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NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE A FOR AERONAUTICS

TECHNICAL NOTE
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NO.

1051

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

OF THE LOADS

CARRIEDS
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BY INDIVIDUAL BOLTS IN BOLTED JOINTS;
By Manford B. Tate and $amuel J. Rosenfel-d . U h g l e y Memorial Aeronautical.Laboratory Langley F i e l d , Va.
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Washington May 1946

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N A C A LIBRARY
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LABORATORY
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Provided by IHS. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.

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NATIOKAL ADVISORY COl&ITTEE FOR A3FiOhTAUTICS
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TECHNICAL XOTE NO. 1051

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A g e n e r a l s o h t i o a is p-resented f o r the detersiination of l o a d s c w r l e d by individual b o l t v i n s y n p e t k i c a l b u t t j o i n t s . Expression3 f o r b b l t bebaviar a r e given by which t h e ge ne ra l solction m a r be r e a d i l y adapted t o - t h s . n i m e r i c a l calculation of b G l t l o a d i n g 'in joints made of any of several conbinations of h i a t e r l i l s contaoq t o a i r. - - plane c o n s t r u c t i o n , and an exampla i s .solve-d t o -illwtq%ce the numerical procedure. All eF,ressions. a r e conf'fned -Lo t h e range of e l a s t i c a c t i o n of j o i n t components.
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Tests were conducted i n w h i c h the t e s t sgecfrnens were . .. made of &-T aluminum-alloy p l a t e s re-stened .by t w o or 1 t h r e e --inch a l l o y - s t e e l b o l t s w i t h the bolts- i n . a. -;sLn@e . - -l i n e in l i n e w l t k t+e q o l i e d load. Test rF-sults a r e @Ten i n t h e form of curves s5ovilng bolt-load histo:=.iesthrough t h e e l a s t i c E d y t 6 l d r a n g e s t o j o i n t f.ailxT€CT-m , i r f c a l l y 3ased princisles & . e --po2osed. t o ___ &Tine' CIge. L r a c t i c a l upper l i m i t of e l a s t i c a c t i - o n of a j o i n t sub-. Seck t o s t a t i c loading and t o o b k a b c*vos-.re>res&ntLng, b o l t a c t i o n above t h i s l i m i t for t&-es--bolt . j o i n t s . . 'Lqi-tX e m p i r i c a l d z t a , suck curves combfned with ,ar;al;r%-lc&l . equations provide a meens for tLe pred%c.kiori6f -bo,lt -- _ . i loads a t any joint l o a d . Emlt-defiectf5n :Curveis arid t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o tile general- p c b l -en a .pre.sente&.TL . -r s -qlso . .. -A

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F r o m the t e s t . s of t h r e e - b o l t joints, agreement vl thin about 10 per-cwit w a s found -be_tween tlieorkti-czl ' a ~ d efserimanta1 bolt loads within the e l a s t i c r a n s e . AltIioWh the bolts c a r r i e d markedly unequal loads i n - t h e elastic = . w e . ( a s ' i n d i c a t e d by theory), it was found- f o r such j o i c t s (containing not m o r e tkAan tkiiee, bolts i n t h e l i n e 0 . f . . '' s t r e s s ) t h s t a process of b o l t - l o a d equaiizk%3Xii took p l a c e beyond t h e l i m i t of elastic a c t i o n ivhich fbr yractdc a l Durnoses c a u s e d the bolts t o be loaded e q u a l l y a t

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NACA TN NO. 1051

joint f a i l u r e . I n f o r m a t i o n is needed vdth r e s p e c t t o multirow J o i n t s , however, because i n t h e e l a s t i c ran&e the b a l t s i n t h e f i r s t rows c a r r y f a r g r e a t e r l o a d s t h a n L n t e r i o r b o l t s and j o i n t failure mag occur before complete e q u a l i z a t i o n o f b o l t loads i s r e a l i z e d .
IPTRODUCTION

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: : n recent years the need for more r a t i o n a l m e a n s o f d e s i g n and a n a l y s i s o f connections has been emphasized by the e x a c t i n g requirements o f modern a i r p l a n e c o n a t r u c t i o n . The methoda o f j o i n t - a n a l y s i s are far lliore a n t i q u a t e d t h a n t h o s e enmloyed f o r other p a r t s o f the a i r c r a f t s t r u c t u r e . Improved methods f o r p r e d i c t i n g joint strength o f f e r a means o f reducing w e i g h t i f t h e y a r e adapted t o make more efficient use of all connectors w l t h i n a j o i n t . F~om M e production viewooLnt, Jenkins ( r e f e r e n c e 1) has shown that aoproxLrnately 5 0 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l c o s t o f t h e a l l metal a i r i l a n e frame is due t o connecting the varioua comDor:ei?ts o f the s t r u c t u r e and that t h e c o s t o f r i v e t i n g end b o l t i n g c o n s t i t u t e s between 60 and 90 percent o f the t o t a l cost o f connections. These c o n d i t i o n s s u g g e s t a proinisil?-g f i e l d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d methoes f o r computing r i v e t o r b o l t l o a d s a r e based on a s s m q t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o n u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h t e s t s o f B number o f r i v e t e d j o i n t s . %vets o r b o l t s o f the Sam size were thought t r r c a r r y equal l o a d s because the u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h of the t e s t e d j o i n t was a m r o x i n a t e l y equal to the s t r e n g t h determined f r o n the u l t i m a t e e t r e n g k b f a stngle r i v e t m u l t i p l i s d by the number of r i v e t s i n t h e joint. The f a c t t h a t r i v e t s o r b o l t s ln a s t r u c t u r a l joint do n o t g e n e r a l l y carry e q u a l l o a d s Ln t h e elasiAc range was reoognlzed as e a r l y - a s 1867 (.reference 2 ) . Batho ( r e f e r e n c e 3 ) demonstrated that a riveted j o i n t is a staticallyindeterminate struct u r a l system and t h a t the r l v e t loads may be o b t a i n e d by the pr:Lnciple o f l e a s t work. Hrennikoff' ( r e f e r e n c e 2 ) develooed equations for rivet l o a d s for a l i m i t e d number o f j o i n t arrangenents from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e defomat i o n s o f p l a t e s and r i v e t s . ?orsner ( r e f e r e n c e develoFed a g e n e r a l b o l t - o r r i v e t - l o a d e q u a t i o n f o r l a p J o i n t s based on t h e dofonnations of the p l a t e s i n t e n s i o n and In b e a r i n g under the bolts or r i v e t s Several i n v e s t i g a t o r s have madc use o f e q u s t i o n s derived by means s i m i l a r t o those Zust mentioned hut have o b t a i n e d f a c t o r s for r i v e t

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Provided by IHS. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.

. square inches bolt constant. o f e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i s given i n rei'erence 2. h h l j t i c a l e x p r e s s i o a s . T e s t s were conducted t o deternine ex:)orLnentally.P r i n c f p l e s . D i 3 G B o l t dia-neter. inches per ki? - c . S0r. and manner of l o a d i n g of b o l t s . The uresent paper d e a l s w i t h tile problem of l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n a-3ong the b o l t s of s g m e t r i c a l b u t t joints. and upon b e a r i n g . Zeference t o a j o i n t h a v i n g a c e r t a i n nuTber of b o l t s m a n s that the t o t a l joint load i s imposed on t h a t number of b o l t s .--.b o l t j o i n t 8 made of &S-T alurninw-alloy ? l a t e s j o i n e d by a 1 cin:le line of --inch a l l o y . k s i geometric moment o f i n e r t i a . inches . both w i t h i n and above the elastic range. b u t such p r i n c i g l e s cen be extended for g e n e r a l application only when a y p r o p r i a t e e m s i r i c a l data a r e s v a i l a b l e . 1051 3 tjehsvrar by tests o f t verious j o i n t arrang3rnents ( r e f e r ences 1. Youngfs modulus. 2.ents. TLe i n p o r t a n t question of j o i n t action above the limit of e l a s t i c behavior is most r e a d i l y treated f r o = the s t a n d s o i n t of e m y i r i c i s a .. inches4 -- __ I . The test sl?ecirdens were doubly symmetrical two.e i n v e s t i g a t o r s have d e a l t w i t h butt j o i n t s ( r e f e r e n c e s 2. tension OF compression.s t e e l bolts. dependent w o n elastic p r o p e r t i e s . and 6 ) . Provided by IHS. 5. ?Po 47b484.and sone w i t h both ( r e f e r e n c e s 3 . based on t h e t e s t r e s u l t s ._. geometric shape.L and 4). l. k s i . some w i t h la3 joints (references .p r o p e r t i e s &1d t h i c k ness of p l a t e s . dimensions. pp. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. 464-&9. based on e l a s t i c a c t i o n of' t h e j o l n t compor. are given whereby the b o l t loads nay Se ccmputed and t h e experimental-6nd a n a l y t i c a l results m e compared.NACA TiV No._ I s h e a r i n g nodulus of' elasticity.&-t~69. and 5 ) .and t h r e e . 2. the manner in w h i c h l o a d was distributed =.s e c t i o n a l mea. -pp. a r e suggested. -_ A- 4 - -- -- A c r o s s .. and 3 ) .ow the verious b o l t s . A b r i e f h i s t o r t .

. . _ ._ 4 K NACA TN KD. inches 4Lstance rnaasmed i n plane of l o a d l n g norntal t o b o l t axis.._- .- L h r N b e n d i n j moment. uniform l o a d on bglt p e r unit lenptfi. _. . ..- Provided by IHS. zhllllt l0a_rlj k1-ps b ? p l a t e w i d t h . . k s i . i n c h e s - Y a numerical f a c t o r for beams bv w h l c h fiverage shearing stress is multiDlied Ln o r d e r to det-arrrino a h e a r l r i s t r e s s a t . . k i p s .-_- Sabscz-ipte : F av fixed-end eivsrage .. . . .i cc . ..p i t c h . -.. .. and assumed stress . : . e l a s t i c prcporties o f p l s t e s . ksi shearLng stress. . inches Eer ktp i e q t h . .. inches . inches deformation 6 A e 0 7 -:ens i l e s t-r a in d i r e c t s t r e s s .c e n t r o i d of a c r o s s sectlon d e f l e c t i o n of bolt. Inches . . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. denendent-npan g e o n e t r i c shape. inches t 'N t h i c k n e s s . .. 1051 nlat-s-constant f9r t e n s i o n o r compression l o a d i n g . . inch-kips =lumber o f b o l t s i n t r a n s v e r s e row P F? e x t e r n a l apDlied load. kips p e r .. inches .i n c h x dist-an=e measurea along bolt m F s ._ d i s t r i b u t i o n . dimensions.

Pu i-1 measured i n t e r n a l l o a d i n b z t t stra?s at c e n t e r of joint.YACA TN b NO. .3or! tbe f o l l o w i .-- Provided by IHS. . 1051 5 bolt Sb br Sending of bolt bearing .- P. kips measured i n t e r n a l l o a d i n u p p r main p l a t e (see fig. 1 8 swmnatior! of a l l b o l t Loads from row 1 to row excludlng row i 1 i-. . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. -. o r m a i a plate butt strap P S S p e c i a l c m b i n a t l o n s o f symbols : PL m e a s u r e d i n t e r n a l l o a d i n lower main p l a t e ( s e e f i g . The theoretical solution glven in a??endis A f o r t h e d e t e r x i n a t i o n of the loads carried b y b g l t s i n symmetrical b ~ t t j o i n t s i s based u. should e q u a l P. 1) at a s e c t i o n w h e r e PL s h u l d equal kips . any p l a t e . P . . .~ bs shear 3f b o l t critical zr 1 n any transverse r o w of b o l t s last t r a r s v e r s e TOVI of bolts with r e f e r e n c e t o end of b u t t strap . 1) a t a s e c t i o n w h e r o PU should equal kips - P. -. where P . .A bolted j o i n t is a s t a t i c a l l y i n d e t e r m i n a t e structural sgst6m and can bes analyzed as such a system if c e r t d n c a n d i t i o n s are k n d m 3r assumed.. (1) The ratio of s t r e s s t o s t r a i n is constant. - THEORY A X 0 BASIC ASS-UMPTIONS Elastic behflvior of j o i n t s .. .q 3 condFtiona. .

Acting i n t h e opposite direction._ The l l n e a r relation between b o l t load and deflection (assunintion 5 ) m a y b e expressed in t e r m s of the b o l t cGnstslnt (3 as .aking the hOl3S 3r by i m e r t i . rL .e n d beam w i t h tha h o l t .formly d i s t r i h u t o ? a l o q t w o l e n g t t a . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. t h e b o l t loa3 is tL?l. B e a r i n g s t r e s s is computed i n the convent-ianal manner a s b o l t load divided b y an . . . 2- .-- Provided by IHS. .n g t%e b o l t s (5 ) m i b 10~6 I s The r a l a t i o n v h i p bet*een ?\tilt deflection e n d l i n e a r in tl.e s l a s t i c r m a e On t . . loads I n appen6ix B. . -- .-. . . each e q u s l to the b u t t = s t r a n t h i c k n e s s .--- . may bcj s t a t e d as i3a3ed on assumptions 1 and 2. the plate ccnstant . 1 o a d H d l s t r i b u t e 3 u n i f o r m l y along a length equal t a the main-plate t h i c k n e s s .5 . _- SquatLon (1) is used in the computation o f bolt. . In the determinstion of C it is assumed that-the b o l t acts as a f i x e d . it 2s faufid far S F . __ . I . arid b e a r i n g dsformations a r e ex7riasaod in terms o f the compressive moduli of the P * c . -. b B b a s f s o f these ass-tiiip'iiorfi.area that is deterxinod bf projacting the b o l t d i a m e t e r on the p l a t e t h i c k n e s s .mmediate v i c l n i t y o f the holeEi is not darnaced or stlressed in rr. metrical h x c t j o i n t s t h a t the r s l h t i o n s h l p between the loads on any tim S U C C Q S S ~ V F b ~ c l t s i n a single l i n e c f b o l t s is zi . . and tfre m e t e r i a l of the p l a t e s In the i. . .( 2 ) The stress is unifcrxly distributsd over the cross e e c t l o n s of main p l a t e s and buttrstraps ( 3 ) The e f f e c t of f ' r t z t i o n is n e g l i g i b l e & > The b o l t s irit t h e h o l e s i n i t i a l l y .

