This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 119-128 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
STATUS OF LOCUS OF CONTROL AMONG PRIVATE BANK EMPLOYEES
S. POONGAVANAM Professor, Department of Management Studies, Ranippettai Engineering College, TK Thangal, Vellore, India
Locus of control is seen as spectrum from the individuals who have an internal Locus of control and belief in personal ability and efforts as major determinants of outcome, to individuals who have an external locus of control believe in luck, fate, high powers and task difficulty as major determinants of outcomes. It is important to note that people are not borne as internals or externals. People develop their locus of control as they grow; through learning experience. This paper deals with the status of Locus of Control among the private sector bank employees.
KEYWORDS: Internals, Externals, Powerful Others, Personal Variables, Job Related Factors INTRODUCTION
Locus of control (LOC) is a person’s perception of the source of his or her fate. That is, the locus of control is the degree to which people believe they are master of their own fate. Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them are ‘Internals’ or internally motivated and have an Internal Locus of Control. Those who believe that outside factors such as luck or chance controls their fate are ‘Externals’ or externally motivated and have an External Locus of Control (Robins 2003). It is said that people who perform better in most employment situations generally possess a moderately strong internal rather than external locus of control. They tend to be more successful in their careers and earn more money than their external counterparts. Therefore, the control of outcomes can be perceived as located in one’s own behaviours or skills or as residing in luck or chance (Rotter, 1966). According to Howell et al, internals are particularly well suited to leadership positions and other jobs requiring initiative, independent action, complex thinking and high motivation. Internals have also been found to be more satisfied with their jobs and cope better in stressful situations, and they are more motivated by performance-based reward systems (Andrisani & Nestel, 1976; Howell & Avolio, 1993; Spector, 1982). Similarly, the internals were found to be interested more in research and development, introducing new products more quickly than the competition as such, and making more drastic product line changes. Furthermore, internals tend to be more involved in their jobs, show greater satisfaction, cope better with stress, and rise to leadership positions more frequently than people who are externals (Anderson, 1997; Lefcourt et al., 1984). There were many research works in the developed countries on locus of control and its impact on various job related aspects of employees in different industries. But in India, such research works are limited, particularly in banking sector. In this scenario, here an attempt has been made to elicit the status of locus of control among private and public sector bank employees in India.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Nicole (1985) developed new internal-external (I-E) scale for French students. Four criteria were used for the construction of the scale: causal explanation, orientation of behavioral outcomes, situational contents, and control ideology. Questionnaires were administered to 200 male and female undergraduates in psychology. A principal-components analysis
leisure-time activities. OBJECTIVES • • To identify the level of Locus on Control among bank employees. & Brown Daniel. it is found that student lottery gambling was related to parents and friends who were lottery gamblers. and to low levels of emotionality-stress and emotionality-fear. Sixty wives of noncommissioned military personnel were selected as participants. Performance on life satisfaction was significantly explained by recourse to the variables of job satisfaction. were explored through a questionnaire. locus of control. To identify the extent of variation in Locus of Control from certain clear categories of personal variables and job related characteristics. Browne Beverly. Questionnaires were administered to professional women in higher education institutions and responses were received from 152 women. HYPOTHESES • • There is no significant influence of personal variables on Locus of Control. health. L. The Stephens-Delys Reinforcement Contingency Interview (SDRCI) and the Stanford Preschool Internality-Externality Scale (SPIES) were administered to 111 pre-schoolers. Although most students were infrequent gamblers. There is no significant influence of job oriented factors on Locus of Control. Results were interpreted as supporting independence of social/non-social locus of control but not of positive/negative locus of control for pre-school children. & Borders Dianne. to an internal locus of control. J. positive/social and negative/nonsocial items were confounded on the SPIES. Hegland Susan. B. and leisure-time activities. regrets regarding life circumstances. & Lindsay Noreen.. The hypothesis of the unidimensionality of locus of control was confirmed in this study.(1995) examined ten factors and their relation to the life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. locus of control. which included job satisfaction. Students who were frequent lottery gamblers were more likely to participate in other forms of gambling and to have begun gambling at younger ages than less frequent gamblers. Klein Helen Altman. • To offer viable suggestions to improve Locus of Control. Galejs Irma (1986) investigated relationships among social/non-social and positive/negative locus of control. however. No correlations were observed between social and non-social locus of control. King Albert.. internal locus of control. Tatone Carol. G. Life satisfaction was found to be related to high levels of perceived social support from family and from friends. sexual satisfaction.120 S.. Locus of control was related to more frequent gambling among parents and only marginally related to more frequent lottery play among students. The proposed regression model. gender identity. social support. Children perceived more control over positive and social outcomes than over negative and non-social outcomes on both scales. Poongavanam and a non-metric multidimensional scaling were used. A. Lewis Virginia. (1989) explored the relationship of life satisfaction among military wives with the individual attitudinal and personality variables of perceived social support. Positive and negative locus of control was highly correlated on the SDRCI but not on the SPIES. (1993) studied the lottery gambling behavior of 288 American college students. sexual satisfaction. L. and regrets regarding life circumstances. . financial resources. and temperament.
