CHAPTER IV TECHNICAL ASPECT The technical aspect of the business defines the necessary procedures and specific factors

to be considered before putting the project into operation. It also serves a determinant factor to obtain efficient and effective techniques on how to make the project successful. The proper kind of applications must be adapted in order to come up with the best results. This chapter covers the significant areas that must be properly observed. A. Product Description Importance and Its Uses Alugbati (Basella alba) commonly known as Malabar nightshade is a perennial vine found in the tropics where it is widely used as a leaf vegetable. It is also an alternative medicine supplements and vitamins. Aside from all of these benefits, its berries can also be used as one of the components in producing ink. Most of the existing ink refills are made of hazardous chemicals which is harmful to human health. Because of these risk factors, the industry is looking for alternative products which are more environmentally friendly, low-cost, non-toxic, and without sacrificing its quality.

which is the product’s main ingredient. The supplier of the Alugbati berries. the transforming resources and the transformed computers. B. The transformed resources are the raw materials and components that are transformed into end products.With the attractive world and local prices of ink refills and if the industry will be properly guided by the government sectors and industrial sectors. Figure number 1 shows the flowchart. Production Flow The production process is concerned with transforming a range of inputs into those outputs that are required by the market. C. This involves to sets of resources. We have contracted them to deliver the alugbati berries to the processing area once a week. this product can be a viable and profitable business. it is necessary to have the needed raw materials. Purchasing of Raw Materials Washing of Raw Materials Extraction of It’s Juice Stirring the Mixture Adding the other Ingredients Pouring the extract to a bowl . will be sourced out from Sibonga. Acquisition of Raw Materials Needed Before going into the production process. and people that carry out the transforming processes. Adequate and continuous supply must be ensured to meet the demands of the market. Cebu where the largest supplier of Alugbati is found.

The supplier of alugbati berries from Sibonga will deliver the raw materials weekly. Pouring of Extract to a Bowl .Checking the Ink’s Viscosity Measuring and Packing Figure 1 Production Flowchart Ready for Sale and Delivery Purchase of Raw Materials This is the fundamental part of production. This process will be done through a masticating juicer. Extraction of Alugbati Juice from Alugbati Berries The extracts are squeezed out and further filtered. For experiment purposes we used mortar and pestle. Washing of Alugbati Berries This will be done carefully. in order to maintain the fruits’ freshness.

The measurement will be done using a graduated cylinder. Measuring and Packing the Finished Product This is the final process where the ink is measured before packing. The extract is stirred well. The finished product . This process will be done using a digital viscometer. Checking the Ink’s Viscosity and Its Quality This process is needed to check the stickiness of the ink to ensure the quality of the ink. Add the Other Ingredients and Stir This process is to mix all other ingredients with the alugbati berries’ juice.The alugbati juice extracts will be poured into a cup/bowl. This is done nonstop. in order to achieve a good quality of ink.

All employees will report from 8:00am-5:00pm. and 60ml bottle. from 12:00nn-1:00pm. the finished products are stored in the storage area having room temperature conducive for inks. Since the delivery of raw materials is weekly. E. After the process. Production Capacity . 5 days a week from Monday to Friday. packed in a 15ml. Production Schedule The business will operate 8 hours a day. 30ml. the production of Ink from Alugbati berries will be continuous throughout the month. The employees will given a one our noon-break.

Carcar City. Project Site Plant Location The location of the proposed manufacturing plant is in Dapdap. The manufacturing plant will occupy a land area of 1. The proponents find the location efficient since it is near to the supplier of Alugbati berries which is found in Sibonga. .000 square meters. Poblacion III. This will be used for the construction of the manufacturing plant. Cebu.600 square meters and the excess will be used as a parking area.F. Land Size The total land area is 2.

This Site .

These are the following: Masticating Juicer A masticating juicer juicer uses a single auger to compact and crush produce into smaller sections before squeezing out its juice along a static screen while the pulp is expelled through a separate outlet. . Graduated Cylinder A graduated cylinder is a piece of laboratory equipment used to measure the volume of a liquid. Tools and Equipment The machineries and equipments needed during the production process play a vital role in the smooth and easy production of ink from alugbati berries. Project Layout H.Figure 2 Map of Cebu G.

