) =
Main Index
383 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
where xj and yj follow xi and yi.
No warning messages are issued if table data is input incorrectly.
Figure 412 Example of Table Extrapolation and Discontinuity
7. Tabular values on an axis if XAXIS or YAXIS = LOG must be positive. A fatal message
will be issued if an axis has a tabular value < 0.
XAXIS YAXIS y
T
(x)
LINEAR LINEAR
LOG LINEAR
LINEAR LOG
LOG LOG
xy x –
xj xi –
 yi
x xi –
xj xi –
 yj +
l n xj x ⁄ ( )
l n xj xi ⁄ ( )
 yi
ln x xi ⁄ ( )
l n xj xi ⁄ ( )
 yj +
xj x –
xj xi –
 l n yi
x xi –
xj xi –
 l n yj + exp
ln xj x ⁄ ( )
l n xj xi ⁄ ( )
 l n yi
l n x xi ⁄ ( )
ln xj xi ⁄ ( )
 l n yi + exp
x
Extrapolated
y
x
Discontinuity
Allowed
Discontinuity
Not Allowed
Linear
Extrapolation
of Segment
x1x2
x1
x value
Range of Table
x2 x3 x5 x6 x7
x4
x8
Main Index
384
Defines a tabular function for use in generating temperaturedependent material properties.
Also contains parametric data for use with the table.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. xi must be in either ascending or descending order, but not both.
2. Discontinuities may be specified between any two points except the two starting points
or two end points. For example, in Figure 413, discontinuities are allowed only
between points x2 through x7. Also, if y is evaluated at a discontinuity, then the
average value of y is used. In Figure 413, the value of y at x = x3 is .
3. At least one continuation entry must be specified.
4. Any xiyi pair may be ignored by placing “SKIP” in either of the two fields.
5. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of “ENDT” in either of the two fields
following the last entry. An error is detected if any continuations follow the entry
containing the endoftable flag “ENDT”.
6. TABLEM2 uses the algorithm
where x is input to the table, y is returned and z is supplied from the MATi entry. The
table lookup is performed using linear interpolation within the table and linear
extrapolation outside the table using the two starting or end points. See Figure 413.
No warning messages are issued if table data is input incorrectly.
TABLEM2
Material Property Table, Form 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLEM2 TID X1
x1 yI x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
TABLEM2 15 10.5
1.0 4.5 2.0 4.5 2.0 2.8 7.0 6.5
SKIP SKIP 9.0 6.5 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
X1 Table parameter. (Real)
xi, yi Tabular values. (Real)
y y3 y4 + ( ) 2 ⁄ =
y zy
T
x X1 – ( ) =
Main Index
385 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Figure 413 Example of Table Extrapolation and Discontinuity
x
Extrapolated
y
x
Discontinuity
Allowed
Discontinuity
Not Allowed
Linear
Extrapolation
of Segment
x1x2
x1
x value
Range of Table
x2 x3 x5 x6 x7
x4
x8
Main Index
386
Defines a tabular function for use in generating temperaturedependent material properties.
Also contains parametric data for use with the table.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Tabular values for xi must be specified in either ascending or descending order, but not
both.
2. Discontinuities may be specified between any two points except the two starting points
or two end points. For example, in Figure 414 discontinuities are allowed only
between points x2 through x7. Also, if y is evaluated at a discontinuity, then the
average value of y is used. In Figure 414, the value of y at x = x3 is .
3. At least one continuation entry must be specified.
4. Any xiyi pair may be ignored by placing “SKIP” in either of the two fields.
5. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of “ENDT” in either of the two fields
following the last entry. An error is detected if any continuations follow the entry
containing the endoftable flag “ENDT”.
6. TABLEM3 uses the algorithm
where x is input to the table, y is returned and z is supplied from the MATi entry. The
table lookup is performed using linear interpolation within the table and linear
extrapolation outside the table using the two starting or end points. See Figure 414.
No warning messages are issued if table data is input incorrectly.
TABLEM3
Material Property Table, Form 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLEM3 TID X1 X2
x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 etc.
TABLEM3 62 126.9 30.0
2.9 2.9 3.6 4.7 5.2 5.7 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
X1, X2 Table parameters. See Remark 6. (Real; X2 0.0)
xi, yi Tabular values. (Real)
≠
y y3 y4 + ( ) 2 ⁄ =
y zy
T
x X1 –
X2

\ .
 
=
Main Index
387 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Figure 414 Example of Table Extrapolation and Discontinuity
x
Extrapolated
y
x
Discontinuity
Allowed
Discontinuity
Not Allowed
Linear
Extrapolation
of Segment
x1x2
x1
x value
Range of Table
x2 x3 x5 x6 x7
x4
x8
Main Index
388
Defines coefficients of a power series for use in generating temperaturedependent material
properties. Also contains parametric data for use with the table.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. At least one continuation entry must be specified.
2. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of “ENDT” in the field following the
last entry. An error is detected if any continuations follow the entry containing the
endoftable flag “ENDT”.
3. TABLEM4 uses the algorithm
where x is input to the table, y is returned and z is supplied from the MATi entry.
Whenever x < X3, use X3 for x; whenever x > X4, use X4 for x. There are entries
in the table. There are no error returns from this table lookup procedure.
TABLEM4
Material Property Table, Form 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TABLEM4 TID X1 X2 X3 X4
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 etc.
TABLEM4 28 0.0 1.0 0.0 100.
2.91 0.0329 6.515 0.0 3.47 ENDT
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
Xi Table parameters. (Real; X2 0.0; X3 < X4)
Ai Coefficients. (Real)
≠
y z Ai
x X1 –
X2

\ .
 
