Italy

Italy officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in south-central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south it consists of the entirety of the Peninsula,

Sicily, Sardinia—the two largest islands in

the Mediterranean Sea—and many other smaller islands. The independent states of San Marino and the

Vatican are enclaves within Italy, whilst Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The
territory of Italy covers some 301,338 km (116,347 sq mi) and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With 60.6 million inhabitants, it is the fifth most populous country in Europe, and the 23rd most populous in the world. Rome, the capital of Italy, was for centuries the political centre of Western civilisation as the capital of the Roman Empire. After its decline, Italy endured numerous invasions by foreign peoples, from Germanic tribes such as the Lombards and Ostrogoths, to the Byzantines and later, the Normans, among others. Centuries later, Italy became the birthplace of the Renaissance,
[7] 2

an immensely fruitful

intellectual movement that would prove to be integral in shaping the subsequent course of European thought. Through much of its post-Roman history, Italy was fragmented into numerous kingdoms and city-states (such as the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Duchy of Milan), but was unified in 1861, following a tumultuous period in history known as "Il Risorgimento" ("The Resurgence"). In the late 19th century, through World War I, and to World War II, Italy possessed a colonial empire, which extended its rule to Libya,Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Albania, the Dodecanese and a concession in Tianjin, China.
[9] [8]

Modern Italy is a democratic republic. It has been ranked the world's 23rd most-developed country its Quality-of-life index has been ranked in the top ten in the world. living, and has a high nominal GDP per capita.
[12][13] [11]

[10]

and

Italy enjoys a very high standard of

It is a founding member of what is now the European
[14]

Union and part of the Eurozone. Italy is also a member of the G8, G20 and NATO. It has the world's eighth-largest nominal GDP, tenth highest GDP (PPP) budget in the world.
[15]

and the sixth highest government

It is also a member state of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and

Development, the World Trade Organization, the Council of Europe, the Western European Union and the United Nations. Italy has the world's ninth-largest defence budget and shares NATO's nuclear weapons. Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power. a high public education level and is a highly globalised nation
[16][17]

The country has

and often snowy.932. although lowland valleys can be quite hot in summer.2 km. Giunti 2005) states that the climate of the ―Po [61] valley region [is] continental .09% Other: 64. wet. Holy See (Vatican City) 3. Adriana Rigutti (in Meteorologia. dry in south Mostly rugged and mountainous.2 km 27. for example Piedmont. hot. Lombardyand Emilia-Romagna.600 km Predominantly Mediterranean.230 sq km Land: 294. Slovenia 232 km. San Marino 39 km. Conditions on peninsular coastal areas can be very different from the interior's higher ground and valleys. some plains.5% (2005 Border countries: Austria 430 km.41% Permanent crops: 9. particularly during the winter months when the higher altitudes tend to be cold.Climate The climate of Italy is highly diverse and can be far from the stereotypical Mediterranean climate.020 sq km Water: 7.. a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea. depending on location. Most of the inland northern regions of Italy. have a climate variously described as humid continental or temperate.500 sq km (2003) Arable land: 26. The coastal regions have mild winters and warm and generally dry summers. Switzerland 740 km 7.. with harsh winters and hot summers‖. northeast of Tunisia Total: 301. Alpine in far north. France 488 km. The coastal areas of Liguria and most of the peninsula south of Florence generally fit the Mediterranean stereotype (Köppen climate classification Csa). Facts And Figures About Italy Country Name: Conventional short form: Italy Location: Area: Land Boundaries: Irrigated Land: Land Use: Border Countries: Coastline: Climate: Terrain: Geography: Conventional long form: Italian Republic Southern Europe.210 sq km Note: includes Sardinia and Sicily Total: 1. coastal lowlands Strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe .

858/female 6.899.133.980) 15-64 years: 66.5% (male 19.149/female 3. Puglia.2 years 40.8% (male 4.regione) and 5 autonomous regions* (regioni autonome. and Slovene-Italians in the north and AlbanianItalians and Greek-Italians in the south) Approximately 90% Roman Catholic (about one-third regularly attend services).7% (male 4.7 years 43. Marche. singular . Campania.) 0-14 years: 13.105. Lombardia. Molise. Calabria. Liguria. Lazio. Abruzzo. Trentino-Alto Adige*.512/female 19. French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region).530.7 years (2006 est.509 (July 2006 est. Valle d'Aosta*. mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community Italian (official). Umbria. Piemonte.) Italian (includes small clusters of German-.147. Veneto 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed. Sicilia*.169) (2006) 42.Population: Age Structure: 0-14 Years: 15-64 Years: 65 Years and Over: Average Age: Total: Male: Female: Ethnic Groups: Religions: General Languages: Government Type: Capital: Administrative Divisions: Independence: 58. Sardegna*.771. singular regione autonoma).841) 65 years and over: 19. Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area Republic Name: Rome Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N. Emilia-Romagna. Toscana. Italy was not finally unified until 1870) . German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking). French-. 12 29 E 15 regions (regioni.678. Basilicata. Friuli-Venezia Giulia*.

