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BG Evander McIvor Law

Born on August 7, 1836 in Darlington, SC Died October 31, 1920 in Bartow, FL Law lived in Bartow, Florida for the last few decades of his life. He was deeply involved in the school system of Florida and the historical society in Bartow contains many of his papers and other items. Evander McIvor Law was born in Darlington, South Carolina, on August 7, 1836. In 1856, he graduated from the South Carolina Military Academy, and was an instructor during his senior year. Helping establish the Military High School in Tuskegee, Alabama, he enlisted in the 4th Alabama when the state announced its secession. He fought in the First Battle of Manassas, and was seriously wounded. Law led his troops though the Peninsula Campaign, the Seven Days' Campaign, the Battle of Gaines' Mill, the Second Battle of Manassas and at Sharpsburg. Promoted to brigadier general on October 2, 1862, he led a brigade at Gettysburg, and began the Confederate attacks at Little Round Top. When Brig. Gen. John B. Hood was severely wounded at Little Round Top, the controversy over who should replace him brought Law into conflict with Maj. Gen. James Longstreet and with Law's rival, Brig. Gen. Micah Jenkins. In December of 1863, Law resigned, and Jenkins wanted Law court-martialed. The War Department did not prefer charges, however, and Law returned to the corps. After participating in the Battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor, being wounded at the latter, he commanded a cavalry unit until the end of the war. After the War Between the States, Law moved to Florida, helped establish the state's educational system and worked as a newspaperman, remaining active in veteran affairs. Law died in Bartow, Florida on October 31, 1920. E.M. Law was the editor of the Bartow Courier Informant newspaper until 1915. He died in Bartow as the “longest surviving Confederate Major General”, and is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery.

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The Charge
‘To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought. To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier's good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish." Lt. General Stephen Dill Lee Commander General United Confederate Veterans New Orleans, Louisiana April 25, 1906

Camp #1323 Officers
Commander: Shannon Roth Lt. Commander: Russell Pace Adjutant: Gerald Reeves Chaplain: William Thornhill Surgeon: Richard Witcher Quartermaster: (Submit Application) Sergeant-at-Arms: (Submit Application) Judge Advocate: (Submit Application) Public Affairs: Anthony Myers Webmaster: Anthony Myers

Salute to the Confederate Flag
I salute the Confederate Flag with affection, reverence, and undying devotion to the cause for which it stands...

The BG Evander M Law Gazette Newsletter is the official publication of Brigadier General E. M. Law SCV Camp #1323 of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. It is published electronically on a monthly basis. All material not identified from other sources is copyrighted by the BG Evander M Law Gazette and may not be reproduced without the expressed written permission from the Editor or Commander. All parts herein remain the sole property of SCV Camp #1323. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2013. We reserve the right to not accept any advertisement or article we feel is detrimental to the principles of our historical honor and or heritage. Business Advertisements: Advertisements are available at the following rates, per issue: Full page $120, 1/2 page - $60, 1/4 page - $30, 1/8 page - $15 ; purchase for One Year (12 issues) and receive a 25% discount off our published rates. All correspondence should be addressed to Editor-in-Chief Anthony Myers or Commander Shannon Roth by emailing lawsbrigate.1323@gmail.com, phone (813) 244-2710 or mail to Anthony Myers PO Box 92688 Lakeland, FL 33804-2688.

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COMMANDER’S CORNER
Compatriots, I would like to remind everyone that have not sent in dues to do so now. I understand that a few of you have just become members earlier this year. I'm sorry that the renewal date was not brought up at that time. In order to remain a member, dues must be paid at this time every year unless you are a lifetime member for national or state. If you have any questions or concerns about this issue, please contact Lt. Commander Russell Pace or myself. I would also like to thank 9th Brigade Commander Phil Walters for the Commander's Certificate of Meritorious Commendation. The dates for the Oak Hill Cemetery cleanup and the Adopt-A-Highway cleanup will be sent out later this month. The camp polo shirts are in. They are $20.00 a shirt up to the size of XL and $23.00 a shirt for the sizes of XXL and above to camp members. Camp polo shirts are also available for non-camp members for $29.00 a shirt. The polo shirts do have pockets. We have a few in each size left. I will reorder more shirts after selling some of the first order. I hope to see everyone at our September meeting. Stay Southern My Friends, Commander Shannon Roth

SCV NATIONAL DUES
The SCV fiscal year started anew on August 1st. We are now going into September and this means that if you have not already paid, your new year of ANNUAL National membership dues are past due, in the amount of $30. Please remit your dues to Adjutant Gerry Reeves or Commander Shannon Roth as quickly as possible in order to stay enrolled as an active member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. For those of you that have already submitted your yearly dues, we commend you. The yearly State dues are now $15 and Camp dues are still $10, which are also due; for a total amount of $55. We now have PayPal set up on our website so that anyone that would like to pay via PayPal can do so online at www.lawsbrigade.org. Please remit ASAP. PLEASE RENEW AND KEEP OUR CAMP STRONG.

NEXT CAMP MEETING
Our Camp Meeting Hall location has now CHANGED! Effective THIS MONTH, the location will be at 2450 East Main Street in Lakeland (corner of E. Main Street & N. Eastside Drive) which is the Polk County Fire Department Station #7 Building. This month our meeting will be on September 16th, 2013 at 7:00 pm, inside the Fire Station.

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GUEST SPEAKER & AWARD CEREMONY
At our last Camp business meeting on August 19th, we were honored to have as a guest speaker, Mr. David McCallister, Esq., the Commander of the Judah P. Benjamin Camp #2210 of the SCV. Mr. McCallister spoke on the importance of performing cemetery cleanup projects, the troubles going on with the re-naming of the Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument and Park, the brouhaha going on in Fort Myers over the Robert E. Lee photo (and now there is one over a school with the General’s name also) and the importance of having Camp’s consider using the ‘Hunley Award’ for local high school students as an inexpensive way of drawing their interest into the SCV. Mr. McCallister also spoke on an important initiative his camp is leading at the Hillsborough County Veteran’s Park which is located at 3602 N US Highway 301 in Tampa (next to the Six Mile Creek). The park is designed so that there is a ‘theater’ that represents each war that has been fought by the veterans of our country. There is NOW a new War Between the States (1861-1865) Memorial Theater in the process of being added to the park. You can contact David McCallister or the Judah P Benjamin Camp #2210 at http://www.jpbenjaminscv.org for more information.