j o i n t arrangements. t h a t f r i c t i o n I s o f l i t t l e importance a s a factor i n t h e behaviar o f r l v o t e d joints. C m a y be s t a t e d asro-ilow: T o r joints made of 24s-T p l a t e s w i t h a b u t t .e n g i n e e r i n g practice. I t aupears. The t h i r d a s s u m p t b n ( t h b t the e f f e c t o f f r i c t i o n is n e g l i g i b l e ) g i v e s r i s e t o a h i g h l y c a n t r o v e r s i & l point i n tile l i t e r a t u r e on ri-vetad j o i n t s . I 1051 7 . . and d e p a r t u r e from t h i s assumption wcmld'be determined l a r g e l y by f a b r i c a t i o n methods. F r o m t h e s e c o n s i d e r e t i o n s . because such e r r o r s are d i g t r i b u t e d mong a l a r g e r number o f b a l t s i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e t h a n .. It may be a n t i c i p a t e d . t h e r e f o r e . i n d i c a t e d . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h assumptions were fulfilled i n s o f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e i n the f a b r i c a t i o n of t e s t S2flCimene..t h a t a large p a r t o f the j o i n t load i s c a r r i e d by f r i c t i o n in h o t . J? .: dieted t h e o r e t i c a l b o l t l o a d will probably-be le-ss t h a n i n the c m e where only a small number o f b o l t s make up t h e j o i n t . NACA TN NO.h the' second. (See e q u a t i o r s ~ 1 6 to A22. e x p r e s s i o n s f o r C a r e given i n appendix A. 64-46?.r i v e t e d j o i n t s and i n b o l t e d S a i n t s i f the balts are drawn t i h t .s t e e l b o l t s : (. hawever. Further c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the ascond ancf f i f t h aasumpt i o n s i s made i n t'ne d i s c u s s i o n of t h e analysis of t e s t data. t h a t t h e m a i n features of t h e a n a l y s i s will h o l d Ghen corn-ections m e joined with several b o l t s and when good s h o p p r a c t l c 6 s . that althou& t h e presence -of numerous b o l t s i n 8 j o i n t makes the l i k e l i h o o d o f e r r o r e from e x t r b e o u s s o u r c e s grc-ater.s t r a p t h i c k n e s s of one-half t h e main-plate t h i c k n e s s f a8 t e n e d w i t h e l l o y . p p .a r e used. the p e r c e n t a g e d8vjatiC-n from t h e pr-e. @ s t e i n ( r e f e r e n c e 7 ) a l s a conducted t e s t s t h a t indicated minor f r i c t i o n a l e f f e c t s in coldr i v e t e d joints. however. m a t e r i a l s a n d dimensions of the b o l t a n d p l a t e s . ) . = 2) and For other symmetrical b u t t . a t l e s s t in the design range common i n c i v i l . T e s t s r e p o r t e d b y Hill and B o l t ( r e f e r ence 2. -- - Provided by IHS. It s b a u l d be remembered. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. Apparcntly t h e f o u r t h assumption (that the b o l t s f i t t h e h o l e s ) would seldom be f u l f i l l e d in an a c t u a l j o i n t .

and t h r e e . t o a c t e l a s t i c a l l y and the o t h e r i n e l a s t i c a l l y .A s l o a d on a joint l a i n c r e a s e d . Provided by IHS. a load is reached at w h i c h y i e l d i n g o f the p l a t e s o r of t h e b o l t s occurs.. which I s equal tu t h e j o i n t fai1u:ne load d i v i d e d by 3 . however. F a r the e l a s t i c range. i n this paper. should b e p r a c t i c a l and should not i n c l u d e y i e l d i n g o f s m a l l reglona where there are rrtress c o n c e n t r a t i o n s when such yielding has no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on the over-all elastlc behavior o f the Joint. ha8 not been extended t o i n c l u d e o t h e r joint arrsngements because o n l y two. Whether g i e l d takee place firs-: in t h e p l a t e s o r b o l t s o r o c c u r s simultaneously i n b o t h depends upon t h e i r r e l a t i v e dimensions and e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s . -however.. . which i s either end b o l t f o r the case under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . the P-R r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be established b y m e a n s of equat'ion ( 1 ) .b o l t j o i n t s i n whlch t h e main p l a t e and butt straps are of t h e s a m e width and m a t e r f a l with t . Load R2 on t h e middle b o l t may be found at any given j o i n t l o a d as R 2 = P 2Al.. . The Drocedure. (See appendix C . ) A rstralght l i n e may bp *awn connecting the p o i n t 8 f o r Rkr* and the average b o l t l o a d a t f a i l u r e . A p a r t o f the behavior o f a j o i n t may be predictcid from an elastic theory.rrr 3 e" I n e l a s t i c behavior o f J o i n t s . T h e end-bol-load R1 may be cornp u t e d f o r any j o i n t l o a d from equations of t h e a t r a i g h t l i n e s o b t a i n e d a8 o u t l i n e d . The vcilues of RZ. but the y i e l d i n g o f any component c o n s t i t u t e s the beginning o f i n e l c a s t i c a c t i o n of the j o i n t as a whole. and eithe:r one c a r r i e s a g r e a t e r l o a d in t h e e l a s t i c range than t h e middle b o l t . T h i s upper l i m i t of elastic a c t i o n is termed t h e " c r i t . - .b o l t j o i n t s were t e a t e d . . . t h u s the P-R curve for e i t h e r end bolt i s completed. however. . i c a l b o l t load" R . t h e following procedure mag be used t o p r e d i c t t h e Joint-load a g a i n s t the b o l t l o a d ( P . Interpretation of t h i s d e w p o i n t .:. In t h e a n a l y s i s of t h r e e .R ) r e l a t i o n s h i m i throughout the e l a s t i c and y i e l d ranges to joint failure.- . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e f o r one component. The end b o l t s can be shown t o s u p p o r t equal l o a d s . = and a r e j o i n e d by b o l t s that a r e 2 all of' t h e 8ame Bize and m a t e r i a l . and e m p i r i c a l method8 may be employed i n t h e determination of t h e upper l l r n i t o f e l a s t i c a c t i o n and of j o i n t behavior above t h l s e l a s t l c l i m i t . .. - 4s .- . i . are o f l e s s importance man t h e g r e a t e r l o a d s R1 on the e n d bolts and in many cases i t i s unnecessary to computs-values o r R2. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.L . These r e l a t 3 o n e h i p s m a y be p l o t t e d and the experimentally determined value of Rcr p l o t t a d on t h e P-R curve for t h e most h e a v i l y loa&ed b o l t .

-_ .s i d e r e d advisable t o use 62 k s i t o a t t a i n the aEtual shear a t r e r q t h gf the b o l t s .r e g a r d t o the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the method f o r _ . in t e n s i o n .vere f a b r i c a t e d and € e s t e d .j o i n t specimens .. it w a s con. the material o f i t b e p l a t e s w a s 2 4 s . c o l l a r s made o f &-inch steel tubing were placed-2 - __ -t t Provided by IHS. determining bolt l o a d s from s t r a i n measurements and t o s e c u r e additLana1 information whlch m i g h t ser_ve_ -in the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data o b t a i n e d f r o m t e s t s o f t'mee'bo'l_$joints. . Specimens and Apparatus - .t h r e e of.b o l t j o i n t s .L NACA TN BO.T aluminum alloy and t h e bolts were . . 4 equivalent t o those s p e c i f i e d i n reference 8 o f heatt r e a t e d . r G s j % 6 t i v e l g . I n p r e f e r e n c e to washers. ..- . 1051 TEST S P r C I M E N S AND PROCSNJRES A . . . The specimens were c l a s s i f i e d i n t_wo grorzps.Secimcn* A . the butt-strap t h i c k n e s s w a g one-half t h a t o f t h e main p l a t e .2 and 372 versdesigned to fail i n s h e a r . and reference 8 75 k s i for shearing of t h e b o l t s . Such a c o n d i t i o n provides d u p l i c a t e t e s t specimena. as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l behavior o f t h e p a y t of t h e j o i n t on one s i d e of' t h i s c e n t e r line is identical with t h a t o f the p a r t on the o t h e r s l d e of the l i n e .b o l t j o i n t s ( g r o u p B ) were c h o s e n t o furnish an experimental chsck of t h e theory and t o dxpe--2 d i t 6 testing and the a n a l y s i s o f data. I n a l l c a s e s . The d e s i g n s t r e s s e s were 62 anq-90 ksi f o r t e n s i o n and b e a r i n g o f the p l a t e s . . t t e t w o . A and B. respectively. and s p e c b e n s -A-3 and B-3. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. . A wring f i t w a s used t o f i t t h e bolts i n a l l specimens. I n every case. s i x s p e 6 r i c a l b u t t . A width of 1 i n c h s s 2nd a p i t c h of 2 inches were used f o r a l l specimens i n o r d e r t o acccjmmodate the s t r a i n g a g e s . Specimens-A-I.i n c h a i r c r a f t bolts. and B-1 were o f balanced deslgn -based on t h e usual assumption t h a t load is d i v i d e d equally among the bolts.t h i c k n e s s range s u f f i c i e n t t o check the a p p l i c a b i i i t g o f the t h e o r y . The t h r e e . Each specimen w a s made s y m e t r i c a l about i t 3 t r a n s v e r s e c e n t e r l i n e . Specimens. alloy s t e e l w i t h minimum ultimate t e n s i l e and s h e a r i n g s t r e n g t l e of 125 k s i and 75 k s i . A 1 t h G ..M a t e r i a l s Cornon to a i r c r a f t c o n s t r u c t i o n were used f o r the t e s t specimens.h p e r m i t s a g r e a t e r allowable tensile s t r e s s .b o l t j o i n t s and t h r e e o f t h r e e . It wag decided t a test two-bolt j o i n t s (group A ) in order t o procure inf'ormatlon i n . which were s e l o c t e h t o provide a p l a t e .

. . l o a d was a p p l i e d In s i x o r seven (usually e q u a l ) increments to a i o a d approxlmatuly equal t o 45 p e r c e n t of the e s t i m a t e d u l t l m a t e l o a d . A a r a t u s .s a m given in t a b l e 1.10 NACA TN EO.k i p c a p a c i t y and an ac:curacg w i t h i n 0. were g r i p p e d wi tk Templin g r i p s o f 5O-kip capacl t y . 2 W i t h t h e s e gages. Wedge grips were used t u a p p l y l o a d t o specimen A-1. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. Strain readings were made at each incrament o f l o u d . YLoadinp. The specimens a r e shown in figure 1 and Cheir d1mension.dure was followed i n t e s t i n g a l l joints w i t h the oxcept l o n c f specimen A . This prococrs was r e p u a t e d twice. were loosened to cause firm c o n t a c t . An a t t e m p t WLLS made to measure b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s by means o f m i c m m c t e r microscopes but wag abandoned because th3 inskrurnents wore not s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e t o measure the small d e f l e c t i o n s that o c c u r r c d i n t h e e l a s t i c range. The specimen w a s t h a n unloaded w i t h repetition o f t h e i n c r o ments u s e d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f increasing l o a d . When t h e ' specimens wore assembled. and the b o l t diameters were checked as a p r e c a u t i o n against the u s e o f appreciably Irregular bolts. cnlargoment o f tk0 gap bstween m a i n plates was measurGd with 1-inch Tuckerman optical s t r a i n gages. w i t h t h e specimen t h u s subj e c t e d to t h r e a complete cycles o f l o a d i n g . T h i s proc'. 1051 under t h e n u t s t o eliminate b e a r i n g o f t h e p l a t e s o n b o l t t h r e a d s . Te s t lng Pro ce d u m The w i d t h and thickness o f each p l a t e wece measured a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s along the l e n g t h o f the p l a m w i t h a micrometer c a l i p e r o f 0. in order t o e l i m i n a t e f ' r i c t i o n f a r c e s i n s o f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e . the error i n strain measurement d i d n o t exceed 2 p e r c e n t .b e t w e e n the bolt tieads o r c o l l a r s and p l a t e s . .Load was a p p l i e d i n tension by mean8 o f a hycbau --%ETe-sting mmhint. t 6 s k s i n t h e e l a s t i c range. which wa8 loaded d i r e c t l y to f a i l u r o .1 . having 1 0 0 . .i n t h e elastic range. The arrangement of e l e c t r i c a l s t r a i n gages is shown i n f i g u r e 1 cind the general t e s t arrangement for a t y p i c a l specimen I s shown in figure 2 . and t h e remaining specimens 1 C t r a i n w a s -measured by --Inch Sn-4 e l e c t r i c a l gages.5 percent.I n the loadine t e a t s . .0001-inch p r e c i s i o n . t h e n u t s were f i r s t H g h t e n e d t o bring the p l a t e s t o g e t h e r and then. As I Q s d was a p p l i e d .- Provided by IHS.