688 km paved: 479. Melilli Oil Terminal.047 m: 7 2.354 km electrified) Narrow gauge: 123 km 1.7% (2005 est. vegetables.047 m: 30 1. Genoa.) Rate: Inflation Rate: Agriculture Produce: Transportation Railways: Roads: Airports: Ports & Harbours: Total: 19. Taranto.435-m gauge (11. Trieste . olives.438 to 3.000-m gauge (122 km electrified).0. soybeans. dairy products.688 km (including 6. sugar beets. beef.299 km 0. grain. Livorno. Ravenna.) Fruits. fish Augusta.478 km of expressways) (2004) Total: 98 Over 3.037 km 1.459 km Standard gauge: 18. 1.950-m gauge (161 km electrified) (2005) Total: 479.Economy Currency: Exchange Rates: GDP Growth Rate: Labour Occupations: Euro (EUR) Euros per US dollar .523 m: 31 Under 914 m: 14 (2006) 2% (2005 est.8041 (2005) 0.437 m: 16 914 to 1.1% (2005 est. potatoes.524 to 2.) Agriculture: 5% Industry: 32% Services: 63% (2001) Unemployment 7. grapes.

)  If you are traveling with an organized tour.00. internal flight reservations. present eurail tickets.S.full face. present a letter from your travel agent stating that you are a member of the group. and a copy of the tour itinerary. Alien Registration Card or valid U. and latest tax return concerning business. o Proof of permanent residence in the United States: U. The letter must be signed and dated. Passport or passport of any other nationality. o The round trip ticket. plus one copy. hospitalization costs and repatriation for medical reasons. If it applies. For insurance purchased only for your trip. . color).  If self-employed: valid business license. present letter from travel agent or from hotel itself stating the reservation dates and confirmation number. o Proof of sufficient funds to cover the expenses of your planned stay: most recent bank statement(s) of saving. to be signed by the applicant in the presence of a Consular Officer. month and year. o Lodging:  If staying at hotels.  Flight reservation from travel agent. US citizens do not need a tourist or business visa to enter Italy for a period of 90 days. salary and that the vacation/leave has been approved. certificate of incorporation. o Proof of health insurance with medical and emergency coverage valid for the entire trip abroad.S.S. o One recent passport size photograph (2x2 inches in size.000. o One application form completely and clearly filled out. U.S. If validity is less than 6 months ETS will renew your passport (Fee's apply). or travelers checks in an amount of approximately $100 per day for the total number of days of your stay. MUST BE PRESENTED when picking up or mailing out the passport. In your passport.front view.Requirements to obtain VISA to enter Italy Passport Information U. VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR NON US CITIZENS Italy Tourist Visa  Applicants must submit the following documents (1 original plus 1 copy) : o Passport or travel document accepted by the Schengen countries valid for a period of 3 months beyond the applicant's last day of stay abroad. your complete birthdate must be mentioned: day. (The name of applicant/s must be mentioned on the reservation. provide letter or certificate from insurance company stating coverage for medical expenses.S. checking. car rental reservations. coverage for medical expenses must not be less than Euro 30. The passport must have a blank page on which the visa will be affixed. provide a letter from your U. hospitalization costs and repatriation for medical reasons for your trip abroad (mention dates). longterm U. stating position. must have at least 6 months remaining validity from the day of entry into the country for which VISA has been applied for. o Students must have a valid I-20 Form and exchange visitors a valid I-66 Form. o Employment verification:  Letter from employer. on letterhead.S. visa. health insurance company stating coverage for medical expenses. visas B1/B2 visas are not acceptable for this purpose.

