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The Literary Element in "Mille Plateaux": The New Cartography of Deleuze and Guattari Author(s): Charles J.

Stivale Source: SubStance, Vol. 13, No. 3/4, Issue 44-45: Gilles Deleuze (1984), pp. 20-34 Published by: University of Wisconsin Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 18/08/2013 02:18
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STIVALE shocked Twelveyearshave passed sinceGillesDeleuze and F6lixGuattari ofstrucassaulton thesystems with their theFrench provocative intelligentsia in L'Anti-Oedipe: and political turalist. and finally assemblage (Kafka'sshort (l'agencement machinique) (Kafka'snovels.233 on Sun. project.and on theother and psychoanalytic literary interpretations the authors seek to move the termssuggested hand. 63-68).Deleuze and thesystem ofschizo-analysis. thevarioustasksof analytic project. Capitalisme signification psychoanalytic. works untranslated2 and etSchizophrinie I.1 Whiletheir subsequent go virtually have inevitably been judged as outmodedin Parisian circles.131. 382).K.thistimeagainstcertain ofKafka'sworks. a limited While Kafkarepresents exampleof the nextstepof the schizo"to see how. 1984 20 This content downloaded from 129. schizo-analysis proceed"(AO. in of "machinic" conworks ofa single wereconsidered author thoroughly light The of work seems on the this critical double: one Deleuze hand. p.6 purpose and Guattaricontinuetheiranti-oedipal polemic. phrinie.4 theyhave cast literature howliterature. in to situate themachinic the as well.7 a year later thereappeared a slim SubStance No 44/45. K. 53-62). their most have continued Guattari elaborating etSchizosecondvolumeof Capitalisme development beingtherecent thorough 3 In bothvolumesof thismammoth as entitled MillePlateaux. thereby extending in another thereal. simultaneously. as an exemplary well as in the intervening works. ofmachinic modeto demonstrate books. systems in terms of "rhizomatic" in of such the and writing terms operate functioning in Mille Plateauxconstitutes the focusof thisstudy. and as lines of flight MillePlateaux: Element The Literary of Deleuzeand Guattari The New Cartography CHARLESi. analysispresented 5 it was not an role Whileliterary works played important in Anti-Oedipus. theyalso advancetheir direction: terminology important themolecules oftheexpression-machine function as rhizome (Kafka'sletters. functioning.Thus functioning organic not "minor" existence or"major" literature's vis-a-vis the they onlyposit "great" their viewofliterature as locus ofdesireand of literatures.15. effectively. beyond schizo-analytic inAnti-Oedipus. 69-73). cepts. as animal-becomings (le devenir-animal) as machine stories. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . mineure thatthe untilthesubsequent entitled Pour une littirature analysis Kafka. pp. pp. pp.

throughhis inventionof writingas "Open rings. in relation to otherbodies withoutorgans. and.the book has neithersubject nor object. 65). From the rhizomatic perspective. Plateauxas its opening chapter. Furthermore.pure intensities. freesand circulates asigniorgans. on the one hand. fying than a name. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .9 These lines and their measurable speeds constitutea machine "orientedtowards those stratawhich doubtless assemblage. 65).vibratingon itself.which is developed by avoiding any orientation on a culminatingpoint or towards an exteriorend" (MP. territorialities). or else a signifying totality. Gregory Bateson uses the word 'plateau' to designate something very special: a continuous region of intensities. constitutedonly by lines of articulation(segmentarity.strata. at the level of the dimensions at our disposal. with variable speeds. the simplest way possible.or else a deterto a subject. or syntacticcreations like "mimetic procedures used in image-books.molecular . in such a way as to formand extend a rhizome" (R. as the trace of an intensity" (R. always n minus one (it is only in this manner that the one formspart of the multiple.131. p. lines of flight stitutediverseplateaux thatusually overlap at various pointsofthe assemblage. Kafka and a fantastic bureaucratic machine" as examples of the book as assemblage. but concepts are lines." the authors refuse to resort to typographical." but instead use words "which. not beginning or end. This concentrated statement sums up the strategic options which Deleuze and Guattari have at theirdisposal in therhizomaticproject: each ofthe termsserves as one of many modes of approach to produce assemblages . 32)."Kleist's texts are opposed to the "classical and romantic books constitutedby the interiority of a substance or subject" and exist as "the book This content downloaded from 129.strata. A rhizome is made of plateaux. Deleuze and Guattari referto "Kleist and a mad war machine. 50). but it is orientedequally towardsa body minationattributable without which endlesslybreaks down the organism. Deleuze and Guattari define their use of "plateau" as "every multiplicityconnectable with others by superficialunderground stems.233 on Sun. as "a connection with other assemblages. always in relation to the exterior. designated to disseminate or dislocate a unity still preserved in another dimension. The system called rhizome is the production dimenof the multiple. 52).circlesof convergence chains. but on the contrary. make it into a sort of organism. RHIZO= PRAGMATICS = MICRO-POLIMATICS = SCHIZOANALYSIS TICS."as "a broken chain of affects. 50).a productionoccurring"not by always adding a further sion. on the other. p. precipitationsand transformations. These words are concepts. through being always subtracted)"(R. and creates subjects to whom it allows no more particles.which themselvesconor rupture.Literary Element in Mille Plateaux 21 which would reappear in Mille volume curiously entitledRhizome:introduction.8and the authors then referto Gregory Bateson's Stepsto an Ecology ofMind to introduce a key term: "A plateau is always in the middle." existing only "by virtueof what is outside and beyond it" (R. The principal characteristicsof a rhizome are developed at length. in theirturn. p. functionforus as plateaux. p. For example. lexical.15. p. thatis to say number systemsattached to a particular dimension of multiplicities" (R. by force of moderation. Since "the multiple demands a method which actually creates it. by lines of flight(movements of deterritorialization and destratification).

