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Dr Alex Donald
Bonding: Weeks 5-6 – Chapter 5
Content Blackman Book Learning Objectives Bonding 5.3-5.5 Draw Lewis diagrams for simple molecules
Lewis diagrams; Electron deficient & expanded valence shell species Lewis structures VSEPR Theory and molecular shape Polarity of molecules Valence bond theory Hybridized orbitals
Identify species where the octet rule is violated Draw multiple Lewis structures for species where the distribution of electrons is ambiguous Assign formal charges and use to select most likely Lewis structure Use VSEPR theory to predict the shapes of molecules Predict whether molecules are polar or non-polar Assign hybridized orbitals to central atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions Sketch the overlap between orbitals on adjacent atoms which gives rise to bonding
Sigma and pi bonds Multiple bonds delocalisation
Identify species where extended orbital overlap gives rise to delocalisation of electrons
Blackman Chapter 5 - Bonding
• fundamentals of bonding. • Lewis structures. • valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSPER) theory. • properties of covalent bonds. • valence bond theory. • Sigma and pi bonding, electron delocalization, multiple bonding.
Introduction to bonding • What is a chemical bond? • Two atoms in close proximity • Atomic orbitals distort to minimize energy Competition between attractive and repulsive forces leads to a minimum energy configuration .
Ionic bonding 3.Types of bonding 1.Metallic bonding .Covalent bonding 2.
Molecules: Fundamentals • Electron density shared between atoms (COVALENT BOND) • Polar bond – sharing electrons between dissimilar atoms (one atom wins the electron tug-o-war) • Ionic bonding – extreme example of a polar covalent bond See video: http://www.com/watch?v=0KOQPya_WII .youtube.
Molecules: Fundamentals • Equilibrium bond length is at the distance where the energy is at a minimum w/ equilibrium between attractive and repulsive forces Typical bond length of 100-200 pm • H2 is the simplest of all molecules .
Molecules: Fundamentals .
Molecules: Fundamentals .
Ionic bonding 3.Types of bonding 1.Metallic bonding .Covalent bonding 2.
Types of bonding: Ionic bonding • The complete transference of one or more electrons from one atom to the other to form an ionic bond. • Na + Cl —> Na+ + Cl– .
etc. • Polar covalent bonding: Cl—Br. H—H. Cl—H. the shared electrons are usually found closer to one atom than the other. • When dissimilar atoms form a covalent bond. . This is called a polar covalent bond.Polar vs non-polar covalent bonding • A non-polar covalent bond is generally only found between atoms of the same type • Non-polar covalent bonding: Cl—Cl. etc.
Types of bonding 1.Covalent bonding 2.Metallic bonding .Ionic bonding 3.
Metallic bonding • Metallic bonding can be regarded as a special case of covalent bonding. In this case the valence electrons are not localised— instead moving freely through the body of the metal. .
Electronegativity • Useful for predicting whether compound has ionic or covalent bonding • Dramatically influences chemical behaviour .
Electronegativity values .
7 0.Electronegativity and predicting bonding type • The nature of bonding between two elements can be estimated by their difference in electronegativities. ∆EN >1.7 <0. ∆EN.4-1.4 0 Bonding type Ionic Polar covalent Mostly covalent Non-polar covalent .
HCl is WHAT? and Cl2 is WHAT TYPE OF BOND?.Examples – Think critically • In CaCl2.0 EN(H) = 2.1 • Thus. ∆EN >1.4-1.4 0 Bonding type Ionic Polar covalent Mostly covalent Non-polar covalent . ∆EN = ? EN(Ca) = 1.7 0. ∆EN = ? • In Cl2.0 EN(Cl) = 3. ∆EN = ? • In HCl.7 <0. CaCl2 is WHAT?.
