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S. Donders1, R. Hadjit1, L. Hermans1, M. Brughmans1, W. Desmet2 1 LMS International, CAE Division, Interleuvenlaan 68, 3001 Leuven, Belgium 2 K.U.Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division PMA, Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium email: stijn.donders@lms.be

Abstract

In the vehicle development process, design decisions are increasingly based on virtual prototypes (for example using Finite Element (FE) models), as time-to-market must be reduced, while more and more variants must be designed and assessed. Substructuring and Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) methods are useful to speed up the time of local design modifications. Traditional CMS methods involve coupling the system matrices of each substructure along all interface degrees of freedom (DOFs). A Wave-Based Substructuring (WBS) approach has been developed, that aims to find a set of basis functions that describe the dynamic behavior of the coupling interfaces. The interface displacements in the assembled system are then written as a linear combination of these basis functions. As the number of basis functions is typically much lower than the number of interface DOFs, the procedure reduces the number of variables in the matrix equations and the size of the interface description. This greatly facilitates the model reduction procedure and results in faster structural and vibro-acoustic predictions. The WBS approach has been implemented in an integrated multi-attribute virtual simulation environment, where it complements the assembly definition and trimming functionality as it allows speeding up modification predictions and thus alleviates the computational burden of industrial vehicle optimization. This is demonstrated on the basis of three test cases taken from automotive industry.

1

Introduction

Fast assembly predictions become ever more important in the vehicle development process. Design decisions are more and more based on virtual prototypes, as time-to-market and development costs must be reduced. The additional trend of mass customization forces engineers to design a higher number of variants on a lower number of platforms. The Finite Element (FE) method is widely used to predict the vibro-acoustic vehicle performance. FE models can only be applied in the low and medium frequency range, due to the model sizes and subsequent computational costs that grow with frequency. To partially overcome this practical limit, extensive work has been performed on substructuring and Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) techniques [1][2][3][4]. The degrees of freedom (DOFs) of each substructure are expressed in terms of a limited number of component modes; the component models are then synthesized. Recently, Automated Multilevel Substructuring (AMLS) [5][6] has been developed. A vehicle body is recursively divided into dozens of levels of in total thousands of substructures, based on the mathematical structure of the FE models, rather than on the physical composition of the system. Each substructure is separately solved and the results are synthesized. When coupling multiple (levels of) reduced systems, the interface problem size becomes increasingly dominant. To further speed up the synthesis, the interface representation size between components must be reduced. This can be done by the condensation of the interface displacements as a linear combination of a limited set of interface basis functions (“waves”). As the required number of basis functions is typically much lower than the number of interface DOFs, faster assembly predictions are obtained. Previous papers have

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Section 2 discusses the mathematical framework of the WBS approach. the WBS approach is demonstrated on three cases taken from automotive industry. For components with similar modal densities the component modes are typically less suitable. Section 4 then considers a vibro-acoustic case: the modification of dynamic coupling stiffness of a windscreen in a vehicle trimmed body. In the following sections. The system matrices (for the undamped case) are then partitioned into submatrices: M ii M ji &i K ii M ij & x + &j M jj & x K ji K ij x i f i = K jj x j f j (1) In this formulation. weighted with participation factors p: xj =V ⋅ p By substituting Equation (2) in Equation (1). The DOFs x can be divided into interior DOFs xi and junction (coupling) DOFs xj. This allows to accurately capture the interface dynamics. an obvious choice is to derive the interface basis functions from the component modes of the stiff component [9]. by expressing them as a linear combination of a set of N interface basis functions V. for a rigid connection between two substructures a and b. and with modification analysis and optimization in mind. One must then translate the equilibrium and continuity conditions in terms of the interface basis functions. this substitution reduces the size of the FE matrix equations compared to classical CMS techniques. all junction nodes have 6 DOFs. which facilitates the model reduction procedure of components and speeds up the assembly analysis. 2 2. In the Wave-Based Substructuring (WBS) [11] approach applied in this paper.1902 P ROCEEDINGS OF ISMA2006 reported on the use of component modes to derive the interface basis functions [7][8]. As described in [11]. one obtains (2) M ii V T M ji M ij V & &i K ii x + T T V M jj V & & p V K ji K ij V x i f i = T V T K jj V p V f j (3) When the number of basis functions N is less than the number of junction DOFs xj. while the accuracy is maintained. The Wave-Based Substructuring approach restricts the junction DOFs xj. a single full computation is not a large burden: an optimization may consist of numerous iterations involving hundreds of FE runs. In Wave-Based Substructuring. The paper is concluded in Section 5. Section 3 considers two structural analysis cases: the re-design of a vehicle’s B-pillars. the single full run enables that the interface representation size is reduced.1 Theory WBS Assembly Procedure Consider an FE substructure in an assembled system. the following equilibrium and continuity conditions apply: b xa and j = xj f ja + f jb = 0 (4) In a WBS framework. and the modification analysis of coupling stiffness of a windscreen in a vehicle body-in-white (BIW). similar conditions apply on the participation factors p: p a = pb and f ja + f jb = 0 (5) . for the rigid and elastic coupling case. one performs a single computation of the full assembly model to obtain the interface basis functions. When one couples a very stiff component with a very flexible component.