" and in this regard. as line of flight. .a map-making itself. 54-55). the rhizome (Ken Kesey and his 'fog machine'. but the role of the West.e.their selection.") This content downloaded from 129. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Deleuze and Guattari opt for "Nomadology. recoding Europe (Henry James. the in the overcoding slave-owning South.).g. a revolutionarymachine. p. etc. madness. a love machine. the beatnik generation.10 The necessity of map-making exists not only as an underlyingprinciple of the rhizomatic system. providesboth a particularangle from which one can approach the enterprise of Mille Plateauxand a textual strategy. is presented explicitlyas an essential element for be quantified": "the book being understandingthe role of writing. as if the earth had come full circle precisely in America. pp. 62-63). . Writingisn'tto do with signifying. bodies without organs and theirconstruction. The authors referto Leslie Fiedler's The Return American to point out geography'srole in American literaoftheVanishing that assert the search for an American code intersectswith other ture. . Kerouac seeking his ancestors). as well as the abstractmachine.and with an abstract machine which bears them on?" (R.mapof worlds to come" role of examine the role of writingas the functioning of the literary machine. with its own downfall and that of the in the Civil War (Faulkner. America has reversed the directions: its Orient is in the West. [which] not only forma quantificationof writing. he makes a map which directly movements criss-crossingAmerica" (R. To oppose writingin the name of such a "unitaryState apparatus. Caldwell).hallucination. etc.). The entire introducedin the schizo-analytic strataand terminology project. 50).which "should itself a little machine. Dreiser).mobs and gangs. This ping-even yet (R. Pound. etc.. segmentarities." The European conception of the book ("the arborescent search and returnto the old world") is thus opposed to the American conception: "The West is rhizomatic.lines of flightand intensities. its West is the very fringeof the East" (R. p. but with surveying. with its Indians without geneology. against the book as State apparatus" (R. mental and perceptual experimentation." And in reference to Fitzgerald'sspecification of geographicaldirections. (For an overview of these "plateaux.15.machine assemblages and their different types.the underground.233 on Sun. the Indian. pp. they consider America as a truly special case: though revealing tree-domination and search for roots (e. 70).. the capitalistdecoding which plantations comes fromthe North (Dos Passos. linkingtogetherthe trip.131.. theyconclude that"every to what greatAmerican author formsa cartography. "everything importantwhich has happened or is happening proceeds by American rhizome: beatniks. its ever fleeinglimit." see the Appendix in my translation of Mille Plateaux's"Conclusion."multiplicities.even in his style. in what measurable relationships does this literary machine stand with a war machine. successive lateral shoots in immediate connectionwith an exterior. Stivale as war machine.but definewritingas always the measure of somethingelse. .contrary connectswiththe real social happens in Europe. the shiftingof borders.22 CharlesJ. the plane of consistence [are] units of measure in each case . . 50-51). relationship literary cificmachines. its creeping frontiers. they for "a with searches. the measurable between the machine and other spei.

On interlocked. both of which vary according to the rhizoanalytic focus on one or several authors and works: 1. p. theother On theonehand.territorial. bodies. that while the thrustof each plateau generallycorrea to sponds particular domain. returnsthroughoutthe subsequent plateaux as a fundamentalconcern of schizo-analysis. the progressive insertionof referencesto differentdomains within each plateau reveals the continuous internal functioning of various regimes of signs and multiplicities.although the literarydomain seems to be the principal focus in only two plateaux (6 and 8).theregimes itsacts. to reveal more clearly the abstract concepts suggested by the rhizomatic systhe avant-garderole ofliterature tem. "Machine assemblages": Of all the texts chosen to exemplifythis axis. and. an assemblagecomprises Along a first ofexpression. elaborated in plateaux 4 and 5. on theone hand. But. 112) torialization I. gears.Second and most significantly for our present interests.(MP."And itis evident thattheexpressions do notrepresent machines: [6noncis] the Stoker's discourse does not describetheboilerroom as body. one of axis. For whatis comd'ordre]. Discoursesofsubmission to slogans[mots ofdiscussion. uncoupled (cf. all entangled. assemblage actionsand passions.15. whatone aspectconstantly'sa machine ofbodies. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . since this variation corresponds to what Deleuze and Guattari indicate as "the nature of Assemblages. a collective enunciation.Literary Element in Mille Plateaux 23 Let us observe. its transformations.For example. axis. the thetribunal-machine: eachwith itsparts.with Kafka's works best revealing the cartographic extension of the two axes from the machine assemblage: On theone hand. whichstabilizethe assemblages.thehead ripping through theother ofsignsor ofenunciation: each regime withitsnonhand. while substantiating throughits machine and collectivelyenunciated assemblages." the literaryelement in Mille Plateauxcan be approached fromthe two axes ofmapmaking: horizontal two segments.131. i. content. castle-machine. ofdemands. Furthermore. on the otherhand. corporeal "law.theassemblage has. on theother acts and noncorhand. thecircus-machine.233 on Sun. processes.itsdeathsentences and verdicts. paredor combined byone aspectwith places This content downloaded from 129. theroof).thisdiscourse has itsownform and development without It is however resemblance.e.theboat-machine.ofaccusationand ofpleas. to bodies. sides.points ofdeterriwhichcarryoffthe assemblage. first. itstrials. the Pragmatic.a melangeofbodiesreacting on one another. attributed to a body. thehotel-machine. it is clear thatliteraryreferencesabound in nearly every plateau and that these lines vary in their functionand focus from one plateau to another. The Horizontal Axis The principal functionof the literaryelement on this axis is exemplary. the works of Kafka and Proust appear most frequentlyin Mille Plateaux. along a vertically themselves porealtransformations attributing oriented or theentire boat as body. of assemblage expressions [enoncis].