5 ft).since immigration authorities abroad can ask you to show the documents that were submitted to obtain the visa. Ca' Rezzonico. and many tourists explore the canal by gondola.one original and one copy .800 m long. Public transport is provided by water buses (Italian: vaporetti) and private water taxis. with an average depth of five meters (16. A fourth. The noble Venetian families faced huge expenses to show off their richness in suitable palazzos: this contest reveals the citizens‘ pride and the deep bond with the lagoon. only one bridge crossed the canal until the 19th century. At one end the canal leads into the lagoon near Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin: in between it makes a large S-shape through the central districts (sestieri) of Venice. Ca' Foscari. Because most of the city's traffic goes along the Canal rather than across it. The churches along the canal include the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute. Palazzo Barbarigo and to Palazzo Venier dei Leoni. connecting the train station to the vehicle-open area of Piazzale Roma. most of which date to 13th to the 18th century and demonstrate the welfare and art created by the Republic of Venice. There are currently two more bridges. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. As was usual in the past. people can still take a ferry ride across the canal at several points by standing up on the deck of a simple gondola called traghetto. Most of the palaces emerge from water without pavement. controversial bridge (Ponte della Costituzione) designed bySantiago Calatrava was recently erected. Amongst the many are the Palazzi Barbaro. Ca' d'Oro. It is 3. Description The banks of the Grand Canal are lined with more than 170 buildings. housing the Peggy Guggenheim Collection. one can only tour past the fronts of the buildings on the grand canal by boat. Grand Canal (Venice) The Grand Canal is a canal in Venice. 30–90 m wide.Required documents are submitted in two (2) sets . the Ponte degli Scalzi and the Ponte dell'Accademia. Italy. Palazzo Dario. the Rialto Bridge. Consequently. Centuries-old traditions such as the Historical Regatta are perpetuated every year along the Canal. .

with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). Saint Peter's Basilica has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world. re-enactments of famous battles. a fortress. It has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" greatest of all churches of Christendom". St. its construction started in 72 AD [2] [1] under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD underTitus. It is considered one of the greatest works ofRoman architecture and Roman engineering. originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium. and dramas based on Classical mythology. as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. quarters for a religious order. It was later reused for such purposes as housing. [1] While it is neither the official mother church of the Roman Catholic [2] Church nor thecathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in theearly medieval era.Colosseum The Colosseum. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum. [3] The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius. is a Late Renaissance church located within the Vatican City. the Colosseum is aniconic symbol of Imperial Rome. Italy. a quarry.000 spectators. from the gens Flavia). workshops. animal hunts. [4][5] the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles. Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo). is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. or the Coliseum. [6] The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin. officially known in Italian as Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticanoand commonly known as Saint Peter's Basilica. Peter's Basilica The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri). [3] and as "the . Capable of seating 50. executions. Saint Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic sites. and a Christian shrine. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers.

For this reason. The facade of the basilica.55 metres (18. of course. the basilica is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter. the Chapel of thePresentation of the Virgin. as it is not the seat of a bishop. St Joseph and St . many Popes have been interred at St. which stretches across the building. This in its turn overwhelms us. Peter's is famous as a place of pilgrimage. It is properly termed a papal basilica. Moving around the basilica in a clockwise direction they are: The Baptistery. The basilica is approached via St. The interior is of vast dimensions by comparison with other churches. [5] Contrary to popular misconception. Peter is a huge church [4] in the Renaissance style located in Rome west of the River Tiber and near the Janiculum Hill and Hadrian's Mausoleum. Tradition and some historical evidence hold that Saint Peter's tomb is directly below the altar of the basilica. for its liturgical functions and for its historical associations. John Lateran is the cathedral church of Rome. or entrance hall. leading to the central dome. [4] [6] One author wrote: "Only gradually does it dawn upon us – as we watch people draw near to this or that monument." [8] There is a barrel-vaulted nave. The entrance is through a narthex. The Basilica of St. with the Counter-reformation and with numerous artists. they are. most significantly Michelangelo. It is associated with the papacy. Its central dome dominates the skyline of Rome. strangely they appear to shrink. the highest of any church. stretches across the end of the square and is approached by steps on which stand two 5. The central space is dominated both externally and internally by one of the largest domes in the world. the Sacristy Entrance. over the oldConstantinian basilica. the left transept with altars to the Crucifixion of St Peter. with an elongated nave in the Latin cross form but the early designs were for a centrally planned structure and this is still in evidence in the architecture. The first space is oval and the second trapezoid. Saint Peter's is not a cathedral. with a giant order of columns. One of the decorated bronze doors leading from the narthex is the Holy Door. Peter's since the Early Christian period. began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626. Overview The Basilica of St. SaintsPeter and Paul. both surrounded by tall colonnades. the Clementine Chapel with the altar of St Gregory. the larger Choir Chapel. the first Bishop of Rome and therefore first in the line of the papal succession.2 ft) statues of the 1st century apostles to Rome. dwarfed by the scale of everything in the building.In Roman Catholic tradition. a forecourt in two sections. There has been a church on this site since the 4th century. according to tradition. [4] St. Peter's Square. it is regarded as the greatest building of its age. Construction of the present basilica. only opened in Holy Years. The aisles are lower and have a number of chapels off them. As a work of architecture. [6][7] The basilica is cruciform in shape. There are also chapels surrounding the central dome. who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and.

