You are on page 1of 57

Mustafa Lahloub, ABB INC April 16, 2013

ABB Red TIE Series Transformer Failure Modes
© ABB Inc. 2013

Transformer Failure Modes Agenda
Primary Causes of Transformer Failure  Balancing the “three leg stool”  Thermal degradation  Dielectric withstand  Mechanical performance  Causes of insulation system degradation  Identification of failure vulnerabilities – including key transformer components

© ABB Inc. 2013

Transformer Failure Modes Core Form Transformer

© ABB Inc. 2012

Transformer Failure Modes Stresses Acting on Power Transformers

Mechanical Stresses

Between conductors, leads and windings due to overcurrents or fault currents caused by short circuits and inrush currents Due to local overheating, overload currents and leakage fluxes when loading above nameplate ratings; malfunction of cooling equipment Due to system overvoltages, transient impulse conditions or internal resonance of windings

Thermal Stresses

Dielectric Stresses

© ABB Inc. 2012

Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
The fault current is governed by:

  

Open-circuit voltage Source impedance Instant of fault onset

Displacement of current
© ABB Inc. 2012

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers    A short circuit gives rise to:  Mechanical forces  Temperature rise The transformer must be designed so that permanent damage does not take place Electromagnetic forces tend to increase the volume of high flux  Inner winding to reduced radius  Outer winding towards increased radius  Winding height reduction © ABB Inc.

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Effect of the radial forces on windings Fmean Inner winding Outer winding Radial forces inwards  compressive stress Radial forces outwards  tensile stress © ABB Inc.

Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers  Radial forces result in:  Buckling for inner windings  Increased radius for outer windings  Spiraling of end turns in helical winding Inner winding © ABB Inc. 2012 Outer winding .

Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Effect of the axial forces on windings The radial component of the leakage flux creates forces in axial direction Axial short circuit forces accumulate towards winding mid-height © ABB Inc. 2012 .

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers – Axial B B Fax Fax Axial imbalance will create extra axial forces B B Fax Fax The forces tend to increase the imbalance © ABB Inc.

Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers .Radial Failure mode Buckling: Characteristic failure mode for inner winding Failure mode Spiraling: Characteristic failure mode for inner and outer winding © ABB Inc. 2012 .

Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Two examples showing buckling of inner windings © ABB Inc. 2012 .

Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Axial force failure modes:  Collapse of winding end support  Tilting of winding conductors  Telescoping of windings  Bending of cables between spacers  Damage of conductor insulation © ABB Inc. 2012 .

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Failure mode Collapse of end support Failure mode Bending of cables Failure mode Conductor tilting © ABB Inc.

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers  Axial forces cause:  Mechanical stress on insulation material  Risk for conductor tilting © ABB Inc.

Massachusetts © ABB Inc. 2012 . Originally taken by The General Electric Company at Pittsfield.Transformer Failure Modes Short-Circuit Failure Unit Auxiliary Test Transformer Failure Internal High Speed Film Camera Footage © ABB Inc.

© ABB Inc.Movies should be screened in the grey area as featured here. 2012 . size proportion 4:3. No titles should be used.

Transformer Failure Modes Risk: Short Circuit Forces & Stresses Through faults are often the cause of transformer failures  Many older designs have insufficient margin for today’s fault currents  Loose coils due to aging can cause failures  Normal aging can cause brittle insulation and increased failures  Even brief overloading may cause significant aging  Oxygen in the oil can double the aging rate  Moisture in the insulation increases aging rate 2-5 times depending on the amount of moisture © ABB Inc. 2012 .

Results of the Short-Circuit Strength Design Analysis used in a Life Assessment Study © ABB Inc. 2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Mechanical Risk: Short Circuit Forces & Stresses Little Risk of Failure Design Margin Slight Risk of Failure Design #1 Design #2 High Risk of Failure Design #3 Design #4 HV Radial HV Axial LV Radial LV Axial (Hoop) (tipping or (Buckling) (tipping or crushing) crushing) LTC Winding Radial (Buckling) LTC Winding Axial (tipping) Figure 3.

especially within the windings Temperature limits are based on:  Expected lifetime  The risk for oil vaporization Permissible temperatures are generally expressed as temperature rises above ambient Ambient temperature is in turn defined by current standards  24 hour ambient temperature average 30° C  Maximum ambient 40° C In accordance to Standards:  Winding temperature rise 65° K  Top oil temperature rise 65° K  Hot spot temperature rise 80° K © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers      Loading is primarily limited by highest permissible temperatures in the transformer. 2012 .