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Also during our meeting, our Camp Commander Shannon Roth, was awarded the 9th Brigade Commander’s Certificate of Meritorious Commendation by Brigade Commander Phillip Walters; and presented by David McCallister. Florida Division Sons of Confederate Veterans To All Who Shall See These Presents, Greetings, Be it known that Shannon Roth is awarded this 9th Brigade Commander’s Certificate of Meritorious Commendation Compatriot Roth has distinguished himself by his exceptional dedication and service to the members of the 9th Brigade. His outstanding meritorious service is worthy of high praise and reflects great credit upon himself, his Camp and the Florida Division. Given under my hand this 1st day of Jun 2013. Signed: Phillip Walters, 9th Brigade Commander

THE REBEL YELL
Many people think of the three measured huzzas given now and then as "the rebel yell." It is shocking to an old Confederate to consider such deception. The venerable widow of Rear Admiral Raphael Semmes, in attending a Confederate reunion at Memphis a couple of years ago, modestly expressed her wish to hear "the rebel yell." Something of an old time cheer came from the throats of men who gladly tried to compliment the wife of the eminent naval commander. Kellar Anderson, who was of the Kentucky Orphan Brigade and had heard the yell, wrote a reminiscence for the Memphis Appeal. It is this same Anderson, called Captain and again Gen. Anderson, who honored his native Kentucky, his adopted Tennessee and American heroism some months ago at Coal Creek, in defying the miners who had captured him and demanded ransom for his head, when it seemed but madness to refuse their demands. One thing is sure; he had heard "the rebel yell." “There is a Southern mother on this stand who says she wants to hear the rebel yell once more." “The announcement transforms, and in an instant I find myself acting the humble part of file-closer to Company I, Fifth Kentucky Infantry, with pieces at the right shoulder, the brigade in route column. With the active, strong, swinging stride of the enthusiastic trained soldier, they hold the double quick over rocks, logs, gullies, undergrowth, hill and vale, until amid the foliage of the trees above them, the hulling shell and hissing shot from the enemy's field guns gives notice that if retreating they have missed the way. Yet, there is no command to halt. Direct, on unchanged course, this battle-scarred and glory- mantled battalion of Kentucky youths continues, and as they reach the open woods, in clarion tones comes the order, 'Change front, forward on first company," etc. The order executed found them formed on ground but recently occupied by a battalion of their foes, and few of these had left their positions. The battalion of Kentuckians were in battle array where once were they, but now the ground was almost literally covered with the Federal dead, the entire length of our regiment of 700 men. Men, did I say? Soldiers is the word; there were few men among them, they being youths, but soldiers indeed. The increasing spat, whirl and hiss of the minnie balls hurrying by, left no doubt of the fact among these September 2013 SCV Camp #1323 Sons of Confederate Veterans Page No. 5

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soldiers. They are about to enter the action again and forward is the order. 'Steady, men, steady; hold your fire; not a shot without orders. It is hard to stand, but you must not return it. We have friends in our front yet. They are being hard pressed, and their ammunition is almost expended, but they are of our proudest and best and Humphries' Mississippians will hold that ridge while they have a cartridge. “It is nearing sunset, and after two days of fearful carnage—aye, one of the best contested battles of the times, the enemy has been driven pell-mell from many parts of the field. Our losses are numbered by thousands, and we are now advancing in battle array, the little red flag with blue cross dancing gaily in the air over heads of those who were there to defend it. The last rays of the setting sun had kissed the autumn foliage when we stepped into open ground and found that we were amid the wreck of what a few short minutes ago bad been a superb six-gun battery! The uniform of the dead artillerymen and the gaily caparisoned bodies of the many dead horses, proclaimed this destruction the work of our friends. We look upon the dead, pull our cartridge boxes a little more to the front and resolve once more to face the destruction we are now entering. The boom of artillery increases. The rattle of musketry is steady —aye, incessant and deadly. The sulphurous smoke has' increased until almost stifling. Only fifty yards of space separates us from the gallant Mississippians, we are there to support. They have clung to the ridge with a death-like grip, but their last cartridge has been fired at the enemy, and their support being at hand these sturdy soldiers of Longstreet's corps are ordered to retire. “Simultaneously the support was ordered forward. As the Mississippians retired, the deep-volumed shouts of the enemy told us plainer than could words that the enemy thought they had routed them. Oh, how differently we regarded the situation! If they could have seen them as we—halting, kneeling, lying down, ranging themselves in columns of files behind the large trees to enable us to get at the enemy with an unbroken front, each man as we passed throwing cap high into the overhanging foliage in honor of our presence—then I imagine their shouts would have been suppressed. 'Steady in the center! Hold your fire! Hold the colors back!' The center advanced too rapidly. We are clear of our friends now, only the enemy in front, and we meet face to face on a spur of Mission Ridge, which extends through the Snodgrass farm, and we are separated by eighty yards. Thud! And down goes Private Robertson. He turned, smiled and died. Thud! Corporal Gray shot through the neck. 'Get to the rear! said I. Thud! Thud! Thud! Wolf, Michael, the gallant Thompson. Thud! Thud! Thud! Courageous Oxley, the knightly Desha, and duty-loving Cummings. And thus it goes. The fallen increase, and are to be counted by the hundreds. The pressure is fearful, but the 'sand-digger' is there to stay. 'Forward! Forward!' rang out along the line. We move slowly to the front. "There is now sixty yards between us. The enemy scorn to fly; he gives back a few paces; he retires a little more but still faces us, and loads as he backs away. We are now in the midst of his dead and dying, but he stands as do the sturdy oaks about him. We have all that is possible for human to bear; our losses are fearful, and each moment some comrade passes to the unknown. At last Humphries' Mississippians have replenished boxes and are working around our right. Trigg's Virginians are uncovering to our left. I feel a shock about my left breast, spin like a top in the air, and come down in a heap. I know not how long before came the sounds 'Forward! Forward! Forward!' I rise on my elbow. Look! Look! There they go, all at breakneck speed, the bayonet at charge. The firing appears to suddenly cease for about five seconds. Then arose that do-or-die expression, that maniacal maelstrom of sound; that penetrating, rasping, shrieking, blood-curdling noise, that could be heard for miles on earth, and whose volumes reached the heavens; such an expression as never yet came from the throats of sane men whom the seething blast of an imaginary hell would not check while the sound lasted. “The battle of Chickamauga is won.” “Dear Southern mother, that was the Rebel yell, and only such scenes ever did or ever will produce it.” Even when engaged, that expression from the Confederate soldier always made my hair stand on end. The young nun and youths who composed this unearthly music were lusty, jolly, clear-voiced, hardened soldiers, full of courage, and proud to march in rags, barefoot, dirty and hungry, with head erect to meet the plethoric ranks of the best equipped and best fed army of modern times. Alas' now many of them are decrepit from ailment and age, and although we will never grow old enough to cease being proud of the record of the Confederate soldier, and the dear old mothers who bore them, we can September 2013 SCV Camp #1323 Sons of Confederate Veterans Page No. 6