i
i 0 =
N
∑
=
N 1 +
Main Index
389 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines temperature at grid points for determination of thermal loading,
temperaturedependent material properties, or stress recovery.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. In the static solution sequences, the temperature set ID(SID) is selected by the Case
Control command TEMP. In the dynamic solution sequences, SID must be referenced
in the TID field of an LSEQ entry, which in turn must be selected by the Case Control
command LOADSET. There is a maximum of 66 unique temperature SIDs that may be
specified.
2. Set ID must be unique with respect to all other LOAD type entries if TEMP(LOAD) is
specified in the Case Control Section.
3. From one to three grid point temperatures may be defined on a single entry.
4. If thermal effects are requested, all elements must have a temperature field defined
either directly on a TEMPP1, TEMPP3, or TEMPRB entry or indirectly as the average of
the connected grid point temperatures defined on the TEMP or TEMPD entries.
Directly defined element temperatures always take precedence over the average of grid
point temperatures.
5. If the element material is temperature dependent, its properties are evaluated at the
average temperature.
6. Average element temperatures are obtained as a simple average of the connecting grid
point temperatures when no element temperature data are defined. Gauss point
temperatures are averaged for solid elements instead of grid point temperature.
7. For steady state heat transfer analysis, this entry together with the TEMPD entry
supplies the initialization temperatures for nonlinear analysis. The Case Control
command TEMP(INIT) = SID requests selection of this entry. The temperature values
specified here must be coincident with any temperature boundary conditions that are
specified.
TEMP
Grid Point Temperature Field
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TEMP SID G1 T1 G2 T2 G3 T3
TEMP 3 94 316.2 49 219.8
Field Contents
SID Temperature set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Gi Grid point identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ti Temperature. (Real)
Main Index
390
8. For transient heat transfer analysis, this entry together with the TEMPD entry supplies
the initial condition temperatures. The Case Control command IC = SID requests
selections of this entry. The temperature values specified here must be coincident with
any temperature boundary condition specified.
9. In linear and nonlinear buckling analysis, the follower force effects due to loads from
this entry are not included in the differential stiffness. See “Buckling Analysis in
SubDMAP MODERS” on page 468 and “Nonlinear Static Analysis” on page 650 of
the MSC.Nastran Reference Manual.
Main Index
391 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines temperature sets for conical shell problems.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. TEMPAX is allowed only if an AXIC entry is also present.
2. SIDi must be unique with respect to all other LOAD type entries if TEMP(LOAD) is
specified in the Case Control Section.
3. Temperature sets must be selected with the Case Control command TEMP=SID. There
is a maximum of 66 unique temperature SIDs that may be specified.
4. One or two temperatures may be defined on each entry.
5. For a discussion of the conical shell problem, see “Restart Procedures” on page 398 of
the MSC.Nastran Reference Guide.
6. TEMP(INIT) is not used with this entry.
TEMPAX
Conical Shell Temperature
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TEMPAX SID1 RID1 PHI1 T1 SID2 RID2 PHI2 T2
TEMPAX 4 7 30.0 105.3
Field Contents
SIDi Temperature set identification number. (Integer > 0)
RIDi Ring identification number (see RINGAX entry). (Integer > 0)
PHIi Azimuthal angle in degrees. (Real)
Ti Temperature. (Real)
Main Index
392
Defines a temperature value for all grid points of the structural model that have not been given
a temperature on a TEMP entry.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. For structural analysis in the static solution sequences, the temperature set ID (SID) is
selected by the Case Control command TEMP. In the dynamic solution sequences, SID
must be referenced in the TID field of an LSEQ entry, which in turn must be selected
by the Case Control command LOADSET. There is a maximum of 66 unique
temperature SIDs that may be specified.
2. SIDi must be unique with respect to all other LOAD type entries if TEMP(LOAD) is
specified in the Case Control Section.
3. From one to four default temperatures may be defined on a single entry.
4. If thermal effects are requested, all elements must have a temperature field defined
either directly on a TEMPP1, TEMPP3, or TEMPRB entry or indirectly as the average of
the connected grid point temperatures defined on the TEMP or TEMPD entries.
Directly defined element temperatures always take precedence over the average of grid
point temperatures.
5. If the element material is temperature dependent, its properties are evaluated at the
average temperature.
6. Average element temperatures are obtained as a simple average of the connecting grid
point temperatures when no element temperature data is defined.
7. For steadystate heat transfer analysis, this entry together with the TEMP entry
supplies the initialization temperatures for nonlinear analysis. The Case Control
command TEMP(INIT) = SID requests selection of this entry. The temperature values
specified here must be coincident with any temperatures boundary conditions that are
specified.
TEMPD
Grid Point Temperature Field Default
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TEMPD SID1 T1 SID2 T2 SID3 T3 SID4 T4
TEMPD 1 216.3
Field Contents
SIDi Temperature set identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ti Default temperature value. (Real)
Main Index
393 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
8. For transient heat transfer analysis, this entry together with the TEMP entry supplies
the initial condition temperatures. The Case Control command IC=SID request
selection of this entry. The temperature values specified here must be coincident with
any temperature boundary conditions that are specified.
9. In linear and nonlinear buckling analysis, the follower force effects due to loads from
this entry are not included in the differential stiffness. See “Buckling Analysis in
SubDMAP MODERS” on page 468 and “Nonlinear Static Analysis” on page 650 of
the MSC.Nastran Reference Manual.
10. For partitioned Bulk Data superelements and auxiliary models, TEMPD must be
specified in all partitioned Bulk Data Sections.
Main Index
394
Defines a dynamic transfer function of the form
Eq. 43
Can also be used as a means of direct matrix input. See Remark 4.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Transfer function sets must be selected with the Case Control command TFL = SID.
2. Continuation entries are optional.
3. The matrix elements defined by this entry are added to the dynamic matrices for the
problem.
4. The constraint relation given in Eq. 43 will hold only if no structural elements or other
matrix elements are connected to the dependent coordinate . In fact, the terms on
the left side of Eq. 43 are simply added to the terms from all other sources in the row
for .
5. See the MSC.Nastran Advanced Dynamic Analysis User’s Guide for a discussion of transfer
functions.
6. For each SID, only one logical entry is allowed for each GD, CD combination.
7. For heat transfer analysis, the initial conditions must satisfy Eq. 43.
TF
Dynamic Transfer Function
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TF SID GD CD B0 B1 B2
G(1) C(1) A0(1) A1(1) A2(1) etc.
TF 1 2 3 4.0 5.0 6.0
3 4 5.0 6.0 7.0
Field Contents
SID Set identification number. (Integer > 0)
GD, G(i) Grid, scalar, or extra point identification numbers. (Integer > 0)
CD, C(i) Component numbers. (Integer zero or blank for scalar or extra points, any
one of the Integers 1 through 6 for a grid point.)
Transfer function coefficients. (Real)
B0 B1 + p B2 + p
2
⋅ ⋅ ( )u
d
A0 i ( ) A1 i ( )p A2 i ( )p
2
+ + ( ) u
i
i
∑
+ 0 =
B0, B1, B2
A0(i), A1(i), A2(i)
u
d
u
d
Main Index
395 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a timedependent dynamic load or enforced motion of the form
for use in transient response analysis.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Dynamic excitation sets must be selected with the Case Control command DLOAD =
SID.
2. The type of the dynamic excitation is specified by TYPE (field 5) according to the
following table:
TLOAD1
Transient Response Dynamic Excitation, Form 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TLOAD1 SID EXCITEI
D
DELAY TYPE TID
TLOAD1 5 7 LOAD 13
Field Contents
SID Set identification number. (Integer > 0)
EXCITEID Identification number of DAREA or SPCD entry set or a thermal load set (in heat
transfer analysis) that defines A. See Remarks 2. and 3. (Integer > 0)
DELAY Defines time delay . (Integer > 0, real or blank) If it is a nonzero integer, it
represents the identification number of DELAY Bulk Data entry that defines . If
it is real, then it directly defines the value of that will be used for all degrees of
freedom that are excited by this dynamic load entry. See also Remark 9.
TYPE Defines the type of the dynamic excitation. See Remarks 2. and 3. (Integer,
character or blank; Default = 0)
TID Identification number of TABLEDi entry that gives . (Integer > 0)
TYPE TYPE of Dynamic Excitation
0, L, LO, LOA or LOAD Applied load (force or moment) (Default)
1, D, DI, DIS, or DISP Enforced displacement using large mass or SPC/ SPCD
data
2, V, VE, VEL or VELO Enforced velocity using large mass or SPC/ SPCD data
3, A, AC, ACC or ACCE Enforced acceleration using large mass or SPC/ SPCD
data
P t ( ) { } A F t τ – ( ) ⋅ { } =
τ
τ
τ
F t ( )
Main Index
396
3. TYPE (field 5) also determines the manner in which EXCITEID (field 3) is used by the
program as described below
Excitation specified by TYPE is applied load
• There is no LOADSET request in Case Control
EXCITEID may also reference DAREA, static, and thermal load set entries
• There is a LOADSET request in Case Control
The program may also reference static and thermal load set entries specified by
the LID or TID field in the selected LSEQ entries corresponding to the
EXCITEID.
Excitation specified by TYPE is enforced motion
• There is no LOADSET request in Case Control
EXCITEID will reference SPCD entries. If such entries indicate null enforced
motion, the program will then assume that the excitation is enforced motion
using large mass and will reference DAREA and static and thermal load set
entries just as in the case of applied load excitation.
• There is a LOADSET request in Case Control
The program will reference SPCD entries specified by the LID field in the
selected LSEQ entries corresponding to the EXCITEID. If such entries indicate
null enforced motion, the program will then assume that the excitation is
enforced motion using large mass and will reference static and thermal load set
entries corresponding to the DAREA entry in the selected LSEQ entries, just as
in the case of applied load excitation.
4. EXCITEID may reference sets containing QHBDY, QBDYi, QVECT, QVOL and
TEMPBC entries when using the heat transfer option.
5. TLOAD1 loads may be combined with TLOAD2 loads only by specification on a
DLOAD entry. That is, the SID on a TLOAD1 entry may not be the same as that on a
TLOAD2 entry.
6. SID must be unique for all TLOAD1, TLOAD2, RLOAD1, RLOAD2, and ACSRCE
entries.
7. If the heat transfer option is used, the referenced QVECT entry may also contain
references to functions of time, and therefore A may be a function of time.
8. If TLOADi entries are selected in SOL 111 or 146 then a Fourier analysis is used to
transform the timedependent loads on the TLOADi entries to the frequency domain
and then combine them with loads from RLOADi entries. Then the analysis is
performed as a frequency response analysis but the solution and the output are
converted to and printed in the time domain. Please refer to “Fourier Transform” on
page 176 of the MSC.Nastran Advanced Dynamic Analysis User’s Guide.
9. If DELAY is blank or zero, will be zero. τ
Main Index
397 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Defines a timedependent dynamic excitation or enforced motion of the form
for use in a transient response problem, where
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. Dynamic excitation sets must be selected with the Case Control command with
DLOAD=SID.
TLOAD2
Transient Response Dynamic Excitation, Form 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TLOAD2 SID EXCITEID DELAY TYPE T1 T2 F P
C B
TLOAD2 4 10 2.1 4.7 12.0
2.0
Field Contents
SID Set identification number. (Integer > 0)