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Winding Temperature Rise and HS Calculation Winding hot spot Top oil rise hot spot factor Winding average rise Copper over tank oil gradient Copper over winding oil gradient Winding Ambient Bottom oil Temperature © ABB Inc.

Transformer Failure Modes Thermal Risk: Intensive aging © ABB Inc. 2012 .

Transformer Failure Modes Thermal Risk: Intensive aging © ABB Inc. 2012 .

These chains form the fiber used to make insulation. 2012 . Cellulose Fiber Chain © ABB Inc. Reduction of this Polymerization number occurs during manufacture of the insulation material and the transformer.Transformer Failure Modes Cellulose Insulation      Cellulose insulation is a polymer of glucose molecules. Natural chains may be up to 1400 elements long. The glucose molecules are joined together to form a long chain.

etc).DP    Degree of polymerization is a measure of the number of intact chains in a cellulose fiber.Transformer Failure Modes Degree of Polymerization . 2012 . New transformer insulation is about 1200 -1000 DP. © ABB Inc. It provides an indication of the ability of the transformer insulation to withstand mechanical force (due to through-faults.

Insulation between windings may however loose some dielectric strength due to absorbing moisture.)  Oxidation due to Oxygen. (Moisture in transformer)  Pyrolysis due to heat. Windings hot spots are more affected than the insulation between the windings as the host spot areas age faster.Transformer Failure Modes Factors affecting DP  Chemical reactions cause de-polymerization (breaking of polymer chains):  Hydrolysis due to water. (Oxygen in oil)  Acidity of the oil also accelerates this process. This reduces the insulation mechanical strength and the windings become more vulnerable to physical damage or dielectric failure during through-faults. humidity and oxygen. overloads.…etc. Aging occurs at normal load and ambient temperature but it is accelerated by high insulation temperature. (Hot spots.    © ABB Inc. 2012 .

0 10.0 Dry & Clean (Insuldur) Acidic Oil (Insuldur) 1000. 200 at the end of life. 1. keep acidity and oxygen concentration of oil low and provide good cooling for insulation © ABB Inc. it is important to keep the insulation dry.0 L ife E x p e c ta n c y (y e a rs ) 1% Water Content (Insuldur) 3-4% Water Content (Insuldur) 100.0 1.1 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Temperature [o C] For long insulation life expectancy. This graph shows the expected life of thermally upgraded insulation (Insuldur) under various conditions: 10000.Transformer Failure Modes Life Expectancy Based on DP and Other Factors It is assumed that the DP of transformer insulation is approx.000 at the start of life and approx.0 0. 2012 .

Transformer Failure Modes Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Life Expectancy Based on DP and Other Factors © ABB Inc. 2012 .

measurements in one area of the transformer can give information on the condition of paper in inaccessible areas of the windings.Transformer Failure Modes DP Measurement Method  The DP is measured by viscosity measurements according an ASTM method after dissolving the paper samples in cupriethylene diamine solvent.  © ABB Inc. 2012 .  Paper samples must be taken from enough different areas in a transformer in order to get a profile of deterioration of the cellulose When combined with detailed design knowledge.

usually at much higher levels than the power frequency stresses © ABB Inc. 2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Dielectric Stresses in Power Transformers Overvoltage integrity  Overvoltages can be divided into two classes:  Continuous  Transitory   Continuous overvoltage is related to the core and its magnetization (“normal” 50Hz or 60 Hz stresses) Transitory overvoltage refers to intermittent stresses placed on the insulation system.

applied on the line terminals. 2012 .  Transient calculations are used to find the time dependent distribution of transient voltages.Transformer Failure Modes Dielectric Stresses in Power Transformers Transient Voltages  Lightning and switching impulse surges are called “Transients” because their duration is short. © ABB Inc. over the windings.  The frequencies are much higher than the power frequency (60 Hz here) operation frequency.

