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Abstract Expressionism A twentieth-century painting style in which artist applied paint freely to their huge canvases in an effort to show

feelings and emotions. Balance A principle of art, it refers to the way the art elements are arranged to create a feeling of equilibrium or stability in a work. Balance can be symmetrical (formal), or it can be asymmetrical (informal). Baroque art The art style of the Counter-Reformation in the seventeenth century in which artist sought movement, contrast, emotional intensity, and variety in their works. Chiaroscuro The arrangement of dramatic light and shadow. Color An element of art with three properties: (1) hue, the color name, for example, red, yellow, blue; (2) intensity, the brightness and purity of a color, for example, bright red or dull red; and (3) value, the lightness or darkness of a color Contour line A line or lines that surround and define the edges of an object or figures. Contrapposto A way of sculpting a human figure in a natural pose with the weight of one leg, the shoulder, and hips counterbalancing each other. Contrast Closely related to emphasis, a principle of art, this term refers to a way of combining art elements to stress the differences between those elements. Cool colors Blue, green, and violet. Cubism A twentieth-century art movement developed by Picasso and Braque in which the subject matter is broke up, analyzed, and reassembled. A style of painting in which artists tried to show all sides of three-dimensional objects on a flat canvas. Dada An early twentieth-century art movement that ridiculed contemporary culture and traditional art forms. It was born as a consequence of the collapse of social and moral values during World War I. Design The organization, plan, or composition of a work or art. An effective design is one in which the elements and principals have been combined to achieve an overall sense of unity. Dry media

Those media that are applied dry and include pencil, charcoal, crayon, and chalk pastel. Elements of art The basic components, or building blocks, used by the artist when producing works of art. The elements consist of color, value, line, shape, form, texture, and space. Emotionalism A theory of art that places emphasis on the expressive qualities. According to this theory, the most important thing about a work of art is the vivid communication of moods, feelings, and ideas. Emphasis A principle of art, it refers to a way of combining elements to stress the differences between those elements and to create one or more centers of interest in a work. Expressionism A twentieth-century art movement in which artists tried to communicate their strong emotional feelings through artworks. Fauvism An early twentieth-century style of painting in France. The name Fauves was given to artists adhering to his style because it was felt that they used brilliant colors in a wild way. Form An element or art, it describes an object that is three-dimensional and encloses volume. Examples are cubes, spheres, pyramids, and cylinders. Gesso A mixture of glue and white pigments such as plaster, chalk, or white clay for use as a surface for painting. Gradation A principle of art, it refers to a way of combining art elements by using a series of gradual changes in those elements. Harmony A principle of art, it refers to a way of combining elements to accent their similarities and bind the picture parts into a whole. It is often achieved through the use of repetition. Hue A color's name Impressionism A style of painting that started in France during the 1860's. Impressionist artist tried to paint candid glimpses of their subjects and emphasized the momentary effect of sunlight.

Intensity The quality of brightness and purity of a color Landscape A painting, photography, or other work of art that shows natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, and lakes. Line An element of art that refers to the continuous mark made on some surface by a moving point. It may be two-dimensional (pencil on paper), three-dimensional (wire), or implied (the edge of a shape or form). Often, it is an outline, contour, or silhouette Linear perspective A graphical system that showed artists how to create the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface. the lines of buildings and other objects in a pictures are slated, making them appear to extend back into space. Lithography A printmaking method developed in the late eighteenth century in which the image to be printed is drawn on a limestone, zine, or aluminum surface with a special greasy crayon. The drawings are then washed with water. When ink is applied, it sticks to the greasy drawing but runs off the wet surface, allowing a print to be made of the drawing Mannerism A European art style that developed between 1520 and 1600. It was a style that rejected the calm balance of the High Renaissance in favor of emotion and distortion. Medium A material used by an artist to produce a work of art. Mobile A construction made of shapes that are balanced and arranged on wire arms and suspended from the ceiling so as to move freely in the air currents. Monochromatic Refers to something that consist of only a single color Mosaics A work of art made of small cubes of colored marble or glass set in cement. Movement A principle of art, is a way of combining elements to produce the look of action or to cause the viewer's eye to sweep over the work in a certain manner. Mural A large design or picture, generally created on the wall of a public building.