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never again, even at your bidding, dear, dear mother, produce the Rebel yell. Never again: never, never, never." – Reprint from “The Confederate Veteran”, Volume 1 No. 1, January 1893

BANNERS FURLED the Primary Flags of the Confederate States of America
The First National Flag of the Confederate States of America The First National Flag of the Confederate States of America (Mar 4 – May 21, 1861) and First Confederate States Navy Ensign (1861 – 1863) “Seven stars representing the states (in order of secession); South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana & Texas upon the official formation of the Confederate States of America.” The flag which first flew over Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, SC in 1861. The first official flag of the confederacy was the “Stars and Bars”, and was reported to the provisional congress of the Confederate States by the flag committee on March 4, 1861. It appears to have not had a recorded vote. It was written into the journal of the congress. It is said to have been designed by Nicola Marschall, a Prussian Artist and to have been inspired by the Austrian flag. It appears in many variations with stars ranging from 7 to 15 stars. This particular flag also served as the ‘First Confederate Navy Ensign’ from 1863 – 1863. A battle ensign is the name given to a large war flag which is flown on a warship’s mast just before going into battle. The flag identified the allegiance of the ship in what could be a very confusing situation, with thick clouds of gunsmoke obscuring the ships in action, hence the large size of these ensigns typically about 20 by 40 ft (6.1 by 12.2 m). It was commonly accepted that so long as a ship flew its ensign it was an active participant in battle; prior to action it was an acceptable ruse to fly a false flag. If a ship surrendered then it would take down its ensigns (which was known as striking the colors). This is also the origin of the phrase “To nail one’s colours to the mast”, showing a determination to fight on and never surrender. In practice, warships would fly more than one battle ensign, so that if the flag was destroyed or brought down during the fighting there would be no confusion. Conversely, keeping the flag flying even though the ship might appear to be past fighting was a sign of determination rather than foolishness. The battle ensign was seen as an important element for the morale of the crew and was held in high regard. If a warship was sinking and had to be abandoned, flags such as the battle ensigns would be taken off the ship before it sank and were entrusted to the senior (surviving) officer.

The First National Flag of the Confederate States of America (May 21, 1861 – Jul 2, 1861) Nine stars representing the addition of the states (in order of secession); Virginia and Arkansas. The reason for the variations in number of stars in the Stars and Bars was due to lack of centralized purchasing. The original ones had 7 stars September 2013 SCV Camp #1323 Sons of Confederate Veterans Page No. 7

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and more were added as additional states joined and the flag makers became aware of the number of states The First National Flag of the Confederate States of America (Jul 2, 1861 – Nov 28. 1861) Eleven stars representing the addition (in order of secession); North Carolina and Tennessee.

12 Star Version from the Vicksburg Garrison The 12th star indicates Missouri, which was admitted to the Confederacy by act of Congress on 28 November 1861. The provisional government of Kentucky was admitted as the 13th State on 10 December 1861.

The First National Flag of the Confederate States of America (Nov 28, 1861 – May 1, 1863) In Oct. 1861, a rump legislative body in Missouri dissolved the bond to the union and joined the confederacy. Kentucky was recognized as neutral at first but later was represented in the Confederate congress, bringing the stars to 13. However many flagmakers only recognized those states that were able to maintain state governments within their own territory, so that 41% of the over 300 surviving STARS AND BARS have only 11 stars. Missouri and Kentucky were overrun by the union and maintained representation in the federal government. Of the survivors those having eight stars, 9%; nine stars, 5%; ten stars, 4%; twelve stars, 9%; fourteen stars, 0.6%; and 15 stars, 5%. The fourteenth star was for Maryland, whose governor was under house arrest and whose legislature was disbanded until the jailed members were replaced in a election where all voters had to take an oath of allegiance to the federal government. The 15th star was for Delaware, the other slave state. Unlike Maryland, who raised a number of regiments in exile from citizens who escaped across the river into Virginia and actually had more troops in the field for the confederacy then Florida, Delaware, the first state in the union, remained loyal to the federals. The most interesting (at least to me) version of the Stars and Bars is the 18 star version used by Gen. Stand Wa tie, the last confederate general to surrender his command, the Cherokee Brigade. It had 13 white stars in a circle and 5 red ones for the “five civilized nations”, the five Indian tribes that joined the confederacy. William M. Grimes-Wyatt, 24 January 1996 Seventeen star First National Flag ‘aka’ as the “Biderman Flag” The 1861 Pattern AKA “1st National” Confederate National flag and Ensign is known to have occurred with a wide range of both star patterns and numbers of stars. Examples of surviving flags as well as period drawings allow us to identify flags with as few as one star (at least two known) and as many as 17 stars (one surviving example.) The most stars displayed on an 1861 Pattern Confederate flag is 17. The flag