CaCl2 is ionic. • In HCl.1 = 0. ∆EN >1.4-1. ∆EN = 3.4 0 Bonding type Ionic Polar covalent Mostly covalent Non-polar covalent . ∆EN = 3.0–3.Examples – Think critically • In CaCl2. HCl is polar covalent (with Cl the more negative end) and Cl2 is covalent.0.0–2.0 = 2.0–1.0 = 0. • In Cl2.7 0. • Thus.9. ∆EN = 3.7 <0.
and pointing in the direction of electron bias.Dipole moment – Polar molecules • Ways to show polarity: (1) The orientation of bond polarity can be shown with a special dipole arrow — crossed to show the positive end.0 . (2) δ+ and δ– near the positive and negative atoms • Bond dipole moments = vectors • Give an overall molecular dipole moment • Shape is important in determining dipole moment….1 EN(Cl) = 3. EN(H) = 2.
Shape is important: Dipole moments • Example – THINK CRITICALLY CO2 has a linear shape: O=C=O EN(O) = 3.5 Which bond wins the tug of war for electrons? It is a draw.5 and EN(C) = 2. . because the dipoles cancel each other (linear) We will expand on the influence of shape later….
com/watch?v=bma9LFtJI4s Good summary of covalent and ionic bonds (watch on your own) • http://www.youtube.youtube.Videos on bonding • http://www.com/watch?v=n4WaT50HR6o Video about some of the pitfalls students have with learning about Bonding (watch on your own) .youtube.com/watch?v=QqjcCvzWwww Nice visualisation of bonding and chemical reactions (watch in lecture) • http://www.
Metallic bonding ∆EN >1.Types of bonding 1. Covalent bonding (EN) 2.4 0 Bonding type Ionic Polar covalent Mostly covalent Non-polar covalent . Ionic bonding (EN) 3.7 0.4-1.7 <0.
• Na + Cl —> Na+ + Cl– .Recap • The complete transference of one or more electrons from one atom to the other to form an ionic bond.Ionic bonding .
com/Opposites-Attract-Cartoon-T-shirt.html .scienceteecher.Why is ionic bonding so strong? Opposites Attract: Coulombs Law http://www.
Ionic bonding – In depth one more time
• Electronegativity difference between two atoms is ∆EN > 1.7 • Formation of an ionic bond can be regarded (in the extreme)
as the complete transfer of electron(s) from the electropositive atom to the electronegative atom
• Resultant ions are then attracted to one-another by their
opposite charges. (OPPOSITE CHARGES ATTRACT)
• The high energy of this attraction can be calculated using
Partial ionic character of polar covalent bonds
Ionic – complete transfer of electron from electronegative to electropositive element Polar covalent – unequal sharing of electron density between elements
∆EN >1.7 0.4-1.7 <0.4 0
Bonding type Ionic Polar covalent Mostly covalent Non-polar covalent
There is a continuum between ionic and polar covalent character No definitive ∆EN value for the transition between ionic and polar covalent ∆EN > 1.7 is an arbitrary cut-off between polar covalent and ionic
composed of 2 elements • If ∆EN value is high and predominantly ionic. then high melting and boiling points • THINK CRITICALLY: Why? • Each ion in a solid crystalline lattice is surrounded by ions of opposite charge • These multiple attractive forces between ions are strong and take much energy to break .Properties of ionic compounds • Binary compounds .
Properties of ionic compounds .
Properties of low ∆EN compounds • Binary compounds with a low ∆EN values are predominantly covalent and therefore usually have low melting and boiling points WHY? .
SiO2) • Such compounds have high melting and boiling points.g.Properties of network compounds • A few binary polar-covalent compounds don't form discrete molecules • Network-covalent bonding with all atoms linked to one- another by strong covalent bonds (e. since strong covalent bonds need to be broken to melt or boil them. .
Network compound example SiO 2 – network-covalent ∆EN = 3.7 .8 = 1.5 – 1.