EXCITEID Identification number of DAREA or SPCD entry set or a thermal load set (in heat
transfer analysis) that defines A. See Remarks 2. and 3. (Integer > 0)
DELAY Defines time delay τ. (Integer > 0, real or blank). If it is a nonzero integer, it
represents the identification number of DELAY Bulk Data entry that defines τ.. If
it is real, then it directly defines the value of τ that will be used for all degrees of
freedom that are excited by this dynamic load entry. See also Remark 5.
TYPE Defines the type of the dynamic excitation. See Remarks 2. and 3. (Integer,
character or blank; Default = 0)
T1 Time constant. (Real > 0.0)
T2 Time constant. (Real; T2 > T1)
F Frequency in cycles per unit time. (Real > 0.0; Default = 0.0)
P Phase angle in degrees. (Real; Default = 0.0)
C Exponential coefficient. (Real; Default = 0.0)
B Growth coefficient. (Real; Default = 0.0)
P t ( ) { }
0 , t T1 τ + ( ) or t T2 τ + ( ) > <
At
˜
B
e
Ct
˜
2πFt
˜
P + ( ) cos , T1 τ + ( ) t T2 τ + ( ) ≤ ≤
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
t
˜
t = T1 – τ –
Main Index
398
2. The type of the dynamic excitation is specified by TYPE (field 5) according to the
following table:
3. TYPE (field 5) also determines the manner in which EXCITEID (field 3) is used by the
program as described below
Excitation specified by TYPE is applied load
• There is no LOADSET request in Case Control
EXCITEID may also reference DAREA, static and thermal load set entries
• There is a LOADSET request in Case Control
The program may also reference static and thermal load set entries specified by
the LID or TID field in the selected LSEQ entries corresponding to the
EXCITEID.
Excitation specified by TYPE is enforced motion
• There is no LOADSET request in Case Control
EXCITEID will reference SPCD entries. If such entries indicate null enforced
motion, the program will then assume that the excitation is enforced motion
using large mass and will reference DAREA and static and thermal load set
entries just as in the case of applied load excitation.
• There is a LOADSET request in Case Control
The program will reference SPCD entries specified by the LID field in the
selected LSEQ entries corresponding to the EXCITEID. If such entries indicate
null enforced motion, the program will then assume that the excitation is
enforced motion using large mass and will reference static and thermal load set
entries specified by the LID or TID field in the selected LSEQ entries
corresponding to the EXCITEID, just as in the case of applied load excitation.
4. EXCITEID (field 3) may reference sets containing QHBDY, QBDYi, QVECT, and QVOL
and TEMPBC entries when using the heat transfer option.
5. If DELAY is blank or zero, τ will be zero.
6. TLOAD1 loads may be combined with TLOAD2 loads only by specification on a
DLOAD entry. That is, the SID on a TLOAD1 entry may not be the same as that on a
TLOAD2 entry.
TYPE TYPE of Dynamic Excitation
0, L, LO, LOA or LOAD Applied load (force or moment) (Default)
1, D, DI, DIS, or DISP Enforced displacement using large mass or SPC/ SPCD
data
2, V, VE, VEL or VELO Enforced velocity using large mass or SPC/ SPCD data
3, A, AC, ACC or ACCE Enforced acceleration using large mass or SPC/ SPCD
data
Main Index
399 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
7. SID must be unique for all TLOAD1, TLOAD2, RLOAD1, RLOAD2, and ACSRCE
entries.
8. If the heat transfer option is used, the referenced QVECT entry may also contain
references to functions of time, and therefore A may be a function of time.
9. If TLOADi entries are selected in SOL 111 or 146 then a Fourier analysis is used to
transform the timedependent loads on the TLOADi entries to the frequency domain
and them combine them with loads from RLOADi entries. Then the analysis is
performed as a frequency response analysis but the solution and the output are
converted to and printed in the time domain. In this case, B will be rounded to the
nearest integer. Please refer to “Fourier Transform” on page 176 of the MSC.Nastran
Advanced Dynamic Analysis User’s Guide.
10. The continuation entry is optional.
Main Index
400
Defines parametric controls and data for nonlinear transient structural or heat transfer analysis.
TSTEPNL is intended for SOLs 129, 159, and 99.
Format:
Example:
TSTEPNL
Parameters for Nonlinear Transient Analysis
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TSTEPNL ID NDT DT NO KSTEP MAXITER CONV
EPSU EPSP EPSW MAXDIV MAXQN MAXLS FSTRESS
MAXBIS ADJUST MSTEP RB MAXR UTOL RTOLB
TSTEPNL 250 100 .01 1 2 10 PW
1.E2 1.E3 1.E6 2 10 2 .02
5 5 0 0.75 16.0 0.1 20.
Field Contents
ID Identification number. (Integer > 0)
NDT Number of time steps of value DT. See Remark 2. (Integer > 4)
DT Time increment. See Remark 2. (Real > 0.0)
NO Time step interval for output. Every NOth step will be saved for output. See
Remark 3. (Integer > 0; Default = 1)
KSTEP KSTEP is the number of converged bisection solutions between stiffness updates.
(Integer > 0; Default = 2)
MAXITER Limit on number of iterations for each time step. See Remark 4. (Integer 0;
Default = 10)
CONV Flags to select convergence criteria. See Remark 5. (Character: “U”, “P”, “W”, or
any combination; Default = “PW.”)
EPSU Error tolerance for displacement (U) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default = 1.0E2)
EPSP Error tolerance for load (P) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default = 1.0E3)
EPSW Error tolerance for work (W) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default = 1.0E6)
MAXDIV Limit on the number of diverging conditions for a time step before the solution is
assumed to diverge. See Remark 6. (Integer > 0; Default = 2)
MAXQN Maximum number of quasiNewton correction vectors to be saved on the
database. See Remark 7. (Integer > 0; Default = 10)
MAXLS Maximum number of line searches allowed per iteration. See Remark 7. (Integer
> 0; Default = 2)
≠
Main Index
401 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Remarks:
1. The TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry is selected by the Case Control command TSTEP = ID.
Each residual structure subcase requires a TSTEP entry and either applied loads via
TLOADi data or initial values from a previous subcase. Multiple subcases are assumed
to occur sequentially in time with the initial values of time and displacement conditions
of each subcase defined by the end conditions of the previous subcase.
2. NDT is used to define the total duration for analysis, which is NDT * DT. Since DT is
adjusted during the analysis , the actual number of time steps, in general, will not be
equal to NDT). Also, DT is used only as an initial value for the time increment.
3. For printing and plotting the solution, data recovery is performed at time steps 0, NO,
2 * NO, ..., and the last converged step. The Case Control command OTIME may also
be used to control the output times.
4. The number of iterations for a time step is limited to MAXITER. If MAXITER is
negative, the analysis is terminated when the divergence condition is encountered
twice during the same time step or the solution diverges for five consecutive time steps.
If MAXITER is positive, the program computes the best solution and continues the
analysis until divergence occurs again. If the solution does not converge in MAXITER
iterations, the process is treated as a divergent process. See Remark 6.
FSTRESS Fraction of effective stress used to limit the subincrement size in the material
routines. See Remark 8. (0.0 < Real < 1.0; Default = 0.2)
MAXBIS Maximum number of bisections allowed for each time step. See Remark 9. (9
<Integer < 9; Default = 5)
ADJUST Time step skip factor for automatic time step adjustment. See Remark 10. (Integer
> 0; Default = 5)
MSTEP Number of steps to obtain the dominant period response. See Remark 11. (10 <
Integer < 200; Default = variable between 20 and 40.)
RB Define bounds for maintaining the same time step for the stepping function during
the adaptive process. See Remark 11. (0.1 < Real < 1.0; Default = 0.75)
MAXR Maximum ratio for the adjusted incremental time relative to DT allowed for time
step adjustment. See Remark 12. (1.0 < Real < 32.0; Default = 16.0)
UTOL Tolerance on displacement or temperature increment below which a special
provision is made for numerical stability. See Remark 13. (0.001 < Real < 1.0;
Default = 0.1)
RTOLB Maximum value of incremental rotation (in degrees) allowed per iteration to
activate bisection. See Remark 14. (Real > 2.0; Default = 20.0)
Field Contents
σ ( )
Main Index
402
5. The convergence test flags (U = displacement error test, P = load equilibrium error test,
W = work error test) and the error tolerances (EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW) define the
convergence criteria. All requested criteria (combination of U, P, and/ or W) are
satisfied upon convergence. Note that at least two iterations are necessary to check the
displacement convergence criterion.
6. MAXDIV provides control over diverging solutions. Depending on the rate of
divergence, the number of diverging solutions (NDIV) is incremented by 1 or 2. The
solution is assumed to diverge when NDIV reaches MAXDIV during the iteration. If
the bisection option is used (allowed MAXBIS times) the time step is bisected upon
divergence. Otherwise, the solution for the time step is repeated with a new stiffness
based on the converged state at the beginning of the time step. If NDIV reaches
MAXDIV again within the same time step, the analysis is terminated.
7. Nonzero values of MAXQN and MAXLS will activate the quasiNewton update and
the line search process, respectively.
8. The number of subincrements in the material routines is determined such that the
subincrement size is approximately FSTRESS . FSTRESS is also used to establish a
tolerance for error correction in elastoplastic material, i.e.,
error in yield function <FSTRESS ⋅ yield stress
If the limit is exceeded at the converging state, the program will terminate with a fatal
error message. Otherwise, the stress state is adjusted to the current yield surface,
resulting in δ = 0.
9. The bisection process is activated when divergence occurs and MAXBIS 0. The
number of bisections for a time increment is limited to  MAXBIS . If MAXBIS is
positive and the solution does not converge after MAXBIS bisections, the best solution
is computed and the analysis is continued to the next time step. If MAXBIS is negative
and the solution does not converge in  MAXBIS bisection, the analysis is terminated.
10. ADJUST controls the automatic time stepping. Since the automatic time step
adjustment is based on the mode of response and not on the loading pattern, it may be
necessary to limit the adjustable step size when the period of the forcing function is
much shorter than the period of dominant response frequency of the structure. It is the
user’s responsibility to ensure that the loading history is properly traced with the
ADJUST option. The ADJUST option should be suppressed for the duration of short
pulse loading. If unsure, start with a value for DT that is much smaller than the pulse
duration in order to properly represent the loading pattern.
• If ADJUST = 0, then the automatic adjustment is deactivated. This is
recommended when the loading consists of short duration pulses.
• If ADJUST > 0, the time increment is continually adjusted for the first few steps
until a good value of ∆t is obtained. After this initial adjustment, the time
increment is adjusted every ADJUSTth time step only.
• If ADJUST is one order greater than NDT, then automatic adjustment is
deactivated after the initial adjustment.
σ ⋅
≠
Main Index
403 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
11. MSTEP and RB are used to adjust the time increment during analysis. The
recommended value of MSTEP for nearly linear problems is 20. A larger value (e.g.,
40) is required for highly nonlinear problems. By default, the program automatically
computes the value of MSTEP based on the changes in the stiffness.
The time increment adjustment is based on the number of time steps desired to capture
the dominant frequency response accurately. The time increment is adjusted as
follows:
where
with
12. MAXR is used to define the upper and lower bounds for adjusted time step size, i.e.,
13. UTOL is a tolerance used to filter undesirable time step adjustments; i.e.,
Under this condition no time step adjustment is performed in a structural analysis
(SOL 129). In a heat transfer analysis (SOL 159) the time step is doubled.
14. The bisection is activated if the incremental rotation for any degreeoffreedom
exceeds the value specified by RTOLB. This bisection strategy is
based on the incremental rotation and controlled by MAXBIS.
f = 0.25 for
f = 0.5 for
f = 1.0 for
f = 2.0 for
f = 4.0 for
∆t
n 1 +
f r ( )∆t
n
=
r
1
MSTEP