Cronbach’s alpha ranges from zero to one. No. Employees were stratified into Officers and Managers and the respondents 99 (80 officers and 19 managers) were selected from the selected private sector banks.9290 and near to ‘one’. it is found that the scale items measuring locus of control measurement are highly reliable.Status of Locus of Control among Private Bank Employees 121 METHODOLOGY Survey method was adopted for the study and the study used both primary and secondary sources of data. Apart from the above two tests. In the first part certain background data were sought in order to identify the personal and job related variables. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the locus of control measurement scale items is 0. Further. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The sample respondents were selected from private sector banks situated in Vellore district. Axis Bank Sector Private Private Private Private Manager 4 2 10 3 19 Officers 17 27 15 21 80 Total 21 29 25 24 99 INSTRUMENTATION In this study the standard tool developed by Terry Pettijohn was used to find out the Locus of Control among the employees of private sector banks situated in Vellore district. The reliability (internal consistency) of the scale items measuring locus of control is first examined with Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient. To . using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ‘1’ for “strongly disagree” to ‘5’ for “strongly agree” and ‘2’ for “disagree”. ICICI Banks Ltd. The banks selected for the study are:-HDFC Banks. Each item’s correlation with total scores as well as “alpha if deleted” is also calculated in order to identify the consistency of each item in the measurement scale. The study covers four private sector banks in Vellore district. revealing that there has been high degree of internal consistency among 20 items in the scale measuring locus of control of bank employees. Karur Vysya Bank Ltd. parametric tests such as One-Way ANOVA for comparing mean perception scores of more than two groups and t-test for comparing the mean perception scores between private and public sector employees are also used in the present study. TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSIS The primary data collected from randomly selected public and private sector employees were subjected to statistical analysis from descriptive to non-parametric Kruskal Wallis ANOVA. 1 2 3 4 Total Name of Bank HDFC Bank ICICI Bank Ltd. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY TEST The status of locus of control among bank employees was measured using 20 statements in the questionnaire. with value ‘zero’ indicating complete unreliability and value ‘one’ indicating perfect reliability. ‘3’ for “no opinion” (neither agree nor disagree) and ‘4’ for “agree” in between. The distribution of selected sample respondents is given in the following table: Table 1: Sample Distribution Sl. The respondents were asked to indicate their degree of agreement with each statement. Random sampling was adopted to choose the desired sample size. In the second part each respondent was asked to respond to the 20 statement pertinent to locus of control. internally consistent and the collected data can be used for subsequent analysis. Hence. using the Likert type 5 point scoring system ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Karur Vysya Bank Ltd and Axis Bank.
