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Meters Testing
When Chapter on Energy Meters Testing was first contemplated, it was the authors intention to produce a short text-book covering the needs of upcoming new entrants and fresh Engineers as trainees. As the work progressed, however, it was realized that the groundwork for the planned text-book could not be adequately covered in a book of the size originally planned (to large in volume). Reduction of the groundwork, being thus necessitated and confined the author to the detailed preparation of a chapters (a small book) on this topic. The author felt that the scope and method of treatment could with advantage be modified to suit, also, the requirements of electrical engineers in general, for whom, owing to the rapid advances taking place in the industry and financial / administrative disintegration of the apparently electrically / physically inter-connected Power System. In particular, it was thought that engineers engaged in the Standardizing and metering side of the electrical utility (Pre-facture) could be catered for. Metering systems technology has advanced dramatically during last two decades, most notably for the part some form of computer, now plays in the various functions. The uses range from the microprocessors employed in the energy meters themselves, for measurement or control, to testing by computer for development including power system simulation, production testing and even site testing. Although the book is principally concerned with the application of Art of Energy Meters Testing, particular advances in Measurement of Energy and Meter design can significantly affect the way they are used. For example, alternative schemes may be selected within some standard designs, simply at the flick of a remote controlled switch, sometimes involving a closer integration of measurement and control functions. So the Meter hardware is becoming even more standardized, to the point where versions of the Energy Meter may differ only by the software they contain i.e. specially Digital Energy Meters have same logic but may differ by software on which they are driven. This progress has made it both exiting and desirable to tackle the augmentation of the new book on Testing and Calibration of Energy Meters. In this first edition of the book, the changed scene is perhaps best exemplified by the inclusion of Measurements and Measuring Systems and application of the microprocessors to Energy Metering. 2-1

This sets out to introduce many of the computation terms which may be unfamiliar to some instrumentation engineers of an older generation, for example the Term Measurands is being used for the parameters / Quantities to be measured. As Energy Measurement is basically depends upon measurements of its constituent components like: three phase a.c Voltages, Currents in each phase, and power Factor of individual phases of a three phase system, gives a product Known as Power (rate of change of Energy) in an electric circuit, whose integral yields the Energy over a specified time period. These all functionality is being performed by a microprocessor in the modern day Energy Meters along with other control functions. That is Energy, Power and Event Log functions are performed through preset software design. At what some may regard as the simpler end of the application scale, the scope of the book has been widened to include another chapters on the topics of Remote / Tele Metering, C.D.P (Cut-Off Delivery Points) Metering and S.M.S (Secured Metering System). The correct application of the Metering Systems requires not only a knowledge of the Meter Design and the qualitative approach to the Measurands, but also a good understanding of the behavior of the Power System in which the Energy Meter is to be applied. The book attempts to present the practicing Engineer with sufficient information to assist him in his every day work, including Testing, Programming, calibration and commissioning of the Energy Metering Systems, without over stressing the more complex problems. Such problems are, in any case, usually be dealt with as a combined effort between the user (Energy supplier and Energy purchaser) and the manufacturer, for specific applications. For the first edition of this book on Energy Meters Testing and Calibration, a different presentation format has been chosen which we believed would be both easy to follow and convenient to use. The first part of the book deals with the fundamentals of Measurements, including the Transient, Harmonics, and Phasor Analysis. Behavior of C.Ts and P.Ts along with need of the Knowledge of Measurement attempted later on. Accuracy Class of these range extenders has also been included purposely to acquaint the Fresh Engineers and new entrants with the pre-requisite to Proper Energy Metering. Fundamentals of the Metering practice, basic technology, energy calculations and the protective circuitry of metering then find its place including the Phasor Analysis, Transient, Harmonic response and Saturation Problems that affect the instrumentation transformers associated with Metering System. The book then goes on to cover the Programming for Parameterization and for proper recording of the Reactive Energy by the energy meters. Just after the Testing of the Energy Maters, there calibration has been focused. A brief Chapter covering few of the testing sets, as used by author gives more awareness to readers. As for as application of the Metering Systems is concerned, three chapters have been included purposely to cover Tele-Metering / Remote Metering, C.D.P (Cut-Off Delivery Points) Metering requirements and at last but not the least, S.M.S (Secured Metering System) as a specified applications in the current situation here in Pakistan . Different make of Solid State Energy Meters have been discussed, but the more pronounced and compromising Energy Meter ISKRA manufactured By ISKRA MECO Company of Slovenia, used as standard with respect to C.D.Ps and S.M.S metering has been given special coverage, as that was abundantly found and most popular in our Power System including IPPs (Individual Power Producers) country wide. 2-2