Models for bonding • lot’s of different models • All can be rationalized to a first approximation by charge-charge attraction/repulsion (Coulomb's law) • we want to be able to predict: • molecular shapes. – VSPER. • we will look at theories of increasing sophistication: – Lewis structures. – valence bond theory • Atomic orbitals. • molecular dipole moments and polarised bonds. . • strength of bonding. • Hybridised orbitals.
with each pair indicating one bond. each shared pair (bonding pair) is replaced by a line between the symbols to represent a covalent bond. H• H• • covalent bonding between two atoms is shown by one or more pairs of electrons between the symbols. .Lewis structures • a Lewis electron-dot symbol shows the symbol for the element surrounded by dots to represent the valence electrons of the atom. H:H H-H • when all electrons have been placed.
Lewis structures .
Lewis structures • atoms can share more than one pair of electrons. and a triple bond has a bond order of three. a double bond has a bond order of two. C2H4? each oxygen has 8 electrons (VALENCE?): 1s22s22p4 Lewis structure: Bond order is equal to the number of shared electron pairs between two atoms: A single bond has a bond order of one. . • consider O2: What is the Lewis structure of N2 or ethene.
Lewis) to explain the number of bonds formed by many compounds: "An atom (other than hydrogen) usually forms enough bonds so that it becomes surrounded by eight valence electrons” • the octet rule is applied when drawing a Lewis dot structure of a compound.N. • What is the structure of HCN? .Lewis structures: The octet rule • suggested (G.
H + C + N = 1 + 4 + 5 = 10 electrons. 2. 1. Add up the number of valence electrons on all the atoms in the molecule. take away 2 electrons from the electron total. for each bond drawn (10 – 4 = 6 left). H—C—N 4.Lewis structures: The octet rule • HCN…. Allocate the remaining electrons in pairs to each surrounding atom (except hydrogen) until either they run out. change lone pairs on surrounding atoms to bonding pairs (creating multiple bonds) until the central atom has an octet. Any left-over electrons go on the central atom. 5. Decide which atoms are connected to which other atoms (the connectivity). 3. Draw a single bond from the central atom to the surrounding atoms. If the central atom does not have an octet. or until each has an octet. .
SO2. NH4+ is 5+(4x1)–1 = 8. When summing valence electrons of a cation.g. 2. 5. SO42– is 6+(4x6)+2 = 32. 3. 1.g.Lewis structures: Final tips…. CH4. e. 4. H requires the share of just one electron pair – not an octet. CO2. When summing valence electrons of an anion. remember to add an extra electron for each negative charge.g. NO3– (and many other oxyanions). e. Unlike other atoms. The reason for the above is that formulae are usually written with the more electropositive element first – electropositive elements are more able to attract multiple attachments of bonding pairs.g. e. Cl2O. H2O. . NH3 – but there are some exceptions. remember to subtract an electron for each positive charge. The central atom is usually the first atom in the formula: e. In drawing a Lewis structure it is important to have the correct connectivity – determining the central atom is important (usually apparent from the formula). H cannot be the central atom in almost all of its compounds.
Lewis structures: Examples • Draw the Lewis structure of OF2 • Draw the Lewis structure of methanal. CH2O • How about the tetrafluoroborate ion BF4-? .
• For some molecules it is possible to draw several valid Lewis structures. but they do give an indication of bond order. For example. three valid structures are possible for the nitrate ion.Resonance structures • Lewis diagrams do not give numerical values for bond lengths or strengths. NO3–: .
simple.but experiments show that all bonds are equal. . • The real structure of NO3– is said to be a resonance hybrid of the three Lewis resonance structures. Resonance structures are needed when a single. and of length between a single and a double. Lewis structure cannot be drawn for a molecule.Resonance structures: NO3• each structure implies that one bond (the double bond) should be shorter than the other two .
the +ve charge on the P is removed & the -ve charge on that O too.resonance structures: PO43• 32 electrons in total: 5+(4x6)+3=32 • each O is formally -1 & the P is +1 in this structure. By turning one lone pair on an O into a bonding pair. this leads to 4 possible resonance structures .
foaming agent & propellent for whipped cream).g. however. be reached. .formal charges in Lewis structures • The rules for drawing Lewis structures are indiscriminate and sometimes lead to resonance structures that are unlikely to contribute much to the character of the real molecule. Sensible conclusions about the likely structure can. e. N2O: (a gas used as an anaesthetic. 3 valid Lewis structures can be drawn for the dinitrogen oxide.