Private and All Bank employees.19 0. EFFECT OF PERSONAL-JOB CHARACTERISTICS ON LOC PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS The influence of personal characteristics and job oriented factors on locus of control tendencies due to internality.0 2104. principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation is applied.36 to 3. Z values are calculated for ascertaining the significance of the difference between observed mean score and hypothetical value.122 S. ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS The scores of items for each factor are averaged and average scores are used in the empirical analysis for findings the status of locus of control among bank employees on the whole as well as by sectors and also for identifying the influence of personal and job characteristics variables on the locus of control.96 and @1% = 2.80 across categories.74 7.67).98*** Externality – Powerful Others 99 3. Perusal of the table shows that the mean perception is above 3.78). which are presented in Table 4.71 1.0 1866. From table.5 1065.64*** Externality – Chance 99 3.46 3.67 0.57 ***Significant at 1% level. Poongavanam examine the validity and dimensionality in the locus of control.67 Rank Sum 1291.90 0. 3.57 to 3.5 727.57 0. The results of the analysis are tabulated and discussed in detail in the following part of this chapter. is evaluated based on the respondents’ mean perception scores. The mean score is found to be beyond ‘3’. the value for neutral (neither agree nor disagree level) for all dimensions of locus of control. Table 3: Effect of Personal Variables on Locus of Control Internality for Private Sector Bank Employees Personal Variables Up to 25 26 . it is confirmed that there exists internality.78 3. The level of Internality.82 for private sector bank employees. From the significant Z values. Perusal of the mean scores further reveals that the level of internality of the locus of control is higher among younger (aged up to 25 years – Mean = 3.45 Above 45 Male Sex Female Married Marital status Unmarried N 22 40 20 17 75 24 46 53 Mean 3.64. the value for neutral level as the mean scores ranges from 3.5 2845.78) dependents.0 1360.52 3. Externality – chance.74). chance externality and powerful other externality factors among private sector bank employees is tested in this section.67 9. and the mean score above 3. Table 3 depicts results of the analysis comparing the internality of the locus of control among Private sector bank employees across categories by personal characteristics. it can be observed that the mean scores vary from 3.82 0. Table 2: Status of Locus of Control among Bank Employees Dimensions of Locus of Control N Mean SD Z Value Private Sector Banks Internality 99 3. It is evident that all Z values are significant highly at 1 per cent level.09*** Z Table Value @ 10% = 1.89 0.17 .5 Kruskal.48 3. @5% = 1.68 3. female (Mean = 3. and Externality – powerful others of locus of control among Public. chance externality and powerful other externality of locus of control private bank employees.Wallis ‘H’ ‘P’ Value 3.80) and above 6 (Mean = 3. unmarried (Mean = 3.68) employees and also among employees from families with 4-6 (Mean = 3.81 10.74 3. post-graduate (Mean = 3.35 Age (Years) 36 .0 3590.27 1.39 3.
53 Up to 3 members 76 3.57 3.0 2407. and education. the KW – H value is significant only for respondent categories by family size (H = 2.15 Years 23 > 15 Years 22 Mutual Fund 36 Nature of work Insurance 41 Banking 19 Source: Primary Data. the above differences are likely due to sampling error as KW test statistic H values are insignificant for marital status and education also.50 Family Size 4 – 6 members 23 3. marital status.5 1448.5 1195.93 Rank Sum 1214. the level of internality of the locus of control differ between managers and officers working in private banks (H = 5.5 1350.51 3. Table 4: Effect of Job Oriented Factors on Locus of Control Internality for Private Sector Bank Employees Job Related Factors N Managers 19 Designation Officers 80 Up to Rs.04 0..5 1915. **Significant at 5% Level. On the other hand.5 1427.76) and higher educated (Mean = 3.Status of Locus of Control among Private Bank Employees 123 Table 3: Contd.51 Education Post Graduate 35 3.5 655.48 2.52** ‘P’ Value 0.5 1214.76 3.15 Years 28 > 15 Years 30 Up to 5 Years 12 6 . So.85 1. The above picture has revealed that the level of internality of the locus of control among private sector bank employees differ significantly between managers and officers.80 Above 6 members 22 3.85 0. experience in bank and nature of work.0 695.69 1. p < 0.Wallis ‘H’ 5.0 1457. experience in present position.0 1840. An examination of the table shows that the chance externality of the locus of control is almost similar for respondent categories by age.48 3. According to table.78 Source: Primary Data. experience in present position.10).58 3.52 3.5 1887.5 1602.0 2074.10 Years 34 Bank Experience 11 . .0 1230.20000-30000 35 Above Rs.84) employees.78 3.5 1879.05). The relationship between personal characteristics on chance externality of the locus of control among private sector bank employees is analyzed and the results of the analysis are presented in Table 5.52 3.67 3. but it is unrelated to their income.59 0.53 3.40 Table 4 presents the results KW-test statistic for the association between job oriented variables and internality of locus of control among private sector bank employees.62 3. *Significant at 10% Level 2316. bank experience and nature of work.33 0.45 0. Graduate 49 3. the above locus of control does not differ by income.0 3599.5 1291.77* 0.20000 50 Monthly Income Rs.0 1.62 3. But. The level of chance externality of the LOC is found to be more among unmarried (Mean = 3. Mean 3.68 Higher to PG 15 3.02 1.10 Years 30 Experience in Present Position 11 .30000 14 Up to 5 Years 41 6 .51 3. p < 0. it is found that internality of locus of control among private sector bank employees is influenced by family size and independent of sex.93 3.0 Kruskal.5 718. sex and family size as the H value is very small and insignificant.48 0.77.0 3736.52.10 However.46 3.