a substructuring method contains a reduction step for at least one of the components. and in the selection of enrichment vectors to these normal modes. a reduction procedure based on WBS will be much more efficient. Such a reduction step involves reduction of the number of degrees of freedom of the substructure model. and repeating this for all interface DOFs). This also holds for alternative formulations. and where the enrichment vectors consist of constraint modes (which are the static deformation shapes of the substructure obtained by successively applying a unit displacement on one interface degree of freedom. which allows faster assembly calculations. strongly (linearly) depends on the number of interface degrees of freedom.1. for substructures a and b. MacNeal’s approach [10] uses the normal modes of the component in free-free conditions.2 Model Reduction Procedure In general.r. in a vehicle optimization case which aims to reduce the acoustic radiation of a floor panel. A quantitative example of this benefit in the reduction procedure will be given in Section 3. they differ in the boundary conditions that are applied to the substructure. since a much lower number of enrichment vectors need to be computed. Two well-established examples are: • the Craig-Bampton fixed interface approach [1]. . see e. the WBS framework presented in this section results in a reduced-sized assembly definition. the overview in [2]. and repeating this for all interface DOFs). where the normal modes are computed while the substructure is clamped at the connection interface. the junction DOFs are expressed as a linear combination of sets of interface basis functions Va and Vb. For example. which enables much faster modifications and optimization on this floor panel. and enrichment vectors that consist of residual flexibility modes (which are the static deformation shapes obtained by successively applying a unit force on one of the interface degrees of freedom. with a zero force on the remaining interface DOFs. Since the WBS approach (strongly) reduces the number of interface degrees of freedom in the assembly definition. one will be interested to apply a model reduction step on the remainder of the vehicle. 2. All of them make use of the vibration normal modes of the substructures. it becomes clear that the number of enrichment vectors that must be computed. The enrichment vectors are of vital importance to accurately represent the local flexibility at the connection interface. In the above example methods. yielding VaT f ja VaT K aaVa VaT K abVb p a T b = T b T Vb f j Vb KbaVa Vb K bbVb p (7) As the required number of basis functions is typically much lower than the number of interface DOFs. • In such reduction methods. when the reduced modal model of the substructure is re-assembled to other substructures. by representing the physical degrees of freedom of each substructure into a reduced number of so-called generalized coordinates.5 w.g. while holding the remaining interface DOFs fixed. the component modes are generally computed up to a frequency higher than the frequency range of interest for the assembly (a rule-of-thumb is to increase the frequency range for the component reduction with a factor 1. This reduced-sized model of the remainder of the vehicle is then re-assembled with the FE representation of the floor panel.M ADUSE 1903 An elastic connection between substructures a and b is applied with the following equilibrium and continuity condition (where the matrices K denote the coupling stiffness matrices between the junction DOFs of the substructures): f ja K aa b = f j K ba K ab x a j b K bb x j (6) Following Equation (2). Numerous papers have reported on the selection of these generalized coordinates. the frequency range of interest).t.