. Structures having negative charges on more electronegative atoms like F. 3.formal charges in Lewis structures 1. N will contribute more to the real structure. Lewis structures with like charges on adjacent atoms will not contribute much to the real structure. O. 2. Lewis structures with the smallest formal charges will resemble the real molecular structure more closely. Cl.
They are therefore less able to pull lone pairs from the attached halogen atoms to form the multiple bonds needed to complete the octet. • However. . • both B and Be are not very electronegative. N. Such compounds are called electron-deficient. Be and B can form covalent compounds that are stable without a full octet. F. the Be has only 4 e– around it. O.electron-deficient molecules • The octet rule works well for compounds containing second period elements like C. and BF3 has only 6 e–. ClBeCl • In gaseous BeCl2.
• Free radicals can dimerise by pairing their single electrons. and may break to form the free radicals again. A good example is NO2. but the bond may be weak. owing to their unpaired electron.Free radicals • On rare occasions stable molecules (free radicals) contain an odd number of electrons .and then. . not all can be paired. • Although stable on their own. free radicals are very reactive to other molecules.
Typical central atoms that do this are S.expanded valence shell • Elements of the 3rd and lower periods can form compounds with more than an octet around them. • This usually takes the form of more single bonds than four. . P. As. or by forming multiple bonds to one or more of the four atoms bonded to them. Br. Cl. • These elements are said to have an expanded valence shell. allowing more than 4 bonds to fit around the atom. Xe. • The valence electrons of such elements are at a greater radius from the nucleus than those in 2nd row. I.clouds of adjacent bonds are weaker. so e--erepulsions between the e.
expanded valence shell triiodide ion sulfur hexafluoride phosphorus pentachloride xenon tetrachloride chlorine pentafluoride .
expanded valence shell .
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory • allows us to go from Lewis structures to molecular shapes • VSEPR theory supposes that electron pairs (bonding and lone pairs) about an atom will arrange themselves to minimise repulsions. • The final arrangement of bonding pairs thus dictates the shape of the molecule by dictating where the terminal atoms are located about the central atom. .
.VSEPR EXAMPLE: BeCl2 has only two electron pairs around the central Be atom. to minimize their repulsions. so the molecule. Each bonding pair is between the Be and Cl nuclei. By their mutual repulsion. The resulting angle between the bonding pairs will be 180°. as a whole. will be linear. these pairs will position themselves on opposite sides of the Be atom.
VSEPR • for given numbers of electrons. there are specific minimum energy arrangements: .
VSEPR: double bonds • the two e.pairs of a double bond both lie in the region of space between two nuclei (although not quite exactly the same region). .density. and are treated like one bonding pair during the VSEPR analysis of shape. • for VSEPR purposes. they act like one region of e.
electron density. • each double bond is considered as one region of • two regions of electron density repel one-another so they will prefer to lie at 180°bond angles — so the CO2 molecule is linear: .VSEPR: double bonds • the Lewis structure of CO2 shows that the only regions of electron density around the central C atom are the two double bonds.
lone pairs help determine molecular shape. lone pairs are more demanding of space than bonding pairs.e.cloud as a result.pairs in VSEPR • lone pairs are very important in determining the shape of molecules • they are predominantly located on just one atom & so form a region of high e.density • bonding pairs however are stretched between nuclei • as such they present a lower density e. . but they are not part of our final description of that shape as a description of the shape is solely of nuclei positions.
. NH3 & H2O….. N & O have different shapes? A: CH4.Q: why do the hydrides of C.
