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FIELD WORK REPORT CARRIED OUT IN WAJALE, HARGEISA AND BERBERA
From 13th June to 26th June 2013
Name: FISAL SAID MOHAMED MUSE ID: 2535
Supervisor sign:____________________________________________________________ Date:_____________________________________________________________________
First of all I want to thank my God who allowed me to perform this activity without any difficulties. Secondly I would like to thank my colleagues, classmates who supported me during data collection and the tutors who help at all stages to come up with this report. I am extending special thanks to my supervisors include: Dr Nuh Hajji Cabdi Amir Dr Ali ahmed Dr adan alabeshiya Dr Ahmed Hassan Bile Drs amina husein Mohamed Ann Abdulahi sheikh Tutor of pathology and pharmacology Wajaale supervisor Hargeisa supervisor Berbera supervisor First supervisor Second supervisor Dean of study
Finally I want to give thanks to my parents for their encouragement and support towards my educational career.
DECLARATION I hereby declare that this is an original work undertaken on my efforts and has not been presented anywhere for examination purposes to the best of my knowledge. No part of this publication should be reproduced in part or wholly by means of photocopying or recording, without prior permission of the author and Sheikh Technical Veterinary School.
SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction to the field study The curriculum of IGAD sheikh technical veterinary school (ISTVS) is based on learning by doing whereby at the end of each academic year students are send out for field work as part of their learning activities. This report presents 15 days field work carried out in Wajale, Hargeisa and Berbera. During the field work data were collected from visited places. In addition the field work gives the students a chance to practice skills to improve their knowledge of veterinary services. 1.2 Background of the study areas The three areas of study have a strong livestock resource base consisting thousands of animals as well as different livestock infrastructures. Wajaale (also known as Tog-Wajaale) is a hub city situated on the border between Ethiopia and Somaliland. The district has an area of 4km 2 with population above 21,000 persons. It has the largest cattle market in Somaliland. Hargeisa Is a city in the northwestern region of Somaliland and it is the capital city of Somaliland. In Hargeisa, rapid growth of population has led to high demand of livestock products and facilities. Investment on livestock sector based on Public Private Partnership is increasing in the city; South of Hargeisa is the Sahaley Savannah which attracts different animals to graze in the area. Berbera is a port city. Thousands of animals are exported through this port each year. Over 60% of Somaliland’s revenue is generated from this port. During field study in Berbera Livestock marketing facilities including Quarantine station, holding ground and facilities including water and feed and loading ramps were studied.
Figure 1: Somaliland map indicating the areas visited during the field study
Wajale 2.0 Objectives • • •
To identify the various livestock and livestock product facilities found in the attached areas and examine their structure. Examine the procedures used in livestock inspection and certification in the areas visited. Examine and explain the challenges faced by livestock stakeholders in all three areas of the study.
SECTION TWO: ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT
2.1 Wajaale and Hargeisa of Livestock Market
Wajaale livestock market is located in the eastern side of Wajaale district. The majority of cattle exported through Berbera port originates from this market. More than 75% of animals in the market are cattle from different palaces in Ethiopia such as Babili, Jilacsani and Jigjiga. Allay-baday, Geed-baladh and Kalabaydh are also important sources of animals in the market. Hargeisa livestock market is located in the south east of city. It is the second largest livestock market in Somaliland after Burao. Animals in the market include all types reared by Somali communities including Sheep, goats, Camels and Cattle. Animals in both markets are mainly two categories: animals for local consumption, locally known as Dabaax. The other category is animals Ahmin. from for export, locally known as Animals in the market originate different places including
Gabiley, Sallaxlay, Balligubadle, and Allay-baday. The livestock marketing activities start from 6:00am and end around 5:00pm. The markets have one municipal office which performs different activities including taxation of animals, collection of rubbish and security guard. The sheep and goats are taxed 1000 sh/SL, the cattle are taxed 5000 sh/SL per animal and the camel are taxed 5000 sh/Sl. Different animal species in the markets have different prices. The price of animals is determined by many factors including body condition, demand and the season. According to body condition, animals are divided into three grades; grade one being the most expensive. When the demand is high like during Holly Ramadan and Hajj seasons, the price will increase. The below table illustrates prices of different animal species.