Neoclassicism A nineteenth-century French art style that originated as a reaction against the Baroque style. It sought to revive the ideals of ancient Greek and Roman art. Nonobjective Nonobjective art is an style that employs color, line, no apparent reference to reality. Oil paint Slow drying paint made when pigments are mixed with an oil base. The oil dries with a hard film and the brilliance of the colors is protected. Oil paints are usually opaque and traditionally used on canvas. Painterly A painting technique in which forms are created with patches of color rather than with hard, precise edges. Parable A story that contains a symbolic message Pastel Pigments mixed with gum and pressed into a stick form for use as chalky crayons. Works of art done with such pigments are referred to as pastels. Perspective A method for representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface Photo-Realism An art movement of the late twentieth century in which the style is so realistic it looks photographic. Pigment Finely ground powder that gives every paint its color. Plane A surface Pop Art An art style that had its origins in England in the 1950s and made its way to the United States during the 1960s featuring images of the popular culture such as comic strips, magazine ads, and supermarket products. Porcelain A fine-grained, high-quality form of china made primarily form a white clay known as kaolin. Portrait The image of a person, especially of the face. It can be made of any sculptural material of any two-dimensional medium.

Post-Impressionism A French art movement that immediately followed Impressionism. The artist involved showed a greater. Primary colors The basic colors of red, yellow, and blue, from which it is possible to mix all the other colors of the spectrum. Principals of art Refers to the different ways that the elements of art can be used in a world of art. The principles of art consist of balance, emphasis, harmony, variety, gradation, movement, rhythm, and proportion. Proportion the principle of art concerned with the relationship of certain elements to the whole and to each other. Proportion may also refer to size relationships. Realism A mid-nineteenth-century style of art in which artist discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes as they actually looked. Regionalism A style of art that was popular in the United States during the 1930s. The artists who worked in this style wanted paint the American scene in a clear, simple way. Renaissance A revival or rebirth of cultural awareness and learning that took place during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, particularly in Italy Repetition A principle of art, this term refers to a way of combining art elements so that the same elements are used over and over. Rhythm A principle of art, it refers to a way of combining art elements to produce the look and feel of movement. Rococo art An eighteenth-century art style that placed emphasis on portraying the carefree life of the aristocracy. The style was characterized by a free, graceful movement; a playful use of line; and delicate colors. Romanticism A style of art that flourished in the early nineteenth century, it portrayed dramatic and exotic subjects perceived with strong feelings. Salon An annual exhibition of art held by the academies in Paris and London to exhibit art created by their members.

Screen printing Paint is forced through a screen onto paper or fabric Sculpture A three-dimensional work of art. Such work may be carved, modeled, constructed, or cast. Secondary colors The colors obtained by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors. The secondary colors are orange, green, and violet. Serigraph Screen print that has been handmade by an artist Shape An element of art, is an area clearly set off by one or more of the other elements such as color, value, line, and texture. Sketch A quick drawing that captures the appearance or action of a place or situation. Solvent The material used to thin the binder in paint Space An element of art that refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within things. It can be described as either three-dimensional or twodimensional. Stained glass The art of cutting colored glass into different shapes and joining them together with lead strips to create a pictorial window design. Still life A drawing or painting of such things as food, plants, pots, pans, and other inanimate objects. Style The artist's personal way of using the elements and principles of art to express feeling and ideas. Surrealism A twentieth-century art style in which dreams, fantasy, and the subconscious served as the inspiration for artists. Technique The manner in which an artist uses the technical skills of a particular art form. Tempera A paint made of dry pigments, or colors, which are mixed with a binding material. In a painting method which was popular before the invention of oil painting, the

pigments were mixed with an emulsion of egg yolk or egg white rather than oil. Texture The element of art that refers to the way things feel, or look as if they might feel if touched. Trompe l'oeil A painting technique designed to fool the viewer's eye by creating a very realistic illusion of three-dimensional qualities on a flat surface. Ukiyo-e A Japanese painting style, which means pictures of the passing world. Unity The quality of wholeness or oneness that is achieved through the effective use of the elements and principles of art. Value An element of art that describes the lightness or darkness of a color. Often, value is found to be an important element in works of art even though color is absent. This is true with drawings, prints, photographs, most sculpture, and architecture. Vanishing point In perspective drawing, a vanishing point is the point at which receding parallel lines seem to converge. Variety A principle of art which refers to a way of combining art elements in involved ways to achieve complex relationships. Volume Refers to the space within a form. Thus, in architecture, volume refers to the space within a building. Warm colors Colors suggesting warmth. These are colors that contain red and yellow. Watercolor Transparent pigments mixed with water. Paintings done with this medium are known as watercolors. Wet media Media that are applied to the surface in a liquid form, suck as ink and paints. Woodblock printing This process involves cutting pictures into wood blocks, inking the raised surface of these blocks, and printing. Woodcut A print made by cutting a design in a block of wood. The ink is transferred form