With the authors experience of almost 23 years in the field of electrical engineering, 07 years academic experience in the same field of Electrical Engineering and in particular 05 years experience for the testing of Energy Meters, is well conversant with the importance of Measuring Systems from the science of Physics, the grass-root to lot many other fields including Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Systems of Units for Electrical Quantities. Also during the latest five years of experience in Metering, author seldom faced with such sort of challenges concerning with the measurements and conversions. So author felt it most important for the Readers / Trainees to cover short title (just a glimpse or an introduction to measuring systems), in order to have better realization of the electrical quantities to be measured and the specification of these measurands. The quantities to be measured (i.e. Measurands) with there specs and need to go up to what percentage of accuracy, will determine the class and type of the meter to be chosen. Measurement is considered to be an essential tool for the Metering, as the sophistication in metering advances, the old aged to modern age metering encompasses mercury meters, electromechnical, and electronic, numerical and digital meters. Modern day energy meters incorporate microprocessors, electronic registers in the shape of Chip (separate registers for maintaining time scaled energy log, Mw log, events log, for measurements and registrations /recordings), not only the energy in one direction (uni-directional), instead these are bi-directional i.e. measure energy in both the directions and act as an import energy meter and also as an export energy meter. The same meter is multifunctional, and is being in use as power meter, MDI (Maximum Demand Indication, even recording), single and three phases voltmeters, ammeters, frequency and power factor meter. Transient, harmonic and phasor analysis features have also been added in these modern day meters, for in-depth analysis of the inputs (Measurands). The transient analysis is that, in which, one can have detailed analysis of the transients whereby C.Ts and P.Ts generate transients as they have gone through change of energy level i.e. switch from one steady state condition to an-other one. The transitory state also is accompanied by harmonics generated by C.Ts and P.Ts (Current and Potential transformers used as range extension / insulation providers) and in-feed contains harmonics, which ultimately affect the meter behavior. Additionally, digital energy meters are not only meant for active energy measurement, instead they also measure and register reactive energy in four quadrants. Further recording feature includes, capability to register all of the three types of electrical energies (i.e. Active, Reactive, and Apparent energy) in a single gadgetry. In order to have a master of Energy Meters, and their testing, which necessitates to acquire knowledge of Measurements and Measuring Systems, and may find helpful as you will encounter / gone through the testing phase of the energy meters, catering for other measurands. Hence author wishes / advise the reader to get appropriate knowledge of the measurements that is required for both Metering and Standardizations.( In some instances accuracy class of the energy meters used demand new standard i.e. from +2 % to either +1 % , or + 0.5 % , or + 0.2 %). 2-3

Knowledge of Measurements is also important, as the gadgetry to measure multiple measurands, the quality of the supplied parameters as input to the metering, will also determine the accuracy of measurements. Its importance can be more pronounced by way of analogy, where by, the food supplied as input to human beings /animals determines the healthiness plus proper dose of food as input quantities determine the life expectancy of living beings. Similarly proper input of the quantity to be measured, gadgetry will behave similarly. A competent engineer should undermine this aspect too, as he will be given responsibility to verify the accuracy of measurements while testing of the energy meters, in particular, will be carried out. He should be gone through different phases in order to fix the problem i.e. weather the energy meter under test is malfunctioning, due to some problem with the energy meter. In order to pin point the problem, i.e. is there any problem with the measuring instrument / testing equipment, or there may be some problem with the input quantities to be measured. Hence well acquainted engineer must have sufficient knowledge of measurements prior to proceed for testing. It has been an experience that in more than 20 % cases, while going through testing phase, that input quantity variations may create hindrances in achieving the required test results. After covering the Measuring Systems and units of the measuring systems, the reader can have a better judgment / vision in defining and selection of proper measuring gadgetry i.e. requirements and selection of the proper meter for the right quantity to be measured. Then comes the Electricity Energy Meters (types and accuracy classes), after that testing of the energy meters have been covered. Computerized programming of the digital energy meter find its place before testing of the energy meters, though practically it has been performed prior to testing, but only for digital energy meters, hence it is covered accordingly prior to testing of the energy meters. Before ending with the requirements / selection of the Energy Meter Test sets and different types of the testing equipment / Testing sets, Calibration of the energy meters have also been introduced. Readers / Trainees are advised to search this topic from the titles like electrical measurements and measuring instruments and go through in detail, such topics concerned. Some of the topics dealt with- e.g. Digital / Electronic Metering, Programming, Testing and Calibration, CDP (i.e. Cut-Off Delivery Points) Metering needs and requirements. Remote Metering / Telemetering have purposely been included to keep intouch the readers / Trainees with the latest advancements which have occurred during the last few decades, being need of the well acquainted engineers and subordinates. Few of the topics introduced at the beginning e.g. electrical Power and Energy, their derivation / representation from its components view-point are essentially mathematical, and cannot well be treated otherwise, but the mathematics throughout has been kept as simple as possible and should be followed by most readers. References and bibliographies are given at the end, their inclusion being both an acknowledgement of the sources of the authors information-in certain cases-and an augmentation of the text, which can, at the best, give only a general out-line of so large a subject in the space of the confined volume. 2-4

Most of the illustrations have been made for this chapter, but the author is glade to acknowledge, his indebtedness to many firms and authorities who have very kindly supplied him with information, drawings, and photographs relating to their apparatus. ______________________