Table 1: Price of different species in Wajaale and Hargeisa Livestock Markets Price of bulls in Wajaale livestock market GRADE Grade A Grade B Grade C SPECIES cattle cattle cattle PRICE: 650-700$ 550-650$ 300-400$ Price of animals in Hargeisa livestock market GRADE Shoats Cattle Camel PRICE: 55-60$ 600-650$ 700-750$
2.2 Hargeisa Main Milk Market (Gobanimo) Gobonimo milk market is located on the northern side of the city. Milk is sold in large halls with sufficient shades. However, milk is stored in uncovered containers which are exposed to various biological and physical hazards. The Vehicles transport milk to the market from different areas including Qudhacaaburiin, Faraweyne, Gabiley, Baligudable, Allaybaday and Balligacas. Cattle and camel are the main sources of milk in Hargeisa and the surrounding rural areas. The supply of milk in the market is influenced by certain factors such as season and cultural beliefs. During summer time, an average of 800 liters of milk is sold by each seller in Hargeisa milk market. The below table shows the prices of milk sold in the market. Table 2: Types of milk and their price
Milk type Fresh Fresh 2.3 Oday camel
Species Price/cup (each cup= 750ml) Camel 3000 S/L shillings Cattle 3000 S/L shillings dairy farm
Price/liter 4000 S/L shillings 4000 S/L shillings
Oday camel dairy farm is privately owned farm that is located at the north of Hargeisa district and it is away 15km from the district. It has an estimated area of 3 km 2 and was established in 2005. It has two main parts; grazing area and pens for the camel. The pens are four; two for calves and two for adult camel. At present 84 camels are reared in the farm in which some of them were lactating and others were pregnant. The lactating camels are milked two times a day; early in the morning and evening by the use of hand milking method. The containers used for milking are sterilized traditional vessels known as hadhuub/Haruub. The camels produce 180 litter of milk per day and it is transported to the Hargeisa milk market by a car. There are 7 male workers in the farm 2.4 Maandeeq Slaughter House The Maandeeq Slaughter House is situated away from residential areas. The slaughter house has an area of about 2km2. One thousand and two hundred of sheep, goats, cattle and camels are splayed in the slaughter house for only local consumption. Fencing is erected around the slaughter house area to prevent access of unauthorized persons, dogs and other animals. The floor is hard, smooth and impervious, sloping sufficiently towards a drain thus allowing cleaning with water. The slaughter house has a number of sanitary facilities including water points (one tank), hoses, sterilizers for hand tools and other processing facilities. There are 10 toilets and one changing room in the Slaughter house, processing tables and hooks: only department of sheep and goats have thirty tables and hooks. There are only three meat inspectors in the slaughter house. They perform ante-mortem and postmortem inspection. In the afternoon, inspectors perform ante mortem inspection in which they determine the overall condition of the animals including the degree of the alertness, body condition and manifestation of any symptoms of abnormalities. Suspected animals are marked and isolated for further examination. The hygiene and sanitation of the slaughter house was generally good . Maandeeq enterprise has improved hygiene and sanitation of the House since hand over of newly constructed Hargeisa slaughter house. 2.5 Treatment and vaccination of animals
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccination FMD is an acute infectious viral disease which causes severe disease in animals. It spreads rapidly if uncontrolled. In Wajaale only export bulls are vaccinated from FMD due to request from importing Arabian countries especially Yemen. The vaccine is brought by the ministry of livestock with the help of SAHSP. The vaccine is an inactivated vaccine from Kenya and it is commercially known as FOTVIX. Before vaccination, inspection was carried out to identify if there is sick animals and only the animals that pass the inspection are to be vaccinated. Animals are lined in the crush and vaccination and ear tagging is done. Ear tagging is used to differentiate the vaccinated animal from non vaccinated one. 100 cattle were vaccinated by students within two days. The dosage rate was 3ml/animal and the root of administration was subcutaneous.