2π
ω
n

\ .
 
1
∆t
n

\ .
 
=
r 0.5 < RB ⋅
0.5 RB ⋅ r RB < ≤
RB r ≤ 2.0 <
2.0 r ≤ 3.0 RB ⁄ <
r 3.0 RB ⁄ ≥
MIN
DT
2
MAXBIS

DT
MAXR
 ,
\ .
 
∆t MAXR ≤ ≤ DT ⋅
U
·
n
U
·
max
 UTOL <
∆θ
x
∆θ
y
∆θ
z
, , ( )
Main Index
404
Defines radiation cavity and shadowing for radiation view factor calculations.
Format:
Example:
Remarks:
1. VIEW must be referenced by CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or CHBDYP elements to be used.
2. ICAVITY references the cavity to which the face of the CHBDYi element belongs; a
zero or blank value indicates this face does not participate in a cavity.
3. NB, NG, and DISLIN are used in the calculation of view factors by finite difference or
contour integration techniques. They are not used with the VIEW3D entry.
4. A summary of the shadowing conditions can be requested by the PARAM,MESH,YES
Bulk Data entry.
5. SHADE references shadowing for CHBDYi elements participating in a radiation cavity,
the VIEW calculation can involve shadowing.
6. DISLIN should only be used with LINE type CHBDYE and CHBDYP surface elements.
DISLIN > 0.0 means into the cavity. See Figure 415.
VIEW
View Factor Definition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
VIEW IVIEW ICAVITY SHADE NB NG DISLIN
VIEW 1 1 BOTH 2 3 0.25
Field Contents
IVIEW Identification number. (Integer > 0)
ICAVITY Cavity identification number for grouping the radiant exchange faces of CHBDYi
elements. (Integer > 0)
SHADE Shadowing flag for the face of CHBDYi element. (Character, Default = “BOTH”)
NONE means the face can neither shade nor be shaded by other faces.
KSHD means the face can shade other faces.
KBSHD means the face can be shaded by other faces.
BOTH means the face can both shade and be shaded by other faces. (Default)
NB Subelement mesh size in the beta direction. (Integer > 0; Default = 1)
NG Subelement mesh size in the gamma direction. (Integer > 0; Default = 1)
DISLIN The displacement of a surface perpendicular to the surface. See Figure 415. (Real;
Default = 0.0)
Main Index
405 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Figure 415 DISLIN Convention
7. NB and NG define the subelement mesh refinement when using the VIEW module (as
opposed to the VIEW3D module) for the calculation of view factors.
Figure 416 Typical AREA4 surface element where NB=2 and NG=4
Location of Element
Active Side
Relocated Radiation Surface
n
n
DISLIN
1 4
3 2
n
Main Index
406
Defines parameters to control and/ or request the Gaussian Integration method of view factor
calculation for a specified cavity.
Format:
Example:
VIEW3D
View Factor Definition  Gaussian Integration Method
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
VIEW3D ICAVITY GITB GIPS CIER ETOL ZTOL WTOL RADCHK
VIEW3D 1 2 2 4 1.0E6
Field Contents
ICAVITY Radiant cavity identification number on RADCAV entry. (Integer > 0)
GITB Gaussian integration order to be implemented in calculating net effective view
factors in the presence of thirdbody shadowing. (Integer 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 10; Default
= 4)
GIPS Gaussian integration order to be implemented in calculating net effective view
factors in the presence of selfshadowing. (Integer 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 10; Default = 4)
CIER Discretization level used in the semianalytic contour integration method. (1 <
Integer < 20; Default = 4)
ETOL Error estimate above which a corrected view factor is calculated using the
semianalytic contour integration method. (Real > 0.0; Default = 0.1)
ZTOL Assumed level of calculation below which the numbers are considered to be zero.
(Real > 0.0; Default = 1.E10)
WTOL Assumed degree of warpage above which the actual value of will be calculated.
(0.0 < Real < 1.0; Default = 0.01)
F
ii
Main Index
407 CHAPTER D
Bulk Data Entries
Remarks:
1. For ETOL, when the error estimate exceeds the value input for the ETOL entry, the
contour method is employed to develop an improved view factor.
2. For ZTOL, the use of a geometry scale that results in small numerical values of
should be avoided.
3. When WTOL is exceeded, the actual value of will be calculated when using the
adaptive view module. Warpage will not be considered in the calculation of .
4. For axisymmetric analysis, RADCHK = 1 or 3 only.
RADCHK Type of diagnostic output desired for the radiation exchange surfaces. (Integer;
Default = 3)
RADCHK = 1, No diagnostic output requested
RADCHK = 1, Grid table and element connectivity
RADCHK = 2, Surface Diagnostics  Surface type, area, skewness, taper, warpage,
grid point sequencing, aspect ratio, and shading flags.
RADCHK = 3, Area, view factor, areaview factor product with error estimate,
existence flags for partial selfshadowing, thirdbody shadowing with error
estimate, and enclosure summations for view factor. (Default)
RADCHK = 0, Same as RADCHK = 1, 2, and 3
RADCHK = 12, Same as RADCHK = 1 and 2
RADCHK = 13, Same as RADCHK = 1 and 3
RADCHK = 23, Same as RADCHK = 2 and 3
Field Contents
A
i
F
i j
F
i i
F
i j
Main Index
408
Used to insert comments into the input file. Comment statements may appear anywhere within
the input file.
Format:
$ followed by any characters out to column 80.
Example:
$ TEST FIXTURETHIRD MODE
Remarks:
1. Comments are ignored by the program.
2. Comments will appear only in the unsorted echo of the Bulk Data.
$
Comment
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
APPENDIX
E
View Factor Calculation Methods
s Calculation of View Factors
s Fundamentals of View Factor Calculation
Main Index
410
5.1 Calculation of View Factors
MSC.Nastran has two independent routines available for the calculation of view factors between
gray diffuse surface elements. The default routine, the VIEW module, relies on a user defined
combination of area and contour discretization to determine the geometric view factor. The
second module, VIEW3D, utilizes Gaussian integration and semianalytic contour integration to
evaluate view factors. In the material that follows, the two methods are compared and
contrasted from a user standpoint in an effort to direct their most efficient application.
Main Index
411 CHAPTER E
View Factor Calculation Methods
5.2 Fundamentals of View Factor Calculation
1. View factors can only be determined between surfaces that have been identified with
CHBDYi surface elements.
2. Because of the geometric or visual nature of the view factor calculation, it is often
necessary to identify both sides of conduction elements with independent surface
elements, particularly when thirdbody shadowing is of concern. Only active surface
elements can participate, or be seen, in a view factor calculation.
3. The active side of the surface element is defined relative to the grid point connections.
The right hand rule specifies the outward surface normal as one proceeds from G1 to
Gn thereby defining the active surface element.
4. The overall quality of the view factor calculated is highly dependent on the surface
element mesh model. When the distance between any two elements is reduced below
a level on the order of an element length or width, inaccuracies can develop. At the
same time, a large number of small elements can create a very computationally
intensive problem.
5. There are two types of shadowing which can also reduce the quality of the overall view
factor. Selfshadowing reduces the total view factor between two surfaces due simply
to their relative orientations in space (Figure 51). Thirdbody shadowing (Figure 52)
takes into account the reduced view between two surfaces due to other interelement
interference surfaces. In this figure, note the existence of both the K and L surfaces.
Figure 51 SelfShadowing
(NONE) (PARTIAL) (TOTAL)
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
Main Index
412
Figure 52 Third Surface Shadowing
6. The CHBDYi element types available for radiation view factor calculation include:
All surface elements may be used for radiation enclosure analysis if the appropriate
user supplied view or exchange factors are available.
7. MSC.Nastran allows for isolated surface element groupings when performing view
factor calculations – multiple radiation cavities. This procedure can eliminate a great
deal of needless calculation among surfaces when one group of elements clearly cannot
see another group of elements. The surface element groups therefore are arranged by
unique cavity IDs. No surface element may reside in more than on cavity.
8. The VIEW entry invokes the calculation of the view factors for the overall thermal
analysis. It also separates the CHBDYi surface elements into the desired cavities. The
IVIEW field identifies the CHBDYi elements and the ICAVITY field assigns the
elements to a cavity.
Using the VIEW Module
1. The geometric integral equation to be solved for the view factor is given below.
“Arbitrary Enclosure Radiation Surfaces” on page 413 depicts the pertinent terms.
1
2
3
K
I
Y
X
Z
J
r
13
r
12
n
K
n
L
L
POINT
LINE
REV
AREA3
AREA4
AREA6–VIEW3D Module Only
AREA8–VIEW3D Module Only
Main Index
413 CHAPTER E
View Factor Calculation Methods
(dimensionless) Eq. 51
where is defined as the fraction of the radiant emission leaving surface i which arrives at
surface j.
Figure 53 Arbitrary Enclosure Radiation Surfaces
2. The VIEW Module solves Eq. 51 by two methods. The first method discretizes the
surface elements into a number of finite subelements and treats the integrals as dual
summations over all the subelements on surfaces I and J. This method is often referred
to as the finite difference method, but is just an extension of view factor algebra.
Consider the surfaces I and II below with subdivision .
and are diffuse emitters and reflectors
and are black.
and are isothermal.
F
i j
1
A
i

β
i
β
j
cos cos
πr
ij
2

\ .

 
A
j
∫
A
i
∫
= dA
i
dA
j
F
ij
r
r
y
z
x
vi
C
i
C
j
β
j
nj
ni
dA
i
A
i
A
j
β
i
dA
j
vj
A
i
A
j
A
i
A
j
A
i
A
j
1 8 →
Main Index
414
From view factor algebra,
a.
and similarily for , , and
Reciprocity provides;
b. ;
c. Now,
d. and,
e. using, a. then
f. so
The second method transforms the area integrals into contour integrals and subdivides
the perimeter into finite line segments. A similar dual contour summation is then
performed around surfaces I and J. This method is commonly referred to as the contour
integration method.
3. In general, area integration is faster than contour integration, but does not provide as
accurate an answer. Several choices can be made by the user as a result. The RADCAV
entry has information fields on it for the control and manipulation of the view factor
calculation:
NFECI = FD Finite Difference methods are used to calculate the view factors (applies
to the VIEW Module only).
NFECI = CONT Contour integration methods are used to calculate the view factors
(applies to the VIEW Module only).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
I II
f
1 II –
f
1 5 –
= f
1 6 –
f
1 7 –
f
1 8 –
+ + +
f
2 II –
f
3 II –
f
4 II –
A
1
f
1 II –
A
II
f
II 1 –
= f
II 1 –
A
1
A
II
 f
1 II –
=
f
II I –
f
II 1 –
= f
II 2 –
f
II 3 –
f
II 4 –
+ + +
A
II
f
II I –
A
1
f
1 II –
= A
2
f
2 II –
A
3
f
3 II –
A
4
f
f II –
+ + +
A
II
F
II I –
A
1
f
1 5 –
f
1 6 –
f
1 7 –
f
1 8 –
+ + + ( ) =
A
2
f
2 5 –
f
2 6 –
f
2 7 –
f
2 8 –
+ + + ( ) +
A
2
f
3 5 –
f
3 6 –
f
3 7 –
f
3 8 –
+ + + ( ) +
A
4
f
4 5 –
f
4 6 –
f
4 7 –
f
4 8 –
+ + + ( ) +
f
I II –
1
A
I