5 2227.41 2.67 ‘P’ Value 0.82 3.76 3. Poongavanam Table 5: Effect of Personal Variables on Locus of Control Externality (Chance) for Private Sector Bank Employees Personal Variables Up to 25 26 .28 1.10 Years Experience in Present Position 11 .05).0 945.0 1249.78 Rank Sum 1029.45 Above 45 Male Sex Female Married Marital Status Unmarried Graduate Education Post Graduate Higher to PG Up to 3 members Family 4 – 6 members Size Above 6 members Source: Primary Data N 22 40 20 17 75 24 46 53 49 35 15 76 23 22 Mean 3. experience in bank.66 3.5 1270.78 3.11 0.62 3.70 3.Wallis ‘H’ ‘P’ Value 0.70 Rank Sum 1164.76 0. experience in present position.0 1632.0 1212.0 1164.75) as well as in the bank (Mean = 3.61 3.49 3.82). Table 4.15 Years > 15 Years Up to 5 Years 6 .5 1452.5 1009. overall from the inferences of the above results.77 3.20000-30000 (Mean = 3.42 3.73 3.71 0. above 15 years of experience in the present position (Mean = 3.53 3.64 3.79** 0.0 2282.48 2.63 3.69 0.35 Age (Years) 36 .82).5 1746.64 3.65 3.82 3. it is found that the level of chance externality of the locus of control is not influenced by personal characteristics in the case of private sector employees.0 2372.0 581.15 Years > 15 Years Mutual Fund Nature of work Insurance Banking Source: Primary Data.0 3689.30000 Up to 5 Years 6 .124 S. but it . p < 0.57 3.61 So.20000 Monthly Income Rs.70 3. This in turn have revealed that the level of chance externality of locus of control among private sector bank employees is independent of their designation.5 1029.79.0 2433.42) is less than that of their other two counterparts.52 0.20000-30000 Above Rs. income.0 658.14 presents the results pertaining to the status of relationship between job related factors and chance externality of the locus of control among private sector bank employees.20 0.50).58 3.75 3.0 2072.5 Kruskal.0 1261.62 0. It can also be observed that the level of chance externality of the LOC among the private bank employees with mutual fund as nature of work (Mean = 3.5 797.76 3.80 3.0 Kruskal.25 2.02 It can be observed from table that there is no significant difference in the level of chance externality of the locus of control between managers and officers as mean scores are almost same (H is very small at 0.50 0.57 0.84 3.Wallis ‘H’ 0.53 7.5 1650.88 0.0 831.0 3921.5 3738.5 2043.5 1418.27 0.0 2878.66 3.5 1935. At the same time H value is significant only for nature of work (H = 7.75 3.10 Years Bank Experience 11 .64 3. **Significant at 5% Level N 19 80 50 35 14 41 30 28 30 12 34 23 22 36 41 19 Mean 3. Table 6: Effect of Job Oriented Factors on Locus of Control Externality(Chance) for Private Sector Bank Employees Job Related Factors Managers Designation Officers Up to Rs. But it is found to be higher among private sector bank employees with monthly income between Rs.64 3.