of the the reterritorializations and redundancies. the countryside. the bureaucrat says I think (Kafka goes the farthest tion. plateau 2. the barriers between officescease being 'precise limits. redundancies of of . village. . 112) Deleuze and Guattari returnfrequently to this last machine assemblage. organization.the face is "undone": art reveals to Swann that the Passion is over. p. 48). plateau 5. cheeks. thisgroupand thisrestricted has herownmultiplicities that mass.especially chapter XIV]" (MP.' and plunge into a molecular milieu which dissolves them. p. c) finally. plateau 2. his worksfirst help distinguishmolar masses (or packs) from molecular multiplicities: A packoffreckles on a face. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it is because he shows how. linked to Swann's need forassociations. on a certain level . p. or the diverse subjectivationsof Klamm)" (MP. then. de Charlus'svoice. and not onlydoes an entireunconscious bathe code. and music: a) Odette's face. 228-229). pulling along all the associations. Stivale in theother. (MP.233 on Sun. theK-function.Sortiniand Sordini.crosses too many spaces in relation to the relative time of he who was waiting forher. as in the example of The Castle. 261). hierarchy. art recoversits independence(MP. p.' amorous bureaucratic delirium. Each passes through so manybodies in each other. this opposition of planes helps distinsituations of Swann and the narrator: different guish the different planes of This content downloaded from 129.arethedegrees thewhole ofreterritorialization which stabilize and theoperations ritorialization.speaking in a woman's voice. designates but whichalso passes by all torialization whichcarrieson all theassemblages. of dog-becoming. (MP. So the girl'sapparent slowness is transformed into the crazy speed ofour expectation" (MP. eyes as black holes. 165).15. . . etc. pp. thelineofflight K.butAlbertine thenarrator. plateau 9.discovers love's end renders her to the indiscernible. plateau 7. 49) Later." "the cogito itselfbecomes an 'officescene. a new form of bureaucracy is substituted for or conjugated with the old imperial in this direcbureaucracy. . p. that of Kafka withthe bureaucracy mixed withotherbodies: "One cannot separate in Kafka's work the erectionof a great paranoid bureaucratic machine and the installationoflittleschizo machines. ofconjugated or relayed deteralongthesecondaxis. of childhood.a nestful of girlsin M. on her bodyand in herlies-until havingisolatedher. bureaucracy. b) this face speeds to a single black hole.opposing an immanent plane of consistence of variable speed to a transcendentorganizational plane. "IfKafka is the greatesttheoretician of the bureaucracy. love.24 Charles J. Furthermore.a packofboys. 332). regarding passionate love as a "cogito for two. plateau 10. ofcoleopter-becoming" (MP. or deterriat a precisemoment.painting. at the same time because he has the boss proliferatedinto micro-figures that are impossible to recognize or idenand whichare no more discernible than centralizable:anotherregimewhich tify.131. . Swann's Passion. coexists withthe separation and totalizationofhard segments[ The Castle.Albertine is slowly a groupofgirls. 4. As forProust. Deleuze and Guattari first distinguish a group of girls froma lone girl "by speed: she does too many things. extracted from withitsnumber. plateau p. three moments in the storyof Swann-Odette from Un amorde Swann reveal the relationship of the face.

-on the abstract machine of "faceness" (visageite)as an opening up of lines of flight in Chr6tiende Troyes'sPerceval. Swann the art little melodic Vinteuil's lover. And the body of music furnishesanother mix of machine assemblages. necessarily say another bad. interpret theirmixturesas theirdistinctions. Faye and Paul Virilio. leading to the distinction fascism and totalitarianism. p.. by its verynature. . Beckett's Malloy and The Unnameable the 7. 123-124). 277). (MP. and a line or lines offlight ofthewar machine. p.. .Kleist (Disgust.but only to make maps and draw lines by marking sent.supported by Klauss Mann's novel Mephisto (pp. 278). 391-392. The essential thing is that each of these authors has his procedure of variation. Castaneda had the Indian Don Juan say: thereare threeand even fourdangers. motifs formrhythmic and territorial counterwhereby"territorial facesorcharacters. ."not being an individual psychologicalcreation. then Clarity. first Fear. and Odette his possession"(MP.ceasedinvoking thepeople This content downloaded from 129. plateau pp. to pierce through.Nietzsche had Zarathustra say. .12 -on the "becoming-cosmic" of the artist.)" 2. plateau 11.thattheymight has ceasedbeingOne-Aloneretired intohimself. or that MP. as opposed to the French novel.Literary Element in Mille Plateaux 25 jealousy (Odette. open a cosmos.-P. .Deleuze and Guattari call on various authors to supporttheiranalysis: Blanchot (Fear. 332333). as often a the acts associated with with Odette's phrase poster Boulogne woods. The artist buthe has also ceasedaddressing himself tothepeople. [Ghersaim] Luca of Roumanian origin. plateau 9. .on the cartographicproblem of threetypesof lines (primitivesegmentarity. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . his enlarged chromatics. . 212-213). And in the subsequent examinationof thesefourdangers. one cannot keep it frommaking one language into another. the poet: orevenengender in thehopethey fertilize molecular unleashes populations might thepeopleto come.thattheymight pass intoa peopleto come. a hard line of the State apparatus. thereby continuing to exemplifyrhizomatic concepts: . . We notice that [a few authors we like] are more or less in a situationof a certainbilingualism: Kafka the Czech Jew writingin German. "fromThomas Hardy to Lawrence. 281-282) as well as by J.but an assemblage of enunciation.15. plateau 4. For . 271).to cross. points [form] countrysides. . Castaneda (Clarity. pp. pp. fromMelville to Miller [in which] the same question resounds. and then Power. 228). between Fitzgerald. Godard and his desire to be leave. face and character: it's as if the phrase brought to Swann the assurance that the Boulogne woods were indeed his territory. and finallythe greatDisgust.131. Collective assemblages of enunciation occur at the otherend of the same axis.on the question of style.233 on Sun. . 277). p.ofperceptionof music (Vinteuil'sphrase) (pp. The studyof dangers on each line is the object of the pragmatic or of schizo-analysis in so far as it does not propose to repreor symbolize.his crazy production of speeds and intervals"(MP. Cervantes'sDon Quixote. "we cannot one line is good. Albertine). the Passion of abolition" (p. the desire to cause death and to die. Beckettthe Irishman writingboth in English and in French. Anglo-Americannovel. the line of death). to make the line and not the point/conclusion(faire la ligneetpas le point)" (p.