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still survives and was taken by Capt. Jack Biderman an officer of the California State Militia on July 4th 1861, in Sacramento, California after an incident with an armed secessionist. The flag, sometimes called the “Biderman Flag”, is an example of the irredentism that affected Confederate flag design in general, in that they often contained stars for territory that was coveted, but not under actual Confederate control. The flag is believed to have been associated with a secret society which was active the American West called the Knights of the Golden Circle. Their avowed goal was to take California, Nevada, Washington and Oregon out of the Union and either have them join the Confederacy or start a new nation to be called Pacifica or the Pacific Republic. The actual 26 x46 flag is preserved in the museum at the capitol in Sacramento, CA. The Second National Flag of the Confederate States of America Second National Flag of the Confederate States of America (1863 – 1865) and Second Confederate States Navy Ensign (1863 – 1865) A Joint Committee on Flag and Seal was appointed by both houses of the first Confederate congress, and on 19 April 1862 it submitted its recommendation as a joint resolution: “Resolved by the Congress of the Confederate States of America, That the flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows: A red field, charged with a white saltier, having in the center the device of a sun, in its glory, on an azure ground, the rays of the sun corresponding with the Ratio 1:2 number of States composing the Confederacy.” After a great deal of debate the House of Representatives voted 39 to 21 to postpone further consideration of the resolution, which the Senate never formally discussed. Therefore, it died in Congress; and apparently few if any of these flags were made, as no physical examples exist today. Nevertheless, unhappiness with the First National Flag continued. In the Confederate field armies the problem of a flag that looked like that of the enemy-an important objection when the colors regiments carried on the field were a major means of identification-was solved by local commanders (see the page on the battle flag). Indeed, the battle flags of the Army of Northern Virginia were those most seen in the capital city of Richmond, and most influenced Confederate legislators. Consequently, on 22 April 1863 Senate Bill No. 132 was introduced, which read: “The Congress of the Confederate States of America do Ratio 1.5:1 enact, That the flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows: a white field with the [Army of Northern Virginia] battle flag for a union, which shall be square and occupy two thirds of the width of the flag, and a blue bar, one third of the flag, in its width, dividing the field otherwise.” Passed by the Senate, the bill was introduced on the floor of the House on 1 May to a great deal of debate. One proposed motion removed the blue bar from the field and instead edged the field with red. Another suggested simply adopting the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag, in a rectangular shape, as the national flag. In the end, however, the bill that passed the House and was agreed to by the senate described the flag as follows: “The field to be white, the length double the width of the flag, with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be a square of two thirds the width of the flag, having the ground red; thereon a broad saltier of blue, bordered with white, and emblazoned with white mullets or fivepointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States.’ The Second National Flag was approved by both houses and became official on 1 May 1863. It was first used to cover the coffin of the beloved Lt. Gen. Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson, who had been badly wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville on 2 May and died of pneumonia on 10 May. His coffin, draped with the new Second National Color, lay in state in the chamber of the House of Representatives on 12 May. As a result of this connection, as well as due to the fact that both this flag and Jackson’s picture appeared on the two dollar bill of the 2 February 1864 issue, the Second National Color was September 2013 SCV Camp #1323 Sons of Confederate Veterans Page No. 9

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often called the “Jackson flag”. The pure white field also led to the Second National Flag being nicknamed the “stainless banner”. On 26 May 1863 the Second National Flag was designated by the Secretary of the Navy as the official naval jack, or ensign. The orders establishing the jack also spelled out the specific proportions Of 2:3. A flag 54 inches in the fly would be 108 inches long with a square canton 36 inches on each side. The arms of the saltier were to be 1/4.8 the width of the canton, so on a flag 54 inches in fly they would be 7.5 inches wide. The white border on the saltier was to be 1/22 the width of the canton, or in this case 1 3/5 inches Wide. Each star was to have a diameter of 1/6.4 the canton width; they would be 5.5 inches in diameter in this example. Throughout the spring of 1863, the Confederate Congress debated the design for a new national flag for the Confederacy. On May 1, the last day of the session, both houses agreed to a flag consisting of a white field, with a length twice as long as its width, and a square Confederate Battle Flag two-thirds the width of the field to be used as a canton (or union) in the upper left. Despite the official dimensions provided in the Flag Act of 1863, many copies were made shorter to achieve a more traditional appearance and to prevent the white flag from being mistaken for a flag of truce. As it turned out, surviving examples differ widely from both the regulation flag and each other. The Second National Flag used as the standard of the 8th Virginia Cavalry measures 53 inches by 98 inches; that used by Lt. Gen. Jubal Early in his headquarters flag was 47 inches by 72 inches; and the headquarters flag of Maj. Gen. J.E.B. (Jeb) Stuart was 46 inches by 74 inches. Moreover, Second National Flags were used mostly by the government on its buildings and forts and the navy on its ships; army units in the field did not as a whole take to the new flag. Indeed, First National Flags were still being used as late as the Battle of Gettysburg by some units in the Army of Northern Virginia, despite the new flag’s introduction. Some Second National Flags were apparently issued by the Richmond Clothing Depot, which made unit colors and standards as well as clothing, to units in the Virginia and North Carolina theaters, although plain First National Flags continued to be carried-e.g., by the 44th and 60th Georgia Infantry Regiments-in that theater even after the new flag’s introduction. The Second National Flags from the Richmond Depot were made of cotton and bunting in the correct 2:3 proportion. The dark blue St. Andrew’s cross bore 13 white five-pointed stars. The white fimbriation overlapped the ends of the cross. In large part, however, Army of Northern Virginia units that received the new flags cut off the white field and flew only the small battle flag when on active service. As mentioned above, a number of Second National Flags were used as headquarters colors by various Army of Northern Virginia general officers, among them Stuart and Early. Soldiers in the Western theater, however, apparently took to the new flag more than those in the East. There a small number of infantry regiments received these flags and carried them as their regimental colors. These flags generally lacked the white overlap at the ends of the cross. The 11th Tennessee Infantry Regiment even painted its unit designation in dark blue on the field over battle honors for Rockcastle, Cumberland Gap, Tazewell, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. Its color measured 33 inches by 67 inches, and did have overlaps on the ends of the St. Andrew’s cross. The 8th Virginia Cavalry Regiment embroidered its unit designation in white on the field, along with a battle honor for White Sulphur Springs in the same material. The Second National Flag was widely known as the “Stainless Banner.” Because the first issue of this flag draped the coffin of General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, it was also known as the “Jackson Flag.”