β
i
β
j
A
i
A
j
cos cos
ΠR
i j
2

j 5 =
8
∑
i 1 =
4
∑
=
Main Index
415 CHAPTER E
View Factor Calculation Methods
NFECI = blank or 0. This is the default value signifying that the code will make an
estimate based on geometry and the field value of RMAX as to whether it will use finite
differences or contour integration. Figure 54 below illustrates the criteria enforced.
Figure 54
Contour integration is used on any element pair for which;
For example, if , enforces contour integration.
1. Since the VIEW Module relies on element subdivision in its calculation method, a
means of requesting the level of subdivision is made available. The number of element
subdivisions are specified on the NB and NG field of the VIEW entry. The subdivision
process is illustrated below for the various surface element types.
i j
d
i j
A
j
d
i j
( )
2
 RMAX >
A
j
1 = d
i j
10 <
NB = 3
NG = 4
Y
X
G2
G3
G4
G1
AREA4
Main Index
416
G1 G2
NB = 4
NG = 3
LINE
REV
AREA3
Z
X
Y
G2
G1
NB = 2
NG = 4
G3
G1 G2
NB = 7
NG = 3
G1
NB = 2
NG = 4
POINT
Main Index
417 CHAPTER E
View Factor Calculation Methods
Using the VIEW3D Module  3D Geometries
1. The VIEW3D Module relies on Gaussian integration techniques for the solution of
Eq. 51. This view module is accessed by introducing the VIEW3D Bulk Data entry.
This view factor calculator is semiadaptive in that detection of excessive error or
shadowing, will automatically invoke semianalytic contour integration techniques or
higher Gaussian integration order to reduce the error. For a general 3D geometry, this
procedure is superior in both accuracy and speed to that available with the VIEW
module.
2. The VIEW3D Module is designed for the calculation of view factors for general 3D and
axisymmetric geometries. Planar view factors must be calculated with the VIEW
routine.
3. There is no surface subdivision available with VIEW3D, therefore a responsible initial
mesh is required for good results. Accuracy levels can be substantially controlled by
requesting the use of various integration orders.
4. This module is requested by including the Bulk Data entry VIEW3D. The VIEW3D
entry contains specific fields for defining the various integration orders desired for
unobstructed view factors, self and thirdbody shadowing view factors, and improved
view factors when excessive error is detected.
5. The view factor error is defined as:
In this equation, is the initially calculated view factor (always an integration order
of 2 by 2) and RMAX and RMIN represent the largest and smallest integration point
(surface I) to integration point (surface J) vector lengths. Surface proximity and
orientation are reflected in this value.
6. When a large number of surfaces are involved in an enclosure (1000+), it may be
advisable to reduce the values of the field data for GITB, GIPS, and CIER to the value
of (2).
7. Because view factors solely involve geometry, it is important to work in
dimensions/ units that do not lead to machine accuracy problems. In particular, in
transformed space, the view factor equation has an integration point to integration
point distance raised to the fourth power in the denominator.
Using the VIEW3D Module  Axisymmetric Geometries
1. Axisymmetric geometries have their radiative surfaces modeled with CHBDYG
elements of TYPE=REV. These are necessarily attached to CTRIAX6 conduction
elements.
2. The module is designed to build an internal geometry composed of a 3D representation
of the axisymmetric model. This computational model represents approximately one
half of a full 3D geometry. The number of elements employed in the computational
models is set by the user through the value NREV in field 9 of the RADCAB Bulk Data
entry. Every REV element in a given cavity then must generate the same number of
ERROR = F
i j
RMAX RMIN ⁄ ( ) ⋅
F
ij
Main Index
418
computation elements. It is recommended to set NREV to a level which will result in
approximately square computation elements being created. To guarantee this for every
element then, all REV elements would need to be about the same length. This may not
be practical for many problems.
3. Although there are considerable numbers of computational elements, the liberal use of
symmetry eliminates the need to calculate many of the individual view factors in the
internal halfmodel representation. In the absence of any third body shadowing, the
axisymmetric calculation should be much faster than the equivalent 3D calculation.
4. The general specification of shadowing conditions for axisymmetric geometry can be
complicated. For simple geometries, the user can save considerable calculation effort
by setting the NONE, KSHD, and KBSHD flags on the shade field of the VIEW Bulk
Data entry. When in doubt, it is safest to use the designation BOTH.
Miscellaneous View Factor Capabilities (VIEW or VIEW3D)
1. Shadowing calculations absorb considerable resources while calculating view factors.
If the geometry is such that no shadowing can occur, it is recommended to turn off the
calculation process by utilizing the SHADOW field on the RADCAV entry. A NO
declaration will eliminate any shadowing calculations. The default value is YES. If a
limited subset of surfaces in a problem are involved in shadowing, the most efficient
calculation will result if the SHADE field of the VIEW Bulk Data entry is appropriately
identified.
2. If a complete radiation enclosure is being analyzed, small inaccuracies in the individual
view factors may lead to view factor sums that exceed 1.0 by a small (1 or 2 percent)
amount. In this case, the view factors can be scaled to provide a sum of exactly 1.0 by
utilizing the SCALE field on the RADCAV entry.
3. If an incomplete enclosure is being analyzed and it is desirable to complete the
enclosure with a dummy or space element, this can be facilitated by using the ELEAMB
field of the RADCAV entry. The ambient element must be an existing surface element
of the problem, however, it is not used explicitly in the determination of the view
factors. Subsequent to the view factor calculations, the view factor 1.0 – SUMMATION
is assigned to the space element for each individual enclosure surface element.
4. View factor output can be controlled through the PRTPCH field of the RADCAV entry.
5. We define a global view factor as the view factor that exists between one group of
surface elements and another group of surface elements. If global view factors are of
interest, perhaps for some system level analysis, these can be determined while
executing the VIEW module. The fields on the RADCAV entry reference the
desired surface element sets.
SET
ij
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
APPENDIX
F
Radiation Enclosures
s Method of Poljak
s Method of Poljak  Radiation Exchange in Matrix Format
s Transformation from Element Heat Flows to Grid Point Heat Flows
s Example of Element/ Grid Transformation
s Two Element Example for Radiant Exchange
s Resistive Network Approach to the Two Surface Problem
s Radiation Enclosure Analysis
Main Index
420
6.1 Method of Poljak
Eq. 61
Eq. 62
Eq. 63
Eq. 64
Eq. 65
Eq. 66
Eq. 67
Eq. 68
where:
Similarly for , then
Eq. 69
= elemental areas
= basic view factors
= number of element in enclosure
=
heat flux into surface element
= heat flux leaving surface element j
A
k
q
i k ,
A
j
q
o j ,
f
j k –
j 1 =
N
∑
=
A
j
f
j k –
A
k
f
k j –
=
q
i k ,
f
k j –
q
o j ,
j 1 =
N
∑
=
q
o k ,
ε
k
σT
k
4
= 1 ε
k
– ( )q
i k ,
+
q
i k ,
f
k j –
ε
k
σT
k
4
1 ε
k
– ( )q
i k ,
+ ( )
j 1 =
N
∑
=
q
i k ,
f
k j –
ε
k
σT
k
4
j 1 =
N
∑
= f
k j –
1 ε
k
– ( )q
i k ,
j 1 =
N
∑
+
q
i k ,
1 f
k j –
1 ε
k
– ( )
j 1 =
N
∑
–
\ .


 
f
k j –
ε
k
σT
k
4
j 1 =
N
∑
=
q
i k ,
1 f
k j –
1 ε
k
– ( )
j 1 =
N
∑
–
\ .


 
1 –
f
k j –
ε
k
σT
k
4
j 1 =
N
∑
=
A
f
N
q
i k ,
k
q
o j ,
q
o k ,
q
k
NεT
q
i k ,
= q
o k ,
–
Main Index
421 CHAPTER F
Radiation Enclosures
or
Eq. 610 Q
k
NεT
A
k
q
i k ,
q
o k ,
– ( ) =
Main Index
422
6.2 Method of Poljak  Radiation Exchange in Matrix Format
(compare to Eq. 61) Eq. 611
(compare to Eq. 64) Eq. 612
where:
Substituting Eq. 612 into Eq. 611 yields:
Eq. 613
Eq. 614
Substituting Eq. 613 into Eq. 614 yields:
Eq. 615
= radiation exchange matrix.
If and then .
= diagonal matrix of element areas
= irradiation
=
matrix of exchange coefficients
= radiosity
= StephanBoltzmann constant
= diagonal matrix of surface emissivities
= diagonal matrix of surface absorptivities
A [ ] q { }
e
IN
F [ ] q { }
e
OUT
=
q { }
e
OUT
σ ε [ ] u
e
{ }
4
= I ε – [ ] q { }
e
IN
+
\
A
\
q { }
e
IN
F [ ] A
i
f
i j
( )
q { }
e
OUT
σ
\
ε
\
\
α
\
q { }
e
IN
σ A F I α – ( ) – ( )
1 –
Fε [ ] u { }
e
4
=
q { }
e
OUT
σ ε I α – ( ) A F I α – ( ) – ( )
1 –
Fε + [ ] u { }
e
4
=
Q { }
e
A [ ] q { }
e
IN
q { }
e
OUT
– ( ) R
e
[ ] u { }
e
4
– ≡ =
R
e
[ ] σ Aε Aα A F I α – ( ) – ( )
1 –
Fε – [ ] =
R
e
[ ]
ε α = F
SYM
R
e
[ ]
SYM
Main Index
423 CHAPTER F
Radiation Enclosures
6.3 Transformation from Element Heat Flows to Grid Point
Heat Flows
MSC.Nastran solves the system equations for the grid point temperatures. The view factors,
however, are calculated between geometric surface elements. Therefore, the introduction of
radiation exchange into the system equations requires the transformation of the radiation
exchange matrix from an element based representation to a grid point based representation.
Eq. 616
where:
then:
Eq. 617
and
Eq. 618
Eq. 619
Eq. 620
Eq. 621
= matrix of constant coefficients constructed from the fraction of the element area
associated with the connecting grid points.
Q { }
g
G [ ]
T
Q { }
e
=
G [ ]
T
u { }
e
4
G [ ] u
g
T
a
+ { }
4
=
R [ ]
g
G [ ]
T
R [ ]
e
G [ ] =
R [ ]
g
SYM
if R [ ]
e
SYM
Q { }
e
σ R [ ] –
e
G [ ] u
g
T
a
+ { }
4
=
Q { }
g
σ R [ ]
g
u
g
T
a
+ { }
4
– =
Main Index
424
6.4 Example of Element/Grid Transformation
Eq. 622
Eq. 623
Eq. 624
Comparing Eq. 624 to Eq. 616 then,
Eq. 625
Where is the fractional area of the element associated with grid point Gi.
Eq. 626
1
2
G1
G4
G3
G2
G6
G7
G8
G5
R [ ]
e
R
11
R
12
R
21
R
22
=
Q
1
Q
2
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
σ
R
11
R
12
R
21
R
22
e
u
1
4
u
2
4
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
– =
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
Q
5
Q
6
Q
7
Q
8
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
g
AF1 0
AF2 0
AF3 0
AF4 0
0 AF5
0 AF6
0 AF7
0 AF8
Q
1
Q
2
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
=
G [ ]
AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8
=
AFi i 1 8 , = ( )
R [ ]
g
G [ ]
T
R [ ]
e
G [ ] =
Main Index
425 CHAPTER F
Radiation Enclosures
Eq. 627
Eq. 628
R [ ]
g
AF1 0
AF2 0
AF3 0
AF4 0
0 AF5
0 AF6
0 AF7
0 AF8
R
11
R
12
R
21
R
22
e
AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8
=
R [ ]
g
AF1R
11
AF1 AF1R
11
AF2 AF1R
12
AF8
AF2R
11
AF1 AF2R
11
AF2
AF3R
11
AF1 AF3R
11
AF2
AF4R
11
AF1
AF8R
21
AF1 AF8R
22
AF8
=
Main Index
426
6.5 Two Element Example for Radiant Exchange
Eq. 629
Eq. 630
Eq. 631
For ease of illustration (and manipulation) let surfaces 1 and 2 be black bodies, then
then
Eq. 632
Eq. 633
Eq. 634
1
2
D
A
1
A
2
R [ ]
e
σ Aε Aα A F I α – ( ) – ( )
1 –
Fε – [ ] =
F [ ]
A
f [ ] =
A F I α – ( ) – ( )
1 –
A
1
0
0 A
2
0 A
1
f
12
A
2
f
21
0
1 ε
1
– 0
0 1 ε
2
–
–
1 –
=
A
1
A
1
f
12
1 ε
2
– ( ) –
A
2
f
21
1 ε
1
– ( ) – A
2
1 –
=
ε
1
ε
2
1.0 = =
A F I α – ( ) – ( )
1 –
1
A
1
 0
0
1
A
2