Viscometer A viscometer is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid such as ink. good for feeding. Raw Material Requirements Fresh alugbati fruits . It is used to channel liquid or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening. It is used to avoid spillage. Utilities J. Funnel A funnel is a pipe with a wide mouth. often conical and a narrow stem. I.

but historically. and domestic uses. medical. It is a crystalline mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl). as the most easily available mild acid. a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of ionic salts. It can promote the fermenting process by inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms. 5-6 mm in length and purple when mature. it had a great variety of industrial. ovoid or nearly spherical. . and in some cases even adding desirable bacteria to the culturing process.The alugbati fruit is fleshy. favoring the growth of desired Lactobacilli. White Vinegar Vinegar is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water. It is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient. Salt or Table Salt Salt is also known as table salt or rock salt. stalkless.

7% elemental iodine. though it does well against vegetative bacteria. alcohol) concentrated or ethanol (ethyl isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol). It is prepared from a special denatured alcohol solution and contains approximately 70 percent by volume of pure. it is fair against viruses and fungi.Rubbing alcohol Rubbing alcohol is a liquid prepared and used primarily for topical application. Iodine Solution Iodine solution is an antiseptic. along with potassium iodide or sodium iodide. It usually consists of 2 . it is also called weak iodine solution. dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and water. K. Manpower Requirements . As an antiseptic.

The waste from the processing place will be identified as biodegradable.L. These wastes will be disposed in a landfill located at the back of the plant site. processing or disposal managing and monitoring of waste materials.00 Graduated Cylinder – Php550. Wastes and Waste Disposal Method/s • Waste management is the collection. Wastes that can’t be recycled will be collected by the garbage truck which will visit the site once a week. Non-biodegradable wastes will be recycled or sold to junkshops. The company will provide to each department trash bins or garbage bags in implementing the segregation of wastes. and to increase the environmental awareness of our workforce and management. In order to improve efficiency and profitability. Total Production Costs Masticating Juicer – Php7. transport.550. One way of managing waste is by segregating biodegradable wastes from non-biodegradable. This bins or bags must be put in their proper or designated places.00 . M. there is a need of waste management application.

Strain the juice into a bowl.00 N. Crush the fruits and seeds in a mortar and pestle. plump and dark purple in color.500. 2. Discard the solid fruit and seed remains. salt and iodine and stir.Digital Viscometer – Php8. when it is round. Add the rubbing alcohol. 4. rubra L. iodine Bottle or jar with lid Instructions 1. Pick the alugbati fruits at full ripeness. B. Transfer to a bottle or jar and seal until use. ALUGBATI Scientific Names: Basella alba L. 5. salt 2 tbsp. . white vinegar. vinegar 1 tbsp. Systems and Forms Design REFERENCES Things needed Fresh alugbati fruits Mortar and pestle Strainer 3 tbsp. You will need about three cups of fruit to produce one cup of juice.. 3. rubbing alcohol 1 tbsp. Repeat until you've procured one cup of juice.