and a reduced modal model has been created for the remainder of the vehicle body. a number of which have been defined at the spot weld level. The aim is to use WBS to re-design the dynamic characteristics of the b-pillars in the range 0-100Hz. when building the FE model of a vehicle body. so that a reduced modal model must be computed for the remainder of the vehicle (as shown in Figure 1 (right). predominantly in the BIW assembly process. etc.1904 P ROCEEDINGS OF ISMA2006 3 Structural Analysis As a general procedure. . the panels are meshed from CAD data and assembled together using dedicated elements to represent the connections. Figure 1: B-pillar re-design case: Body-in-White FE model (left). and WBS Reduced assembly model (right). The WBS approach is used in this environment to isolate certain FE components of interest. in which the B-pillars are kept in FE representation. to create a reduced modal model of the remainder of the vehicle (with much lower computational workload than in a conventional reduction). and then create a reduced-sized assembly model to quickly evaluate the effect of local design iterations (on the isolated component) on global performance targets (in terms of eigenfrequency.). there are 1788 physical connection DOFs. in which all of these connections between components can be applied. for which the FE model (274. noise level. 209.1 B-Pillar Re-design In the first industrial application case. In this industrial-sized example case.328 elements) is shown in Figure 1 (left). Other connection methods in the vehicle assembly process involve the creation of seam welds.. glue.. Section 4 then considers a vibro-acoustic application. Wave-Based Substructuring is applied to speed up the re-design of the B-pillars in an industrial BIW model.the waves. LMS Virtual. The substructures are defined from a set of panels and the degrees of freedom of the spot weld interface are replaced by a set of basis functions .Lab is an integrated multi-attribute virtual assembly and simulation environment [14]. Numerous spot welds are applied between the panels. .338 nodes. Note that the WBS approach has been adapted for the substructuring of the FE body model (BIW or Trimmed Body) at the spot weld level [12][14]. 3. sealing connections. This section considers two structural analysis cases: the re-design of a vehicle’s B-pillars (involving WBS with rigid connection) and the modification analysis of coupling stiffness of a windscreen in a vehicle BIW (involving WBS with elastic connection).

It thus enables the creation of the reduced-sized assembly model (the WBS assembly structure in Figure 1. left) with the modes of the WBSreduced model (Figure 1. When comparing the results. As a comparison. but required already much more time (more than 7 hours) – just to get halfway the set of enrichment vectors! Moreover. the reduction procedure (using the original approach of MacNeal [10]) has also been attempted – that is. as well as the enrichment vectors for the 35 wave degrees of freedom. as shown in Figure 1. o The WBS reduction procedure – an adaptation of MacNeal’s approach [10] – requires 2h28min to compute the natural component modes up till 150 Hz. right).M ADUSE 1905 In the frequency range up till 100Hz. It obviously increases the efficiency and feasibility of this vital step. • • For the full FE model. The calculation of (only) half the required number of enrichment vectors was feasible. Clearly the results are very accurate. o • The WBS assembly structure (full FE b-pillars with reduced modal model for the remainder of the vehicle. to calculate the natural component modes up to 150 Hz as well as the enrichment vectors for all of the 1788 physical degrees of freedom. right). the natural modes calculation up till 100Hz requires 1h42min of real CPU time.9998 for all modes up till 100Hz. whereas a conventional assembly would consider 1788 physical connection DOFs. .2 · 10-4 for all modes up till 100Hz the MAC [15] is larger than 0. right) calculates in 60s. • The above quantification clearly illustrates that the WBS approach is beneficial for the reduction procedure. this calculation time increases more than linearly when the number of enrichment vectors is increased. only 35 wave degrees of freedom are required in the WBS assembly connection. it is clear that the WBS assembly structure is very accurate: o o the relative eigenfrequency difference is less than 1. with the same accuracy in the results. For the modal reduction step for the remainder of the vehicle body. see also Figure 2. Figure 2: MAC to compare the modes of the full BIW (Figure 1. which evaluates much faster than the full FE analysis model. This calculation was not feasible on the workstation available for the job. so 100x faster than the full natural modes calculation for this model.