VSEPR: multiple bonds & bond angles • multiple bonds have fatter e. 122° H •• 116° H C O •• .pairs more strongly than a single bond. and the H-C-H bond angle is smaller than 120°.so they repel neighbouring e. • in formaldehyde. the H-C-O bond angle is larger than 120°.clouds than single bonds . CH2O.
lone pair lone pair .bonding pair .bonding pair bonding pair .VSEPR: molecular shapes • shapes of molecules dictated by relative strength of electron pair repulsions: decreasing dominance increasing repulsion lone pair .
BeCl2.molecular shapes: AX2 1. HCN. with the two bonding pairs preferring to be on opposite sides of the central atom. MOLECULES WITH TWO REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. .g. • AX2 always have LINEAR shape. e. CO2. CS2.
BF3. CH2O. NO3–. BCl3. SO3.g.molecular shapes: AX3 2. e. with the three bonding pairs at 120°to one-another. CO32–. . MOLECULES WITH THREE REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. • AX3 always have TRIGONAL PLANAR shape.
NO2–. SO2. O3.g. MOLECULES WITH THREE REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. e. • AX2E. since only the atom positions are used to specify the molecular shape.molecular shapes: AX2E 2. . PbCl2. two bonding pairs plus one lone pair - TRIGONAL PLANAR • final description of the molecular shape is BENT or V- SHAPED. SnCl2. the X-A-X bond angle is less than 120°.
CH4. SiF4. SO42–. . CHCl3. e. CCl4. • AX4 always have TETRAHEDRAL shape. BF4–.molecular shapes: AX4 3. POCl3.g. MOLECULES WITH FOUR REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. ClO4–. NH4+.
since only the atom positions are used to specify the molecular shape. three bonding pairs plus one lone pair TETRAHEDRAL • final description of the molecular shape is TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL. MOLECULES WITH FOUR REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. NH3. PF3.molecular shapes: AX3E 3.g. . PH3. H3O+. SO32–. • AX3E.5°. the X-A-X bond angle is less than 109. ClO3–. e.
MOLECULES WITH FOUR REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. H2O.5°.molecular shapes: AX2E2 3. the X-A-X bond angle is less than 109. OF2. SCl2. • AX2E2. two bonding pairs plus two lone pairs TETRAHEDRAL • final description of the molecular shape is BENT or V- SHAPED. since only the atom positions are used to specify the molecular shape.g. . e. ClO2–.
• AX5 always are TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL. Bond angles in this structure are: X(equat)-A-X(equat)=120° and X(equat)-A-X(axial)=90°.g. MOLECULES WITH FIVE REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. PF5. . SOF4. PCl5.molecular shapes: AX5 4. e.
molecular shapes: AX4E
4. MOLECULES WITH FIVE REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY.
• AX4E, four bonding pairs plus one lone pair - TRIGONAL
• final description of the molecular shape is described as a ‘SEE-SAW’.
lone pair goes into equatorial position, as major repulsions are two 90° interactions with the axial A–X bonding pairs.
(If the lone pair went into an equatorial site instead, it would have three 90° repulsions with the three equatorial A–X pairs). The actual X–A–X bond angles are <120° and <90°.
e.g. SF4, XeOF4, IF4+, IO2F2–.
molecular shapes: AX3E2
4. MOLECULES WITH FIVE REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY.
three bonding pairs plus two lone pairs TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL
• final description of the molecular shape is T-SHAPED.
the lone pairs adopt equatorial positions & the X-A-X bond angle is less than 90°. e.g. ClF3, BrF3.
molecular shapes: AX2E3
4. MOLECULES WITH FIVE REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY.
two bonding pairs plus three lone pairs TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL
• final description of the molecular shape is LINEAR.
the X-A-X bond angle is 180°. e.g. I3–, XeF2, IF2–.
.remember! 4. MOLECULES WITH FIVE REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY.