Gratitude / Acknowledgements.
Author is indebted his gratitude for Government and People of Japan and Pakistan for the planning to lay-down grass roots in providing awareness, means and methods for acceleration of the thought process ( brain storming) for the well being of less acquainted nations including the People of The Islamic Republic of Pakistan , by signing the M.O.U ( Memorandum of Understanding ) for Capacity Building ( Up-gradation ) Project with respect to Grid System Improvement of The Islamic Republic of Pakistan Under the consultation and supervision of JICA ( Japan International Cooperation Agency ) and A.K.C consultants. Individual acknowledgements are made to each and every consultant of JICA and AKC, and evaluators, for putting in all of their efforts (guidance, review, up-bringing our motivations and subsequent follow-ups) for turning all the dreams into reality, by providing us an opportunity to visit numerous training centers of different pre-factures of Japanese Grid System i.e. by granting the almost a months visit to Japan for many of the engineers selected from the Grid System of Pakistan. Japans Visit encompasses four days stay at JICA Central Training Center in Tokyo ( Capital City of the Japan ) for orientation and then almost seventeen days visit to many prefactures ( Utilities ) and Training centers of Takamatsu Island 700 km south of Tokyo, to have a better ideas by Visiting, Observation, Presentations with the help of Multimedia and state of the art Training simulators, Question and Answer sessions, audio / Video sessions for the coverage of the miracles completed by Japanese Engineers / Architects / Town Planners / Technicians, within stipulated time frame under severe climatic and working environments like Marine High Voltage D.C Links (under the sea) and over head highest and longest bridge supported Extra High Voltage Cable System Links with restricted rights of the way, of the Grid System in Japan. At this space author is unable to pay his regards / and to return back the same generosity, hospitality, along with warm well come all the time by her, but just indebted his gratitude from the core of the heart to Madam: Hattoi.Junko ( Training coordinator / interpreter of JICA Chugoku Branch of JICA Training programmes ), without whom, it was not possible to understand presentations / communication with Japanese people, we always found her on toes since early in the morning, up-till late in the night, caring, resolving all the issues relating to her Trainees including Training Coordination, House-Keeping, Shopping and bringing all of her trainees very close to richest Japanese Heritage and Culture. Though younger than all of her trainees and at last she was honored with the title as Mother of Fourteen Childes (i.e. all of her fourteen trainees). She had also eliminated the cultural differences among the two nations ( Japan and Pakistan) by bridging the seemingly wide gap between rich heritages of them, despite their origin is same. 2-5

Before finishing introduction, the author is also and always remain thankful, to our seniors, in particular Mr. Tahir Mahmood (the than Chief Engineer, TSG, Lahore- who had also visited Japan for guidance, moral support and for monitoring purpose during the last week of our visit), Mr. Nawab Din ( Manager - P&I from the same office / Training Center), for their continual guidance, Patience, full support ( exposed or hidden) all the time, monthly follow-ups despite their busiest / great involvement in Managing / Running successfully the Chief Office as well as the Three far apart sub-centers of the Technical Services Group. It is worthwhile to mention that with-out their Assistance / Guidance, it was not possible to augment this text within stipulated target time. At the last, author is also very much thank-full to my cliques (namely Mr.Imran Maqbool, and Anwar Khan, Deputy Managers, TSG, Lahore) along with other and subordinates (specially Mr.Abdul Sattar Mirza, Assistant Manager (T.S.G) who introduced this subject and assisted me during continual field visits of more than 430 CDPs / Stations, and lot many Non-CDP Stations, country-wide during very limited time frame of 365 days of each year for annual Testing / Calibration of the Energy Meters, with the sacrifices of his health and family. May GOD bless him with complete recovery from Sickness and enable him back to work and his family matters effectively) and also appreciate the full assistance of other subordinates for enabling me to complete this Text. Revision: Due to sudden sickness of the author from November-2012 to March-2013, it appears that completion of this book will be difficulte , but by the grace of ALMIGHTY GOD, a little bit improvement of my health, with refreshed encouragement gave me a fresh restart. The sudden demise of Mr.Abdul Sattar Mirza, Assistant Manager (T.S.G), Lahore on 8th May 2013 (Wednesday) after a long illness due to hepatitis-C, made all of the team very sad. Mr Sattar had the wisdom though did not get adequate opportunities but struggled untiringly to quench his insatiable thirst for knowledge and strived through out his life for well being of his family particularly and humanity generally, unfortunately left us too early May GOD bless his soul in eternal peace.

Dated: September, 10th -2012. Revised on 11th May 2013. Lahore, Pakistan.

Author: Engineer: Naved Rushdi, M.Sc (Engineering) Electrical Power, Serving as: Deputy Manager ( P & I), Office of the Chief Engineer ( T.S.G ) / Training Center ( T.S.G ), Adjacent to 220 KV Grid Station, New Kot Lakhpat. Near Chungi Amer Saddhu, Ferroz Pur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. 2-6