=
R [ ]
e
σ
A
1
0
0 A
2
A
1
0
0 A
2
1
A
1
 0
0
1
A
2

0 A
1
f
12
A
2
f
21
0
– =
R [ ]
e
σ
A
1
A
1
f
12
–
A
2
f
21
– A
2
=
Main Index
427 CHAPTER F
Radiation Enclosures
Eq. 635
To further define a specific problem, let and . For this
geometry then, . The resulting heat flows are:
Eq. 636
Note:
Since the exchange matrix is not conservative, we recognize that the MSC.Nastran
default condition assumes a third exchange surface representing a loss to space.
Therefore, the loss to space is:
Eq. 637
Q { }
e
σ
A
1
A
1
F
12
–
A
2
F
21
– A
2
e
u
1
4
u
2
4
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
– =
A
1
A
2
D 1.0 T
1
1000 = , = = = T
2
0.0 =
f
12
f
21
.20 ≅ =
Q
1
σ 1000
4
.2 0 ( ) – ( ) – σ 1000 ( )
4
– = =
Q
2
σ .2 0 ( ) – .2 1000 ( )
4
– ( ) – .2σ 1000 ( )
4
= =
R [ ]
e
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
+ + 0.0 =
Q
3
.8σ 1000 ( )
4
=
Main Index
428
6.6 Resistive Network Approach to the Two Surface Problem
The heat flow then is;
Eq. 638
Using the same example problem considered in the exchange matrix development,
Eq. 639
in a matrix format,
Eq. 640
Note: There is no exchange with the environment in these equations.
E
b1
J
1
J
2
E
b2
E
b
σT
4
=
1 ε
1
–
ε
1
A
1

1
A
1
f
12

1 ε
2
–
ε
2
A
2

(surface
resistance)
(space
resistance)
(surface
resistance)
is the emissive power
of a block body, and J
is referred to as a
radiosity node.
Q
1 2 –
σ T
1
4
T
2
4
– ( )
1 ε
1
–
ε
1
A
1

1
A
1
f
12

1 ε
2
–
ε
2
A
2
 + +
 =
ε
1
ε
2
1.0 = =
A
1
A
2
1.0 = =
f
12
.20 =
Q
1 2 –
σA
1
f
12
T
1
4
T
2
4
– ( ) Q
2 1 –
– = =
.2σ 1000 ( )
4
=
Q { }
e
σ
A
1
f
12
A
1
f
12
–
A
1
f
12
– A
1
f
12
u
1
4
u
2
4
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
– =
Main Index
429 CHAPTER F
Radiation Enclosures
6.7 Radiation Enclosure Analysis
Radiation Matrix Formation  General
The basic exchange relationship for a radiation enclosure is given in Eq. 641
Eq. 641
where:
User supplied data:
=
( for radiation enclosure)
= Vector of net elemental heat flows from radiant exchange for cavity n
= Radiation exchange matrix for cavity n
= Vector of grid point temperatures
= StefanBoltzmann constant
= Diagonal matrix of surface element areas
= Identity matrix
= Diagonal matrix of surface emissivities
= Diagonal matrix of surface absorptivities
= Lower triangular matrix of exchange coefficients ( ) for cavity n
= Scale factor to correct for absolute temperature
= Supplied on the PARAM,SIGMA Bulk Data entry
= Supplied on the PARAM,TABS Bulk Data entry
= Calculated from the input data for CHBDYi surface elements
Q { }
n
R [ ]
n
u T
a
+ { }
4
=
R [ ]
n
σ Aε Aα A F I α – ( ) – [ ]
1 –
Fε – [ ]
n
α ε =
Q { }
n
R [ ]
n
u { }
σ
\
A
\
\
I
\
\
ε
\
\
α
\
F [ ]
n
A
j
f
ji
T
a
σ
T
a
\
A
\
Main Index
430
Radiation Matrix Formation Using MSC.Nastran View Factors
As described in “View Factor Calculation Methods” on page 409, MSC.Nastran can calculate
diffuse grey geometric view factors (stored as ) to be used in radiation enclosure analysis.
Those view factors are used in Eq. 641 to generate a total radiation exchange matrix. This matrix
is symmetric and generally nonconservative in the sense that the column summations will not
be equal to zero. This would imply that in an isothermal enclosure, there would exist net heat
flow. This could be the result of an incomplete enclosure with resultant energy loss to space. If
a complete enclosure is desired, an ambient element can be requested. The total view factor
summations can also be scaled to exactly equal 1.0 for any summations exceeding 1.0. These
options are discussed beginning on “View Factor Calculation Methods” on page 409.
Control over the form of the radiation matrix can be effected by specifying the matrix type
(MTXTYP) on the RADLST Bulk Data entry. Once these entries are generated by the VIEW or
VIEW3D module, the matrix type can either remain as MTXTYP = 1, or it can be changed to a
MTXTYP = 4. In this case, the radiation matrix will have its diagonal terms adjusted to provide
a column sum of exactly zero. This is referred to as a conservative radiation matrix.
Radiation Matrix Formation Using UserSupplied Exchange
Factors
It may be desirable to input the radiation exchange matrix directly. In this case the user provides
exchange factors with the RADLST/ RADMTX Bulk Data entries. Exchange factors can be used
to account for specular effects, transmissive surface character, and enclosure gas absorption.
When used in this fashion, the input represents the following system:
= Supplied from the RADLST/ RADMTX Bulk Data entries or calculated internally
using the VIEW or VIEW3D modules
,
= Supplied from the RADM Bulk Data entries
F [ ]
\
ε
\
\
α
\
A
j
f
ji
⋅
RADMTX “SCRIPTF”
= –σ * “SCRIPTF” ( Off Diagonal Terms)
MTXTYP = 2 – Symmetric
– Conservative
RADLST
MTXTYP = 3 – Unsymmetric
– Conservative
R [ ]
Main Index
431 CHAPTER F
Radiation Enclosures
In this instance CONSERVATIVE means that the diagonal terms of are adjusted to make the
column summations equal to 0.0. Since all the radiation matrix values are user supplied, no
control over the system can be effected by the view factor module. A user warning message is
issued if Eq. 642 is satisfied.
calculated for each j Eq. 642
where:
= Column in view factor matrix
= Row in view factor matrix
= Surface element area
= View Factor
R [ ]
A
i
f
ij
i
∑
A
i
. 1.001 ( ) >
i
j
A
f
Main Index
432
Main Index
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
APPENDIX
G
Radiation Exchange – Real Surface
Approximation
s Real Surface Approximation and Radiation Exchange
Main Index
434
7.1 Real Surface Approximation and Radiation Exchange
In the most general sense, radiative surface properties can vary with absorption and emission
angle, surface temperature, and spectral distribution of incident and emitted radiation. For an
enclosure analysis, the many reflections and rereflections tend to smooth out directional
behavior. Additionally, it may be difficult if not impossible to acquire good directional,
temperature, or wavelength dependent surface properties. Based on this, many radiation
problems are approximated at the first level of analysis with surfaces which exhibit diffuse gray
absorption and emission radiative character.
MSC.Nastran allows for a second level of analysis which presumes that radiation surface
interaction is diffuse, but admits emissivity and absorptivity to be functions of temperature
and/ or wavelength. The concept of a diffuse view factor is still applicable for this type of
analysis since it is a simple geometric construct. The basic notion involved here is to consider
the energy transport associated with separate wavelength intervals (wavebands). Numerically,
this can be implemented with a method known as the bandenergy approximation.
Figure 71 illustrates the hemispherical spectral emissivity for tungsten. Figure 72 depicts a
potential waveband approximation for the hemispherical spectral emissivity for input to
MSC.Nastran.
Figure 71 Hemispherical Spectral Emissivity of Tungsten*
Main Index
435 CHAPTER G
Radiation Exchange – Real Surface Approximation
Figure 72 Band Approximations to Hemispherical Spectral Emissivity of Tungsten*
*From Siegel and Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Second Edition.
Radiation Exchange Relationship for Diffuse Spectral Surface
Behavior
=
=
=
=
=
= Fraction of the total radiant output of a black body that is contained in the n
th wavelength band where .
= Elemental temperatures
=
Q
e
{ }
Q
e
λ
{ }
λ
∑
Q
e
λ
{ } A [ ] q
e
λ
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
in
q
e
λ
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
out
–
\ .