. • AX6 always are OCTAHEDRAL. IOF5. SF6. Bond angles : X(equat)-A-X(equat)=90° and X(equat)-A-X(axial)=90°.molecular shapes: AX6 5. AlF63–. SiF62–.g. e. MOLECULES WITH SIX REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. PF6–.
the actual X-A-X bond angles are less than 90°.molecular shapes: AX5E 5. . MOLECULES WITH SIX REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. TeF5. lone pair goes into any of the equivalent octahedral positions. e.g. five bonding pairs plus one lone pair - OCTAHEDRAL • final description of the molecular shape is described as a ‘SQUARE PYRAMIDAL’. BrF5. • AX5E. XeOF4.
lone pairs go into two opposite octahedral sites. ICl4–. • AX4E2. e. four bonding pairs plus two lone pairs OCTAHEDRAL • final description of the molecular shape is described as ‘SQUARE PLANAR’. MOLECULES WITH SIX REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY.molecular shapes: AX4E2 5. XeF4.g. .
remember! 5. MOLECULES WITH SIX REGIONS OF ELECTRON DENSITY. .
mean. shape all bond lengths & angles are EQUAL .remember: resonant structures have a timeaverage.
. D & E have? • in this way the complete shape of the molecule could be built up….VSEPR in large molecules • VSEPR rules can be applied to describe the local shape within a complex molecule • what shapes would A. B. C.
D & E have? • in this way the complete shape of the molecule could be built up…. C.VSEPR in large molecules • VSEPR rules can be applied to describe the local shape within a complex molecule • what shapes would A. B. .
• the molecular dipole is the vector sum of the individual bond dipoles of the molecule (units of debye. 1 D = 3.34x10-30 Cm) .molecular shape & polarity • as we have seen. some molecules can display permanent dipole moments • the molecular dipole moment is a measure of how unevenly charge (on average) is distributed over the molecule.
this has a direct bearing on the overall dipole moment of the molecules: .molecular shape & polarity • we have seen that CO2 is linear and that H2O is bent.
however only CHCl3 has a dipole moment! .molecular shape & polarity • different molecules that have the same shape can be either non-polar or polar • the sum of the individual bond polarities will then give the overall molecular dipole moment: both carbon tetrachloride & chloroform are Td.
halo-hydrides should be less polar as Z↑ .recap: bond polarity • the polarity of a bond can be related directly to the difference in the electronegativities (χ) of the bonded atoms: χ tends to decrease down a Group.
molecular shape & polarity • more complex molecular shapes obtained by VSEPR theory behave in exactly the same way: .
Chapter 5: Chemical bonding and molecular structure • fundamentals of bonding. • molecular orbital theory . • valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSPER) theory. • Lewis structures. • valence bond theory. • properties of covalent bonds.
• more detailed models of bonding are needed: VB theory is a simple extension of VSEPR & AO theories .Valence Bond theory • Lewis structures are usually good predictors of molecular shapes and bond orders. BUT they do not allow the computation of bond energies. bond lengths and angles. amongst other properties.
the electrons pair up to form a bonding pair .Valence Bond theory • bonding in H2 can be thought of as overlap between the 1s1 electrons (in 1s AOs) on each H atom: • in the internuclear region.
carbon has 2 + 2 = 4………….Valence Bond theory • but what of CH4? • in CH4 the 1s electron in each H atom is now interacting with the n = 2 electrons (2s22p2) of carbon…… • Lewis structures treat all valence electrons equally .why? .