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Changes to these regulations were made during 1863, when a new naval jack, battle ensign, and commissioning pennant design was introduced aboard all Confederate ships, echoing the Confederacy’s change of its national flag from the old Stars and Bars to the new Stainless Banner (as pictured). Despite the detailed naval regulations issued, minor variations in the flags were frequently seen, due to different manufacturing techniques employed, suppliers used, and the flagmaking traditions of each southern state.
The Third National Flag of the Confederate States of America Third National Flag (since March 4, 1865) The third national flag (also called “the Blood Stained Banner”) was adopted March 4, 1865. The red vertical bar was proposed by Major Arthur L. Rogers, who argued that the pure white field of the Second National flag could be mistaken as a flag of truce: when hanging limp in no wind, the flag’s Southern Cross canton could accidentally stay hidden, so the flag could mistakenly appear all white. Rogers lobbied successfully to have this alteration introduced in the Confederate Senate. He defended his redesign as having “as little as possible of the Yankee blue”, and described it as symbolizing the primary origins of the people of the South, with the cross of England and the red bar from the flag of France. The final redesign was completed about a month before the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, in April of 1865. It was identical to the second national flag except for the addition of a vertical red border down the right-hand edge. This addition, while evoking the catastrophic bloodshed of the preceding four years, was functional, too: it corrected the second flag’s accidental resemblance to the flag of defeat. Very few of these flags were disseminated during the war, though many were produced afterward. Third National Flag (variant) as commonly manufactured, with a square canton.

The Flag Act of 1865 describes the flag in the following language: The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows: The width two-thirds of its length, with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be in width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so proportioned as to leave the length of the field on the side of the union twice the width of the field below it; to have the ground red and a broad blue saltier thereon, bordered with white and emblazoned with mullets or five pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States; the field to be white, except the outer half from the union to be a red bar extending the width of the flag. Despite the passage of the Flag Act of 1865, very few third national flags were actually manufactured and used in the field. Moreover, the ones made by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the square canton of the second national flag rather than the slightly rectangular one specified by the law.

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Volume 1 Bonnie Blue Flag of the Confederate States of America

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The Bonnie Blue Flag was an unofficial banner of the Confederate States of America at the start of the American Civil War in 1861. It consists of a single, five-pointed white star on a blue field. It closely resembles the flag of the short-lived Republic of West Florida of 1810. When the state of Mississippi seceded from the Union in January 1861, a flag bearing a single white star on a blue field was flown from the capitol dome. Harry McCarthy helped popularize this flag as a symbol of the Confederacy by composing the popular song “The Bonnie Blue Flag” early in 1861. Some seceding southern states incorporated the motif of a white star on a blue field into new state flags. Although the name “Bonnie Blue” dates only from 1861, several authors have claimed that the Civil War flag is identical with the banner of the Republic of West Florida, which broke away from Spanish West Florida in September 1810 and was annexed by the United States 90 days later. In 2006 the state of Louisiana formally linked the name “Bonnie Blue” to the West Florida banner by passing a law designating the Bonnie Blue Flag as “the official flag of the Republic of West Florida Historic Region”. In 2007 one of six known Bonnie Blue flags from the Civil War era was sold at auction for $47,800. The flag had been carried by the Confederate 3rd Texas Cavalry and later exhibited as part of the 1936 Texas Centennial Exposition.

Army of Virginia Battle Flag, designed by William Porcher Miles (Dec 1861 – End of War 1865) The Army of Northern Virginia pattern battle flag, initially authorized for units of the Confederate armed forces and first issued to units beginning in November 1861, was designed to be a distinctive flag for use on the battlefield. The Confederate battle flag, during the American Civil War (1861–1865), has become one of the most recognized, misunderstood, and controversial symbols in American history. Originally designed as a Confederate national flag by William Porcher Miles of South Carolina, it was rejected by the Confederate Congress but subsequently adopted by the Confederate army, which needed a banner that was easily distinguishable from the United States flag. It underwent numerous revisions in design and materials throughout the war. Although this particular flag is the most common flag pattern associated with the Confederate States of America, the Confederate Congress never officially adopted this flag, except as the canton of the Second and Third National patterns.

Army of Tennessee Battle Flag, an unofficial, variant flag used by a few units such as Army of Tennessee (November 182 – April 1865) The Army of Tennessee pattern battle flag was ordered by Gen. Joseph Johnston in an attempt to standardize the flags carried by the Western Army. This rectangular design with no borders was based on the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag. The Army of Tennessee pattern battle flag was issued to units beginning in January 1864. It incorporated twelve to thirteen white stars on a blue St. Andrew’s cross on a red field.
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The Van Dorn Battle Flag (Feb 1862) The Van Dorn pattern battle flag is a historical Confederate flag with a red field depicting a white crescent moon in the canton and thirteen white stars; and trimmed with gold cord. In February, 1862, Confederate general Earl Van Dorn ordered that all units under his command use this flag as their regimental colors. The 4th Missouri and 15th Arkansas Infantry Regiments carried this flag into battle; as well as some of Van Dorn’s old units in the Army of Mississippi,
Texas and East Louisiana.