. 3-1.. l n g fit m a s used t o f i t the bolts..s t r q loads wera comsuted f-rorn strain 3. t e s t s o r sta-ldard tension s a e c b e n s r e p r e s e n t f c g the p l a t e components of t h e joints. The l a t e r a l mozent w a s induced by e c c e n t r i c i t y of t h e resultant of t h e part CJ? a b o l t load Provided by IHS. a t h of the g a . of t w o tests.Xter the first phase d f t e s t i n g .t r e a t e d steel and a w . t h r e e s e t s of c i e f l s c t i o n neasuraments were o b t a i n e d in eacl. The location of the tension sqecinens i n r e l a c i o n t o the I j l a t e s f r o m whicn they w e r e obtained i s shown i n r i g u r e 1 . whisr_ a c t e d i n a plane n o r m a l to tne nlane of t h e s t r a 3 s .Load ivas asplied i n 1 2 t o 15 incremen-ts u n t i l f a i l u r e occuzred. bl5a h e a t . Shear t e s t s . A . and 5-2 tae i b a a s w9re c o r r e c t e d for t h e e 2 f e c t of lateral bending acment i n t h e b u t t s t r a ? s . And f o r specimens -A-I. -__ _ . .KACA TN No. Auxiliary tests.? and w i t h the lozenge -on t h e m a i n p ate. w a s d e s i r e d t o coq3are s s p z r a t o l g 3etermiiied b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s w i t h avera?e values computed 2rom t h e novenent o f the gap. t h e D l a t e s were of S .s P m p l O Y 6 d Ln joinicg t h e syeciinens of $ r o x p A and 3. . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.r ' k o t o p a hs of? t h e f r a c t u r e d s>ecimens are snown as f i g u r e s 3 &nd c._ . 1051 11 Loading t e s t s t o f a i l u r e . T 9 s exaxrlmental b o l t l o a d s -tiere o b t a i n e d 57 findf-ag t h e loads i n the b u t t s t r m s a t s e c t i o n s n:lclwa~ between b o l t s .. For t h s s e t e s t s .? DISCUSSIOE 0 3 ' T3ESULTS Determination of S o l t Loads a n d DeflectLon? from Yest Data . I'ovement of t h e gap vas aetermined i n tke manner used t o s e c u r 6 s b i l a r d a t a for specilllens cf groups A and 3 . ! between __ mah o l a t e s were observea at e e c l i l o a d increment. -_ -_ - y g e PF(ESEI7TATIOE AI. the d i f f e r e n c e batween loads a t t w o a d j a c s n t asc- tions was consfderad to be e q u a l t o t h a l o a d on t h e i n t a r vening bolt. A-2. E . Strain and tile i n c r e a s e in w l .sta. of s i n s l e bolts were conducted i n order t o e v a l u a t a z double-she.-tren& t h a t woula be r e s r e s s n t a t i v e of the bQ1t. Precautjons were taken t o snsure aTrprox5mats p a r d l e l i m c between t h e gages and ? l a t e s u r f a c e s . t h e spechiens were loaded t o f a i l u r e s . B u t t . DeflectLon maasurecentn for b o t h b o l t s were o b t s l n e d r i o3pcaite s m e r a t e l y bg p l a c i n g 2-inch Tuckerman gages o f a c e s of 6 specimen IsitS'the f i x e d k n i f e edge of a on the b u t t stra.r .stress-strzFn data w e r e secured froir. Fne dfnrrellulons of the s y e c b e n s a r e shown in t a b l e 1 . As ir.

Figures 10 t o 12 give the r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g the opeciinens of group A to failure. Curves of' J 3 i n t Load Against B o l t Laad The main r e s u l t s o f t h i s investigation are presented i n t h e f o r m of curves of joint-load a g a i n s t b o l t load shown i n f i g u r e s 5 trr 15. the values of f S . As a result.l o a d values determined from the l o a d i n g tests i n the e l a s t i c range. Replacement of the i n o p e r a t i v e cages was made p r i o r t o the testing o f specimen A-3 t o f t t i l u r e . Inspection of figures 5 t o 9 shows that there i s 8ood agrecment among t h e . B o t h theory-(appendix C ) Provided by IHS. and R3 could n o t be determined.&Figures 5 tm-9 show b o l t .s t r h p loads.s t r a p lotids Ps are plotted I n =Cures 5 ( a ) tul5(a) t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t of l a t e r a l bending and are shown i n conjunction with the curve8 of j o i n t load against b o l t load because of t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f these curve8 owing t o t h e u s e of P8 i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f correct i o n factors. o n l y t h e curves for R 1 and R4 a r e shown in figury! 6.m d i n d i c a t e the behavior t h a t m a y be expected o f b o l t s l o a d e d under c o n d i t i o n s similar t o tho~e of the t e s t s . 1051 that. R2. Elongation of either the main p l a t e s o r b u t t a t r a p s . These curves show the l o a d h i s t o r y o f each b o l t ./AZ) from the mst measurements. depending upon t h e l o cation o f i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o measure Joint m o m e n t a .3 . t h e s t r a i n gagas a t the c e n t s r of the j o i n t on one b u t t strap became loosened. Tho m e t h o d s u s e d i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s a r e based on relative movements o f t h e main p l a t e s and b u t t s t r a p s .. E l a s t i c behaVLQr o f t . C a l c u l a t i o n o f b u t t . .e s t 6peclmens. hence.12 NACA TN NO. The curves of the b u t t . and t h e correction procedure a r e e x p l a i n e d i n appendix D. . the presence of l a t e r a l bending monient. was i n c l u d e d i n measurem e n t ~o b t a i n e d during the t e s t s . The curves accompanying t h plotted points r e p r e s e n t experimental curves f o r the same b o l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m the t e s t s t o f a i l u r e . JMflections were cornp u t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g Such elonGation ( c o n s i d e r e d t o be PL. During the t o s t F n g of specimen A . r e p e a t e d bolt loads and between the8e l o a d s k n d the c'srves from t e s t s tu-failure. was t r a n s m i t t e d t o one b u t t s t r a p . . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. A more d e t a i l e d explan a t i o n of t h e methods ernployeil 2 8 given i n appendix D.

The a n a l y t i c a l expressions given i n t h e f i g u r e s were obtained by use o f e q u a t i o n (1). (See table 2.5OOP. t h e assumption of equal l o a d s c a r r i e d by the b o l t s ) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e P-R curves should be r e p r e s e n t e d by the e q u a t i o n R =0. wherein t h e fourth bolt supported about 29 p e r c e n t more load than indiceted by e i t h e r the e l a s t i c o r tile conventional a n a l y s i s .2 . The end b o l t s (1. - For the t h r e e .b o l t j o i n t s . This curve is not shown. it may be s e e n t h a t 1 p e r c e n t from an equ’al d i s t r i b u t i o n deviatfons of 3 to 1 of l o a d t o t h e b o l t s occurred i n t h e t w o . 3 . 3 6 l t s which were presumably i d e n t i c a l and uader t h e same l o e d i n g conditions d e f l e c t e d amounts i n t h e e l a s t i c range that d i f f e r e d by as much as 35 percent. Loads o n t h e middle b o l t s . I n g e n e r a l .) Figures 13 to 15 show b o l t loads t h a t wsre o b t a i n e d f m m t e s t s t o f a i l u r e of the specimens of group B and a r e p l o t t e d f o r comparison with a n a l y t i c a l curves. The middle bolts ( 2 and 5 ) supported l o a d s t h a t d i f f e r e d fram t h e a n a l y t i c a l b o l t loads by amounts ranging f r s m 5 t o 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e anal y t i c a l values.b o l t . that 1 5 . I n some i n s t a n c e s d i f f e r e n c e s o f about 20 percent were found but a r e considered t o be of little importance as t h e y occurred a t b o l t loads below o n e . 4. which a r e shown only up t o t h a t load above which they.no longer may be considered appl9cable. however. 1051 1-3 and ths conventional method o f a n a l y s i s ( t h a t is. .NACA TN 170.l i n e Dortion o f the curve. were Provided by IHS.t h i r d o f t h e c r i t i c a l bolt load Rep. I n every case. as I t was considered m o r e i n f o r m a t i v e to give t h e experimental curves and t h e i r equations. It appears t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between loads c a r r i e d b y the t w o bolts i n one end of a joint were due t o f a 5 r f c a t i o n ine. t h e manner i n which they were determined and saxple calculations a r e g i v e n i n appendix C. and double-shear strengtk-s were found t o r a r g e from 5 t o 3 2 p e r c e h t g r e a t e r than s t f p u l a t e d by the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n reTerence 8. j o i n t s . the P-R curves (figs. t h o e q u a t i o n g i v e n for a c w v e applies t o the i n i t i a l s t r a i g h t . 13 to 1 5 ) clearly show t h e i n e q u a l i t y o f b o l t l o a d s within t h e e l a s t i c range. q u a l i t i e s ana v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e bolts. and 6 ) c a r r i e d loads t h a t d i f f e r e d from the a n a l y t i c a l l y determined bolt loads by axmunts ranging f r o m 3 t o 10 p e r c e n t of the anal y t i c a l values. however. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. Considerable v a r i a t i o n of b o l t c h s r a c t e r i s t l c s w a s shown by results of t h e a u x i l i a r y shear t e s t s . T h e maximum deviation f r o m equality of b o l t l o a d s occurred i n the r i g h t end of specimen A .

'.b o l t j o i n t . . . 3 . The e q u a l i z a t i o n o f b o l t loads is b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 15. . . . . . J o i n t behavior o f t h i s n a t u r e accounts f o r t h e f i n d i n g s of e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t o r s who made u l t i m a t e . I n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f values of R 1 and R 6 . . .The upper l i m i t of e l a s t i c a c t i o n of a t e s t specimen i s marked i n f i g u r e s 10 t o 15 as t h e c r i t i c a l b o l t l o a d Rcr..s t r e n g t h . The c r i t i c a l b o l t l o a d s Rcr and t h e e m p i r i c a l curves shown i n f i g u r e s 13 t o 15 were d e r i v e d from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s and a r e e x p l a i n e d i n the following s e c t i o n . Above Rcr a j o i n t a s a whole i s c o n s i d e r e d t o behave i n e l a s t i c a l l y although.I.. o r a conbin a t i o n of b o t h caused a proc-ess o f b o l t . . t h e probable e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r i s e s t i m a t e d t o be about 5 p e r c e n t . e I n e l a s t i c b e h a v i o r o f t e s t specimens. conseq u e n t l y . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. t e s t s o f r i v e t e d j o i n t s and r e p o r t e d t h a t l o a d was a b o u t e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the r i v e t s .. ' . . a t loads approaching and above Rcr and i n some ceses from Rcr t=. i f t h e e f f e c t s o f l a t e r a l bendin o f the b u t t s t r a p s a r e excluded.l o a d e q u a l i z a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e between Rcr and j o i n t f a l l u r e which r e s u l t e d i n an approximately e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o a d among t h e b o l t s a t j o i n t f a i l u r e .j o i n t f a i l u r e . specimen B-3. . a r e nDt of so much i n t e r e s t a s t h e end-bolt loads. i t may be seen t h a t t h e b o l t l o a d s were approximately e q u a l 1 4 I Provided by IHS. . .. ~ 1 4 NACA TN N O . . .... Loads on b o l t s 2 . and 5 were found i n d i r e c t l y and t h e probable e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r was about 10 p e r c e n t . t h e r e p r o b a b l y is a complex b e h a v i o r w i t h some componehts y i e l d i n g i n h i g h l y s t r e s s e d r e g i o n s and. with c o n t i n u e d e l a s t i c a c t i o n of o t h e r components. y i e l d i n g o f t h e s e b o l t s i n shear and bending. . . which shows t h e behavior of t h e t h r e e . Comparison of measured b o l t loads with values o b t a i n e d f r o m the e m p i r i c a l curves o f f i g u r e 15 shows t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l b o l t l o a d s a r e w i t h i n percent of tne e m p i r i c a l values w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e P-R2 curve. 1051 I l e s s than those on t h e end b o l t s i n a l l cases and. . The t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t y i e l d i n g of t h e p l a t e s i n b e a r i n g under t h e most h e a v i l y loaded b o l t s .. Xost of the 2 i s c r c p a n c i e s between experimental and a n a l y t i c a l b o l t l o a d s t h e r e f o r e cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r . f o r which t h e m a x i m u m d i f f e r e n c e i s about 8 p e r c e n t .-' -: . . Although the f a i l u r e o f specimen B-3 was caused by f a i l u r e o f t h e b u t t s t r a p s i n t e n s i o n .: : .

rucaPt TS YO.. f i n c l . ilowever.l e b o l t s .E 3 f ' tk-e b o l t s .> r e s e n t e t i o n c? cke bolt-load relstionships. and 1 zinc.i r a of tl-mse. F o r L -53 t c l i . . r c s s 3 c t i v e l g . z v ( 3 ami L L ) ir. 11.e b o l t loeds were a y r o x i i x a t e l g e q u a l a t f e i l c r e . hcviever.1 ..ie curves for 31 and R t o the j o i n t r a i l u r e l i n e i n d i c a t e s t n o t €hese bolt f c ~ a d sivdre y i t h i n n e r c e n t of e q u e l i t y a t t h e t i m e of f s i l u r e . g i v e n theni 8 s a t r u e r e . e t f F i l e d i n s ? .nner. t h e p o i n t s were p l o t c e d . 2 f r . 2.t f a i l * < . I n view cf t h e v s r i h S l e ' c o l t chmacte:isi. axd the halt lotids 3? and 5lk were w i t h i n 5 Dercent o f e q u a l i t y xhen the f i n a l measureaents "ere t a k s n .sci.st d i d n o t fail ( 3 end 4 f o r s3ecirien A .A .L9. as were tne ?s-curves. t h e m e n s o f c o .1 . end i t aI)Deers from t h e curves i n f i g u r e 1 2 t h a t tt.ian A .r e c t i o n d i d n o t f u l l y account f o r t h e bending a t h i g n loads. r s?ss:ir. 3 i n t s above Rcr s h c : ~ t t e e f f e c t of l s t e T a l bendirq of t h e b u t t s t r m s t o such 811 extvent t h s t no crsdencs is.1 2nd A . Provided by IHS. T results 0 : ' t h e t e s t s i n xhich s p e c i x e n f c i l u . velues cf the S o l t l z r d s just rentiDr.e was due t g siAear. and 5 . 10 end 1. I. 3. . i s f o r c e f u l e v i dence t h a t t h e s e bolts were about e q u a l l y loaded e t t h e t i m e of failure. s_?ecimen A-3 Sehr.ixens 3-1 and 9-2. I n g e n e r a l .) ?he e q u a l i z a t i o n of b o l t above TCp 13 a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y shown lcsds 2and RL 3 i d z i n svecirnen A-1f a i l e d S i n c e bolts 1 a i n f i g u r e 11. A .s a t f c i l . Although t h e s e q o i n t s were comclited i n t h e s m e m n n e r as the otkims.ens A .reement w i t h x o s t of t h e u l t i m a t e loads f o u n d i n t h e auxi1ier:T s h ~ tr e s t s 3f s i n .2 t n e d i s t r i b u t i c n of l c a d t o r k e bolts t?.snt t i s was t h e c a s e f o r t h e bolts t!:a.e car-zes f w l o a d on t h e .1) d i v e r g e d f r o r s e q u d i t y a t f3:la-e o f sseci-zms A . respect i v e l y ) . I n s ? e e i nens A .2 . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. b o l t s t h a t d i d noz f A i l ( f i g s . 39acirr. i t i s cf i n t e m s t t o c o t e f r o . . s t ' r . I of the j o i m t . ( s e e fit.:?ro&ch e q u a l i t 7 t o t k e 3x. iwoyrqqe b o l t los5. s h e w f e i l u r e of bolts 1.2 ) d l d not a. t h e 9 . l i t t l e i ~ ~ c ~ 3 a n i sc a et t a c h e d t o t h i s dlveraence. es e x m c t e d .l ~ r x iA-2 Cy a S m t 13 2nd 9 ? e r s = ? n t . f a i l u r e i s e l s e i n d i c a t e d b .r . The f a c t t h a t f a i l u r e of specimen 5-2 was due t. s. 1051 15 f e i l u r e of t h e a?ecizIen.ed e r e Given f c r comaFiscr? i n t a b l e 3 . 1 i - I n f i g u r e s le? and (s?3!c. End 3-2 f s i l e d i n this me. i n sk-e-sr.e exr. t o show the n a t u r e of e r r o r s a r i s i n g from t h i s source. A n e q i P 1 2 i s t r i b U t i O n of 10~a t o t h e b o l t s a t joint.ics s o i n 3 5 out i n t b ? r e c e a i n s s e c t i o n ..qsme:nents were obtained P t 8 jnint l o a ? LLC zcilnJs belox t'iie u l t i m a t e .ved. sqacinens egree c l o c e l j End a r e a l s o i n ac.f i g u r e 1 L 7 chat e x t e n s i m of t. because t h e averege b o l t l o a d a t f a i l u r e I z .er.?i.'r.