 
q
e
λ
{ }
in
σ A F I α λ ( ) – ( ) – ( )
1 –
Fε λ ( ) [ ]
\
f
e
\
U
e
{ }
4
q
e
λ
{ }
out
σ ε λ ( ) I α λ ( ) – ( ) A F I α λ ( ) – ( ) – ( )
1 –
Fε λ ( ) + [ ]
\
f
e
\
U
e
{ }
4
f
e
{ }
FRAC
0 λ
2
U
e
–
FRAC
0 λ
1
U
e
–
–
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
f
e
∆λ λ
2
λ
1
– =
U
e
FRAC
0 λU
e
–
15
π
4

e
mν –
m
4

m 1 = 2 … , ,
∑
mν 3 + ( )mν 6 + [ ] mν 6 + { } ν 2 ≥ ,
Main Index
436
where,
Key Points regarding Spectral Radiation Band Analysis within
MSC.Nastran
1. Only one RADBND (wavelength break point) entry can be specified with any input file.
This does not mean that all surfaces of all cavities must display spectral surface
behavior. For any surfaces which are to remain as grey or blackbody, each waveband
emissivity value associated with its RADM entry can be given the same emissivity
value resulting in a constant emissivity over all wavelengths. Recall that radiation
material surface properties are associated with the CHBDYi surface element
description, so every element in every cavity can potentially exhibit its own radiative
character.
2. Temperature and/ or wavelength dependent radiative surface properties can be
applied to radiation enclosure analyses as well as the radiation boundary condition.
3. Within each waveband the emissivity must be a constant value. Each discontinuity
(vertical jump) in the emissivity vs. wavelength piecewise linear curve must be input
as a waveband of zero width.
4. The necessary inputs for spectral exchange in MSC.Nastran are given in “Thermal
Capabilities” on page 5.
=
=
=
=
=
FRAC
0 λU
e
–
1
15
π
4
 ν
3 1
3