• Figure 4 compares the full FE analysis results for the nominal model.1906 P ROCEEDINGS OF ISMA2006 Next. so that 17 spot welds are created along each line.3 %for all modes up till 100Hz the MAC [15] is larger than 0. the number of spot welds along the length of the b-pillars is drastically modified. a comparison is made between the modes of the BIW with modified B-pillars (as in Figure 3. the average spot weld distance is 55mm.Lab [14]. with the full FE analysis results for the model. the distance is increased to 150mm. 17 spot welds have been created along each line. DOF +Z. and from a fast WBS-reduced analysis: o o o the relative eigenfrequency difference is less than 0. To assess the quality of the modification prediction with WBS. along each line).98 for all modes up till 100Hz. WBS can be used to predict the modified BIW dynamics in a very accurate and efficient manner (recall that for this case. with 4 line connections with re-distributed spot weld properties (at an average spot weld distance). dotted curve) is compared with the FRFs obtained with the modified models (with 6 or 7 spot welds along each line): the prediction with the WBS-reduced model (black. it will be verified whether one can obtain accurate modification predictions on the basis of this reduced-sized WBS assembly structure. left (so with 6 or 7 spot welds. . For this modification. the number of spot welds along each line is drastically reduced to only 6 or 7 per connection line. the WBS prediction is 100x faster than a full FE prediction of the B-pillar modification). Clearly the dynamics have changed as a result of the modification. in the modified design (right). as shown in Figure 3 (left). dashed). The nominal FRF (for the model with 17 spot welds along each line (blue. The nominal design has been created in LMS Virtual.Lab [14]. • From the above comparison. obtained from a full FE validation analysis of the modified model. DOF +Z). and output at the driver seat rail. instead of 17 spot welds. using LMS Virtual. For the nominal design. It can be seen that the effects of the modification are substantial (the nominal curve clearly differs from the modified curves). with input at the engine mount. So despite drastic changes in the B-pillar design. Figure 3: B-pillar re-design: change the number of Hexa spot welds along 4 connection lines along the length of the b-pillars. see also Figure 5. for both amplitude and phase. Figure 7 demonstrates the accuracy of WBS when used for a structural FRF calculation (frequency range up till 100Hz. For the modified design. it can be seen that the modification prediction with the WBS-reduced assembly structure is very accurate. and that the WBS-reduced modification prediction is very accurate when compared to the full FE modification prediction. As modification. In the nominal design (left). solid) and with a full FE modification analysis (red. in which the B-pillars have been modified as in Figure 3. so that only 6 to 7 spot welds are created along each line. right).

. . and the modification is accurately predicted with WBS (the modified curves clearly overlap) Of course. right). obtained from a full FE analysis and from a WBS-reduced analysis. dotted curve is obtained. by combining the fuzzy FE method with static substructuring based on Guyan reduction [17]. morphing) and even shape optimization. Figure 6: B-pillar re-design: FRF from engine mount (+Z) to seat rail (+Z) in the range 0-100Hz.. For the nominal model (with 17 spot welds along each line). reinforcements. solid) is compared with the full FE modification prediction (red. shape modification (cross section. such as modifications of shell thickness.. left) with the modes obtained when the B-pillars are modified (Figure 3. dashed). the blue. but also re-inforcements to locally strengthen the B-pillar. mass density). a variety of other modifications on the b-pillar can be considered. the prediction with the WBS-reduced model (black.) on the static performance of the industrial vehicle model. you can find the paper [16] which deals with the same b-pillar application model.M ADUSE 1907 Figure 4: B-pillar re-design: MAC to compare the nominal modes (B-pillars as in Figure 3. For the modified models (with 6 or 7 spot welds along each line). Clearly the dynamics have changed as a result of the modification. right). The modification is substantial (the modified curves are different from the nominal curve). Figure 5: B-pillar re-design: MAC to compare modes of the BIW with modified B-pillars (as in Figure 3. Clearly the WBS results are very accurate. material properties (Young’s modulus. Note that elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper studies the effect of uncertain input parameters (spot welds.