The o r i t i c a l b o l t laad i s found from an experimental curve as t h e value of R a t t h e i n t e r s e c t u n of the s t r a i g h t l i n e p o r t i o n of the lower p a r t of t h e P-R curve with t h a t of t h o upper part and i s determined f r q m t h e curve f o r the bolt t h a t c a r r i e d t h e g r e a t e s t load when y i e l d i n g occurre3. c r i t i c a . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.and . t h e c r i t F i s d e f i n e d as t h a t b o l t load a t which c a l bolt l o a d Rcr y i e l d i n g o f the p l a t e s o r bolt o r a combination o f b a t h nccm-3 to s t a r t t h e a c t i o n of bolt-load e q u a l i z a t i o n . Perhaps averaging the s t r a i n meaaurt9ments d i d n o t f u l l y compensate for this e f f e c t an? gave a m i n d e t e r m i n a b l e error In the computation o f bolt loads.o f e l a s t i c a c t i o n of a j o i n t s u b j e c t t o s t a t i c The loading c a n be termed t h e ' t c r i t i c a l bolt l o a d ' ' Rcr.The gerieral behavior of specinens A . From these c o n s i d e r a t l o n s . and 1 5 s u g g e s t s t h a t the upper l l m i t . which a r e y i e l d i n g of t h e p l a t e s i n b e a r i n g under t h e most heavily loaded bolts and y l e l d i r q of t h e s e b o l t s . . and manner of loading of the p l a t e s and b o l t s . dimensions. 11. A t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d t o t h e t e s t conditio-: specimen A . t h e r e waa a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o a d among t h e bolts o f each t e s t specimen a t f a i l u r e .2 . The f a c t t h a t a l l b o l t s in the two-bolt specimens d i d n o t c a r r y e q u a l loads was probably due to i n e q u a l i t i e s i n f a b r i c a t i o n and variation in t h e b o l t s . Because theee s?ecimens c o n t a i n e d only two bolts. Such y i e l l i n g I s dependent upon the mechanical properties.rlevealed by s t r a i n gages on the main p l a t e s . and B-3 as d e p i c t e d i n f i g u r e s IO. geometric form. far purposes o f d e s i g n o r annlys i s requires d a t a i n r e g a r d to t h e a p p r o p r i a t e plat. . Evaluation of R .1 . (See t a h l e 3 * } Specimen A . t h e importance o f euch conditfons was magnified i n the two-bolt j o i n t s but was less d i s t u r b i n g i n t h e three-bolt mjojnts.1 a c t e d somew h a t d i f f e r e n t l y above RGp than t h e o t h e r specimens. and bending of the j o i n t as a unit.l o a d values feund i n other t e s t s . The u s e of Templin grips precluded bendlng of t h e e n t i r e specimen sufficiently to lend assurance of a n e g l i g i b l a e f f e c t on t h e r e m a i n i a specimens. Provided by IHS. Far p r a c t i c a l purp03es. however. A .l o a d s and b a e i s of e m p i r i c a l curve8. 1 b o l t l o a d i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e i n b r i n g i n g about e q u a l i z a t i o n of bolt loads._ . 1051 is i n good agreemgnt w i t h aimiLar b o l t . but it may be aeon in f i g u r e 10 t h a t t h e g e n e r a l tendoncy was toward e q u a l i z a t l a n o f bolt l o a d s a t j o i n t f a i l u r e .. C i * l t i c a l bolt. T!ie method i s I l l u s t r a t e d i n figures 17(:) arid 1 1 @ ! . e x i s t e d t o an u n d e s i r a b l e e x t e n t .1 w a s t e s t e d i n wedge g r i p s .NACA TN NO.

17 For - b s l t bearing s t r e f t g t b s and s-hesr s t r e n g t h s o f b o l t s .1 and B-2 *(figs. plotted f o r the average bolt l o a d . .b o l t .s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e v a l u e s o f Scr t h u s found as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t s and t h e average b o l t loads at f a i l u r e _ . joints a r e based o n the observati'on t h a t . Zmpirical curves f o r t h e . ( 2 and 5 ) w e r e obtaiaed -f r o m conditions: of symmetry and e q u i l t b r-_ ium . T h e curves. as used herein. because such design g e n e r a l l y ccmes wlthin t h e ra-nge b e t m e n Rcr .2 . b u t R c r .senting .. Because of t h e c u r v a t u r e .R. ' - . Empirical curves for specimens B-1 arid 5-2 were con. t h a t 1.f a i l . .o f the u p w r f ' t h e P-R curves for specimens B .- .en 1 3 1 wa3 comnuted f r o m the average of b e a r i n g stregaes c a l c u l a t e d f o r the c r i t i c a l b o l t load3 af specimens A-1 an2 A .. along t h e R-axis w i t h the a n a l y t i c a l curve . .. was toward e q u a l i t y a t f a i l u r e of the j o i n t s . R&r. could n o t be determined for s l t h e r s p e c i men.s. we. -__ Provided by IHS.l o a d . .NACA TN NO. . shown in f i g u r e 13 f o r sjTeGirr. - - . Was determlned as the i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e vertical l i n e .. R.--. .. - The b o l t . - . t h e v a l u e shown In figure & ! t i s t h e same a a t h e value o b t a i n e d f r o m the t e s t r e s u l t s for specimen X-2. . as t h e end p o i n t s . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.ir. before Rc. t h e two specimens s b u l d have had t h e same velua o f Rcr. i s reached. .2 were used. . t h e t e s t specimens. R2 = P . 1 ' 3 parts o and l4). .re obtaLne5 . I n order t o determine e m p i r i c a l curves f o r s u a c i merrs B-1 and B-2. .of e l a s t i c 'behavior t o empiI-icEl ex?ressions Such empirical expressiorx are -af F r a c t l c a l i n t e r e s t a3 a basis f o r d e s i g n a t l i m i t l o a d . ._-_ o b t a i n e d from t h e elastic a n a l y s i s .b y d r aw i n g a s t r a i g h t l i n e CorinecTirig t h e p o i n t r-epF<seXt1ng R. . -.f h e general tr'end of t h e b o l t loads above R. l o a d s and strgs'ses at U P 8 a r e given In t a b l e 3 . t __ .a n d . f o r t h i s r e a s o n .e q u a l i z a t i o n proceas p r o b a b l y s t a r t s .. proi v l d e s a b f i n a b l e l i m i t f o r t h e t r a n s i t i o n frm formulas based o n the assum2tion . The average b o l t l o a d a t f a i l u r e was computed a s t'ne u l t i m a t e j o i n t load d i v i d e d by t h e ~ u m S e rof b o l t s t h a t s u p p o r t e d t h e jaint load. l o c a t e s Rc. d a t a f r o m t h e t e s t s of *specimens A . InasmEch as t h e p l a t e s o f specimen B-2 w e r e of the same t h i c k n e s s as t h o s e of specimen A .=. . . .r w i t h -t h e p -6h . .. - _. . . m e p o i n t repre.. . 1051 .t h r e e .. .t h a t . a t_ _ j o i n t failure. .- - . C u r v e s f o r t h e middle b o l t a .f o r t h e end b o l t s . . .2 . The value of R . .1 and A ..

and failure a>d current design methods make no allowance f o r t h e unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o a d amon% the b o l t s khat e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e g r e a t e r p a r t . b o l t d e f l e c t i o n l n c r e a s e d w a s reached. . h S o r t. 6 = are p l o t t e d for ccmparison with the experimental c u r v e s . There I s 3ood q r e e n i e n t .hs i n c l l v i d u a l h o l t s . as t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r specimen i s about 10 percent of t h e corresponding a n a l y t i c a l value. r a p i d l y a f t e r the c r l t l c a l b o l t l o a d Rc.1 . and d e f l e c t i o n s corresponding bo the values of Rcr determined f r o m the P-R curve3 are shown. moreover. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. The curves of f i g u r a 16(a) shgw averq. Curves of 'Bolt Load A s a i n s L D e f l e c t l o n sented i n figure 16. I n plotting the curves o f 13 agE:inst ea. _. Such d i s p a r i t y i s not s u r p r i s i n g .6(a) far t h e specimens of groups A and B t h a t . as . As a result. which i e i n conformance with theory s i n c e b o t h specimens were of the same t h i c k n e s s and f a s t e n e d w i t h bolts of the same s i z e a:nd material. The process o f b o l t .o f t h i s range. Curvezi of bolt l o a d p l o t t e d a g a i n s H e f l e c t i o n a r e pre- F. i n g e n e r a l . I l e f l e c t i o n of b o l t s i n specimens of groups A and B . multlrow j o i n t s are as simple as those found i n the present t e s t s . For specimen B .. t & v a l u e s o f R were t h m e cornputad from a t r a l n d a t a and used t o p l o t the P-R curves. Provided by IHS. Curves o b t a k e d by m e m s of e q u a t i o n ( 3 1 . one on each side of t h e gap between main p l a t e s .e d e f l e c t i o n s 6av of' t h e t w o central b o l t s . i t Ls improbable for t h a t : r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r e m p i r i c a l curves above Rc. Below Rep t h e r e i s e x c e l l e n t agreement between the e x m r i m c n t a l curves f o r specimens A . the experimental c u r v e d i v e r g e s from the c w v e of equatAon ( 3 ) between the o r l g i n and Rcr by 9 m a x i ~ n u mof 45 percent an$ shows a divergence of about30 perc?ent a t Rep. I n each specimen of groups A and B.2 and 3-2.. It appears probable t h a t f a i l u r e of t b j n i t i i 3 1 b o l t s i n a multlrow joint may occur b e f o r e the process o f e q u a l i z a t i o n is completed and may thus cause joint failure at a load a p p r e c i a b l y less t h a n t h e sum o f t h e i ! t i m a + P S t P P P ! t . . I t may be s e e n In figure I. between the experimental points arid the p l o t of equat i o n ( 3 ) .l o a d equalization i s undoubtedly more complicat-d f o r jolnts containfng more b o l t s In l i n e than the specimens of the p r e s e n t t e s t s .

t h e experirmental d -e .). T h e e x p r i m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r s7ecimens B-3 and as shown i n figure 16(a). = I n figure l d ( b ) . Apaarently t h e s t r a i g h t line r e p r e s e n t i n g e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) is andosous t o t h e s e c a n t l i n e used in d e t e r a i n a t i o n s of t h e secant modulus of e l a s t i c i t y for materials having n o n l i n e a r s t r e s s . 1051 19 t h e a u x i l f a r g t e s t s show that presumably i d e n t i c a l b o l t s mar d e f l e c t aTounts t h a t differ by as much as 35 p e r c e n t and t h e two methods u s e d i n the d e t e r n i n a t i o n o f . From these r e l a t i o n s h i p s a corn--' p a r f s o n is made between t w o methods f o r the expePImenta1 determination of average b e l t deflection.from d a t a f o r s-preading o f the gap between m a i n p l a t e s . eQd between t h e o r i g i n and about e c r J the d i f f e r e n c e s wepe between 10 and 20 p e r c e n t . 6 y i e l d r e s u l t s that may d i f f e r by approximately 15 percent: The experlmental d e f l e c t i o n a t Rcr f o r specimen A .1 w a s about 36 p e r c e n t greater t h a n the value campu€ed by rnecrns . n i t e l y curved lines.FACA TE NO.6 5 . Up t o e. The measured d e f l e c t i o n s 6 2 and of t h e b o l t s in-speci-_ men 1 were approximately 25 percent l e s s a n d . t i o m that w e r e determined s e p a r a t e l y f o r each b o l t . and curves o b t a i n e d f r o m e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) a r e shown for Cornparison.~ e plotted f o r comparison w i t h values o f 68v. . . t h e rneasured d e f l e c t i o n s were approximately 73 percent less t h a 9 t h e a c a l r t i c a l values.wlth the experimental reg!ul_$s. and at oneh a l f the average b o l t l o a d a t failure. . ebout !+5 p e r c e n t less.s t r a i n curves.l o a d at f a i l u r e . a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by d e f i - e.f l e c t i o n s 61 of b o l t 1 I n speclmen 1 and 62 and 6 .3 . and the cupve f o r specimen A .The b o l t load a g a i n s t d e f l e c t i o n (R-6) r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r b o l t s i n two specimens f o r the auxiliary s h e a r t e s t s _ a r e shown 3 .- Provided by IHS. b o l t laad of one-fourth O F the average b o l t . . A-3.. .T h e curve f o r specimen 9-3 c r o s s e s the a n a l y t i c a l curve a t about 0.8 of t h e average bolt load 8 % f a i l b e .S 61 of bolt 1 i n specimen 2 were about 35 p e r c e n t _.. D e f l e c t i o n of b o l t s i n auxiliary ( s t e e l ) specimens. n figure 16(b. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. Deflections 61 and 6 2 %-ere averazed a n d . The R-61 end R-62 curves shotv' d e f l e c .t h e d e f l e g t5on. of t h e b j l t s i n specimen 2 agree w i t h values c a l c u l a t e d by means of e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) within 3 percent belo= 2 = 5 k i p s . -- . at about 6 . which were complted . and d e f l e c t i o n characterlstics of bolts loaded under the same c o n d l t l o n s a r e compared._ _ _3 o f equation ( 3 ) .