ν
8

ν
2
60
 + –
ν
4
5040

ν
6
272160

ν
8
13305600
 – + –
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
ν 2 < , –
ν
PLANCK2
λU
e
 where PLANCK2
25898 µm
o
R
14388 µm
o
K
)
¦
`
¦
¹
TYP ( ) = ,
R
e
λ
[ ]
n
σ Aε λ ( ) Aα λ ( ) A F – I α λ ( ) – ( ) ( )
1 –
Fε λ ( ) – [ ]
n
Q
e
λ
{ }
n
R
e
λ
[ ]
n
–
\
f
e
\
U
e
{ }
4
Q
e
λ
{ }
net
R
e
λ
[ ]
net
– U
e
{ }
4
R
e
λ
[ ]
NET
R
e
λ
[ ]
n
\
f
e
\
n
n 1 =
n
max
∑
=
Main Index
437 CHAPTER G
Radiation Exchange – Real Surface Approximation
Input Example  Real Surface Behavior,
RADBND 5 25898. 2.0 2.0 9.0
RADM 1 1.0 .40 .90 0.0
RADBND 3 25898. 2.0 9.0
RADM 1 1.0 .90
RADBND 4 25898. 2.0 2.0 9.0
RADM 1 1.0 .90 .40
ε λ ( )
.90
.40
0
ε λ ( )
∞
λ
λ
1
λ
2
.90
0
ε λ ( )
∞
λ λ
1
λ
2
.90
.40
0
ε λ ( )
λ
1
λ
2
Main Index
438
Main Index
Index
439
I N D E X
MSC.Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide
Symbols
$ 38
$ Bulk Data entry
specification of 279, 408
A
Absolute temperature 21
Absorptivity 138, 204, 228, 429
Ambient element 148, 150
Ambient nodes 88
Ambient temperature 166, 228
ANALYSIS 61, 70
Axisymmetric elements 127
Axisymmetric modeling 127
Axisymmetric surface elements 127
B
Bandenergy approximation 434
BDYOR 277, 278
BDYOR Bulk Data entry
specification of 280
BEGIN BULK 35, 38
BFGS 66
Bisection of loads 60
Blackbody 138
Boundary conditions 16, 88
CONV 16
CONVM 16
RADBC 16
RADSET 16
Bulk Data 277, 278
Bulk Data entries 38, 276
C
Case Control 13, 19, 84, 114, 166, 167, 172,
185, 277
Case Control commands 35
Case Control Section 12
CBAR 7, 277
CBEAM 7, 277
CBEND 7, 277
CDAMP1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 281
CDAMP2 Bulk Data entry
specification of 282
CDAMP3 Bulk Data entry
specification of 283
CDAMP4 Bulk Data entry
specification of 284
CDAMP5 Bulk Data entry
specification of 285
CDAMPi 8
CELAS1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 286
CELAS2 Bulk Data entry
specification of 287
CELAS3 Bulk Data entry
specification of 288
CELAS4 Bulk Data entry
specification of 289
CELASi 8, 29, 193
CEND 35
CEND Executive Control statement
specification of 231
CHBDY 88, 100, 105, 111, 204
CHBDYE 8, 17, 19, 127, 277, 278
CHBDYE Bulk Data entry
specification of 290
CHBDYG 8, 15, 24, 26, 127, 144, 277, 278
AREA3 8
AREA4 8
AREA6 8
AREA8 8
REV 8
CHBDYG Bulk Data entry
specification of 293
CHBDYi 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 142, 193, 200, 204,
412
I N D E X
MSC.Nastran
Thermal
Analysis User’s
Guide
Main Index
Index
INDEX 440
CHBDYP 8, 20, 108, 277, 278
ELCYL 8
FTUBE 8
LINE 8
POINT 8
TUBE 8
CHBDYP Bulk Data entry
specification of 296
CHEX1 277
CHEX2 277
CHEXA 7, 163, 166, 277
Comment 38, 408
Comment Bulk Data entry
specification of 279
Conduction matrix 59
Conductivity 105, 158
CONROD 7, 277
Control node 112, 116, 158, 177, 204
Control node for forced convection 20
Control node for free convection 17
Control node for radiation boundary
condition 21
CONV 16, 17, 88, 278
CONV Bulk Data entry
specification of 301
Convection 166
Convergence criteria 62
energy error 63
load error 63
temperature error 62
CONVM 16, 19, 158, 278
CONVM Bulk Data entry
specification of 303
Correction vector 59
Courant number 20, 214
CPENTA 7, 277
CQUAD4 7, 17, 144, 277
CQUAD8 7, 277
CROD 7, 277
CTETRA 7, 277
CTRIA3 7, 277
CTRIA6 7, 277
CTRIAX6 7, 127, 277
CTUBE 7, 277
Cutoff wavelength 139
D
DELAY 13, 15, 19, 167, 277
DELAY Bulk Data entry
specification of 304
Density 10, 228
DIAG 50 66, 185
DIAG 51 66, 185
DIAG Executive Control statement
specification of 232
Directional solar heat flux 133
DLOAD 12, 13, 15, 19, 166, 167, 176, 277
DLOAD Bulk Data entry
specification of 305
DMI Bulk Data entry
specification of 306
DMIG Bulk Data entry
specification of 310
DPHASE Bulk Data entry
specification of 313
Dynamic viscosity 10, 158, 228
E
ECHO Executive Control statement
specification of 236
Element connectivity 84
Elements 7
conduction elements 7
special elements 8
surface elements 7
Emissivity 105, 106, 142, 228, 429
Enclosure radiation 24, 148
Enclosure radiation exchange 22
ENDDATA 38
ENTHALPY 185
Enthalpy 185, 228
Exchange factors 430
Execution of MSC.Nastran 33
Executive Control statements 35
F
File Management statements 35
Files generated 39
.dat 39
.DBALL 39
.f04 39
.f06 39
.log 39
.MASTER 39
.pch 39
.plt 39
.USROBJ 39
.USRSOU 39
.xdb 39
miscellaneous scratch files 39
Main Index
Index
441 INDEX
Film node 95, 100, 111, 112, 158
Film node for free convection 17
Finite difference view factor 25
Fluid elements 158
Flux load 130
Forced convection 16, 19, 158, 214
Free and forced convection 278
Free convection 16, 17, 18, 88, 95, 177, 181
Free convection exponent 111
Free convection film nodes 122
Free convection forms 116, 122
Free convection heat transfer coefficient 10,
112, 228
G
Gaussian integration 142, 410
Gaussian integration view factor 26
Grashof's number 88, 228
GRID 277, 278
Grid point 84
H
Heat capacitance 158
Heat transfer coefficient 158
I
IC 30, 71, 277
ID Executive Control statement
specification of 237
INCLUDE 22
INCLUDE Bulk Data entry
specification of 314
Initial conditions 30, 163
steady state analysis 30
transient analysis 30
Input data 34
Input File
structure of 33
Internal heat generation 114, 172
Internal volumetric heat generation 112
Iteration scheme 59
J
JCL 38
K
Kinematic viscosity 88, 228
L
Latent heat 10, 185
Line search method 60
LOAD 12, 15, 277
Load 84, 114
LOAD Bulk Data entry
specification of 315
Load set identification (SID) 12
Loads 111, 116
Lower temperature limit for phase change
10
Lumped heat capacitance 193
Lumped thermal capacitance 8
M
MAT4 10, 11, 17, 18, 20, 90, 91, 164, 174, 277,
278
MAT4 Bulk Data entry
specification of 316
MAT4/ MATT4 114, 158
MAT4/ MATT4/ TABLEM2 97
MAT5 10, 277, 278
MAT5 Bulk Data entry
specification of 318
Material properties 84
MATT4 10, 11, 17, 18, 20, 277, 278
MATT4 Bulk Data entry
specification of 319
MATT4/ TABLEMi 95
MATT5 10, 277, 278
MATT5 Bulk Data entry
specification of 320
MPC 29, 100, 102, 210, 277
MPC Bulk Data entry
specification of 321
MPCADD Bulk Data entry
specification of 322
MSC.Aries 40
MSC.Nastran
input file, structure of 33
MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide 84
MSC.XL 40
Multiple loads 176, 200
Main Index
Index
INDEX 442
N
NASPLT 40
NASTRAN definition(s) 35
NDAMP 187, 214
Newton's method 59
NLPARM 35, 36, 60, 62, 64, 66, 85, 92, 277
NLPARM Bulk Data entry
specification of 323
NOLIN 210
NOLIN1 13, 277
NOLIN1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 329
NOLIN2 13, 277
NOLIN2 Bulk Data entry
specification of 331
NOLIN3 14, 210, 277
NOLIN3 Bulk Data entry
specification of 333
NOLIN4 14, 277
NOLIN4 Bulk Data entry
specification of 335
NONLINEAR 13, 277
Nu 215
Numerical damping 185, 187, 214
Nusselt's number 88, 228
O
operation commands 47
Output requests
ENTHALPY 37
FLUX 36, 37
HDOT 37
OLOAD 36, 37
SORT1 37
SORT2 37
SPCF 36, 37
THERMAL 36, 37
P
PARAM Bulk Data entry
specification of 337
PARAM,POST 40
PARAM,SIGMA 429
PARAM,TABS 429
Parameter 21
SIGMA 21
TABS 21
PBAR 277
PBEAM 277
PBEND 277
pch 39, 40
PCONV 17, 18, 90, 91, 278
PCONV Bulk Data entry
specification of 338
PCONVM 278
PCONVM Bulk Data entry
specification of 340
PDAMP Bulk Data entry
specification of 342
PDAMP5 Bulk Data entry
specification of 343
PELAS Bulk Data entry
specification of 344
Phase change 185, 187
PHBDY 277, 278
PHBDY Bulk Data entry
specification of 345
Planck's second constant 25, 228
Plotting 41
TEKPLT 41
XY plotting 47
plt 40
Pr 214
Prandtl's number 20, 88, 228
PROD 277
PSHELL 277
PSOLID 277
PTUBE 277
Punch file 147, 150, 152, 155, 157
Q
QBDY1 13, 68, 277
QBDY1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 347
QBDY2 13, 68, 277
QBDY2 Bulk Data entry
specification of 348
QBDY3 13, 68, 277
QBDY3 Bulk Data entry
specification of 349
QBDYi 35
QHBDY 13, 35, 68, 277
QHBDY Bulk Data entry
specification of 350
QuasiNewton 60
QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates 60
QVECT 11, 13, 15, 22, 35, 68, 133, 138, 200,
277
QVECT Bulk Data entry
specification of 352
Main Index
Index
443 INDEX
QVOL 13, 35, 68, 111, 114, 172, 174, 277
QVOL Bul Data entry
specification of 355
R
RADBC 11, 16, 21, 278
RADBC Bulk Data entry
specification of 356
RADBND 25, 138, 140, 277, 278, 436
RADBND Bulk Data entry
specification of 357
RADCAV 25, 26, 142, 148, 153, 278, 418
Radiation 278
Radiation ambient element 148
Radiation boundary condition 105, 106, 130,
133, 200, 278
Radiation cavities 153, 412
Radiation cavity/ enclosure 142
Radiation exchange 142
Radiation exchange with space 16
Radiation exchange within an enclosure 16
Radiation matrix 430
Radiation to space 21, 130
RADLST 22, 23, 24, 278
RADLST Bulk Data entry
specification of 360
RADLST/ RADMTX 22, 25, 142, 430
RADLST/ RADMTX punch files 148
RADM 10, 15, 21, 22, 24, 25, 133, 138, 142,
277, 278
RADM Bulk Data entry
specification of 362
RADM/ RADBND 21
RADM/ RADMT 21
RADM/ RADMT/ RADBND 23, 25, 26
RADMT 10, 15, 25, 277, 278
RADMT Bulk Data entry
specification of 363
RADMTX 23, 24, 278
RADMTX Bulk Data entry
specification of 364
RADSET 11, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 142, 153,
278
RADSET Bulk Data entry
specification of 365
RADVAC Bulk Data entry
specification of 358
Re 214
Reference enthalpy 10
Residual vector 59
Restart
LOOPID 36
SUBID 36
Restarts 37
LOOPID 37
SLOOPID 37
STIME 37
Reynolds' number 20, 228
S
SCR 39
SCR (scratch) command 39
Selfshadowing 411
SET1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 366
Shadowing 142, 144
SID 172
SIGMA 21, 23, 26, 108
SLOAD 13, 193, 277
SLOAD Bulk Data entry
specification of 367
SOL 153 35
SOL 159 36
SOL Executive Control statement
specification of 238
Solar flux 200
Solar load 130, 138
SPC 28, 64, 85, 163, 166, 193, 277, 278
SPC Bulk Data entry
specification of 368
SPC1 277
SPC1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 369
SPCADD Bulk Data entry
specification of 370
SPCD 277
SPCD Bulk Data entry
specification of 371
SPCs 85
Specific heat 10, 88, 158, 228
Spectral emissivity 434
Spectral radiation 138
Spectral radiation exchange 25
SPOINT 176, 277
SPOINT Bulk Data entry
specification of 373
Steady State 15
Main Index
Index
INDEX 444
Steady state analysis 12, 30, 61
Bulk Data 30
Case Control 30
convergence criteria 62
equilibrium equation 61
iteration control 64
iteration output 66
residual vector 61
SOL 153 61
Steady state heat transfer 35
LOAD 35
MPC 36
output requests 36
restarts 36
SORT1 36
SORT2 36
SPC 36
TEMP(INIT) 36
StefanBoltzmann 429
StefanBoltzmann constant 21, 228
Streamwiseupwind PetrovGalerkin
Element (SUPG) 19
Structural plotting 41
parameter definition commands 42
plot set selection 41
thermal contour plots 44
undeformed structural plots 44
SUPAX Bulk Data entry
specification of 374
SUPG element 19
Surface elements 88, 144
T
TABLED1 13, 176, 277
TABLED1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 375
TABLED2 19, 277
TABLED2 Bulk Data entry
specification of 377
TABLED3 277
TABLED3 Bulk Data entry
specification of 379
TABLED4 277
TABLED4 Bulk Data entry
specification of 381
TABLEDi 167
TABLEM 122
TABLEM1 277, 278
TABLEM1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 382
TABLEM2 15, 17, 18, 24, 277, 278
TABLEM2 Bulk Data entry
specification of 384
TABLEM3 277, 278
TABLEM3 Bulk Data entry
specification of 386
TABLEM4 277, 278
TABLEM4 Bulk Data entry
specification of 388
TABLEMi 10, 11, 25
TABS 21, 23, 26, 108
Tangential matrix update strategy 60
Tangential stiffness matrix 59
TEMP 30, 62, 71, 277
TEMP Bulk Data entry
specification of 389
TEMP(ESTI) 277
TEMP(INIT) 30, 62
TEMPAX Bulk Data entry
specification of 391
TEMPBC 19, 28, 166, 176, 193, 277
TEMPD 30, 62, 71, 277
TEMPD Bulk Data entry
specification of 392
Temperature boundary conditions and
constraints 28
CELASi 29
MPC 29
SPC 28
TEMPBC 28
Temperature range for phase change 10
TEMPP1 277
TEMPP2 277
TEMPRB 277
TF 277
TF Bulk Data entry
specification of 394
TFL 277
Thermal conductivity 10, 88, 228
Thermal loads 12, 13
NOLIN1 13
NOLIN2 13
NOLIN3 14
NOLIN4 14
QBDY1 13
QBDY2 13
QBDY3 13
QHBDY 13
QVECT 13
QVOL 13
SLOAD 13
Thermostat control 210
Third surface shadowing 412
Main Index
Index
445 INDEX
Thirdbody shadowing 153
TIME Executive Control statement
specification of 242
Timevarying loads 172
TLOAD 176
TLOAD1 13, 15, 176, 277
TLOAD1 Bulk Data entry
specification of 395
TLOAD2 277
TLOAD2 Bulk Data entry
specification of 397
TLOADi 12, 176
Transient 15
Transient analysis 12, 30, 69
automatic time stepping 72
boundary temperatures 79
bulk data 30
case control 30
convergence criteria 79
equilibrium equation 69
fixed time step 79
initial temperatures 79
integration and iteration control 73
iteration equation 70
iteration output 75
Newmark's method 70
Newmark's method with adaptive time
stepping 69
numerical stability 79
PARAM,NDAMP 70
residual vector 70
SOL 159 70
tangential stiffness matrix 70
time step size 78
Transient heat transfer 36
DLOAD 36
DMIG 36
IC 37
MPC 36
NONLINEAR 37
output requests 37
SPC 36
TEMP 37
TEMPBC (of TRAN type) 37
TEMPD 37
TF 36
TSTEPNL 36
Transient solution 163
Transient temperature specification 163
TSTEPNL 60, 71, 73, 164, 277
TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry
specification of 400
U
Units 185, 417
V
VIEW 25, 26, 142, 153, 278, 410, 412, 413, 415,
418, 430
VIEW Bulk Data entry
specification of 404
View Factor 411
View factor 25, 142, 148, 153, 228, 278, 418,
430
View factor calculation 26
VIEW3D 26, 142, 410, 412, 417, 418, 430
VIEW3D Bulk Data entry
specification of 406
Volume coefficient of expansion 89, 228
Volumetric internal heat generation 10
W
Waveband 434, 436
Wavelength 138
Wavelength break points 25
X
XY plotting 47, 48, 49
curve request 51
curve type 50
operation 50
operation command 47
parameter definition commands 47
subcase list 51
XY plots for SORT1 output 54
XY plotter terminology 47
Main Index
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