First Confederate States Naval Jack (1861 – 1863) Jacks are additional national flags flown by warships (and certain other vessels) at the head of the ship. These are usually flown while not under way and when the ship is dressed on special occasions. The national flag is flown from the stern of a ship as a sign of respect. Commissioned ships of the Confederate Navy flew the Stars and Bars (First National Flag) on their stern from 1861 through 1863. The naval jack was a rectangular version of the blue canton of the First National with the stars arranged in the same circular pattern.
All major maritime power granted the CSA recognition as a “belligerent”, meaning, in effect that the CSA was acknowledged to exist for but not yet granted “diplomatic recognition”. CS vessels (naval and mercantile) were frequent visitors to ports in Britain and her colonies (including South Africa and Australia), as well as France, Spain, Brazil and others. The first time a CS naval vessel visited Cuba (The CSS Sumter in 1861) questions were raised about her flag, but once the colonial authorities were pointed to the Spanish royal government’s declaration of recognition of the CSA as a “belligerent” all was well.

~ Devereaux Cannon, 18 January 1999

Second Confederate States Navy Jack (1863 – 1865) After the Second National flag in 1863, the Naval Jack changed to the rectangular version of that canton. The Second National then replaced the First National flag for the stern. Thusly, the naval jack also changed to a rectangular version of the new flags canton. Notice that the naval jack uses a lighter blue color to make up the St. Andrews Cross or saltire than that of the Second and Third national flag and that of the Battle Flag. The naval jack of the CSS Shenandoah was the last Confederate flag to be lowered at the end of the War Between the States. It was lowered on November 7, 1865 in Liverpool, England.

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THE OWEN FAMILY OF CHEROKEE COUNTY GEORGIA
“Hardships of a Confederate Family” All families in the South suffered severe hardships and losses as a result of the War Between the States. The loss of a family member, especially during a time of conflict was especially hard on a family; especially if that individual was an income producing person that provided for the family in some way. So one can only imagine that when FIVE ‘farmer’s sons’ all head off to do battle against a tyrannical government, the losses are even more hurtful when you lose more than just one. The Owen family of Cherokee County, Georgia, was no exception. Rebecca McGhee Owen and Elijah Owen, the 3rd great-grandparents of Compatriot Gerry Reeves, had six sons who served in the Confederate Army during the War Between the States; only three survived. Their grandson JOSEPH E. OWEN, Gerry’s great-grandfather, was recruited into the Cherokee Legion, Georgia State Guards when he was only sixteen. He was honorably discharged six months later when his grandparents provided an affidavit proving he was under the age of eighteen. I am sure they did not want to risk losing another family member. STEWART MCGHEE OWEN (1824 – 1889) was born in Habersham County. He moved with his family to Cherokee County around 1840. He married Sarah “Sallie” Reinhardt Aug. 2, 1849. They had nine children: Elizabeth (1845-1850); John (1849-1849); Mary Josephine (1850-1928); Elijah W. (1852-1925); John H. (1856 - ?); William Franklin (1858-1944); Louis L. (1860 - ?); Frances (1862 - ?); Sarah R. (1867 -?). He was a farmer and lived in Cherokee County until after the war. He enrolled for six months service on July 18, 1863, in Co G Cherokee Legion INF known as the “Cherokee Stone Walls”. He is listed on the company roster as a Sergeant. The next record we have for Stewart is August 10, 1867, when he was placed on the Return to Qualified Voter Registration list. The list indicated that he had lived in Georgia for 43 years and in Cherokee County for 25. The 1870 census has him and his family living in McNairy County, Tennessee, (beside his brother George) He remained at this location until his death in 1889.

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REUBEN PHILLIP OWEN (1828 – 1920) Born in Habersham County, Georgia, on January 30, 1828, Reuben came to Cherokee County with his parents around 1840. He married Jane Eveline Hammond in 1850. They had nine children: Emeline (1847-1891); Nancy Jane (1850-1930); William Tyre (1855-1926); Enoch (1857-1930); George Washington (1859-1936); Reuben Basswell (1861-1933) Margaret Malinda (1864-1916); Martha Ann Rebecca (1866-1960); and Rachel Arzetta (1869-1913). Reuben and Jane farmed in Cherokee County most of their lives. The 1860 census shows them living in the Shake Rag District of Cherokee County, Georgia. According to Reuben’s pension application, he enlisted May 12, 1862, at Big Shanty, Cobb County, GA. This is not really far from his father’s homestead and it was the site of a Confederate training camp. He was a private in Co. D, 56th GA Infantry. On May 16, 1863, He was captured at Baker Creek near Champion Hill, Mississippi. He was sent to Camp Morton, Indiana, and overland by rail through Pittsburgh and Philadelphia to Fort Delaware. He was paroled for exchange July 3, 1863, and delivered to Confederate authorities at City Point, VA on July 6, 1863. His health was so poor he was admitted to the Confederate States Hospital in Petersburg, Virginia on July 24, 1863, and furloughed as a paroled prisoner of war on July 31, 1863. There is no evidence of further service. His name is found on the Return of Qualified Voters Registration List dated August 10, 1867. This record shows he was 28 years old and had lived in Cherokee County for 25 years. In 1880, a special non-population federal census for agriculture shows Reuben farming in District 971, Cherokee, Georgia. He reports he has 50 acres of tilled land plus 110 acres of woodland and forest with an estimated value of $450.00. This land is believed to be the land that belonged to his father Elijah Owen. Federal Census Records show Reuben and his family living in Cherokee County as late as 1910. Reuben’s wife died Feb 5, 1915, and he spent the last few years of his life living with his son John in Pickens County. He died March 3, 1920, due to kidney failure. He and his wife are buried in the Pleasant Hill Christian Church Cemetery, Cagle, Pickens Co., Georgia.