t h e t h i c k specimens. and f o r t h e speclmens of balanced d e s i g n .80 and 0.67. ( respectively approximate linearity e x i s t e d t o aboue 50 p e r c e n t of t h e average b o l t l o a d a t f a i l u r e . r e s p e c t i v e l y . Provided by IHS.. and both s e t s of average d e f l e c t i o n s were f:?om 10 t o 1 5 p e r c e n t l e s s than corresponding values of 6a. Probably t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n behavior of b o l t s i n t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i The effects of mens may be a t t r i b u t e d t o bearing a c t i o n . 1051 g r e a t e r than values of d e f l e c t i o n determined f r o m aquat i o n ( 3 ) .1 and B-1 for w h i c h = 0. -Discussion o f results i n r e l a t i o n to t h e R-6 c u r v e 8 . f o r I? = o m ) . Such a c t i o n is due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e bearing .. as determined f r o m t h e P-R c&ves.- Fcr the comparatively thin specimens. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.3 and B-3 D = 1. The observed nonlinear r e 1 a t i o : m h i p f o r deflection o f the b o l t 6 i n s p e c h e n Y . 1 6 ) t h a t R C r . was t h e l o a d c a r r i e d by a bolt near the beginning o f appreciable y i e l d of the bolts o f p l a t e s o r b o t h . I n the c a l c u l a t i o n o f bolt-deflection by e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) t h e bearing terms i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r C have l e s s i n f l u e n c e on the r e s u l t s f o r a c o n s t a n t b o l t size i n specimens w i t h . A . 20 NACA TN NO. A .i _. the rela( r o r wkich "P t i o n s h i p s between load and d e f l e c t i o n were n o n l i n e a r . -*-- . A . the s l i g h t l y curved shape of t h e P-R v a r h t l o n f o r specimen B-3 (fig. f o r the most p a r t . bearing vary with the bearing p r o p e r t l e s und the r e l a t i v o dimensians of the b o l t s and p l a t e e . The averages o f 61 and 62 were about 15 p e r c e n t .54) was largelyi n the thin specimena 1 ( 5 (e dependwst. L5). and b o l t d e f l e c t i o n = 1.l e s s for specimen 1 and about 15 p e r c e n t greate:~ f o r specimen 2 than d e f l e c t i o n s computed by means o f e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) .33 ant! 1. i o n of t h e b o l t s i n t h e steel sp8oime:ns occurred above a load of 5 k i p s whereas in the aluminum specimens this a c t i o n always commenced a t -lower l o a d s .upon bearing action.p. I t may also be n o t e d t h a t a g r e a t e r r a t e of d e f l e c ? . It i s y r e e n from t h e deflection curves ( f i g .3 e x p l a i n s . .54 and 1. . w h i c h were based on measurements of gap movement.33. b A 2 .2 and B-2 f o r which 5 - ) approximate linearity was shown t o about 60 p e r c e n t of t h e u l t i m a t e b o l t load. b e h e v i m of t h e t w o m a t e r i a l s . .

80 t h a t equation ( 3 ) f u r n i s h e s as s a t i 2 f z c t o r y an approximation of d e f l e c t i o n tis measured v a l u e s .= 0.l i n e a r r e l a t i o n between b o l t l o a d and deflection w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r use i n condunction with e q u a t l o n (1) to esthSlish P-R curves for speci- F o r t u n a t e l y . t h e a n a l g t i c a l l y determined bo It.I NACA TN NO. f u r t h e r study o f K is d e s i r a b l e .s t e e l bolts of the same s i z e with the b o l t s i n a s i n g l e l i n e i n t h e l i n e of a p p l i e d s t a t i c l o a d t _ _ - 1. CONCLUSIONS The f o l l c w i n g conclLsions are drawn fram the results of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a p p l y t o symmetrical b u t t j ~ i n t s made of &S-T aluminum-alloy p l a t e s joined by t w o o r t h r e e wring-fitted d l o y . In a d d i t i o n . . f o r the t h i c k specimens = 0. because o f the variation in the bolts and u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t e v i d e n t l y s t t e n d s t h e experim e n t a l detarmlnation of b l t d e f l e c t i o n . t h e bolt l o a d s are n o t equal i n t h e e l a s t i c r a n g e . Above the e l a s t i c range. f u r t h e r m o r e . n e v e r t h e l e s s . a process of bolt-load e q u a l i z a t i o n takea p l a c e as a r e s u l t of y i e l d i n g o f tkia Provided by IHS. as assumed i n c o n v e n t i o n a l analysis.~ 21 thick plates ( & \ ?? .0. d e s p i t a t h e n o n l i n e a r i t y of R-6 curves f o r the t h i n s p e c h a n s . a8 short pitch may cause behavior t h a t would make the actual b o l t lo&& more dependent upon t h i s f a c t o r than is l'ndiccrtzd by p r e s e n t knowledge - . 2. 1051 . t h e assumption of e.33 and 1 . For j o i n t a i n which the t o t a l l o a d i s imposed Qn t h r e e b o l t s .load r o l a t i o n s h i p s are r e l a t i v e l y insensitive t o a p p r e c i a b l e changes in magnitude o f t h e b o l t c o n s t a n t C o r tha p l a t e c o n s t a n t K. f u r t h e r i n v e s t i & a t i o n o f these factors is n e c e s s a r y .50 t o . It appears. The e f f e c t o f b e a r i n g -8 9 large I n f l u e n c e on the magnitude of C . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. mil the p r e s e n t test curves p o i n t to g r e a t e r r e s u l t s that are g i v e n as R-6 u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e adequacy o f the b e w i n g t e r n s th&n other t e r n s i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r C . and can ba c a l c u l a t e d w i t h i n about 10 p e r c e n t by Ice-ans o f the expreas i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper.80 ) than w i t h t h i n p l a t e s = 1. 5 4 ) .50 (t"p 1 t o 0. Also.

: IJACA TN ND 1. Va. y1eidin-j of the b o l t s in shear and b e n d i r g . 3 . Above t h e e l a s t i c r m i e . .-. . the d i e t r i h k i o n of.. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS... 22 I _ . for p r a c t i c a l purposes. F o r ' j ... .he a n h l y t f c a l curves can b e e x t e c d e l l fn an e r r . * c Langley ? & m o r i a 1 Awonxu t i c a l L a b o r a t o r y N s i i o n a i A d v i s o r y C o i ~ n i t t e sZ'oi. _.. Provided by IHS.load to the b o l t s a t the ultimate joint l a a d is less a f f e c t e d b y fabpication ineq u a l i t i e s and v a r i a b i l i t y .. .Aeroriaut'lcs Langley F h l d . . I D l a t e a in baarir-3. .sf materials t h a n i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the e l a s t i c range. - 4.. 6390. joint-failurc OCCUPS. . .o i n h in which-the t o t a l l o a d is imposed on two b o l t s . .. l ? k ? : - a .. or a camblnaticn of' h o t n .051 . December 20.'-load design. _.. l r i c a l mmner an? this e x t e r n i o n may be used to pLwvide a b a s i s fp3 1Lmit. t. this action causes the b o l t s to s u p p o r t e q u a l l o a d s when .

and the m s t s r i a l in the infledfate v i c i n i t y af t n e holes is not damaged o r s t r e s s e d in making t h e holes or b s e y t i n g_ . ) - -_ - . In the analysis of a j o i n t as a s t a t i c a l l y indeterminate structure.metrical b u t t j o i n t .L o a dB e l a t f o n s h i p D e f i n i t i o n s and aseunptions. the following asswnytions are made: -_ __ . - ( 2 ) T h e stress is uniformly d i s t r i b z t e d over the _ _ c r o s s ..- (1) The r a t i o of s t r e s s t o s t r a i n 1s c o n s t a n t . 1051 23 APPENDIX A DEVELOPI 3lJ'T OF XALYTICAL EXPmSSIOm USED IK DETERIdIIUTION OF BOLT LOADS F3R ELASTIC SEEAVIOR OF SYMXSTIIICAZ BUTT J O I N T S General ~ o l t . For the present solution. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. ( A b u t t s t r a p and the miin ? l a t e mag be of d i f f e r e n t m a t e r l a l s and may have any thic'kness r a t i o . such a case c o n s t i t u t e s t w o seperate problems in t h e d e t e r m i n s t i o n of l o a d s c a r r i e d b 7 b o l t s i n the t w o h a l v e s of the j o i n t . .. ) - (2) The b o l t ? a t t e r n must be s y l r x e t r i c a l a3out.s e c t i c n s of main plates and b u t t s t r a p s . I f In order t o clarify t h e nieaning of this p h r a s e . - -. . the (The p a t t e r n nay l o n g i t u d i n a l c e n t e r l i n e of the j o i n t .NACA TX No. t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m i a t be known o r e s s m e d .t h e bolts - -- - ___i Provided by IHS. the joFnt arrangement i s d e f i n e d by t h e following ____ .The type of b o l t e d c o n n e c t i m a e a l t w i t h h e r e i n i s t e r x e d a tfsyn.___ ( 3 ) Bolts i n t h e sw!e t r a n s v e r s e row must be of the s a n e size a n d m a t e r i a l b u t need not be t a e same as t!ioSe in any other r o w . be unsgmrnetrlcal about t h e t r a n s v e r s e center line lying i n the ga:. conditions : (1) The b u t t s t r a p s must be of t h e saGe thic'mess and m a t e r i a l . (4) The bolts f'tt t h e holes i n i t i a l l y . between main p l a t e s . -_ (3) The effect of f r i c t i o n is n e g l i g i b l e .

Load i n main p l a t e s betweer. It. ane t h e e l a s t i c c o n s t a n t s o f the p l a t e s and bolts.24 . bolts i and i + 1= P -t1 R Provided by IHS. a p a r t o f the j o i n t .I is equal t o t h e j o i n t l o a d P ninus the sum of t h e l o a d s on alL. The r e s u l t i n g equation is solved f o r the b o l t l o a 3 R i + l in ternis or? the b o i t l o a d R i . n The load i n t h e main D l a t e between b o l t s i and 1 3. and t h e length p f A . . k n a l v s i s of a v m e t r l c a l butt l o i n k f s s k e n e d b v b o l t s in a s.c o n s i d e r e d ( f i g .. I. 1051 - ( 5 ) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between bolt d e f l e c t i s n and bolt load i s l i n e a r I n the e l a s t i c range and may be CR expressed a s 6 = 2.. i n which C is a b o l t c o n s t a n t t o be determined subsequently.between b o l t 8 i and 1 + I w i t h i n t h e j o l n t i a .-1 ---LL . the j o i n t l o a d P.Lngle line i n l i n e of a p p l l e d load.B r i e f l y .. The deformations a r e expressed as function6 o f t h e loa3 and del’ormatlon c h s r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a t e s and b o l t s . 18). . that is. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. may be s e e n i n figure 19 t h a t From a s s m u t i o n ( 5 ) .bolts 2R 1 preceding the p a r t o f t h e joint u n d s r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . . along tkre main p l a t e between the t w o bo:Lts 13 added to’ t h e d e f l e c t i o n of bolt 1 + 1 and eq-uateri to b L i e L O L % L I . R N~CA TR NO. scluthe problem consists o f the following s t e p s : A f t e r :Load is a p p l i e d . .-- . L p + the b ~ t = t traps between t h e two b o l t s p l u s the deflection of b o l t i .

--_ ~ ..NACA T N No. . Provided by IHS.e R 2 W i t h thesa r e l a t i o n s -and the secocd assumption. . The plate deformations may then be w r i t t e n . and since there are t w o b u t t s t r a p s . . the p l a t e deformations m a y be w r i t t e n . S u b s t i t u t i n g e x p e s s i o n s ( A 2 ) and ( A 3 ) gives i n t o e q u a t i o n (Al).. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.as - . 1051 25 : The loads i r ? t h e b u t t s t r a 2 s between bolts 1 and i + 1 are equal t o the sum of the l o a d s transmitted t o t h e butt straps by all b o l t s preceding the section under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .K. . .E .a I Load i n one b u t t s t r a p between b o l t s 1 and i + 1 = . . . ._ - P Let P bt.

e loads on any. It is asaurred t h a t t h e b o l t s i n any trlansverse rcw i a r e loaded equally.. . .adaztable to numerical c a l c u l s t j or? w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g general. it m y be shown that Provided by IHS.that o f the n a i n . .b o l t test s?ecimens are snown in appendix C. . I n a manner s i m i l m t o t h a t in w h i c h e q u a t i o n ( A ? ) w a s o b t a n e d .hich the b o l t s a r e a l l of t h e same m a t e r i a l and size and the b u t t s t r a n s a r e of t h e sm-e material as t h e main ? l a t e w U i i R t h i c k n e s s e q u a l t o one-half. i i Equat'on (A6) a p p l i e s t o the specimens of the t e s t s r-egoorked i n t h i s 3aper.two succe-s-sivs bolts. Ci+l = c (Ab) ? .f e s t e n e d b ? T b o l t s i n seireral l i n e 8 parallel t o a331isd l o a d . .. forrLulas for loads carried u y . .A solution 01' m i n e r a l case i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 1 9 Eay be obtained i f .. . Then W . rrim TN NO. The n m e r i c a l procedure is i l l u s t r a k e d in apmndlx By and general forxulas for loads on the b o l t s o f the t h r e e .e f e r a b i e . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. t h i 5 equation is r e a d l l 3 .. 1051 Nurxwical work is f a c i l i t a t e d by l e t t i n s Rewrtte e q u a t i o n (a) Yi- 1-_- xquation ( A ? ) is t k e q e n n r a l rslsti~nshi-> hetsllean t.-.line general expressioris f o r i n d i v i d u a l bolt loads.. i i d i v i t i u a l L o i t v of tiie joint. t A n a l y s i s o f symnetricel butt j o i n t . e q u a t i o n ( A S ) nev be used ta det-err. ci = and . in a d d i t l o n t o t h e assumptions rnade in t h e f i 2 s t saction of this aDnendix. 3 * - 0 _.- A case that occurs frequently is t h a t i n v. 26 . I n t h e rorr-i shown. if c i e e m c a x .. . .. l a t e .