• hybridisation makes all electrons involved equal in energy – that is to say that they can mix to give a hybrid orbital type in which all electrons are equivalent . the 2s electrons lie lower in energy than the 2p.Valence Bond theory: hybridisation • valence electrons on atoms can be considered to hybridise • that is to say that they can mix to give a hybrid orbital type in which all electrons are equivalent • remember that for multi-electron atoms.
hybridisation: sp3 • the s orbital. containing 2 electrons. can mix with the three p orbitals to form a set of sp3 hybrid orbitals example) into equivalent orbitals (Hund’s rule): • this re-distributes the 4 valence electrons of carbon (for .
hybridisation: sp3 • sp3 hybrid orbitals have a physical shape that reflects the constituent pure atomic orbitals: 4 × sp3 = (1 × s) + (3 × p) .
hybridisation: sp3 • sp3 orbitals • mixing of 1 × s & 3 × p valence orbitals • four large lobes • orbitals have tetrahedral geometry • each lobe presents only a single sign of the wavefunction .
CH4 .hybridisation: sp3 • the 4 (n = 2) sp3 orbitals of C can efficiently overlap with the 1s orbitals of H • this gives rise to methane.
hybridisation: sp2 • but what if the s orbital mixes with only two of the three p orbitals to form 3 × sp2 hybrid orbitals. leaving the third p orbital unhybridised? • three of the 4 valence electrons of C are re-distributed into equivalent sp2 orbitals. with the fourth remaining in the lone p orbital: .
hybridisation: sp2 • sp2 hybrid orbitals have a physical shape that reflects the constituent pure atomic orbitals: 3 × sp2 = (1 × s) + (2 × p) .
hybridisation: sp2 • sp2 orbitals • mixing of 1 × s & 2 × p valence orbitals • three large lobes of hybridised orbitals • plus the residual p orbital • hybrid orbitals have trigonal planar geometry • each lobe of the hybrid presents only a single sign of the wavefunction .
Double C=C bond . • the electrons in the atomic p orbitals of neighbouring C’s can overlap to form a π bond.hybridisation: sp2 • Example: ethene: • the sp2 orbitals form σ bonds with either the 1s orbitals of H or the corresponding sp2 orbital of the neighbouring C.
the s orbital mixes only with one of the three p orbitals to form 2 × sp hybrid orbitals. leaving the other two p orbitals unhybridised equivalent sp orbitals. with the remaining two residing in the atomic p orbitals: • two of the 4 valence electrons of C are re-distributed into .hybridisation: sp • in some cases.
hybridisation: sp • sp hybrid orbitals have a physical shape that reflects the constituent pure atomic orbitals: 2 × sp = (1 × s) + (1 × p) .
hybridisation: sp • Example: ethyne: • the sp orbitals on the two carbon atoms form σ bonds with the 1s orbitals of H and between each other. • electrons in the two atomic p orbitals (px & py) of neighbouring C’s can overlap to form two π bonds. Triple C≡C bond .
? • Cl is also sp3 hybridised .hybridisation is not unique to C • dichloromethane is ~Td about C (sp3) & has an AXE3 arrangement about Cl ..distorted Td….
hybridisation is not unique to C • the hydroxonium ion is trigonal pyramidal - what is the hybridisation about the O atom? • O is sp3 hybridised: .
sharing only 6 electrons • one p orbital is vacant.remember electron-deficient BF3? • BF3 is sp2 hybridised. • BF3 is susceptible to attack by electron-rich species to get an octet: .
90° axial Octahedral 90° .5° Trigonal bipyramidal 120° equatorial.VB hybridised schemes can account for the common geometries seen earlier Linear 180° s + p → 2 sp s + 2 p → 3 sp2 s + 3 p → 4 sp3 s + 3 p + d → 5 sp3d s + 3 p + 2 d → 6 sp3d2 Trigonal planar 120° Tetrahedral 109.
like the 3s and 3p orbitals. • the lowest energy d orbitals are the 3d orbitals. s + 3 p + d → 5 sp3d 3s 3p 3d sp3d 3d .hybridisation with d orbitals • in order for an atom to form more than four bonds around it. they can only hybridise with orbitals of similar energy and position. the d orbitals are needed for hybridisation. • this explains why the 1st and second period elements do not exceed the octet rule ("2d" orbitals do not exist!).
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