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On his Confederate Pension application, dated the 27 of June, 1902, Reuben stated “I was captured (16 day of May 1863) and carried to Fort Delaware and was too sick while there and did not get to come home when the rest did coming home.” Have you family? “Yes, myself and wife and one daughter thay have no means of support Got no homestead”

Fort Delaware Prison JOHN CHAPPELL OWEN, SR (1831-1863) came to Cherokee County, Georgia with his parents Elijah Owen and Rebecca McGee, as a child from Lumpkin County, Georgia where he was born about 1830 – 31. He married Sarah Ann Eveline Reinhardt Nov 17, 1853. They had four sons: Melvel Turner Owen (1856-1911); Harvey Salathial Owen (1857-1937); Lyman Walton Owen (1860-1942); and John Chappell Owen, Jr. (1862-1940). John joined the Confederate Army March 10, 1862 and joined Co A, 43 GA INF along with his three brothers George W., Josiah, and Hiram K. Owen. “In a letter to Eveline dated April 16, 1863, he said he was ill ‘with a swelling in his chest’ and since he wasn’t able to do battle he was hoping to ‘go to shoe making for the government near Atlanta, Georgia.” (Cherokee County Heritage Book) He was captured one month later, May 16, 1863, at Vicksburg and taken to the Federal Prison at Fort Delaware (New Castle), Delaware. Federal POW records show that John was among the 4,400 Confederate POWs transported north by steamboat up the Mississippi River to Memphis, Tennessee and on from there to Cairo, Illinois. At Cairo, they were off loaded onto trains of the Illinois Central Railroad and taken to Camp Morton at Indianapolis, Indiana. From Camp Morton, the 180 captured Confederate officers were forwarded to Johnsons’ Island, Ohio. The enlisted POWs were divided into two groups and shipped east by rail through Pittsburgh to Philadelphia, and from there by Delaware River steamer down to Fort Delaware. John was in the first group that arrived at Fort Delaware on June 9, 1863. The second group arrived on June 15, 1863. (His brothers George W. and Reuben were in one of these groups as well). He was supposed to be paroled on July 3, 1863, and exchanged, but his health was so poor he had to be left behind in the hospital at Fort Delaware. There he died July 12, 1863, and is buried at Finn’s Point Cemetery. Eveline was left with four small sons to raise and care for. September 2013 SCV Camp #1323 Sons of Confederate Veterans Page No. 16

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JOSIAH ASKEW (JOSH) OWEN (1832-1862) was born in Lumpkin County, Georgia, to Elijah and Rebecca Owen. He moved with his family to Cherokee County sometime in the 1840’s. He married Mary Rebecca “Polly” Coker on Aug. 16, 1855 in the Shake Rag District, Cherokee Co., Georgia. They had three children: Thomas Elijah (1856-1901; Samuel Cobb (1858-1932; and Lucinda Madora (18611914). Josiah (along with his brothers George W., Hiram, and John) enlisted in the Confederate Army on March 10, 1862. He served as a private in Co., 43rd Georgia Infantry. He died Sept. 15, 1862, at Vicksburg, Mississippi, and is buried in the area. His cause of death is unknown. He has a commemorative marker in the Hopewell Baptist Cemetery, Cherokee County, GA.

Memorial marker in Ball Ground, Cherokee County, Georgia Josiah’s body was never returned to Georgia; we assume he is somewhere on the Vicksburg Battleground. GEORGE WASHINGTON OWEN (1834-1916) was born in Lumpkin County, Georgia, to Elijah and Rebecca Owen. He was a resident of Cherokee County and was living with his brother Stewart and his wife and family in the 1860 census. He enlisted in the Confederate Army on March 10, 1862 and served as a private in Co. a, 43rd Regiment, Georgia Infantry alongside his brothers John, Josiah and Hiram. He was captured at Champion Hill, Mississippi May 16, 1863 and along with his brothers John and Reuben eventually made it to Fort Delaware on June 9, 1863. He was paroled for exchange on July 3, 1863, sent away from Fort Delaware on July 4, 1863, and delivered to Confederate authorities at City Point, Virginia on July k6, 1863. He was present in camp with other paroled members of the 43rd GA Infantry at Petersburg, VA on July 19, 1863. He was declared exchanged on Oct 7, 1863 and sent back to the newly reorganized 43rd Georgian Infantry, present for duty, Dec 31, 1863. He deserted sometime after Dec 31, 1863, and took the Oath of Allegiance at Chattanooga, TN on April 19, 1864. He was described as having a dark complexion, brown hair, blue eyes and standing 5 feet 5 inches tall. After the war he remained in Tennessee and married Elizabeth Jane Wilson on Sept 19, 1865. They had seven children: William Hardy (1866-1911); Reuben Phillip (1868-1958); Martha Rebecca (1872-1964); Almedia A. (1873-1958); Jo Ellen (1878-1957; George Winchester (1881-1958); Cordelia (1883-1910). September 2013 SCV Camp #1323 Sons of Confederate Veterans Page No. 18

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He spent his life as a “planter” in McNairy Co.TN (where his brother Stewart joined him) and later Chester County in Tennessee. He died on May 13, 1916 at the age of 81. He and his wife are buried in the Old Pisgah Cemetery, Chester Co., Tennessee.

HIRAM K. OWEN (1839 – 1863) Hiram was also born in Lumpkin County, GA. He was married to Elizabeth Victoria “Eliza” Rhyne in Cherokee County, GA on Jul 26, 1859. They only had one child: son Lindsey born in 1860. On March 10, 1862, Hiram became a private in Co. A, of the 43rd Regiment, GA Infantry along with his brothers George, Josiah, and John. Military papers describe him as being six ft. tall; fair complexion, blue eyes and light hair. His occupation was that of a farmer. His life came to an early end as he died of a fever on Sept 30, 1864. He did manage to get home before he died.