and the concept of "hecc6it6. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .but he realizes to thehighest are whatlacksthemost. fromthe territorial/reterritorialized side to the points of deterritorialization. . . An entiregame ofplanified. Deleuze and Guattari display the threetypesoflines existingwithineach nouvelle. exists foreach of us "where seems accountable or predicted."13 II. opposed to "exterior (Kierkegaard. on becomings. the passage fromone segmentto another. certainliterary cases are chosen to demonstrate the operation of the rhizomatic oscillation between territoriality and deterritorialization: 1. but on the contrary. and however are lacking. blages becoming-animal. p.finally. Scott Fitzgerald. . 426-427). (MP. all of plateau 10. and Pierrette Fleutiaux) to reveal the essential rhizomatic traitsof the lines which trace the as the genre asking map of writingand beyond. thepeople. have a future. Nietzsche. plateau 11. Stivale as a constituted force. depopulation peopleresults and thiswiththemeansofartor withthemeansto whichartcontributes.15. or what could have happened?" (as opposed to the conte. becoming-imperceptible. Conjugality. This is how our life is made: not only the great molar ensembles (States. as elementsof an ensemble.saying thatliterature is theaffair ofthepeople. determinedterritories. F. p.Neverhas he needed a people as much.on the philosopheras State functionary thinkers" (Kant). . including personal idenWe tity. woman). thatthepeopleare essential. The line of hard order to guarantee and control the identityof each moment.consistsofnumerouscollectiveassemof enunciation regarding: 1) becoming-intense (child.and Klee. The Vertical Axis On the verticalaxis of the Assemblage.where Deleuze and Guattari experimentwith three nouvelles (short stories by Henry James. the customers. but persons as rapportsbetweenpersonsare segmented. and on the distinction between the "method"of a striatedspace (cogitatio as opposed to the universalis) of thoughtin smooth space of Zen.233 on Sun.These pointthatthepeopleare lacking. are notpopularorpopulist it'sMallarm6 whocan saythat theBookneeds artists.the beginningand the end of a segeverything ment. Three nouvelles or 'What happened?' ") is the sole plateau that is explicitlyliterary. classes). . plateau 12. 239). 467). Having establishedthe nouvelle the question "What happened. lines which correspondto three forms of territoriality: a. MP. the functionof the literaryelement is demonstrative: the beyond exemplaryfunctionexplored above. or molar line." the woman telegraphoperator'slifeis segmentedpreciselyby her daily activity.26 CharlesJ.Thus theproblem saying oftheartist is thatmodern of the in an open earth.but no becoming" (MP. Plateau 8 ("1874. manifestedin textsby Artaud exteriority (lettersto Jacques Riviere) and Kleist ("A propos of the progressive elaboration of thoughts while speaking") (p. pp. feelings in a way that does not trouble or disperse. asking "What's going to happen?").and Kafka. In James's story"In the Cage. theirsocial classes (which affect how theymake use of the tele- This content downloaded from 129. institutions. 468).131.

" Deleuze and Guattari locate an initialtype of line whichreveals that"lifenever ceases to be bound to a progressively harder and witheredsegmentarity" (p. This movement of molecularization appears in "The Crack Up" as subtle. who operate with a simple scope and sometimeswith "the terribleray-scope. and by the segmentsof proximity (the neighboringgrocery)and feeling fiance's for the plans future). Thus.a line of hard segmentarity where everybody will be judged and rectifiedaccording to their individual or collective contours" (p." a laser ray which overcodes everything:"It works in flesh and blood. It is on this line that a present is defined whose very form is that of somethingwhich happened. the coming of fascism. the rise of cinema. and the physicsof'short-seers' traces [are] in the service of this machine. James's storyreveals the line of supple segmentation. 240). this line of hard segmentarityis one which "puts into play large masses" (p. despite an initial suppleness. 239). Such a line is located in Fleutiaux's nouvelle "Storyofthe Pit and the Scope""5 as one kind of overseer (surveillant). (the In Fitzgerald's"The Crack Up. an intensity beyond which one can go no further" As "the second kind [of breakage] (p. nature.geometryas State business. At a given moment." Thus. alcoholism. supple micro-ruptures.e. loss of riches. these sexes. . already.15. which concern flows and particles escaping these classes. not arborescent. . 243).or molecular line." p. 243). "molecular changes. micro-politics"(p. This content downloaded from 129. marital break-up. p.always exteriorto themselves. 245)."14i. men and women. Fitzgerald presents it. fatigue and old age. since the elusive matter of this something is entirelymolecularized. 242). or in Deleuze and Guattari's terms. it is not in the same way: one only ages here when one does not feel it on the other [hard] line. seized at birth like in a moonbeam or on an intensivescale" (MP. and thenless localizable rapports. almost without it but is realized happens your knowing suddenlyindeed" ("The Crack Up. . or seem to come. 242).131. at speeds which exceed the ordinary threshholdsof perception" (p. two politics (macro and micro).233 on Sun. a quantum. and one perceives [aging] on the other line only when 'that' has already happened on this [supple] one. this firstform"effectively a line which is no longer of writing. . the "short-seers" those (les courts-voyeurs).Literary Element in Mille Plateaux 27 graph). 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . these persons. . but is only pure geometry. such and such a person). or "two very distincttypes of relations: intrinsicrelations of couples putting into play well determinedaggregates or elements (social classes. no matterhow close one may be to it. the loss of success and talent. b. one has reached a degree. The passionate complicitywhich develops between the telegraphoperator and an unknown customerparallels the determined relationship with her fiance. which does not correspond to ages on the other [hard] line.of Stalinism. "economic crises. Deleuze and Guattari offer the example of the aging process: "If aging occurs on this [supple] line.all the more disturbingin their subtlety:this segmentation differs fromthe hard segmentarity by its rhizomatic. redistributionsof desire . consistingof"big sudden blows thatcome. in the telegraphitself. 69).marked by quantawhich are like so many little acts of segmentations in action.preciselywhere Fitzgerald will find his genius" (p. "a supple flow. 243). fromoutside..