As a r e s u l t . t h e d e f l e c t i o n is n o t r e a d i l y determined. .I n t h e development of t h e g e n e r a l b o l t . A s o l u t i o n f o r C w i l l b e o b t a i n e d by assuming the bel€‘ t o be a flxeii-end beam loaded as shown i n figure 20. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. aa C is u s e d h e r e i n . A more r e f i n e d Provided by IHS. it was assumed t h a t a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between b o l t d e f l e c t . Posner n e g l e c t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f s x e a r f r y . and. F r o m eqURti0n ( A s ) i t may be s e e n t h a t C i s a f f e c t e d by t h e factors t h a t i n f l u e n c e d e f l e c t i o n . which i s i n agreement with the t e s t r e s u l t s . t i n q C . and b e a r i n g o f the b o l t .when s u c h a n a l y s i s i s appliee t o t h i s case. I n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b o l t co'ns t a n t s . bending. The s o l u t i o n contained kerein. 6 = -CR 2 . Since the b o l t i s loaded and a c t s i n a h i g h l y complex manner.NACA TN noe 1051 27 It i s probable t h a t less. Determination o f B o l t Constant C F a c t o r s a f f e c .l o a d r e l a t i o n s h i p . and bearing of the b o l t s . . These f a c k o r s a r e s h e a r i w . shows t h a t such a cond i t i o n does not e x i s t f o r b u t t j o i n t s . i o n and b o l t The r e l a t i o n i s s t a t e d as l o a d i n the e l a s t i c range.accuracy would be r e a l i z e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of equtition (A71 in t h e a n a l y s i s of j o i n t s o f the type i l l u s t r a t e d i n ff'gure 19 t h a n i n ' t h e a n a l y s i s o f j o i n t s o f t h e type shown i n f i g u r e 17. bending. i t should be remembered t h a t t h e theory of e l a s t i c i t y shcws t h a t t h e b a s i c assumptions underlying conventional beam a n a l y s i s e r e v i o l a t e d . t h e l o c a l i z e d effect o f bearing of' t h e p l a t e s is i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of C. P o s n e r f s s o l u t i o n y i e l d s i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r a l l bolt s i z e s o r f o r a l l p l a t e t h i c k n e s s e s when t h e t h i c k n e s s r a t i o a f the lap?ed plates is constant. As related t o this assumption. for any given bolt p a t t e r n and j o i n t width. PosrieF ( r e f e r e n c e 4) developed a r e l a t i o n s h i p for lap j D i n t s s i m i l a r t o e q u a t i o n (A?) f r o m a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p l a t e deformations i n t e n s i o n a d i n b e a r i n 3 o.f -the plates under t h e bolts o r r i v e t s .

o r bearing l a determined separately and equated t o tin expression of the form of equation ( A B ) t o o b t a i n the p a r t u f ' C that may be a t t r i b u t e d t o each e f f e c t .The Effect-of t deflection caused by shear. 1051 -. The unit bearing d e f o r i n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as a percentage o f ' t h e bait diameter.a r r a n g e m e n t s before t h e y may be considered generally a c c e p t a b l e . For b e a r i n g . .tainties i n t r o d u c e d by the p r a c t i c a l condl t l o n s of joint c o n s t r u c t i o n . Dorlection i s measurea r o i a t i v e t o 8 l i n e that passes through the c e n t r o i d s sf the end c:ross s e c t i o n s o f the bolt. bending. an8 shearing and bending Anfl5.t. . s . Tho bssring modulus of the b o l t Qbl. C NACA TN NO. i h e a r a .. and bearing atrevs i s computed i n & 'e usual. i n view oi' the unce:. however. r e q u i r e experimental checking o v e r a wide rsnge o f j o i n t . Provided by IHS.er of the span._~. I t is then found f o r shear that where a is a constant dependin upon.- s o l u t i o n appears unwarranted. Thus . 1 For bending. manner as R/tD. tho shape o f the c r o s s s s c t i o n and is equal to 4 A f o r a cir-cular sect-ion.c.jnn.I 28 . . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. i . Furthermore. i e assumed equal t o the ccmpreasive modulus of the bolt m a t e r i a l .s sre fonnr3 at the r. however. the n a t u r e of' t h e p m b lem i%nd pi-esent experimental r e n u l t s i n d i c a t e that-a h i g h l y exact determinhtion of c is probubly unnecesaary.cnt. . Exprtsasions o b t a i n e d on t h e b a s i s of the foregoing and subsequent assumptions.

8 KACA TN NO. . 1051 29 . T h i s effect is o f g r e a t e r importance . Such an assumption. provision must b e m a d e t o i n c l u d e b e a r i n g deformation o f t h e plates.. t h i s deformation can be e s t i m a t e d m r e r e a d i l y i n t e r m s of b o l t behavior. the r e s u l t i w correct i o n is a p p l i e d t o t h e b o l t c o n s t a n t C r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e p l a t e c o n s t a n t s Kp and Ks. which is g e n e r a l l y t h e p r e v a i l i w con-ditlon i n airplane structures. bending. Therefore. E f f e c t of b e a r i n g o f p l a t e . i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p l a t e deformations.I . . a n example 02 w h i c h may b e s e e n by i n s p e c t i o n of specimen A . This a c t i o n produces a bulging of t h e p l a t e under t h e bolt. Although bearing dezormation f a a f u n c t i o n of t h e dimensions and e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e plates as well as the l o a d . Spstein (reference ?) a r r i v e d a t s i m i l a r conclusions in regard t o the b e w i n g a c t i o n s of t h e b o l t and p l a t e a s a r e s u l t o f h i s i n v e s t l g a t i o n of b e a r i n g s t r e n g t h .F E Z F d e r > h a % t h a t o f the p l a t e . however. t3e bolt must deform more by EL process o f compaction t h a n by flow of the contact surfeces. It folIows t h a t the two cond i t l o n s r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e b e a r i n g problem and € h a t beariof t h e p l a t e is more critical when t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e b o l t is a s hard as . This s t a t e m e n t may be c l a r i f i e d by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the behavior o f a b o l t and a plate under b e a r i n g load. w5en the bolt is o f a harder m a t e r i a l w i t h apprecTsblg g r e a t e r bearing s t r e n g t h t h a n t h e p l a t e t h a n when the p l a t e i s h a r d e r . i t is found t h a t . consequently.The aasum?tion o f a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t r e s s i n t h e p l a t e s g i v e s satisf a c t o r y r e s u l t s when an average e l o n g a t i o n is t h e q u a n t i t y t o be determined. and t h e diameter o f t h e h o l e I s assumed equal t o t h a t of t h e b o l t . In the manner used i n c o n n e c t i o n with shearing. The u n i t b e a r i r g deformation o f a p l a t e is d e f i n e d as a percentage o f the h o l e diameter. .1 i n figyre 3 . . and becaring of the b o l t . The material of t h e b o l t is m o r e confined than t h a t o f t h e ?late. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. does n o t t a k e i n t o account t h e l a c a l i z e d e f f e c t of bearing_-ufL'he b o l t on the p l a t e s . Bearing s t r e s s i s computed i n t h e u s u a l manner as R / t D ._ _- Provided by IHS. T h e m a t e r i a l of the p l a t e can f l o w outward a t t h e edges o f the h Q l e and theTeby'permit f u r t h e r b e a r i n g deformation. For t h i s r e a s o n . The bulging induces a secondary e f f e c t by i n c r e a s i n g the b e a r i n g a r e a which in t u r n t e n d s t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e t o b e a r i n 3 deformation._ .

Provided by IHS.3 + 16G2tp + 8t. - . . . . .. . . . .< .- L . . -. .tp2 + 5 3 .and 'pap 8 1 1 8 the b e a r i n g moduli.. . - . . . . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. which are assumed equal t o ths compressive moduli of t h e p l a t e m a t e r i a l s i n the calculation Or C. _.. . . and if - --- .. of the plat-. .. where Egbr Combination of terms. The bolt-constant C be deF3J?rnined by adding expressions (A10) ( A l l ) - may now (A12) and (A:L3) c = c = 8t. . . ..

25S-T. . *-T. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. l . therefore. . Provided by IHS. If average values of e n e r a l l y quoted moduli of the s t r u c t u r a l aluminum alloys &-T.k4 n e q u a t i o n ( A l 5 ) m a y be w r i t t e n L J Expressions for C f o r s p e c i f i c con:binations o f materials. and 75s-T are used.tion of b o l t s and p l a t e s of these m a t e rials. 179-T. 1051 *bb - 31 . c=tpEbb f (zy re’’’ ~ . EPbr .2 + ( f 1 ) t \2 7 11 b + (Al’j’) Case 11.: 2 Case I . F o r s t e e l p l a t e s and bolts.66 - and k2 = k3 = k4 = 1 For any combSn8. the values of k are within 1 p e r c e n t of t h e following: kl = 2.NACA TN No.The following expressions a r e l L n i t e d t o the case where tP t .

and CEse T I I .rLinwn alloys.:&in p l a t e . The .. and Provided by IHS. .l p l a t e s and steel b o l t c .Zar!e N. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.. For almdnum i. . and s t e e l b o l t s . s t s o l butt straps. and I n which 10.600 lrai is an average value of the conpressive z o d u l i of the previously zenti o ~ e d alu.?xDressionfor C is :. For 01unimu.

.- = 2. _ value of "/tp .66 kZ = 0.ze comparison is give3 i n t a b l e Table k shows t h a t is from 2 t o 19 2 e r c e n t less than I . NACA TX NO -.. . n i r z u mmain p l a t e . thickness Gf t2. ~ l u . ? p l i o d by r e p l a c i n g tp r i t h a b ~ p o t l i ? t i c a l t h i c k n e s s e q u & l t o nile-half t h e t o t a ? . Provided by IHS.tP t. ju se t i further f i e d arid a7proximetion values of . cl bF oo lt rs . . - Qecause of the aqproximate n e t u r e o f tne e x p r e s s i o n f o r th er t i readily n e q u a t i 4eterYLced on ( A 2 z F C is . .j 4 . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.t is. t h a . C i n lm ae y nbe % h a t do n o t differ t o o much f r o m t h o s e c a l o u l a t e d from equation A b ) extreme . ( the caset o of exazcine t . I n order t h ewdifferances Involved. 1051 ICl 33 and R Case lwinu V. . - The p r s c e d i n g ex?resslora can be g e n e r a l l y . a . (A21) + + k3 + k4.56 . for any av . s t e e l b u t t s t r a p s . a s chosen m d .e T l a t e s .

t ! . p = 1 in. . from equat i o n (l). I n order t o i l l u s t r a t s the a p p l l c a t . -.. Consider a five-bolt j o i n t ( f i g . equation ( A 5 ) may be w r i t t e n . .500 E ksi ___ S i n c e Ci+1 = Ci..- plates : . 18) made up o f t b f o ~ l o w i n gcomponents: Steel bolts: &S-T . solutlon of the f o l l o w i n g example is g:ven.= 3/16 in.i o n o f equation ( A ? ) in numerical C & l C l i l a t i a R S . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. = 5/16 in. t-. b = 2 in. .IX R _. .34 APP3ND. 10.. I Provided by IHS.

NACA TN XO. . 1051 35 The bolt constant nay be d e t e r d n e d from e q u a t i o n (A18) by r e F l a c i n g t p With t a v . s u c c e s e i v e expressions f c r each u~aknownbolt load a r e . then and _- S t a r t i n g w i t h the second b o l t .w r i t t e n i n terms of Til by means Qf e q u a t i o n (~1): Provided by IHS. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.

. R = 0." . . . . . _i A r i t h m t i c a l check: P = >R :In t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l rxethod of analysis.- . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS..001p .256~ o.256~ - 0 .he end b o l t s are overloaded and t%e i n t e r i o r b o l t s c a r r y l e s s l o a d t h a n they are u s u c l l y conssidered to suop ox*t Thus. I I+*&o x 0. 36 NACA TN 30.2C?Op.30 R~/R = S5/E 0.223~ = 1. 1 7 3 ~ + . = 1. tfiat fs. 2051 and t -h o r e f o r o 34 = y5 = 2.93 H7/R = 0. 1 1 1 . C:ornpei*ing the forzyolng r e s u l t s with t h i s value shows t h a t i. __ .778 x 0. 5 5 7 ~= 0 .28 c ! ? 2 / R = 0.37 = 1 ..y6? = 0. Provided by IHS. it is R S E r X i e d t h e t 13ach bolt c a r r i e s the same load. . Rl/R ..

.For any two-bolt j o i n t when and t h e b o l t s a r e of t h e same s i z e and m a t e r i a l . Since and therefore . s i n c e all f u l f i l l the necessary c o n d i t i o n s . T h e expression is __ 2 K .NACA TN NO.. and the b o l t s are a l l of the same size and m a t e r i a l . 1051 APPENDIX C 37 GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR AND CALCULATION OF BOLT LOADS FOR SPECIMENS OF GROUPS A AND B - Equation ( A 6 ) applies t o t h e calculation o f t h e loads c a r r i e d by the i n d i v i d u a l b o l t s ' of' specimens of groups A and -B. = KS General equations. Equation (C3) a p p l i e s t o t h e three specimens of group A. Provided by IHS.since 2Kp = K . From equation (Cl) it can be shown that R1 = R 2 = P/2. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.

= 4 in* 1 . . - B.in. B-1.. _ __ _ S u b s t i t u t i o n of equatZon (C5) into . in.. _. Frm t a b l o 1. .rr equations R1 = R3 P = x R = 2R1 + R 2 Substituting equation ( C Z ) i n t o (C4-> g l v e s and . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.For t?m j o i n t s of group app 1 3 ': From s y m e try €3. the follo:vIn. I h = 1 . Provided by IHS. speciinen 'Ty?3ical calculations f o r j o i n t o f grouy. p = 2 in.. .374. . . For the b o l t s . 4 tp = 0.

Substituting in t h i s expression t h e values of and t r / D gives ._ .P Ks . ~ ~ ) ( 0 ~ ~ 1 8 ~ ) ( 1 0 . tp. Eb3. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.15. . 1225 ~00) 2 -- 1. .bt.E tP = D = 1 ( 1 . - From e q u a t i o n ( A l 3 ) I c = a tpBbb 0..39 .84 + 2 and f r o m e q u a t i o n ( ~ 6 ) The values of R f o r s2ecin. i D . -. Provided by IHS.ens B-2 and 9-3 w w e f m n d in l i k e manner. and the e l a s t i c constants and ratio-s R/P f o r all syecimens a r e shown in table 5 ..5 . From e q u R t i o n ( c 5 ) = (2. .94 R1 + )1 52.