it can be concluded that WBS can be used to accurately and quickly predict the BIW+windscreen assembly dynamics. The connection between the windscreen and the vehicle BIW is realized with glue.1. multiplying the translational coupling stiffness with a factor ranging from 0. the MAC diagonal is larger than 0.8 for all modes.2 Windscreen-BIW Coupling Figure 7 shows the second industrial application case: the coupling of a windscreen in a vehicle body-inwhite (BIW). Figure 10 shows that with a factor 10.3%. The dynamics have changed significantly: the MAC clearly deviates from unity for a large number of modes.1 to 10. Figure 8 shows a MAC [15] comparison (top view) in LMS Virtual. As the number of basis functions is less than the number of junction DOFs (447). the MAC diagonal is larger than 0.Lab [14] between the nominal BIW+windscreen assembly modes and the modes obtained when the elastic coupling stiffness is multiplied with 10. This example shows that a WBS assembly of reduced modal models can be used to efficiently perform sensitivity analyses to connector properties modifications. Figure 9 and Figure 10 compare the conventional assembly modes with the WBS predictions up to 150 Hz. Clearly the dynamics have changed as a result of the modification. So despite drastic changes in coupling stiffness. 92 interface basis functions are obtained from the normal modes of the nominal BIW+windscreen assembly. The glue has been modeled using elastic springs defined between 149 pairs of nodes and for the translational DOFs only.85 for all modes. as reduced component models are used. while the frequency difference never exceeds 0. Such modifications have a substantial effect on the vehicle body dynamics. Likewise. the analyses are very fast. It is assessed whether Wave-Based Substructuring can be used to obtain fast and accurate predictions in the above-mentioned modification range. and the frequency difference remains below 0.5%. Figure 9 shows that with a factor 0.1908 P ROCEEDINGS OF ISMA2006 3. It gives very accurate results and. . the WBS approach reduces the problem size. Figure 7: BIW-Windscreen Coupling Figure 8: MAC to compare the nominal BIW+ windscreen modes with the modes obtained when the elastic coupling stiffness is multiplied with 10. A modification analysis is performed.

Acoustic Transfer Vectors (ATV) are used for the vibro-acoustic calculation [18]. translational stiffness modification with a factor 10: WBS vs. relative eigenfrequency difference (middle) and MAC diagonal (bottom). full FE results.150]Hz. 4 Vibro-Acoustic Analysis In this section. Conventional assembly of full FE body and windscreen. Figure 10: BIW-Windscreen case. in terms of frequency (top). For the structural part. and varying between 0. with the aim to reduce the interface description of a windshield to trimmed body connection. full FE results. in terms of frequency (top). Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors (MATVs) are used for the vibro-acoustic calculation [18]. WBS assembly of reduced modal models of body and windscreen. two assembly models are created: • • Figure 12: Problem outline: noise transfer function from structural input point to output microphone. This coupling has dynamic stiffness as shown in Figure 11 (defined in the range [10. The aim is to predict the Noise Transfer Function (NTF) between the structural input point (engine head mount) and a target pressure output point (front center microphone). Consider the acoustic cavity in Figure 12. Wave Based Substructuring has been applied to a vibro-acoustic analysis case. Figure 11: Frequency dependent spring properties of trimmed body–windscreen connection. relative eigenfrequency difference (middle) and MAC diagonal (bottom).2 and 5 times the nominal stiffness value). translational stiffness modification with a factor 0.M ADUSE 1909 Figure 9: BIW-Windscreen case. .1: WBS vs.