theory are always together"(p. 244). 241). In "The Crack Up. or abstractlines are reached by the telegraph operator of "In the Cage" when she can go no further." her secretdeveloping from"the formof somethingwhose matterwas molecularized.28 Charles J.each will go his and her own way. 243). While "thissecond line is inseparable fromthe anonymous segmentationwhich produced it. lines or vibrationswhich are tracedwell beforethe contours" (p. of deterritorialization. He paintedhimself grayon gray"(pp. One has become like everybody. Becoming like everyone. semiotics. imperceptible. . One has entered into animal-becomings. she leftthe black holes.non-localized particles" (p. having undone love in order to become capable of loving.but it is always in the formof the becoming of somethingwhich has already happened in molecular matter. like an arrowcrossing deterritorialization: throughemptiness.explodingthe two others: when the narrator says that his experience led him "to the idea that the ones who had survivedhad made some sortof clean break"("The Crack Up. This movement of the second line can be compared to biology.A cleanbreakis something that you cannotcomeback from..131. which was rather like the explosion of both segmentaryseries. to "molecular lines which criss-crossinside huge cells and their divisions. 81) In other words. whichare onlyforthosewho wantto paint themor sail them.more subterranean connections or stems" (p. . Fitzgerald suggests a progressivemovement toward absolute "One is no more than an abstractline.e. finallyimperceptible-becomings" (p. c. She broke through a wall.("The CrackUp. yet everythinghad changed for the operator: she reached a "line which no longer admitted segments at all. . . the danger of exasperatingthembeyond our endurance" (p."theirprivileged position "beyond" the vision of the "short- This content downloaded from 129. molecular becomings. practice. .unassignable" to a pure abstractline. "becoming imperceptible oneself. 245). The line offlight. politics. i." p.15. is irretrievable because itmakesthepastcease to exist. not him/herself on the world. 241-242). 81). Stivale The micro-segmentation throughthe "longemerges in Fleutiaux's nouvelle seers" (les longs-voyeurs) whose vision does not overcode." the thirdline is one ofrupture." the "long-seers""can guess the future.233 on Sun. In Fleutiaux's nouvelle." p."how hard and overcuttingsegmentsare recut nature.. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "vibrationswhichtraverseus.but in a way in which no one can become like everybody. . 246). 246).. . Nothing happened between the operator and the customer. Deleuze and Guattari maintain that "Fitzgerald here opposes the break [both] to structuralpseudo-cuts in so-called signifying chains" and to "subtler. and to meet the true double at the other end of the line. but this is precisely a becoming only forhe who knows how to be no one. The narrator continues: The famous"Escape" or "runaway from in a trapeven it all" is an excursion ifthe trapincludesthe southseas. but rather perceives "miniscule movements which do not wait to happen on the borders. to no longerbe anyone." as well as to society.One has painted the world on him/herself. . underneath by segmentationsof a different the supple segmentationis both a subject of politics and of perception"forperception." But in Fleutiaux's nouvelle. the third line appears only through the ambiguity of the "long-seers. Having undone one's own self/ego (moi) to be alone finally.

238). Death and Reality .'7 2. a 'long-seer'will abandon his/hersegment. its uninterrupted of desire. there is hesitation between two courses. and "one day . without referenceto any exteriorinstance. lines which bring about the variation of the line of writingitself. 247). while Spinoza's Ethicsis hailed as "the great book on the BwO" (p.15.16 It is clear that these are not simply terms of a literaryanalysis."thefield ofimmanence the veryplane ofconsistence of desire (there where desire is defined as process of production. . lines which language must follow. to any lack which would come up to deepen desire. . "To do away with the judgement of God. continuum. depending on the particular system of coordinates retained" (pp. between two phases of the BwO (one forits fabrication. it elucidates lines which can be those Schizoanalysis practical object: of a life as well as those of a work of literatureor art. 248-249). These are lines by which we and our map are crisscrossed and traced. We want to show a is as that the nouvelle defined functionof living lines. of a society.233 on Sun. They draw certain distinctionsbetween types (genres. penetrate and are penetrated. Artaud's essay. look acceding. 190).. paranoid body. Thus. will leave on a line of flight. on the supple. to any pleasure which would come to satisfy it)" (p."where"one can never arrive. "lines ofwritingconjugate withotherlines. 186).Tao. masochist body [p.How to Make Yourself a Body Without Organs"). substantial attributes)of BwO (hypochondriac body. a fieldof immanencewhere desire lacks nothing and henceforth no longer refers to any exterior or This content downloaded from 129. seeking a blind Double who advances from the other end" (p." a limiton which "we sleep. 193). 188-190]).the other formaking intensitiespass and circulate on it [pp. because forDeleuze and Guattari." dated 28 November 1947. molecular line. And the literaryelement is evoked as the sole means to exemplify three aspects of the BwO. .Pleasure. between an individual BwO and an eventual ensemble of BwO. with neither imaginary figuresnor symbolic functions:the real of the BwO. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . awaken.Literary Element in Mille Plateaux 29 seers" who nonetheless possess the dreaded "cuttingScope" (Lunette ai dicouper) and to whom the "long-seers" must finally answer. . where everythingis traced and flees.who opposes the immanentfieldof desire withthreeprinciples . and Burroughs's Naked Lunch help illustratetypes and phases of the BwO. love" (p. the abstract line itself.lines on the hardest of which a signifier emerges and into the lowest of which the subject is born. lines "inscribed on a Body without organs. has noother . where concept or. Deleuze and Guattari once again return to the puzzling of the Body withoutOrgans (BwO). schizo and drugged bodies. lines of good and bad luck. For example.will enter a narrow passway over the black pit. know unheard of happiness and fabulous falls.courtlylove is presented not as lack or as the ideal oftranscendence. ."where"one has never finished beat and are beaten. for our place. 191). .but as "a conquered statewhere desire no longer lacks anything.lines which are between thelineswritten.131. Chinese taoist treatises reveal the circulation and multiplicitiesof intensities "an intensive constituting body withoutorgans. 186]). lifelines.having broken his/herscope.lines of flesh"(p. fight. In Plateau 6 ("28 November 19477." "one never arrives. against the modern priestlyfigure of the psychoanalyst."practice. is filled by itselfand builds its field of immanence" (p. as theyinsist.