5 > 15 Years 30 3.0 Mutual Fund 36 3.0 6 .93 1024.87 3. sex.89 1789.56 1524.57).95 3.95) and for employee groups with dependent of 4-6 members (Mean = 4.61 1166.30000 14 3.20000-30000 35 3. it seems that the powerful other externality of the locus of control is more for employees aged between 26 – 35 years (Mean = 3.5 Up to 5 Years 12 4. the differences are likely due to chance (sampling error) as the obtained H values for the above variables are insignificant statistically.5 Monthly Income Rs.44 0.19 Experience in Present Position 11 .48 2.78 Above Rs.09 0.Wallis ‘H’ ‘P’ Value 0.76 3.0 2111.5 4.76 4.Status of Locus of Control among Private Bank Employees 125 differ significantly by nature of work. it is found that there is no relationship between personal characteristics and the level of powerful other externality of the locus of control of the private sector bank employees. marital status.0 4.89 and H value = 0.5 6 .10 Years 34 3. The level of powerful other externality of the locus of control is compared across categories by age.0 Nature of work Insurance 41 3.0 Kruskal.71 630.Wallis ‘H’ ‘P’ Value Managers 19 3.33 0.88 1597.0 1292. The results of the analysis comparing the level of locus of control tendencies towards powerful other externals across categories by job characteristics of private sector bank employees are depicted in Table 8 Table 8: Effect of Job Oriented Factors on Locus of Control Externality (Powerful Others) for Private Sector Bank Employees Job Related Factors N Mean Rank Sum Kruskal.49 0.06 709.5 Source: Primary Data .88 0.85 1695.0 1937.10 Years 30 3.80 3.99 2282.31 0.51 Designation Officers 80 3.91 2186.65 0.90 3.15 Years 23 3. It can be observed from table that the powerful other externality of the locus of control is almost similar between male and female employees in private sector banks (Mean = 3.5 1053.0 2349.0 3658.74 Rank Sum 1053.49 911. Though there seems to be difference in the level of locus of control due to powerful other external factors across categories by age.12 Banking 19 3.17 Bank Experience 11 .67 3.5 1324. Table 7: Effect of Personal Variables on Locus of Control Externality (Powerful Others) for Private Sector Bank Employees Personal Variables Up to 25 26 – 35 Age (Years) 36 – 45 Above 45 Male Sex Female Married Marital Status Unmarried Graduate Education Post Graduate Higher to PG Up to 3 members Family Size 4 – 6 members Above 6 members Source: Primary Data N 22 40 20 17 75 24 46 53 49 35 15 76 23 22 Mean 3.0 2749.89 3.5 956.20000 50 3.5 0.76 3. education and family size for private sector bank employees and the results of the comparative analysis are presented in Table 7.15 Years 28 3.5 829.90).93 1633. But.00).00 3.79 3925.77 3. post graduates (Mean = 3. marital status.0 Up to 5 Years 41 3.5 3.57 0.80 2530.79 3.92 1144.99 0. education and family size.0 3625.5 0.93 1024.15 So.74 3.5 > 15 Years 22 3.51 0.5 Up to Rs.0 664.80 & 3.0 2201.45 0.35 2.12 0.
. delegating responsibility. motivating average performance. Poongavanam An examination of the table indicates that the level of powerful other externality of the locus of control is not affected by the designation. 119 Issue 6. setting performance goals. experience in banking service and nature of work as the H values for the difference in rank sums are insignificant. Attributions and emotions as functions of locus of control. namely internality. Short exercise can be used to illustrate benefits of good and bad team work and to mould new employee’s attitude regarding good team work. CONCLUSIONS From inferences of the results of the analysis. Syndicate training must given to existing employee to update their knowledge and encourage them to take higher responsibility.. and feedback. improving attendance. it is concluded that there is no impact of job related factors on the level of powerful other externality of locus of control among private sector bank employees. Journal of Psychology. experience in the present position. It is concluded that marital status has significant influence on the internality locus of control and chance externality locus of control. On the other hand. Journal of social psychology. whether it is related to internality. This training helps the employee to learn team spirit and co-operation and the need to trust and rely on each other by overcoming physical obstacles. vol. When considered bank employees on the whole. REFERENCES 1. all aspects of locus of control tendencies (internality. Behavior modeling approach begins by identifying the interpersonal problems that employees and manager face. handling emotional situation. handling discrimination complaints. The Dimensionality of Locus of Control Among French Students. Dubios Nicole. Banks have to tie up with management institution to enable its employee to register and pursue various courses for improvement of qualification. Outward bound program is the best program used by many corporate to build team work. i. 122 issue 2. Vol. p549. gaining acceptance as a new supervisor. p285. Hence. . SUGGESTIONS Self awareness programmes must be given to employees to develop right mental attitude towards their job/colleagues and the company. disciplining effectively. task. Trainee’s must be analyzed and critiqued on the number of decision made in the time allotted. are at notable level. Behavior modeling appears to offer some promise for developing leadership skills. the quality of decision and the priorities chosen for making them. & Bolen Larry. it is concluded that the locus of control among bank employees consists of three broad aspects. income.126 S. chance externality and powerful other externality) among bank employees differ significantly by their income. chance externality and powerful other externality.. reducing tardiness. Lao Rosina. In-basket techniques can be used to develop the managerial decision making skills. C. (1984). chance externality or powerful other externality. 2. overcoming resistance to change. while age has remarkable influence on other externality locus of control. (1985).e. the locus of control tendencies.