The structural responses are then projected onto the acoustic mesh. and LMS Virtual.Lab [14] Acoustics can then be used to predict the microphone sound pressures p based on the LMS SYSNOISE [19] solver. solid) – the curves clearly overlap. dotted) – clearly a different curve. and for the reduced WBS assembly it is obtained in 88s. direct forced response analysis [13] is used to compute structural responses (for the full model) or modal responses (for the WBS assembly). for a refined mesh. Subscripts tb and ws denote trimmed body and windscreen. 150Hz. the structural solution for the conventional assembly requires 423s. respectively. It can be seen that the results are identical. for the range of discrete frequencies 10. This allows to easily generate comparison results for discrete frequencies.1910 P ROCEEDINGS OF ISMA2006 For a given frequency. For comparison. Figure 13: Coupling of windscreen in trimmed body: pressure response obtained with dynamic stiffness for the full FE assembly (red. OPTIMUS [20] is a commercial software package for process integration and design optimization. Using the process integration functionality. 11. using Equation (8a) for the full model and using Equation (8b) for the WBS assembly. On an SGI Onyx3 workstation (1600 MHz MIPS R14000. Figure 13 compares the constant stiffness curve (for the full FE model) with the dynamic stiffness curves (for the full FE model and the WBS reduced model). the gain in time would be even more important. To underline the industrial relevance to accurately model the dynamic stiffness. It can be concluded that the reduced WBS assembly can be used to accurately and efficiently predict the full FE assembly results. this corresponds to a factor 1 in the entire range). while it stays approximately in the same range for the reduced assembly. Figure 13 compares the results for the full FE assembly structure with the results of the reduced WBS assembly structure. 2GB memory). the above-mentioned computation process has been captured with the frequency as a variable. p = ∑ {ATV }{v} (8a) (8b) p = ∑ {MATV }tb {MRSP}tb + ∑ {MATV }ws {MRSP}ws with v the structural normal velocity and MRSP the structural modal responses (vector of the modal participation factors). The model considered here has a coarse mesh. so that the results can be compared. dashed) and the WBS assembly (thin black. The calculation time of the full model rapidly increases with the model size. . the acoustic pressure has also been predicted at the same discrete frequency lines with a constant nominal coupling stiffness (in Figure 11. as the curves are superimposed. Clearly the effect of frequency dependent coupling properties is important to accurately predict the acoustic pressure in the range above 60 Hz. the pressure response obtained with constant stiffness is also shown for the full FE assembly (blue. 12….

It is then most critical to speed up the time required for a single iteration. Vol. NY. These basis functions accurately capture the dynamics of the interface in the assembly. MMC is acknowledged for their participation to the research and development. 209-222. Results from the different analyses showed that the WBS approach yields very efficient and accurate predictions of elastic coupling stiffness modifications. References [1] [2] [3] R. typically one must compute enrichment vectors – one for each interface degree of freedom between components). performance. Comparison of the computation time showed the benefits of combining modal reduction and Wave-Based Substructuring. even when drastic modifications are applied. in a modification analysis and optimization framework. Structural dynamics – an introduction to computer methods. Atalla. Acknowledgements The work presented in this paper has been performed in the framework of the ongoing research project ‘Analysis Leads Design – Frontloading Digital Functional Performance Engineering’. it has been shown that the WBS results compare well with full FE predictions in a wide modification range in terms of accuracy and CPU time. M. D. Sgard. so that a single full computation that allows doing so is not a large computational burden. Performing a single full analysis may sound counter-intuitive. Wiley. For these industrial cases. one might have to perform hundreds of iterations. This proves the validity of WBS for performing accurate and efficient optimization within the considered modification range. Craig Jr. N. Three industrial scenarios have been considered. O..-M. 79 (2001). A key benefit of the WBS approach is that it – by reducing the number of interface degrees of freedom – greatly facilitates the reduction procedure for components (as in such a reduction procedure. (1981). Chiello and F. and the coupling of a windscreen in a vehicle trimmed body model using dynamic stiffness properties. faster assembly predictions are obtained. This benefit has been quantified on the basis of an industrialsized example case. Vol. Tournour. the coupling of a windscreen in a vehicle body in white using linear elastic stiffness. An efficient assembly formulation is obtained by writing the interface displacements as a linear combination of interface basis functions. Tran.R. Application to structures with cyclic symmetry. Component mode synthesis methods using interface modes. In addition. pp. which is supported by IWT Vlaanderen. so that the interface DOFs can be expressed accurately in terms of these basis functions. . Interface basis functions are obtained from a single normal modes solution of the full assembly model. 79 (2001). 1861-1876. Comput Struct. Comput Struct. as substructuring and condensation methods were originally developed to prevent having to perform a complete assembly analysis. It has been shown that the WBS predictions are very accurate when compared to the full FE predictions. involving both structural analysis and vibro-acoustic performance: the re-design of the B-pillars. The WBS approach has been worked out for the rigid and elastic coupling case.M ADUSE 1911 5 Conclusions A Wave-Based Substructuring (WBS) approach has been developed to enable fast vehicle body optimization. convergence and application of free interface component mode synthesis. and can be applied to efficiently and accurately assemble FE components and/or reduced modal models of components. Validation. pp.A. However. As the required number of basis functions is typically much lower than the number of interface DOFs.