And these to strata the Body without Organs opposes "disarticula(p.plane ofconsistence. signifiance and thisprocess disarticulation. 197-198)18 For Deleuze and Guattari. They maintain thatthe organismis but one ofthreegreatstratawhichbind us the mostdirectly. programs. 196) vibrations. ofintensities. tion (or n articulations) as propertyof the plane of consistence. . like producedintensities. or in a stratumwhich blocks flowsand fixes us on our present world" (p. necessarilya Collective This content downloaded from 129. the othersbeing signifiance and subjectivation:"theorganism'ssurface. nomadism).to ascertain hereand there theconjuncpossiblelinesofflight. 197). for revealed whatitis. occurs in Artaud's Hiliogabale which humaras.15.or and The Taraplateau. . remissions. such was Castaneda's experimentationin Tales renounc"allies. To connect.(pp. becoming-molecular. of becoming-animal. experimentation as operation on this plane. to experiment withthechancesit offers us. "to constructflowby flowand segmentby segmentthe lines ing interpretation. ofintensity tionofflows.elucidating fora BwO. productions.131. of maketheassemblagerockgently. to try out continuums segment by segment. waysofbeingor modalities breaths. to go back through the stratato themoreprofound wherewe are caught.Numbers. in us. alwaysto of new It is a have a little land. For the BwO is all that: necessarilya Site. Furthermore. wherethereare no gods. experimentation. necessarilya Plane. etc. wherewe are now. offlows. Therein lies the great tension and movement along the vertical axis between and subjectivation) and destratification stratification (in organisms. first to see how it is stratified forus. of to try themout. continuous intensities to conjugate. theconnection ofdesires. to look therefora favorable siteofeventualmovements ofdeterritorialization. .233 on Sun. meticulous withthe piece by following rapport stratathatwe succeedin liberating linesof flight. an entire to continue: and subjective "diagram" againstsignifying We are in a social formation. .the angle the point of subjectivation or of subjugation" of signifiance and interpretation. One has constructed readydepending to plug intoothercollective on the circumstances machines. Stivale transcendent criteria" (p. 196). to make assemblage It is onlytherethatthe BwO is it pass to the side of theplane ofconsistence. flows causingtheconjugated to pass and to flee. and if one remains closed in the organism. 196). "precisely the operation of He who makes an organism" (p. Deleuze and Guattari assert that the Body without Organs "is not opposed to this organization of organs called organism"(p. fusability like forces. nomadism as movement"(pp. . 197)."then finding ofPower. (by of disarticulation sums up the key methodology of Deleuze and Guattari's project: To installoneself on a stratum. 195). 197-198). continuum conjunction a little machineforoneself.(p. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .substances. which forArtaud was the systemof God's judgment.30 Charles J. elements. express: as infinite offusion. These two works by Artaud also address another problem: "The difficulty of attaining this world of crowned Anarchy if one relies on organs ." then afterprogressively seekinga "site. and this region of continuous intensity. ofwhich the BwO is made. principles essences. Matter themultiplicity zero.

destratification).. [but] just the opposite: . is thecrucialstrategy ofrhizomatics oftheliterary element and cartography: to revealthenatureoftheintensities tracedon a plane ofconsistence. now desiring one's own annihilation.Elementin Mille Plateaux Literary 31 elements. BwO's on thedebrisofstrata. "one variations body. of of but also BwO of the the the the State. As Deleuze and Guattari theliterary concludein "Introduction: Rhihas for itsfabric theconjunction 'and . .but 'me' on it. becoming. and all the on thismap". the distributionof the intensive This content downloaded from 129. "totalitarian and etc. terrifying plane thefull BwO'son assemblages capable ofplugging intodesire. and . It does suffice BwO. plants." wherehe threatens whichwas nota map ofgeography" ofDeleuze and (p. 202). their indefinite at theheartofa collecwith articles. ofthecity. on theBwO. the opposite of the memory of childhood. Their use and thendestratify..233 on Sun. army. to distinguish thecancerous BwO from thefull Justas Artaudattempted ofGod" and especially in his "Letter BwO in "To do away withthejudgment to unleasha flowagainstHitleronto"a map to Hitler. of the stepsof disarticulaon thisdescription and Guattariare so insistent oftherestratification/reterit is to avoid thedangers tion/deterritorialization. 203-204). thecontinuity of genres. . positive in an assemblageand following tive or a multiplicity. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . stratification) (thefreeing if And Deleuze BwO. theZero intensity ofproduction". the strictcontemporarynature of the adult. theirmap of comparative densities and intensities. what remainsof me. and theempty therefore todistinguish a too violent destratification. operating by whichwe thepowerto annihilate" ofcartography: (pp. on the is themilieuofpureintensity. . crossing threshholds)" (pp.' [in which] there is enough strength to shake and uproot the verb 'to desire. factory. BwO like ritorialization signifiance. . fragments things. "desire. ingthe"island" (organism. machinic connections on a as what we desire and that BwO". reasonsoforgans. or subjects onto"cancerous" oforganisms. and his/her signifiance. . offlows and thenagual ofintensity on the judgment.' "certain literary by"moving and . accomplished connections. as spatium the "block of childhood. of of the of the liberation lines Tales Power offers flight. now desiring that which has . thecartography and thendeterritorialize.ofeffectively their continuous taking chargeofdesire. .. in alterableand changing as "theegg [which] BwO defined the diversely as principle and nottheextensio." just as "therhizome works serve direction torevealthisrhizomatic be. (assembling of all thatbecause thereis no 'my'bodywithout organs. nota sliced. oftheParty. God. . 204). One must through cancerous still takeintoaccount BwO in a proliferating stratum" (pp.ofassuring theirtransversal liaisons"(p. . 201-202). zome.shattered bodyor organs without body.. of animal-and molecular-becoming.131. example of 199-200). "theidentity theensemble of all theBwO can be obtained on a planeofconsistence an abstract machine onlyby capable ofcovering theplane and eventracing it.animals. whiledistinguishand unleashing continuous intensities offlows ofthetonal thesubject. ."a counter-process engendering not fascist caricatures of the of consistence. strata territories to discern Guattariseeksto delimit to definearticulations and thendisarticulate.19Such are the stakes "money (inflation). by the use of element. of the child and of the adult.