Treatment of animal in geed baladh Students performed mass treatment of animals one day in Geed baladh. After the students reach Geed Baladh they do a thorough clinical examination. For instance, rough hair coat, presence of nasal discharge, external parasite infestation was looked at.after clinical examination we suspect external and internal parasite and some reparatory problem such as pneumonia. Students were treated 150 small ruminant and 40 cattle. During the treatment three drugs were mainly used in respect to the clinical sings shown by certain animal. The drugs used were Oxtetracycle(Im), Ivermectine(SC) and Albendazole.(oral) 2.6 Berbera Livestock quarantine and Inspection Center After Saudi Arabia removed an eleven year ban on Somalia/Somaliland livestock, Somaliland animals have been steadily on high demand in the Saudi Kingdom ever since. Suleiman Al-Jabir, a Saudi tycoon and Livestock investor has constructed Berbera Livestock Quarantine Facility (2007-2009) to provide rest, feed and inspection point for animals before they are transported to Arabian Peninsula. The establishment of this Livestock Quarantine and Inspection Centre by a Saudi businessman at Berbera has been instrumental in the lifting of the livestock export ban to Saudi Arabia. The quarantine has shades or livestock houses for keeping animals, loading rumps, water and feeding facilities, toilets, Laboratory and Offices. Laboratory
The laboratory is located inside the quarantine station. It is composed of two main departments, Serology and Bacteriology department, which carry out different tests. The laboratory is well equipped and has ten permanent workers; six laboratory technicians and four assistants. The most common and routinely diagnosed disease in bacteriological department is Brucellosis. It is diagnosed by using simple techniques namely Rose Bengal Test. The common diseases diagnosed serological department includes FMD (Foot and Mouth Disease) using Direct ELISA and PPR (Peste des petits ruminants ) and Rinderpest using Competitive ELISA. In Berbera laboratory FMD is mainly diagnosed for animals which are exported to Yemen, because Yemen requested this test 2.7 Challenges facing all livestock facilities in visited areas • • • • • The shading facilities are not sufficient to host the thousands of animals in Hargeisa nd Wajale livestock markets. Lack of properly organized livestock marketing channel and poor facilities. Poor veterinary services in all visited places. Poor hygiene and sanitation in Hargeisa milk market and slaughterhouse. Contaminated milk container and lack of milk preservations.
SECTION III 3.1 Conclusion Students visited three different areas: Wajaale, Hargeisa, and Berbera. The field work was successful and we got the greatest opportunity of having hands on experience. There were several problems that were identified during the study. These included; poor roads that hindered smooth transportation of livestock and its products to the markets and poor hygiene especially in Wajaale livestock markets. On the other hand, in the Maandeed slaughter house, the tendency of slaughtering pregnant animals was very common. Seemingly, Hargeisa milk market and Maandeeq slaughterhouse had inadequate number of trucks that transport wastes and rubbish. There are very few veterinary inspectors in wajaale and Hargeisa. The three study areas visited, Berebera was the most organized. Part from having a well equipped laboratory, the workers in the place follow struck procedures and process that make it very easy for the exporters to process certificates for their animals. 3.2 Recommendation After having seen the obstacles to improved livestock services in the locations we visited, I suggest the following recommendations:
• • • •
Government should design roads to both Wajaale livestock and milk market. Government should prevent slaughtering of pregnant females in the slaughterhouses. Trucks that tend to transport wastes and rubbish from the market should be provided in Hargeisa milk market and Mandeeq Slaughterhouse. Skilled veterinary inspectors should be sent to Mandeeq Slaughterhouse
3.3 Lessons learnt During the field activities in Wajale, Hargeisa and Berbera, the following experiences we were gained; Enhance the skill of group working and how to perform the questioners. Role of veterinary in the community. Applying theoretical lessons in the field.