W. Proc. September 18-20. A hybrid mode Fourier-transform approach for estimating the vibrations of beam-stiffened plate systems. M. Michigan. Brughmans. Use of generalized interface degrees of freedom in component mode synthesis. Vol. Int. Shiozaki. Mace and R. No. SAE 2001-01-1514.1912 P ROCEEDINGS OF ISMA2006 [4] [5] [6] L. MI. R. Proc. SaintRaphaël. TX.A Case Study. J. Heiserer. Leuven. Belgium. Heylen. L.6. [15] W. Gerard. Proc. J Sound Vib. San Antonio. Numer Meth Eng. [19] LMS International. Tournour. 38 (1995). 274. Numerical Modeling of Engine Noise Radiation through the use of Acoustic Transfer Vectors . K. (2006).0. OPTIMUS Rev. Kaplan and M. G. M. Department of Mechanical Engineering. (2005). Japan. pp. Hadjit. Moens. Proceedings of ISMA 2006. Cremers. K. pp. NOVEM 2005. Division PMA. 581-601. The fuzzy FE approach to assess the uncertain static response of an industrial vehicle. (2004). Yokohama. Leuven. IMAC XVIII. (2005). IMAC XIV. [11] S. Pinnington. Comput Struct 1 (1971). Sandberg. 1146-1152. pp. Traverse City. Desmet. 11. 357-370. (2001). M. AIAA Journal Vol. pp. Leuven. AIAA-2000-1574. A hybrid method of component mode synthesis. Extending the frequency response capabilities of automated multi-level substructuring. USA. [20] Noesis Solutions. 380-387. Lammens and P. Application of Fast Body Optimization Procedures to Shorten Car Development Cycles. Vol. Felice. May 18-20. LMS Virtual. (2003).Lab Rev 6A. 204-210. Belgium. (1965). Vol. (2006). Enabling vibro-acoustic optimization in a superelement environment: a case study. J Comput Acoust. [18] F. Reduction of stiffness and mass matrices. Balmès. pp. N. (2003). (1997). 139-158. Sas. LMS Sysnoise Rev 5. El Masri. E. MSC. (2004).H. France. Hermans and M. (2004). April 18-21. Proc. Modal Analysis Theory and Testing. Dearborn. [17] R. A Wave-Based Substructuring Approach for Faster Vehicle Assembly Predictions. M. M. Brughmans and W. Vandepitte. USA (1996). Kropp and D. S. Ji. Muller. Proc. A new strategy for solving fluid-structure problems. L. Bennighof. A. [7] [8] [9] [10] R. Selmane. [13] MSC. 547-565. J. JSAE 2005. A. 5. USA. pp. H. Desmet. D. 3. Efficient broadband vibro-acoustic analysis of passenger car bodies using an FE-based component mode synthesis approach. Brughmans.J. . (2000). Guyan. Donders. [16] L. Donders. Cuppens. 2. (2000). D. [14] LMS International.U. B. pp. Farkas. [12] R. S.Nastran 2004. Hadjit. MacNeal.

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