All references in thetextto thislatter are abbreviated translation R. 1 (1978).buta perpendicular a transversal movement which carries onwardboth direction." providing flow botha constant ofintensities between making.233 on Sun. Capitalism byRobertHurley. (1970. sion"between does not a localizablerelation whichgoesfrom to another one thing things designate and viceversa. initiating ontology. and whilethe original editiondoes not includethemachinic the subsequent revisions concepts. Stivale. bringing anynumber of"regimes of signsor even statesof non-signs" (R. 1971.1972). and 3) thesecondpositive theinvestments of the task.32 CharlesJ. 1978).Pourunelittirature (Paris: Minuit. all references 2. 4. by theabstract along whichtheychangetheirnatureby connecting themselves withothers" (R. itis always in themiddle. 1977).1976)hasappearedin translation byPaul Foss and Paul Patton underthesame titlein Ideology andConsciousness. "a wholescouring oftheunconscious. and (Sydney:Feral. FelixGuattari. For therole ofliterature in Anti-Oedipus. 2) thefirst in a subject thenature.Dialogue (Paris: La Rdvolution Minuit. between buttheexpresin-between. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."whereby schizo-analysis schizophrenizes unconscious desireof the social field" (AO." composed ofsegmentarity or stratification offlight ordeterritorialization "as themaximal dimen(dimensions). no. ofmultiplicity: ofa One as subject or object.1980). theformatask. L'Anti-Oedipe: etSchizophrenie. 8 (1981). 1979). in Semiotext(e). 1976) progressively 7. the toolsformapcancelingend and beginning. 1975). (Paris: Recherches. 339). p. therhizome 3. andSubbyDeleuze and Guattari Sexuality version II. p. a centered hierarchical with connecrelation.131. pp.the 1 & 2. 8. MarkSeem. and the creation Pragan overarching of rhizomatics. positions system pre-established "the rhizome is an acentered. ofasignifying rather thana structure ofpointsin binary relation and 4."GillesDeleuze and F6lix Guattari:Schizoanalysis and Literary 29 (1981). take accountof more recentresearch. translated as Anti-Oedipus: Capitalisme andSchizophrenia. reversing betweenthings. p.15. non-hierarchical and non-signifying oflines: tions. in the textto thistranslation are abbreviated AO. ofanyinterpretations" independently (AO. III. 5. in thetext Capitalisme are my own translations and are abbreviated MP. p. GillesDeleuze and FblixGuattari. 36-37). theline of flight by theirexterior. Withsomeexceptions: varioustexts in Language." things. overthrowing the foundation. begins intermezzo." byundoing Oedipal trapofrepression"(AO. I (Paris: Minuit."SubStance. 350). 64). MillePlateaux: II (Paris: Minuit. all references etSchizophrenie. maticconstituting strategy NOTES 1. 1964). theprinciples rhizome connects with aboutconnections with anyother indiscriminately point. Gilles Deleuze and Claire Parnet. The tasksof schizo-analysis are defined in Anti-Oedipus as follows:1) thedestructive task. Stivale a logic ofAND. plotting moving plateaux. no. Semiotext(e).GillesDeleuze and CarmeloBene. p. 311. theprinciple rupture: in bi-univocal thatis. "stream or end whichdevoursbothof itsbanksand picks without beginning of the semiotic up speed in the middle"(pp. 3. Discourse. 54). The six rhizomatic are: principles ofconnection and heterogeneity: as opposedto treeor rootmodels. 46-57."discovering positive tionor thefunctioning ofhisdesiring-machines. a complete "the curettage. Deleuze had previously theworks ofProust in Proust etlessignes analyzed (Paris:PUF. one thingand the other" (MP. 3 (1977). 6. Lane (NewYork:Viking. This meansthat"a rhizomeneither norarrives. mineure Kafka. pp. 1979). 322). 64). 1977).and L'Inconscient moldculaire machinique (Paris:Recherches. see CharlesJ. theprinciple opposedtoanyconcept "constitutes n-dimensional linearmultiplicities without subjector object"(R. Rhizome: introduction (Paris: Minuit. all references in the textare abbreviated K.1977). system. and which "are defined or deterritorialization line.Superpositions (Paris:Minuit. This content downloaded from 129.and HelenR. 36-37).