The photoelastic s k u d i e s oi' Co!ser m d P i l o n (reference 9 ) arici Frocht ( r e f e r . . m r ~ f ' o l ? .r?er in :M-ch tke t.load WAY incrsese-3. . The r l . the stress was c m p u t e d from an average s t z a i n . i z r 3 measured on t h e Gage l i n e s sho-m in fiquie 17.?ne stress d i s t r i 5 u t f o n aff'sctad t h e . however. l i n a 1 I n c r e w e d at 8 faster Fate than t h e strains c2 n. e=.le c a l c u k t e d ? l a t e loada.lPT.eEtsured on ?age l l n e 2. cf i n c r e a s s varied conszdeFably P r o n s e c t i o n tc section of a s p o c i u n .ste the yeme tcndency m-d in BO^ c a s a s show that ci5rsc'tlu in l a e : w i t 4 the r l v e t a the s t r e s s c h e . A t . l l e r d d u c t l o n of tet34:. A Srief discvmsion is ziven in csmiiection v r i t i l the obazi-xied st. C v n e & t r o s e in t h e p l a t e s i s assume2 t-cbt? lulif'orwly d i s t r i b u t e d . atzeins. . 17). - In t t i e a n a l y s i s . o t t e d n o f n t s represent tke avereges of s t r a i n s measured ivith all gages.. l m Loads t k s st.dix A. :'ram which the data plotbed in figure 17 were o b t a i n e d . -. the m o m t and -rate.___ __- .%k-avior of Spec i m e c s S t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n in D 1 e t e s . .r8ctly i n l i n a w i t h k c b o l t s .r uniform... show t h a t a n o n u n L f o r x stress d i s t r i b u t i o r i -exists i n t k e p l a t e 3 of b o l t e d j o i n t s .p c i m3a. ?lake l o a d s w o r e calcul n t l o t l on t h e ess-mmtion of a . ivtilch was d e t e r x i n e d . road-3 t r a i n behavior' of t:ie tyue s h o r n in-figure 17 has been r e p o r t e d nreviously (references 5 and 11). ..I NACA TN NL 1051 . . data.iqil 3olt l o a d s B i l d t:i.act. s . __ It w a s observed t h a t t h e o t r a i n d i s t r i b z t i o c vsi-ied with load (fie. In order t o stud? tha r. d!. . i . In r e f e r e n c e 'j several s e t s of stress diEtgra?:s for rlve?tad and pin-connected jcints ars GIvsn. which w e r e l o c e t e 6 i n s l E i 1 E p n o s i t i o n s on t h e b u t t s t r a y . . . but. which indic. All s7ecimens e x h i b i t e d simllFrr beiiavlor S u t i t was somewhat mora pronounced in s2ecTmens A-3 m c l B-fr. In t . .naIzs .surG oa gage .-.d r s t r i b u t i o n of s-ireas. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. Althcugh €1 i n c r e a s e d m x e r-ayldly wlSh l o a d than € 2 Et a11 s e c t i o n s .. RS the a-f. RS the j'>?-?:f.rain d l s t P i b u t i o n as aoqroxi:xtel. p s Provided by IHS.. ance lo). ? i v e n I r i appec.k E .thinetica1 awerage of 'i:3ree.

For t h e remaining specfinens the differences a t corresponding s e c t i o n s a r e l e s s than those just cited. ____ - . which a r e assumed equal t o p l a t e deformation per u n i t o f load. . c o n s i d e r a b l e chanee f r o r . A t lower j a i n t l o a d s the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n 5 g l i g i b l e .T u b e d on the b a s i s of average s t r a i n .NACA TN X O ~ 1051 4 1 .' t h i s s e c t i o n comnutsd on t h a assunction of t a e irregular s t r a i n d i s t r i b u t i o n fq ahout 7 g e r c e n t g r e a t e r than the l o a d computed on t h e b a s i s of sverage s t r a i n . - It nap be concluded i n regard t o the specimens of these t e s t s t h a t . .dwa-J between __ a d j a c e n t b o l t s t o a s e c t i o n through the b o l t hole. A t s e c t i o n 1-1 the d i f f e r e n c e is l e s s than 2 p e r c e n t i n a l l casea. If an irregular s t r a i n d i s t r i b u t i o n based on the diagrams of r e f e r e n c e 5 is esamned. Such corr. ? l a t e loads pay be c a l c u l a t e d and conpared w i t h t h e q l a t e loads c o . c o r r e s T o n d i n g accuracy on t h e basis of t h e s m e assumption. t n e assumption of a uniform stress d i s t r i b a t i o n 2 r o v i d e s a s a t i s f a c t o r y 1.t n i r d s t n e u l t i m a t e and for specirnei A-3 a t a b o u t one-half t h e u 1 r . _- .b o l t s of a j o i n t .tion of cieasw-ed s t r a i n occurred et s e c t i o n 2-2 of specimen A-3 a t a j o i n t load o f 8.. To t a k e such actior_ into account t h e o r e t i c a s l y would involve c o r r e c t i o r i of t'ce p l a t e c o n s t a n t s Kp and Ksr which would result i n n m l b e a r curves of J o i n t l o a d P g a i n t bolt l o a d (P-R) for z l l . a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y deterrained w i t h ' _ -. a s e c t i o n rn3. ~ g =h t r e s s c o r i c e n t r a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t i n the v'icin€€y of the h o l e .a t . The two methods give l o a d s at a e c t i o n 2-2 t h a t d i f f e r by about 3 perce-nt f o r specimen B-3 at a j o i n t l o a d of . where t h e c e n t e r s t r a i n was anproximately 25 m r c e n t l e s s than the average s t r a i n caV The load in t h e b u t t straps. The g r e a t g s t percentage var-le.. f r o m t e n s i o n a t l o w loads t o compression a t h i g h e r loads. i m a t e .2ems f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f p l e t e loads. The 2 l a t e c o n s t a n t s Kp and &.5 k i ? s .- __ Provided by IHS. .ection i n d i c e t e s t h a t the first bolt c a r r i e s a _- __ . the following corn3misons made on this b a s i s . ap?rmcin:ately t w o . At section 3-3 of specimen B-3 the maximum d i f f e r e n c e i s 3 percent. a t the sections where s t r a i n measurements were made. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.. The s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n rn-dergoes a very _. which cause y i e l d i n g of the m a t e r f a l e e r l y i n t h e l o a d history of a j o i n t and are large-ly responsible for the a c t i o n illustrated i n f i g u r e 17. .

a s n e g l i g i b l e effect on the v a l u e s of the b o l t . C NACA TN NO. nT". . I f i these ?:ssts t. to s e c u r e )r. t h i s .t h i c k n e s s o r the b u t t s t r a p acljacent t o t h e m a i n p i a t e . t k o b o l t s . . It w i l l be necesso..'. stiffness sf t h e o t r a ? and p a r t l y : : b d i r e c t t e r i s l o n ir. t?ii t ~ l t is ? i s t p L b u t e d Y O t h a t tile r i e s u l t a u t of t h o ? o r t i o n t r a n s m i t t o d t o one b u t t a t r s ? lies w i t h i n tho h a l f .rj'. . Secause of t h i s bending e f c e c t . l bending momant in the b u t t str8. .r a l b e n d i n g accoqarqinc tranbf'sr fif S o l t loads t o b a t t s t r a p s . bending _ is e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i a g section in connection wibh _ _ thoee-specimens f o r which c o r r e c t i o n w a s r e q u i r e d . -- . I n t e r n a l loads w6re determined at. a lateral bendime. t w . .he--nut.iowever. . T h a t . moinext a c t i n z In a ?lano n o r n a l . I t has long be-en recognized.swere loosenod in order t o miniirdaa f ' r i c . Thls xmxent LS resisted p a r t l y by i ' l e x ~ z a l . 5. o f calculated p l a t e ' l o a d s is n e c e s s a r y i n soin8 c e s e s . . e S S of t L e s t r a p a .5 c o I X l r m d experiment-ally by s t r a h measurements taken on the outer surfaces of the butt s t r a p s a k t h e c e n t e r s of tcc Joints. . h r r ~ . Previou Investigators hsve found e x m r h e n t a l l p deteriniried l o a d s on h a f l r s t b o l t g r e a t e r than t h o s e comyuted by mems of hn e l a s t i c theory ( r e f e r e n c e s 3. - The 7resence o f l a t e r a l bending moment y-fi. c o r r e c t i o n . . f z . 2 p e r c e n t i .- i i 42 -.-.t i o n a l e f f e c t s m d for this m a s o i l le-teral bending was l a r g e l y r e s i s t e d by S t i f . Amroxirnats calculations i n d i c a t e thrtt t h i s L e t e r a 1 bending noment e f r e c t s t h e load on t h e f i r s t colt t o en e x t e n t of tile order of magnitude of 0 . t o t a b l e 6.The p r i n c l p c l d i f f i c u l t y caused by l a t e r a l bending lies i n th-a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of strain d a t a . Provided by IHS. and 6 ) . As B ? e 3 1 ~ l t .ore Iaforrr-stion about t h e s t r e s s distribution b e l b r e r e v i s a d values of K .I n the a n a l p s i s ~ i v e n in a?perIdlr.t h e ?lane of' the b u t t s t r a p is induced i r t the strap. s b o l t load is a s s m c d to be d i s t r i b : r t e d uniformly along the b o l t .. The tabulated v a i w s are r a t i o s . 1051 g r e a t e r l o a d then is at Present rletarnined by m e a n s of any proposed e l a s t i c tlraory. .moraent e x i s t e d i n a l l cases except thin spsciniens rnay be v e r i f i e d by reference.. ' .~rha.t diameter t o butt-stra? t h i c k n e s s D/tS. 13 t a b l e 6 t h o test specimons a r e l i s t e d a c c o r d h g to dccraasgng a s evidence-d by I n c r e a s i n g r a t i o s t h i c k n e s s of the p l a t ~ s of' m1. The Dresence of 1 a t e r a .of int-ernel l o a d t o agmlied load.. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.ch L n t e .. u ~ t~ ha ~ t.l o a d s .can be i n c o r o o r a t u d i n t h e theory. . A. thrae sect-ions.

. they are u n s b l a to c-arrs t h e t e n s i l e lozds necessary to r e l l e v e bondin?...t which 3ollld be predicted at' s s c t i o n s where these va.l o a d e c c e n t r i c i t y .3 XES resisted.. .l o a d e c c s n k r l c i t y ._.ues.~ In the usual types o f bolted o r r i v e t e d joints. are shovm iil r i g i r e s RI EL) w d ? ( a ) to 15(a). . af i n c r e a s i n g b o l t load a c c e n t r i c i t y a t t r i b u t a b l e ta -%he.is inaLcati-Je of a c o n s t a n t b o l t . near t n e u l t i i i a t e . s t r a p s t o g e t h e r -it5 g r s a t e r bending fief l s c t i o n -of t h e b o l t s in the t h i c k e r s*3ecixens. . .rations at.. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. . .flillg i n accord w i t h tl1s. ..Bere determined..f t e n s i o n ln t k e baLts or' r l v e t s . --. .: nain p l a t e s .rorqess.. P. masure:cents were m a d e . which f6 eccor.. . _.rrf f .. . cas8 each of the l a s t tac a1v:ays bava the aapectecl v a l a e of unity w i t h l n 2 Yercent.2lates unon which s t r a i r . a t t r i b u t e d t o mor3 flexure1 res.__ __-.. ...7anfed b 7 .-. A s i m i l a r behavior h a s been n o t e d XJ p r e v i o u s i n v e s t t g a t o r s ( r e r e p e n c e 1. .--. : - . it w a s observed t h a t the e f f e c t o f ' the e c c e n t r i c l o c a t i o 3 of -2i3 result-=it b o l t l o a d s c a u s e d zhe free e n d s of tlie b u t t g+. .bolt .. - Provided by IHS.s t r s p bonding i n c r e a s e s a t a g r e h t a r r E t e because.large. i . It ~ a . . . . a n t . . A l s o P . . of cotzr3e. .__ ._ -. it kppears l i k e l y t h a t bending of the str83s would-be r e l i s v e d w ? r e c i a b l T becausa c. UT t o one-half of tkie u l t i n a t e loEd.21. TMS G h a v i o r is . e c t i o n s % h E t o c c w et ki&k l o a d s .3..ch . d e f l . .. -_ - . . I ) . .b u t t . . respectively ( f i e .s It m a y be noted from t a b l e o . i n g t h e p l a t e s and d a c r e e s e s fi-oiri unity as D/ts d e c r e a s e s .tracs t o move o u t w a r d firon tn. As t h e f a s t s were ir. S. T h e ralctions1. t h a t of t h e joints. QS t h e atrairi b8hav20P ras . exce?t . Curves cf Pu and PL m e not ?resented. Vairzes or Pu and pL were c a l c u l a t e d Trox s t r a i z d a t a o b t e i n s d at s e c t i o n s 3 inches beyoEd the first bolt in t h e upper and l o w 0 2 x a i n p l a t e s .htex:ce of tne butt . . .. p e r ceptible only E t hi& logds. S v i d e n t l y tka.. I4icvs:Aer-t waa. / P i s f n f l * i e n c e d by t h e nu-nber of bolts f a s t e r . which . p e s t e r b o l t . __ - __. . except a t loads apixoaching t-'8 u l t i m a t a . Curves..s?ecixsns A-5 and 3-5.i~ c c ~ r e s st o ba linear at higher loac?s.. As t h a b o l t s o r r l v s t s undergo larg8 defo=. in. Values of ps were c a l c n l a t e d froiz s t r a i n msesurezents taken on the b u t t s t r a p at t i l e center. ' o r . .loads . ...wh!. a t e a c h of which i t w a s Lmo'm f r o r i conditions of e q u i l i brium t h a t tLe total ap?lied loa.r the .rbe sden i n f i g a r e s lo(a) t o 1 3 ( e ) that PJF is c o r s t ./P is l e s s t h a n Pu/P ana PJP.

