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Notes for Physics C: Mechanics on motion along a line.

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4A

**Chapter 2: Motion in One Dimension
**

Introduction ● kinematics: study of motion ● types of motion: translation: car traveling on highway rotation: Earth’s spin on its axis vibrational: pendulum ● particle model: describe moving object as a particle particle: point-like object (has mass, infinitesimal size) Chapter 2.1: Position, Velocity, & Speed ● position x: location of particle w/ respect to reference point (origin of coordinate system) ● displacement x: ● distance: length of path followed by a particle ● average velocity: ● average speed: , displacement over time , distance over time, no direction

● vector quantity: direction & magnitude displacement, velocity, acceleration ● scalar quantity: has magnitude but no direction Chapter 2.2: Instantaneous Velocity & Speed ● slope of tangent line to x-t graph velocity: instantaneous velocity ● instantaneous speed: magnitude of instantaneous velocity Chapter 2.7: Freely Falling Objects ● if air resistance is absent (free fall), all objects dropped near Earth’s surface fall w/ same constant acceleration (gravity) ● freely falling object: moving freely under influence of gravity alone ● free-fall acceleration g: decreases w/ increasing altitude, changes w/ latitude m/s2

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4. A position-time graph for a particle moving along the x-axis is shown in Figure P2. A truck covers 40. 2 . to reach a current width of 2. Find its original speed. The North American and European plates of the Earth’s crust are drifting apart with a relative speed of about 25 mm/yr. 3. At what value t is the velocity zero. a.5. c. 4A Kinematic Equations for Motion of a Particle Under Constant Acceleration 1. Find its acceleration.John Lin 09. 22. Find the average velocity in the time interval t = 1. 2. a.80 m/s. 9.00 s.04. Take the speed as constant and find when the rift between them started to open.13 Pd.0 m in 8. Determine the instantaneous velocity at t = 2. Problems 5.00 s by measuring the slope of the tangent line shown in the graph.50 s to t = 4.9 103 mi.50 s while smoothly slowing down to a final speed of 2. b. b.

4A 30. velocity changes steadily with time. the second does not contain ax. and the last leaves out t. all the way to the tree. is not equal to the instantaneous velocity of the glider when it is halfway through the photogate in space.John Lin 09. b. ax. is equal to the instantaneous velocity of the glider when it is halfway through the photogate in time.04. Argue for or against the idea that is equal to the instantaneous velocity of the glider when it is halfway through the photogate in time. Use the equation to solve Problem 29 in one step. b. and xf – xi. Since velocity changes. the first does not involve xf – xi. With what speed does the car then strike the tree? 31. That car slows uniformly with an acceleration of –5. In the particle under constant acceleration model. a. Derive it from the others.4 m long. vxf. A glider of length l moves through a stationary photogate on an air track. So. The ratio is the average velocity of the glider over this part of its motion. not space. t. Problem #29: The driver of a car slams on the brakes when he sees a tree blocking the road. Argue for or against the idea that is equal to the instantaneous velocity of the glider when it is halfway through the photogate in space. making straight skin marks 62. the time it takes to travel the first half of the photogate in space differs from that to travel the second half.13 Pd. Since the glider moves with constant acceleration. Unless the acceleration is 0.20 s. a. we identify the variables and parameters vxi. there should be an equation not involving vxi. to complete the set. the third omits vxf.60 m/s2 for 4. Unless the acceleration is 0.2. Of the equations in Table 2. A photogate is a device that measures the time interval during which the glider blocks a beam of infrared light passing across the photogate. 3 . velocity changes steadily with time. Since the glider moves with constant acceleration. Suppose the glider moves with constant acceleration.

A student throws a set of keys vertically upward to her sorority sister. is the instantaneous velocity when the glider is halfway through the 43. who is in a window 4. : distance first runner travels. At what minimum distance from the leading athlete must the finish line be located so that the trailing athlete can at least tie for first place? Express in terms of 4 . in terms of . photogate in time. one athlete in a race running on a long.04. If acceleration is constant. then: Therefore. a. Under what circumstances is the first athlete able to overtake the second athlete? . b. 4A Let be the instantaneous velocity of the glider when it is halfway through the photogate in time.00 m above. straight track with a constant speed is a distance behind a second athlete running with a constant speed .John Lin 09. What was the velocity of the keys just before they were caught? 59. a. Find the time t at which the first athlete overtakes the second athlete. must be great enough that the first runner have time to catch up to the second athlete. At .50 s later. With what initial velocity were the keys thrown? b. The second student catches the keys 1. : distance second runner travels c.13 Pd.

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