fat (0. The red fruit juice can be used as ink. smooth. but sandy loam appears to be most suitable. solitary and 5-29 cm in length. branched. tapering to a pointed tip and heart shape at the base. and iron (Fe). twining. These are propagated by cuttings or seeds. the pulped leaves to poultice sores. alugbati is usually grown in slanting or horizontal trellises. Malabar nightshade Local Names: Alugbati.3 g). 5-12 centimeters (cm) in length. NUTRIENT VALUE Shoots of alugbati per 100 grams (g) edible portion. stalkless. 1. It also grows in temperate regions. Adaptability and Availability Alugbati grows well in tropical lowlands at elevations near to 500-3. and variants of the green and red. Dundula.000 meters (m).1 milligrams per 100 gram edible portion. The flowers are pink and about 4 millimeters (mm) long. The energy value is approximately 112 kJ/100 g.000 plants/hectare are recommended.2-3.9 g) and fibre (1. ovate or heart-shaped. 16-117 mg. The protein content is relatively low compared to other greens. contain water (91 g). CULTURAL PRACTICES Three to four cuttings or seeds are planted per hill at a distance of 20 to 30 cm between hills in furrows spaced at 50 to 75 cm apart. .3 g) carbohydrates (3. slightly mucilaginous vegetable. ovoid or nearly spherical.1 g). The red forms are commonly planted as ornamentals and are. The fruit is fleshy. 7 to 10 cuttings are planted in a hill with distance 40 to 50 cm between hills. reaching a length of several meters. fried in oil or sometimes as a green salad. Its fruits seem to have been earlier used for dyeing purposes in China. protein (2. densities of about 50. even becoming popular in Europe as pot plant. consumed boiled. cosmetic and for coloring foods.Common Names: Ceylon Spinach. 1686-6390 IU. red fruit juice as eye drops to treat conjunctivitis and the roots as rubefacient. stalked. In home gardens. The leaves are usually removed before planting materials. It is widely cultivated in all regions of the country particularly in Visayas. USES/IMPORTANCE Alugbati is commonly grown for its young shoots which make an excellent succulent. The vitamin and mineral contents vary widely as follows: vitamin A. 5-6 mm in length and purple when mature. Alugbati thrives in many soils. PROPAGATION There are several types of alugbati-the green stem. calcium (Ca). vitamin C. The leaves are somewhat fleshy. used as a pot herb in stews or soup. The stems are green or purplish. Libato Botanical Description: Alugbati is a succulent. For commercial production. red stem. If cuttings are abundant. The young leaves can be used as laxative. 29-166 mg. herbaceous vine. The spikes are axillary. Indian spinach.

An advantage of this leafy vegetable is its remarkable resistance to pests and diseases. then application of the compost with either a high or low C/N ratio can have adverse effects on both the soil and the plants.Alugbati grows well even without fertilizer but yield will improve with a liberal amount of compost. If the correct C/N ration is not achieved. Leaf spots caused by Cercospora and Acrothecium sometimes occur. leaves can be kept for about one week in the refrigerator. FOOD PREPARATION Alugbatri can be cooked with other vegetables such as in pinakbet. Irrigation is done by watering or flooding the field. bunched and sold at nearby markets. A high C/N ratio can be corrected by dehydrated mud and a low ratio corrected by adding cellulose. subsequently at regular intervals for 4-6 months until flowering interferes with quality. Biological waste treatment Composting Composting is the controlled aerobic decomposition of organic matter by the action of micro organisms and small invertebrates. windrow composting. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Alugbati is very susceptible to rock-knot nematodes. The micro organisms require carbon as an energy source and nitrogen for the synthesis of some proteins. the temperature. Moisture content greatly influences the composting process. 15-25 cm long are cut. vermicomposting and static pile composting. the moisture content and the amount of air. There are a number of composting techniques being used today. The C/N ratio is very important for the process to be efficient. If the waste becomes too dry the composting is not favoured. The process is controlled by making the environmental conditions optimum for the waste decomposers to thrive. The microbes need the moisture to perform their metabolic functions. PROSPECTS/OPPURTUNITIES Alugbati is a very productive leaf vegetable. The rate of compost formation is controlled by the composition and constituents of the materials i. Shoots. It is also blanched or cooked with egg and noodles. suitable for both home and market gardens.e. If however there is too much moisture then it is possible that it may displace the air in the compost heap depriving the organisms of oxygen and drowning them. If undamaged. These include: in vessel composting. . but is free of disease and pest problems due to its very thick leaf cuticle. their Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio. HARVESTING AND POSTHARVEST HANDLING Young shoots are first harvested at about 6-8 weeks after planting.

Optimum temperatures for the process are in the range of 50-60oC with the ideal being 60oC. Air can be incorporated by churning the compost.A high temperature is desirable for the elimination of pathogenic organisms. . However. above 75oC then the organisms necessary to complete the composting process are destroyed. The anaerobes are undesirable since they will slow the process. if temperatures are too high. If there is insufficient oxygen the aerobes will begin to die and will be replaced by anaerobes. produce odours and also produce the highly flammable methane gas. Aeration is a very important and the quantity of air needs to be properly controlled when composting.

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