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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 7
Examiners tip
Exam papers involve both recall of knowledge and application of knowledge. Application questions on this section will involve changes in oxidation numbers, using them to decide which substance has been oxidised and which substance has been reduced in a reaction, and using them to construct equations. Recall questions will involve the extraction of aluminium, or the electrolysis of brine, or the electrolytic purification of copper. You are very likely to have to recall details of one or two of these in your AS chemistry exam. Make sure you know them!

e Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2 [1] f water is acting as an oxidising agent, because it causes the oxidation of calcium, or, because hydrogen from water is reduced [1] Total = 9

1 a N2 = 0; NH3 = 3; NO = +2; NO2 = +4; HNO3 = +5

[1 mark each] [5] b Stage 1 is reduction because of decrease in oxidation number; [1] stages 24 are all oxidation because of increase in oxidation number. [1] c nitrogen(IV) oxide [1] d P (in element) has oxidation number 0 and P in H3PO4 has oxidation number of +5; [1] P has been oxidised as oxidation number increases; [1] N has oxidation number of + 5 in HNO3 and +4 in NO2; [1] N has been reduced as decreases in oxidation number; [1] oxidation and reduction occur together, so redox [1] e nitric acid increases oxidation number of P / nitric acid gains electrons / nitric acid has been reduced [1]  Total = 14

3 a Ions are only free to move when molten. [1] b aluminium oxide has very high melting point; [1] cryolite dissolves aluminium oxide; [1] so lowers the melting point of the electrolyte [1] c i 2O2 O2 + 4e [1] ii Al3+ + 3e Al [1] d electrons are gained (by the aluminium ions) [1] e oxygen released at anode; [1] reacts with the carbon / anode; [1] to form carbon dioxide; [1] which escapes / idea of anode being burnt away [1]  Total = 11 4 a i +4 [1] ii +6 [1] b i 0 [1] ii 1 [1] c SO2 because it decreases the oxidation number of the bromine / it loses electrons / the sulfur increases its oxidation state [1] d i +2 [1] ii 1 [1] e SO2 + Br2 + 2H2O SO42 + 2Br + 4H+ 1 mark for correct stoichiometry of SO2 + Br2 SO42 + 2Br [1] 1 mark for correct balance of atoms and ions [1]  Total = 9 5 a one reactant is oxidised by loss of electrons; [1] electrons are gained by another reactant; [1] this happens at the same time / reduction and oxidation occur together [1] b i Al Al3+ + 3e [1] ii 2H+ + 2e H2 [1] iii 1 [1] c 2Al + 6H+ 2Al3+ + 3H2 [1]  Total = 7

2 a i 0 ii +2 b i +1 ii 0 c i Ca Ca2+ + 2e ii 2H2O + 2e 2OH + H2 d equation c ii (2H2O + 2e 2OH + H2) because electrons are being gained / oxidation number of hydrogen is decreasing

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 7

6 a H+; OH; Na+; Cl;


b i 2Cl Cl2 + 2e [1] ii 2H+ + 2e H2 [1] c Cl ions lose electrons [1] d Cl and H+ ions removed; [1] leaves (Na+ and) OH ions in solution; [1] OH ions are responsible for alkaline character [1] e i 1 [1] ii +5 [1] f sodium chlorate(V) [1]  Total = 11 7 a i +2 [1] ii +21  [1] 2 b iodine atoms gain electrons [1] c i manganese(IV) oxide [1] ii +6 [1] iii I ions because they increase in oxidation number (from 1 to 0) [1] iv MnO2 because it has caused I to be oxidised / has lost oxygen / has gained electrons/ the oxidation number of the Mn has decreased [1]  Total = 7

[all 4 correct = 2 marks; 2 or 3 correct = 1 mark, 0 or 1 correct = 0 marks]

[2]

8 a i +5 [1] ii 1 [1] b the oxidation number of bromine has decreased (from +5 to 1); [1] the oxidation number of oxygen has increased (from 2 to 0); [1] oxidation and reduction have occurred together [1] c potassium bromate(V) [1] d i 6 [1] ii N in hydrazine = 2 and N in N2 = 0; [1]  for each nitrogen atom oxidation number change is +2 [1] iii oxidation number changes must balance; [1] 3 (2 +2) for nitrogen atoms = +12; [1] 2 (6) for Br atoms = 12 [1]  Total = 12

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 7

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press