F r o m tile nethod of s t r a i n n a a a t l r a ~ i e n t . I:n t h e case oflsgscfxens A . second b o l t R2 was found by su5tracting R1 f r o m the sum of t n e b u t t x s t r a a loads et section 1-1 f o r saec2. .. . . .ith r e s ' m c t to m e c i a e n s 5-1 and B-2..500 k s i . Calculet-lon cf b o l t loads f r o = s t r e l n d e t a . = . ...f . SZress-etra. i l .. t h e l o a d a a difference cetwaei. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.1 and 6-2. The i*en. ( b y use of the %ages on the c u t e r SurTaces of t m s t r a p s ) . . . It w. 17) witn monont of op2osfte 7 . . q u a l i t a t t v e atudiee triilicated l e . T h e aversgel strsss was consiaered t c bs eeual t o t h e a r l t h n e S i c a 1 averaae of t h r a e r?easii?ed s t r a i n s rnultf. =&- Provided by IHS. : G O k s i . ..md c o r r e c t i o n was R:acie by rnulti>lTlng t L e L S u t t . l o a d on t h e t h i p d bolt "3 was found by subtracting Vie q u a n t i t y R1 + R2 f r o x t h e sum of the S u t t .. . -. T h e tensile :nodulus of e l e s c i c i t y u s e d !fl t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s was E = 1 0 ..t. t e r a l bending m o n e n t s of t h e same sign et sections 1-1 and 5-3 ( f i g .- --. . j .. - Rb.s t r a p loads a5 secbioris on each s i d a of b h e bolt. t h e butt-strap l o c d s .. moduli of. ..? mo:aent sould be eia.+ . L s t a F a l osndins of t h e b u t t stkans. e l a s t i c i t y de teralined f r o m these ci!rves were w i t h i n 2 7 e r c e n t of the recommxied ctecctmd v a l u a a f 10._ .98 nssurned t h a t the erroIns dus t o bending wers D r o n o r t i o n a l . _ r . POP 2-3.ecimens A-3 8fid 3-3. Load or? t h e . . __. .d. -. .c t i c n of t h e values. .Lu-&tedonly 6. R t e leads : : ' o r e c:etermined a l s o b y t h i s E8tho. was d e t e r d z e d . - to -- '' P 1. :?or s. . b u t t .7n general..+:enA-3 and et s e c t i o n 2-2 for syeclnen B-3.s t r a a loads by P / P .ere s a t w t e d as t!?e ? r o e s a r e a of a butt-strer.s t r a p loads P .t tha s e c t i o n where P . .. necessitated c o r r e . "he l o a d 03 the f i r s t bolt R1 w a s found by adding t h e 5 u t t ..clanner.a f t e r which t h e b o l t l o a d s were found i n the manner used for specimen A .: 3 t r m loads a t s o c t i o z 2-2 for snecimen A-3 m d EL c e c t i o n 3-3 f o r s q e c i n e n B-3 (fis. however. . et section 1-1. and .ainfng b o l t h m d s . t h e x s g n i t u d e 'of the bendin.rlied by the modulus o f e l a s t i c i t : .n cillives plotted fron teceile t e s t asta for coupons -wprosenting t h e p l a t e s w r a t y : > i c a l or A+J-T e l m i r z m d l o g .. &. - 9g were determinod i n tne ame. t i m a tiio a v e r a p stress.. 17).

i b u t i o n i n b o l t e d o r r i v e t e d j o i n t s a n m b e r of i n v e s t i g a t o r s have n. due considera t i b n of the s e v e r a l f a c t m s i n v o l v e d i n t h e behevior of a l l specimens i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o r r e c t i o n srocedure w a s f a i r l y adequate e x c e a t a t nigh loads f o r specLxens B-1 and B-2.. Although it was c l e a r that a t mig one j o i n t load ti?e s m s c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r d i d n o t apply a t all-s e c t i o n s . The d e f l e c t i o n of b o l t s i n specinens of groups A and B was determined from d a t a o b t a i n e d during t h e t e s t s t o failure by measurenent of the spreading of the gar. 1051 45 . . I n the usuel k y p e s of bol5ed j o i n t .---- . Total- - - l Provided by IHS. and t h e procedure t o date has been t o mike i n d i r e c t determinations on t h e s i d e s of a joint by o b s e r v a t i o n cft h e r e l a t i v e movement of the p l a t e s . . . Such met:iods./P. e r e g e n e r a l l y enployed i n t h e deterlninatfon of b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s . . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. I n t*e nomenclature of t h e ? r e s e n t pa?ar.ade use of the J * l o a d s l i p u relEtFonshi? o r the d e f l e c t i o n of the r i v e t s o r b o l t s ( r e f e r ences 1._ although approximate.l o e a curves i n f i g w e s 5(a) t o 1 5 ( a ) because of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p owing to t S e ' u s e o f -Ps i n the d e t e r n l n a t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s . ~ P . and 5 ) . NACA TN X O . 2. &. but t h e accuracy w5th xhich d e f l e c t i o n s are found cannot be s t a t e d with cert a i n t y . between-main p l a t e s a t the c e n t e r of each j o i n t . C e l c u l e t i o n of bolt def l s c t i o n s In 5( tudylng t h e load x s f i .- - .onent v a r i e d along t h e 1engtLs o f the b u t t s t r a p s . t h e d e f l e c t i o n r e lationship i s 6 = CR/2 __ - t D1) 1 - The cox2arison of measured b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s w i t h v a l u e s determined f r o m e q u a t i o n (Dl) f u r n i s h e s e neans f o r examination o f t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e e m r e a s i o n for the b o l t c o n s t a n t c. a r e shown i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the b o l t . - s i g n a t s e c t i o n 2-2. s i n c e t b e rr. t h e b u t t - s t r a p l o a d s were c o r r e c t e d by x u l t i p l y l n g t h e Ibads a t sections 1 1 and 3-3 by ?/Ps ar. d e f l e c t i o n of the bolts is n o t menable t o measuremmt.d the l o a d s a t s e c -_ t i o n 2-2 by P. T h e curves of P . O n t h l s basis ar_d t h e sssumption t h a t the e r r o r s wer9 p r o p o r t i o n a l t o ps 1.. af'ter which t k e bolt l o a d s wdre found i n t h e lnSnner used T o r specircen B-3.-_ .

c : i NACA TIT NO.=-. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. Provided by IHS. .. . 1051 . .

E. ~ T O 450-469. 1701. . -. v e l . no. pp.. Photoelasticity. 1051 1 .. L. d i s c a s s i o n .. 141$4. parcf. . : Tenslor. Sruce G. 1193-1245. VOI. :>p. A. E. G l e n n 5 .d Aiw-dnur?. . C . JohE . 3. 52. 3t. -- . I . SIxor. : 3 a t i o n a l Design of F e s t s n l n g a . A Treatise on C m r h r i d g e Fniv. 4 . 1 1 . no. Proc. no.pp.. NO. SAE Jour. T)P.c . Eustein. Q5. . scj. 9.XACA TN No. '. 5 . Hest. J o u r . S . 555-604. 1. discussion. LO1-4S3. G.r: . 9 . 191:. S . vo7.s. Bat'no.G.A13b.Aric-s. - Strength of A i m r a t t ~ l e ~ e n t s .5. Y O ~ . 457-4+3. 1742. P . . . 15?$-lj9$. p?.. :Vooclr-df. T r a n s . : ' II). voi. P a r t i t i o n of t h e Load fri l i i v a t a d Joints.Lp5-453 . . : i4ork of R i v e t s i n Riveted J o i n t s .E. (3. 8 . i'rintmg Oi'f>ce. P a t r i c k T. .iarch ). 64. oat. F r w n i k o f f ...i t t e e O i l Aircraft 3aqulrerren ts U. kq. v o l . 1. C h l a r l t o . . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. T r o 1 . a:? Davts. A. Proc. 1932. L. Tests of LE^^ F i i v o t s d J o i n t s . X .J-ohnston..nanr. Frocht.. Posner. v o l . C. . . 15. 09. A.. F r a n k l f n I n s t . Cyril: The. Xarnier E .s C. A . ~ Y L Ai. S e p t . ..2. A.L i n k s . 5 .E.>p. 1+21-k2c/. Xax Mark: Photoslasticftg. L?&. S . and F i l o n . G . s d E'sstcpings Product Engineeri n g . 71.S . O c t .: S t r a i n Ifeasurements and Strength Tssts on the Tension Side of a Box Beam wxth F l a t Covw?. 105.Air?li~neLbsign. 'Wile7 & Sons. : pin-Connected P1at. 103. (Trms. L o i s s e i l ' f . pp.. l y j E I . E & A A X 3 'KO.Coker. h l i ? y . no.S . L . 2. 13f. and Illacre. b Davis. 5 . . Anon. 7 . : Joints of S t 3 e l 8i.. Z . Leon S.N a ~ . no. -. 1316.- . Provided by IHS.. A l l o y s . Ra3mond E . 1246-137. P r e s s . 67-E&. T r a m s . 4.: Jour: Aero. 1'331.i. and D i s k i n . ' _. . 3. 2.. no. Jenkins. 3zr._ 2 . . 5 . pp. Inc. : 3 1 v e t . 1941- Vol. 3p. E.3-1397. X v e t e d and Pin-Corinecteu E. 2.a. Alk.C i v i l S o c i i . ~ ~ 1 21945. 1?+0. discussion.32.ert: ? e a r i n 3 StreuGtn in .

P 7.02 A-1 A-2 B-2 7..78 &Xl11y 2 ' + 7.. 1051 48 - 8.20 8.74 Up.98 8. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.4 9. . c Provided by IHS. g B g : 8. NACA TN NO.59 8.

66 s A a A a S g . .61.500 29.1 S 1 IV V A A S S a A g.. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. 3 2. . 3 2.e .. 7 3 e36 1 1 1 .ma 2 4 I . s Qo 11. o o o 2. Cue Yak phtm (1) atraps b o l t ' %b . ( * .. 1 + 2 .5 19. 3 11.000 2. -- . 49 NACA TN NO. ioji .l0. I ) A A kl 4 I k5 1 1 4( D/tP i 1 Zk10 - d t .73 i 2 .500 2-73 2.66 2.bk 2.. I 2 .2 16.h 1 Provided by IHS.1 I 11 I11 A 10.3 2 .

000 0 1 . . 3 0 8 C K. 0 0 1 . LOADS -_ ernal l o d Specimen 'lied loa I PL P 1 . TABLE 6 EFFECT OF BUTT-STRAP BENDING AS SHOWN BY COMPARISON OF MEASURED INTERNAI. . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. 6 0 994 .500 (1) 0 . 0 0 0 1. . 50 5 '. . 0 0 A-2 A-1 1.' D/tp tP 0 . 995 984 A=3 B-2 3.499 e162 1/3% 1/296 --------0-0 .09 1 . 3 3 -983 1 .: * I . 1051 TAB= -.016 2-75 994 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Provided by IHS. A-3 B-1 Group 8 .NACA TN No. 0 1 5 994 -9% 1.188 1/607 365 354 378 i I. Spech e n s .000 B-1 B-3 995 1 . 500 500 67 e50 e374 0501 m32 1/1=5 B-2 V355 1/329 1/1640 B-3 1-34 . . L RdP 0 . 5 0 0 0. 8 0 -50 1-52 i/432 2------ . 1-1 QrOUp A : 1 A-2 .

- E - .-- specimens and arrangement of sfrain gages.m. Three-bolt joint-.) - 4. Two-bolt 4 j o i n t . -inch. 1051 D T r r:z===y I ' E l I Standard tensile specimen cut from central portion o f sheet from which main plates or butt straps obtaii . -_ . -_-. . Provided by IHS. 3t.n-gages. .. group B - . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. group A z !\I1 bolts.1 NACA TN NO. .Fig. . (Armngement of gags duplicated on opposite face of spcciman.-.-inch heat-treated (I25 ksi) alloy-steel bolts. c:lectrical Figure I.Test .

- Provided by IHS. .General arrangement o f specimen in testing machine . 1051 Fig. . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.NACA TN No. . .- € - . e Figure 2 .- c I . 2 .-.

No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. Provided by IHS. .NACA TN No. 1051 - .

. . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. * 8 . Provided by IHS.

o f specimen-A-2 .c ro1 UIDlMlc.Joint-load . 5a. R. kips ( a ) Observed Bolt load. 0 Observed relationships between applied joint load and bolt loads.5 ' 7 0 2 3 4 Unload 0 0 Test run I Load 0 -2-. .b. and bolt-load curves for loading in the elastic range. Ps.1. 1051 4 Figs.6 L2-4 Internal joint load. 0 Ps determined a t this sectlon r i 10 OiiO G I F P P Bolt I % . -Cro failure) NA'TIONU ADVISORY 0 * -. .Observed relationships between applied joint load and bolt loads for loading of specimen A-3 in the elastic range. - 0 -a . Provided by IHS.. R. Bolt load.54 M(WTTf. kips Figure6.NACA TN * * NO. . Figure 5. kips relationship - tietween applied and internal joint loads.3 4 0 V A h .. 3 . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.

Provided by IHS.. I . . r . 7 e . -. . .LL t 1 CI. c B . . b NACA TN NO.. .# Fig. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. 1051 9- a :=-t n a Y 0 YI f . . ..I-l a B 0 I . . .

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12a.0 I 4- *9 L ..NACA TN No. t 0 c r) 0 c n 9 P d) c' c . ..- 4 x S Provided by IHS. .b . .. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. I . 1051 Fig.

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1051 4 Provided by IHS. NACA TN No. .. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.

No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. . 15arb NACA TN No.Fig. a a c # * T i- c B f 0 + 8 'C 0 L % f B i n s Provided by IHS. 1051 - .

. SAL. (b) Bolt deflections for auxiliary-shear-test specimens . in. Experimental 6 . 16a.Comparison of experimental and anolytical bolt deflections. Figure 16. 4 0 - d e 3 0 &1 2 I 0 8 7 2 a U 6 5 0 al o 734 o c 3 0 bl 0 - Experimental. . - Provided by IHS. 6 . 6150 steel plates and heat -treated (125 ksi) allog4teel bolts. Experimental bov. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. 1051 Fig. " of bolts 2 7 6 P . y 5 . determined from movement of gap 2 # I 0 Bolt deflection.NACA TN No. 6.b Group A specime 8 o Group B specimens Experimental 6 .dI L Deflection at R .

.. . -- I Provided by IHS. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.. ~.

19 I I’ . No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS. 1051 m . . . 18.NACA TN No. Figure 18.. COHHllT‘EE FOR AERONAUTICS Provided by IHS.Symmetrical butt joint with bolfa in a single line in t h e line o f applied load... I Figs..Symmetrical b u t f joint wi+h bolts in several NATIONAL A D V l S 0 6 lines parallel t o applied load. P b -~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Figure 19.

and moment diagrams. -~ ~ - c . .. No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS.-.... shear. . .. .. 1051 . . . .Fig.. NACA .. . . M 0 I (c) Moment. Provided by IHS.-.. .. - . _-. . . .. .. . .. - . . . . .Bolt loading. . - .. TN No.. . . .’ ... 20a=c . Figure 2 0 . . (a Loading j I . MF 8 c Y I I fMF. L .