L. J. (1991). Generalized Vs. differentiation. Dimitrovsky Lilly. Zuccaro Cataldo. and Social Class. Butcher Elizabeth. and Suicidal Ideation Among American.Status of Locus of Control among Private Bank Employees 127 3. & Bhana. (1993). 147 Issue 3. 16. Nwachukwu Osita. p479. & Schapira-Beck Ester. Bradley Graham. (2002). 128 Issue 3. Beckham Crystal. (1985). 8. Abel Bruce. Vol.(1986). Journal of Counseling & Development. Locus of Control and Attitudes Toward Work and Retirement. Strategic Management Journal. Locus of Control as a Moderator Variable for the Attribution and Learning Processes of Marketing Managers. Personnel Psychology. Journal of Psychology. W. 10. 4 Issue 4. 120 Issue 5. (1994). J. p9. Social Responsibility. Chebat Jean-Charles. 37 Issue 1.. & Schapira-Beck Ester. Anxiety and Adjustment Levels Among the Visually and Hearing Impaired and Their Relationship to Locus of Control. Vol.Specific Locus of Control expectancies of chielf executive officers. Vol. Jurors' Locus of Control and Defendants' Attractiveness in Death Penalty Sentencing. Lian-Hwang Chiu. Galejs Irma. and Psychological Status in Black South African Migrants. p447449. J. Vol. Cognitive. Journal of Social Psychology. (1995). Dimitrovsky Lilly. (1986). Journal of Social Psychology. C.. p312. p103. 15.. (1985). (1991). 132 Issue 5. 14. 64 Issue 2. A. and Biographical Variables. S. Hayslip Jr. 131 Issue 3. (1986). Pietz Christina.. Depression. Castromayor Iris. 17. Journal of Psychology. Locus of Control. 11. Vol. The role of locus of control in leader influence behavior. 128 Issue 5. Journal of Social Psychology. Journal of Social Psychology. p285-298. Journal of Service Research. Jun91. Journal of Psychology. Magwaza. Bert. p265. 14 Issue 8. 18. Social. 9. p61-75. p537. 11 Issue 4. Journal of Social Psychology. p559. 120 (5). Vol. 4. p157-164. and small business performance: A test. Journal of Applied Business Research. Locus of control of Israeli women during the transition to marriage. & Içli Tülin. . Kaur Jasbir... (1984). 12. Stress. 5. Locus of control of Israeli women during the transition to marriage. Philippine. CEO locus of control. p597-608. p537. Vol. Locus of Control. Spray Beverly. Sparks Beverley. Vol. and Turkish Students. Vol. Vol. (2007). L. Boone Christophe. Locus of Control Similarity and Counselor Effectiveness: A Matched Case Study. Johnson Avis. Vol. De Brabander Bert.. p501. Parenting Beliefs and Locus of Control Orientation. 131 Issue 2. J. Vol. 119(3).. 7. (1992).. strategic planning. A. Luthans Fred. p619-625.. Service Locus of Control: Its Conceptualization and Measurement. & Pease Damaris. K. M. 6. A. 13. p411. & Hennessey Harry. Journal of Psychology. Journal of Psychology. Vol. 126 Issue 4. Lester David. Journal of Social Psychology. & Filiatrault Pierre. Locus of Control.. (1988). Locus of Control Differences Between American and Chinese Adolescents. 128 Issue 5. Chebat Jean-Charles. Agrawal Rita. & Hebert David. (1994). Vol.
& Tikoo Surinder. Vol. Journal of Social Psychology. 19 Issue 1. . Advances in Consumer Research. A. Ward Edward. (1992) Effect of locus of control on information search behavior. p687-689. Vol. Poongavanam 19. (1992).128 S. 132 Issue 5. p498. Srinivasan Narasimhan. 20. Locus of Control of Small Business Managers.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.