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In her application to the Confederate Government for her husband’s pay for his service she is quoted as saying, “that she is the widow of H.K. Owen deceased who was a private of Captain A. Reinhart Co. A of the 43rd Regiment of GA Volunteers commanded by Col. Skidmore Harris in the Service of the Confederate States in the present, not with the United States. She said H.K. Owen entered the service at Canton, GA, on the tenth day of March 1862 and died at his home in Cherokee County on the thirtieth day of September 1863 with fever leaving Eliza V. Owen. That she makes this deposition for the purpose of obtaining from the Government of the Confederate States whatever may have been due the said H.K. Owen at the time of his death for pay, bounty or other allowance for his service as Private aforesaid.”

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JOSEPH E. OWEN (1846 – 1926) not to be out done by his uncles, Compatriot Gerry’s great-grandfather Joseph E. Owen, was enlisted in Co. C, Cherokee Legion, Georgia (State Guards) on July 22, 1863, at Canton, Georgia by Capt. W.T. Dowda for a period of six months. This unit was called into service for local defense, to serve in the following boundary: Commencing at West Point on the Alabama line, thence to Griffin, GA. Thence to Elbert Court House, thence to the Savannah River, including all of the State north of that River. Joseph’s records show that his “parents object to his being mustered in, being under 18 years old.” His parents were really his grandparents, as his actual parents (Elijah and Isabella Heard Owen) had died prior to the War. He was mustered out in Rome, GA on Jan. 22, 1864, having served his six months. The remark on his record states: “Being a minor claimed by parent’s affidavit.” Joseph continued to reside in Cherokee County. He married Artimissa Elizabeth Rhyne on April 17, 1870. Together they had two sons: Elijah Douglas Owen (1871 – 1946) who was Compatriot Gerry’s grandfather; and Phillip Audale Owen (1875 – 1940). His first wife died in 1880 and he married his second wife Frances Marilyn Bearden on Dec. 9, 1894. Together they had two sons: William McKinley Owen and Robb Huckabee Owen. Joseph moved his family from Cherokee County to Enigma, Berrien County Georgia sometime between 1910 and 1920.

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Compatriot Gerry Reeves (1941 – Present), the 3rd great-grandson of Rebecca McGhee Owen and Elijah Owen, was born and raised most of his life in Winter Haven, Florida by his parents; King Schular Reeves and Willie Clyde Owens. His father originated from Reevesville, South Carolina where a number of his 3rd great-uncles fought for the Confederacy. One was Lewis Reeves, a 6th SC Cavalry soldier who was killed at Wyatt's Farm in Virginia. His body was never recovered. His mother Willie came from the great state of Georgia and a long line of Confederate compatriots. Her father was Elijah Douglas Owen, son of the above listed Joseph Owen that was so young when he was drafted. Gerry proudly served our country as a 1st Lieutenant, Fire Directions Officer in the Artillery Division at Fort Sill, Oklahoma with the U.S. Army Reserves for over seven years. Gerry has been happily married for 49 years to his wife Becky and after leaving the military, he ran his own business; an auto repair shop which he enjoyed with his family. I would like to take this opportunity to thank both Gerry and Becky Reeves for giving us the chance to take a look back into the history of a part of the lives of some of their family members and how they were affected by the circumstances of “The War Between the States”.

Classic Old Fashioned Meatloaf (Cooked in a Cast Iron Skillet)

2 lbs. hamburger 1 cup saltine cracker crumbs (oatmeal or bread crumbs) 1/2 cup onion, chopped 1/2 cup bell pepper chopped (my addition) 2 eggs 3/4-1 cup evaporated milk (whole milk or half and half) 2 teaspoons salt 1 teaspoon black pepper 1 teaspoon garlic powder 1 teaspoon ground coriander (my addition) 2 cups of water 1 cup ketchup Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Spray a 10-inch cast iron skillet with a non-stick cooking spray; set aside. In a large bowl, combine all the above ingredients, except for the water and ketchup, and mix September 2013 SCV Camp #1323 Sons of Confederate Veterans Page No. 24

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together until well blended. Be careful not to handle the meat mixture to much. Shape into a round bun and place in the cast iron skillet. Pour water half way up in the skillet. Bake in the oven for 1 hour or until meatloaf is done. Spoon ketchup over the meatloaf and return to the oven for another 15 minutes. Source: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=414858245267737&set=pb.412046715548890.2207520000.1377615183.&type=3&theater

tonymyers.scv123@gmail.com Please say prayers for Compatriot Billy Cox and the family of his brother John, who recently passed away after a long illness. May the Lord bless him and his family in this time of need! I also ask that you pray for my sister Crystal who resides in Kentucky. She is 52 years old and during her life she has suffered 5 major strokes, 8 minor strokes, is partially paralyzed, blind in one eye and has just within the past month, been diagnosed with two carcinomas; one on each lung. We do not yet know if they are cancerous, but I pray every day wondering how much God can ask of a single, disabled grandmother. I also ask that you keep me, Compatriot Tony Myers in your prayers. I was just released from the hospital on August 23rd after 2 days of a slew of tests to learn that I now am walking around with an aneurysm in my heart (aorta) that the doctors say they ‘hopefully can mend’ with medication. As a disabled person with a ‘ticking time-bomb’ going on, it really changes one’s outlook on life pretty quickly and in an amazing sort of way. Confederate Soldier’s Prayer I asked God for strength, that I might achieve, I was made weak, that I might learn humbly to obey. I asked God for health, that I might do greater things, I was given infirmity, that I might do better things. I asked for power, that I might have the praise of men, I was given weakness, that I might feel the need of God. I asked for all things, that I might enjoy life, I was given life, that I might enjoy all things. I got nothing that I asked for – but everything I had hoped for. Almost despite myself, my unspoken prayers were answered. I am among men, most richly blessed. Found on the body of a valiant Southern soldier, 1861-1865 Known but to God

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