One observer wrote: "St Peter's Basilica is the reason why Rome is still the center of the civilized world. and its interior offers a palimpsest of artistic styles at their best.the sublime of the beautiful Leaning Tower of Pisa The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile.. the altar of the Navicella. For religious. Saints Processo and Martiniano. or canopy over the Papal Altar. the Gregorian Chapel with the altar of the Madonna of Succour.Thomas... many of which are considered outstanding artworks.. the altar of the Sacred Heart." [9] The American philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson described St Peter's as "an ornament of the earth . reliefs. the Chapel of the Madonna of Colonna. the apse with St Peter's Cathedra. designed by Gianlorenzo Bernini. the altar of the Archangel Michael. . the larger Chapel of the Holy Sacrament. historical. The central feature is a baldachin. and St Wenceslas. and architectural reasons it by itself justifies a journey to Rome. and containing the symbolic Chair of St Peter. the Chapel of St Sebastian and the Chapel of the Pieta. The sanctuary culminates in a sculptural ensemble. the right transept with altars of St Erasmus. the altar of St Peter and the Paralytic. [6] The entire interior is lavishly decorated with marble. There are also a number of sculptures in niches and chapels. of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa. also by Bernini. architectural sculpture and gilding. the altar of St Basil. includingMichelangelo's Pieta. the altar of St Peter raising Tabitha. The basilica contains a large number of tombs of popes and other notable people. or freestanding bell tower.. It is situated behind the Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in Pisa's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo) after the Cathedral and the Baptistry.

It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano. in order to repair visual damage. when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria. set in weak. the tower would almost certainly have toppled. A popular tourist activity is to pose for photographs pretending to "hold up" the leaning tower and preventing it from falling.70 m (186. the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. The seventh floor was completed in 1319. [8] the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface [9] restoration.000 short tons). [7] Construction was halted again in 1284. Work on the ground floor of the white marble campanile began on August 8. the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. The tower has 296 or 294 steps. about 3. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century. The bellchamber was finally added in 1372. After a phase (1990–2001) of structural strengthening. Its weight is estimated at 14. Construction Construction of the tower occurred in three stages across 177 years. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation. one for each note of the musical major scale.5 degrees. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. [4] [1][2][3] but the tower now leans at This means that the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3. architect of the Camposanto. The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178.99 degrees. In an effort to compensate for the tilt. the tower leaned at an angle of 5.09 m (13. because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa. a design that was flawed from the beginning.500 metric tons (16. These are particularly pronounced due to the tower's age and its exposure to wind and rain.The height of the tower is 55. Lucca and Florence. The width of the walls at the base is 4. 1173. There are seven bells. [6] The illusion is created through the principle of forced perspective. during a period of military success and prosperity. who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001. Otherwise.9 metres [5] (12 ft 10 in) from where it would be if the structure were perfectly vertical.86 m (183. . Because of this.42 ft) and at the top 2.02 ft) on the high side. The largest one was installed in 1655. unstable subsoil. In 1272 construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone. the tower is actually curved.48 m (8. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals. In 1198 clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction. mostly corrosion and blackening.14 ft).27 ft) from the ground on the low side and 56.