4 0.8 0.2 0 0 0.0 1 0.7 0.1 0.4 2 4 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.Transformer Failure Modes Dielectric Stresses in Power Transformers Winding oscillation Û 0.0 h/H © ABB Inc.8 u Voltage 0.9 1.3 Winding Winding length 3 0.6 1. 2012 .

Main Insulation Design 2 D Field Plot 2 D field plots can be used to check the design of the main insulation © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes Dielectric Stresses . 2012 .

2012 Field distribution over the barriers and HV-LV windings .Transformer Failure Modes Analysis of Bushing Failure    525 kV unit – assumed bushing failure Simulation showed electric stress was greatest on the paper insulation around the shield ring Used simulation to redesign insulation barriers FLC evaluation CAD-model © ABB Inc.

dust & debris affecting bushings & cooling systems  Cooling System inefficiency  COPS Tank elevation  Blocking or Wedging In 1998. Hartford Steam Boiler projected:  2% annual failure rate of existing installed base in 2008  5% annual failure rate of existing installed base by 2013 © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes    Top transformer failures (78%) from Doble:  43% winding insulation  19% bushings  16% tap changers Other areas of concern:  Pollution. 2012 .

Frequency response analysis 4. Electrical method 16. 13. M=Medium. OFF-L = equipment out of service in laboratory. Equivalent Hydrogen method THERMAL OIL-PAPER DETERIORATION 8. Invasive sensors 11. Table 3-1. etc. Moisture. Dielectric Frequency Response MECHANICAL ABB Service Handbook for Transformers. 2012 . ON = equipment in service [2] H=High. Infrared thermography OIL ANALYSIS 12. electric strength. Page 72 [1] OFF-S = equipment out of service at site. Excitation Current 2. Capacitance GAS-IN-OIL ANALYSIS 6. resistivity. Furan Analysis HOTSPOT DETECTION 10. Gas chromatography 7.Transformer Failure Modes / Diagnostic Techniques Highly Effective On-line Actions are Best PROBLEMS DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES SERVICE CONDITIONS OF THE EQUIPMENT[1] OFF-S OFF-S OFF-S OFF-S OFF-S ON ON ON ON ON ON ON OFF-S ON ON OFF-S OFF-S PROVEN EFFECTIVENESS[2] M L H M/H H H M M/H M/H L H M L M/H M/H H H 1. Ultrasonic method 15. L=Low © ABB Inc. Leakage inductance measurement 5. Low-voltage impulse 3. Power Factor and Capacitance 17. Turns ratio DIELECTRIC PD MEASUREMENT 14. Liquid chromatography-DP method 9.

2012 .© ABB Inc.

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Solutions to Common Problems Exist Upgrade and retrofit solutions to alleviate a number of know and unknown operating risks including:         Streaming Electrification Nitrogen Gas Bubble Evolution COPS System Elevation GE Mark II Clamping Shell Form Rewedging GE Type U Bushings Cooling Problems LTC Problems © ABB Inc.

to investigate high acetylene level in the DGA End-to-end measurements on HV windings and capacitive interwinding tests between HV and LV showed a problem on phase B  © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes Case #1 – Floating Shield between HV and LV  FRA tests were performed on a 42-MVA transformer. 115/46 kV (delta-wye). 2012 .

Transformer Failure Modes Case #1 – Floating Shield between HV and LV  The fault was a loose electric contact of the copper bonding braid on the aluminum shield strips which caused the strips to “float” electrically © ABB Inc. 2012 .

212 kV/ 110 kV/ 10. © ABB Inc. before and after the repair of the core.5 kV. The first core-related resonance is clearly modified by the fault: the shorted laminations caused a decrease in the core magnetizing inductance (increase in resonance frequency) and an increase in the eddy currents in the core (increased damping). 2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Case #2 – Shorted Core Laminations   The measurements were performed on a three-phase transformer rated 250 MVA.

Transformer Failure Modes Case #2 – Shorted Core Laminations  The core fault is shown below © ABB Inc. 2012 .

© ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes Case #3 – Shorted Turns   FRA responses of the series windings of a 140-MVA autotransformer (220/69 kV with tertiary winding). The fault was located on phase C of the tertiary winding. the low-frequency measurement on the HV winding of the same phase was influenced because of the lower inductance due to the shorted turns on a winding of the same phase (increased first resonance frequency). In this condition. 2012 .