51). This content downloaded from 129. 342-343. 161. 210). flight" (R. H. V. ontological dualismofhereand blendor synthesis. D. .a grafting multiplicity to the the basic unity. Kafka. . hand. Miller. 374-376). 167. 64-65). eveninfortreein theFreudianinterpretation cinatory linguistics ofthebookis theradicle-system. V. F. "theOne whichbecomestwo.Elementin Mille Plateaux Literary 33 in following lineofflight]. pp.turned upsidedown. 308.1972).of ambivalence alwayssupplementary its object"(R. It is not a there." 14.Fitzgerald.Lovecraft. . Miller(pp. sionaccording to which. and Castaneda (p.which is constantly setup and dismantled. Michaux. there signifying whoselaw is thatofreflection. to arborescent linesofthetree-image.Kafka (pp. 12. 360-361). thepowerto affect and be affected" (MP. 304.V. Deleuze and Guattariare quick to qualify thisgeographic "At the same time. 318-321).withitslinesof a map withmultiple entrances nected. 327-333).Faulkner.Faulkner. 13.1956). p. For further disArtaud.233 on Sun. H. mationtheory" hand. 338-340. PierreKlossowski (p.woman): V. Moran. category and of a processwhichis constantly whichcontinually breaksoff and beginsagain" prolonged. their own ever morerigidhierarchy. . Tournier. TheGarden and the in Twentieth Literature and Culture Map: Schizophrenia Century of IllinoisPress. Lawrence. . 1973). 164). even less any parquestionof any particular place on earth." see the translation of plateau 15.Nietzsche. Woolf. Deleuze and Guattari oppose thebook as rhizome or "theclassicalbookwithitsfineorganicinteriority. and exits. 4) theconcept and a latitude. Kleist. M. Slepian. "Conclusion. 10. Woolf.TheCrack Up (New York: New axiologicaldualismof good and bad. p. It is a question ofa model. thatrhizomes also have their own despotism. see JohnVernon. of"hecc6it6" is defined: "On muchthe distributions. Lawrence. Proust.Referring of elaboratesecondary roots" maintaining (R. and tracing-mania: sincethelines of segmentarity and 5 & 6. to otherfigures ofthebook: on theone 9. Woolf.-P. Specificreferences to thesecollective are the following: assemblages 1) becoming-intense (child. [where] is in a relation ofmovement and everything restbetween molecules or particles. 318): C.Fitzgerald (pp. Kierkegaard." triumphs acceding"to a higher impededin theobject. a verydifferent We reserve forit thename ofhecceit6 .Langages totalitaires (Paris: Hermann. Melville'sMoby Hofmannsthal. 173).V. writings maintains thedualism. 336-337.Proust." logic This "reality.Hofmannsthal. J. Castaneda.1976). pp."i. and Paul Virilio.Lovecraft.131.thesecondfigure (R. pp. Miller. 63-64).H. and structuralism. writing: cussionof thisconceptof "hecc~it6." reality which are multiply in nature are notdichotomic. forthere is no dualism. (Urbana: University 11. welland good.1976). fiedbothlaterally systems psychoanalysis (thehalluofSchreber). There is a body is defined onlyby a longitude mode of individuation thanthatof a person. 316-318.a subject.15. 345-350). ScottFitzgerald. twoelements of cartography. [this morphoses" (R. the principles of cartography relatesto a map. Bronte. . H. (R. unity.a thing.Essaisurl'insicuriti du territoire (Paris: Stock. themultiplicity metachangesitsnature.H61lderin. p. thereby in Nietzsche's ofJoyce's and to the"eternal return" so-called"multiple roots" aphorisms. p. HenryMiller operatein reference (pp. 64-65). butform ramithemselves taproot systems ("roots "constitutes stilldominating and radically"). V. or fasciculated onto the principal indefinite root. H.Artaud. 3) becoming-imperceptible: P." whichthe authors insistdoes not occur as "thespiritual of the root-tree. 69. Slepian. Kerouac. . Pierrette Fleutiauxin Histoire du Gouffre etde la Lunette (Paris: Julliard. Faye. exists theroot-book. vis-a-vis N. 293. Sarraute.whilea new typeofunity in a dimension to thatof or ofoverdetermination. D.ofnatural reality reality: unity tarity in thesubject. 2) becoming-animal: Lawrence."thecomplementhe authorsargue thatsuch a "deconstructive" system and spiritual is endlessly thwarted and ofsubject and object. p.nor any givenmoment ticular ofthought. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "therhizome lines of flight are contrary and is alwayscapable of being connected and disconwhichmustbe producedor constructed. Proust(pp. Woolf(pp. For a superb discussion ofschizophrenia and literature written at thesametimeas Anti-Oedipus. 15. If it is a questionofshowing better.e. 157). Otherliterary machineassemblages to Borges(p.D. Dick. 172. binary and subjective. specificity: we are on thewrongtrack withall thesegeographical At an impasse.. "hecc6ite" Bradbury. On theother rootof "an immediate. no American in history.modified. H. or a substance. 298-299. 51). 52).

18. Deleuze and Guattari. offlight. where between swarms and moves'through cracks. "Conclusion. 'hypothetical perception direction whichopens indicated' two. 17. Series."SocialText. "Lignes deJacques deJulesValles. 8 (1984).131. segmentations. 18 Aug 2013 02:18:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Stivale. XII (University of South Carolina.'theangleoftransparency' merely bytheangleoftheother a new space?"(MP. twothings.constantly one to jumpingfrom theother.Will his salvation come from a third line ofperception. 'everything myriad hero'sdifficulty is thathe cannotchoosebetween thetwolines." French Literature vol.15. wheremicro-forms emergeintothe traits. desigperception. in a footnote.233 on Sun." de Revolte dansla Trilogie French Studies Nineteenth-Century Vingtras (forthdeJules Vallesdansla Trilogie deJacques Entre and "La Signature Vingtras: coming). natedhollowness thatis coded. exampleof thispractice.34 CharlesJ." This content downloaded from 129. Stivale 16. For an articulation linesin a particular see Charles ofthese work. Further discussion ofthe"Bodywithout and the"planeofconsistence" Organs" maybe found in the translation of plateau 15. madeoffine andmoving perception. overcoded (it'sa perception bythewalls:don'tsitbeside in a molecular hischair. literary J.). forthcoming).Buthe is alsoinvolved of autonomous whereholesemergeintothefullness. Culture: Some Observations on Rock 'n Roll in AmericanCulture. pp. The emptiness. For a concrete "The PoliticsofYouth see LawrenceGrossberg. linesofperception" in another consider the"three nouvelle de transparence): "The herohas by Fleutiaux. 19. Autobiographie et Fiction."The Last Angleof Transparency" angle (Le Dernier a molar on wholesand well-cut whichfocuses and clearly on fullness elements. 246-247).inherited. etc.