[4] The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same. commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome. speculated that the name comes either from the statues of so many gods placed around this building. [2] The nearly-contemporary writer [3] (2nd–3rd centuries AD). the Pantheon has been used as a Roman Catholic church dedicated to "St.3 It is one of the best preserved of all Roman buildings. [6] the square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. metres (142 ft). . with a central opening (oculus) to the sky.Pantheon The Pantheon is a building inRome. Almost two thousand years after it was built. was deconsecrated and turned into a secular monument. when the church of Sainte-Geneviève. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda. and since the 7th century. Since the French Revolution. the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. the Panthéon of Paris. concrete dome. 43. the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honored or buried. or else from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens. It has been in continuous use [5] throughout its history. Cassius Dio. Mary and the Martyrs" but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". Italy. Paris. which is under a coffered. [1] The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under apediment. and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD.

construction and design In 1629 Pope Urban VIII. hiding it behind a sculpted vase. when Pietro Bracci's Oceanus (god of all water) was set in the central niche. the "Ace of Cups". and even the Spanish Steps. with his work half-finished. Italy. there are many Bernini touches in the fountain as it was built. but before he went he made sure a stubborn barber's unsightly sign would not spoil the ensemble. Standing 26 metres (85. who substituted the present allegories for planned sculptures of Agrippa and "Trivia". finding the earlier fountain insufficiently dramatic. fountains.Trevi Fountain The Trevi Fountain is a fountain in the Trevi rione in Rome. The Trevi Fountain was finished in 1762 by Giuseppe Pannini. An early. In 1730 Pope Clement XII organized a contest in which Nicola Salvi initially lost to Alessandro Galilei – but due to the outcry in Rome over the fact that a Florentine won. Though Bernini's project was torn down for Salvi's fountain. Commission. Vienna. as do various early 18th century sketches. as well as a project attributed to Nicola Michetti [6] [7] [8] one attributed to Ferdinando Fuga and a French design by Edme Bouchardon. also exists. Competitions had become the rage during the Baroque era to design buildings. striking and influential model by Pietro da Cortona. Salvi was [9] awarded the commission anyway. it is the largest Baroque fountain in the city and one of the most famous fountains in the world.3 feet) high [1] and 20 metres (65. most unsigned. called by Romans the asso di coppe. preserved in the Albertina. long after Clement's death. Work began in 1732. and the fountain was completed in 1762. the project was abandoned. asked Gian Lorenzo Bernini to sketch possible renovations. Salvi died in 1751. the Roman virgin . but when the Pope died.6 feet) wide.

Italy. which dates back to early Christianityand is the main episcopal see of 1. fountain. Vatican City State is distinct from the Holy See. It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres).Among those who are unaware that the "three coins" of Three Coins in the Fountain were thrown by three different individuals. subsidize a supermarket for Rome's needy. [13] in Italian officially Stato della Città del which translates literally as State of the City of Vaticano (pronounced [ˈstaː [14] the Vatican. on behalf of the Holy See and by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini on behalf of the Kingdom of Italy. there are regular attempts to steal coins from the Vatican City Vatican City i /ˈvætɨkən ˈsɪti/. or Vatican City State.Coin throwing A traditional legend holds that if visitors throw a coin into the fountain.000 euros are thrown into the fountain each day. is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclavewithin the city of Rome. Another reported version of this legend is that it is lucky to throw three coins with one's right hand over one's left shoulder into the Trevi Fountain. An estimated 3. ʃitˈta del vatiˈkaːno]). a reported current interpretation is that two coins will lead to a new romance and three will ensure either a marriage or divorce. they are ensured a return to Rome. [11] [11] The money has been used to However. signed by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri. and a population of just over 800. official documents of the Holy See are issued mainly in Latin. [6][15] Vatican City was established in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty. Ordinances of Vatican City are published in Italian.2 billion Latin and Eastern Catholic adherents around the globe. The .