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes FRA Diagnostic Example – More Shorted Turns Shorted turns in transformers are produced by turn-to-turn faults and may have the following characteristics:  Adjacent turns lose paper and braze/weld together  They result in a solid loop around the core © ABB Inc.

2012 .Transformer Failure Modes FRA Diagnostic Example – Axial Collapse Axial winding collapse is likely to have the following characteristics:      Produced within a transformer winding due to excessive axial forces during a fault Windings shift relative to each other Gassing may result Transformer integrity is compromised Failure likely to be catastrophic if transformer continues in service © ABB Inc.

Transformer Failure Modes FRA Diagnostic Example – Hoop Buckling Hoop buckling is produced within a transformer winding due to excessive compressive forces during a fault. 2012 . © ABB Inc.

Transformer Failure Modes FRA Diagnostic Example – Hoop Buckling © ABB Inc. 2012 .

2012 . © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes FRA Diagnostic Example – Clamping Failure A clamping failure may be produced within a transformer winding due to bulk winding movement.

It provides more information about the dielectric behavior of the insulation system. 2012 .Transformer Failure Modes Dielectric Frequency Response Testing Hi The DFR test is a series of power factor measurements at multiple frequencies. The method be used to diagnose the following conditions in transformers:      Ground Lo Moisture in the cellulose insulation High oil conductivity due to aging or overheating of the oil Chemical contamination of cellulose insulation Carbon tracking in cellulose High resistance in the magnetic core steel circuit Hi Lo © ABB Inc.

1 1 10 60 100 1000 Frequency. 0.010 0.5% Moisture 0. Hz © ABB Inc. 2012 .Transformer Failure Modes DFR Testing – Distinguishing Between Aged Oil and Moisture 1.100 Good Oil 1.001 1 1 8 3 5 . 00324 Tan D 0.000 Aged Oil.3% Moisture PF =.01 .001 .

01 .001 . 2012 .3% Moisture PF =.Transformer Failure Modes DFR Analysis – Fitting the Right Dielectric Parameters 1.100 Aged Oil.1 1 10 60 100 1000 Frequency.000 0.5% Moisture Good Oil 1. Hz © ABB Inc. 00324 Measured DR 0.001 1 1 8 3 5 .010 0.7% Moisture Tan D 0. 0.

Hz 10 100 1000 © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes DFR Example – High Core Ground Resistance XV to Ground XV to Ground after Repair .01 .10 1 Frequency. 2012 Dielectric Response Fingerprint Function caused by a High Core to Ground Resistance in Auxiliary Transformer .

2012 .10 1 Frequency.Transformer Failure Modes DFR Signature Example – Chemical Contamination .01 . Hz 10 100 1000 Dielectric Response Fingerprint Function caused by Chemical Contamination of the Windings © ABB Inc.

7%) .7%) High Moisture(1. 2012 . Hz Dielectric Response Fingerprint Function Showing the Effect of High Moisture © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes DFR Example – Effect of High Insulation Moisture Normal Moisture(.10 1 10 100 1000 Frequency.01 .

34 1.3 0.8 * 3. by DR Sat (%wt) (%wt) 2.9 0.9 0.2 2 1 Surface Moisture in Paper Estimated Only From Moisture in Oil Against Volume Moisture From DFR © ABB Inc.5 3.5 3 0.9 0. 2012 .412 1.3 Moist by Oil Moist.7 1.492 0.4 2.8 1. Core Core Core Core Shell Core Shell Oil Cond (pS/m) 0.5 1.381 0.Transformer Failure Modes DFR Moisture Analysis versus Moisture Equilibrium Method Volume Moisture in Paper Xfrmr # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Temp (o C) 23 28 23 23 13 27 27 Type GSU GSU GSU GSU 3-wdg Auto Auto Constr.

2012 .) Short-Time Emergency (½ -2hr) © ABB Inc.Transformer Failure Modes DFR Analysis – Moistures and Loading Capability Loading Limits Based On Moisture Content Hottest Spot Temperature( C) 120 130 140 180 o Cellulose Moisture (% ) 3.4 1.8 Overload Type Overload Level with 40°C Ambient 0% 6% 12% 40% Normal Loading Planned O/L Beyond N/P Long Time Emergency (1-3 mo.7 0.5 2.

2012 .© ABB Inc.