The signing of the agreements that established the new state took place in the latter building. It has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. but have also at times resided in the Quirinal Palace in Rome and elsewhere. Fossils of wild boars have been discovered. .Emperor Constantine gave this site to Pope Miltiades in 313. The separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. In each case very few passports are issued. Capri is part of the region of Campania. Marina Piccola and Marina Grande (the main port of the island). The Lateran Treaty in 1929. ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope. but on the other hand the Romans called Capri "goat island". namely the city of Rome with Lazio. The Popes have generally resided in the area that in 1929 became Vatican City since the return from Avignon in 1377. the Belvedere of Tragara. Vatican City is an ecclesiastical [6] or sacerdotal-monarchical [7] state. not being a country. which brought the city-state into existence. But it could also derive from Latin capreae (goats). spoke of it as a new creation (Preamble and Article III). ten years later. Finally. by which they are known. referred to as the Apostolic Palace. there is also the possibility the name derives from anEtruscan word for "rocky". though any historical Etruscan rule of the island is disputed. The etymology of the name Capri is unclear. the first recorded colonists to populate the island. in the Campania region of Southern Italy. and the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas. It has two harbours. Features of the island are the Marina Piccola (the little harbour). which is a high panoramic promenade lined with villas. Anacapri. they resided in the Lateran Palace on the Caelian Hill on the far side of Rome from the Vatican. on the south side of the Gulf of Naples. issues only diplomatic and service passports. whereas Vatican City State issues normal passports. giving rise to the name of Lateran Pacts.two entities have distinct passports: the Holy See. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's residence. Previously. not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756–1870) that had previously encompassed much of central Italy. the Blue Grotto (Grotta Azzurra). and the final portion. Province of Naples. pronounced /kəˈpriː/ in English) is an Italian island in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula. The town of Capri is the main centre of population on the island. Capri Capri (Italian pronunciation: [ˈkaːpri]. lending credence to the "kapros" etymology. it might either be traced back to the Ancient Greeks (Ancient Greek kapros meaning "wild boar"). the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea (the Faraglioni). Most of this territory was absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergymen of various national origins. in 1870.

[2] Recreation and tourism As a tourist destination. Madonna. It has an area of 146 km². George Clooney. Lach de Comm in Insubric. Currently. was launched by the newly established Società privilegiata per l'impresa dei battelli a vapore nel Regno Lombardo Veneto. Gianni Versace. It has many villas and palaces (such as Villa Olmo. andBen Spies. It is long and narrow. A motorized service began in 1826 when a steamship with sails. Richard Branson. and a very popular tourist attraction with many artistic and cultural gems. Villa Serbelloni and Villa Carlotta). wildlife and spas. windsurfing and kitesurfing. Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy. making it the third largest lake in Italy. and has the appearance of a mighty river winding among the mountains and the forests" Ferries The Lake Como ferry service is a highly developed public transport system linking the dozens of small towns and villages dotted around the perimeter of the Lake. Sylvester Stallone. At over 400 m (1320 ft) deep it is one of the deepest lakes in Europe and the bottom of the lake is more than 200 metres (656 ft) below sea-level. many celebrities have or had homes on the shores of Lake Como. with the exception of the arbutus islands of Killarney. Lake Como is popular for its scenery. [10] [9] It is a venue In 1818 Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote to Thomas Love Peacock: "This lake exceeds anything I ever beheld in beauty. Italy.Lake Como Lake Como (Lago di Como in Italian. Lake Como has been a popular retreat for aristocrats and wealthy people since Roman times. Since 1952 the system has been run under the auspices of a government organisation called first the Gestione Commissariale Governativa and . such as Matthew Bellamy. Lake Como is widely regarded as being one of the most beautiful lakes in Italy. for sailing. also known as Lario. after Lake Garda and Lake Maggiore. the ―Lario‖. Ronaldinho.

with additional shuttles to the mid-lake area. . [6][7] Today there are three main services: -‗Motorship‘ services up and down the western branch and northern end of the Lake (between Colico or Piona and Como town). stop less frequently and cost extra. Bellagio and Varenna. Liguria.subsequently the Gestione Governativa Navigazione Laghi. ‗Fast services‘ that follow broadly the same route but use quicker hydro foils. plus Cadenabbia. Some of these boats carry vehicles as well as passengers Manarola Manarola (Manaea in the local dialect) is a small town. -‗Ferries‘ that run only between the hugely popular mid-lake villages of Menaggio. It is the second smallest of the famous Cinque Terre towns frequented by tourists. a frazione of the comune (municipality) of Riomaggiore. northern Italy. in the province of La Spezia. which is also responsible for services on Lake Maggioreand Lake Garda.

In recent years. San Lorenzo. which is marginally different from the dialects in the nearby area. In the Manarolese dialect this was changed to "magna roea" which means "large wheel". Manarola's primary industries have traditionally been fishing and wine-making. . Manarola and its neighboring towns have become popular tourist destinations. "magna rota". Manarola is one of the five villages. The name "Manarola" is probably dialectical evolution of the Latin. is especially renowned. The local dialect is Manarolese. particularly in the summer months. Tourist attractions in the region include a famous walking trail between Manarola and Riomaggiore (called Via dell'Amore. with the cornerstone of the church. called Sciacchetrà. The local wine. in reference to the mill wheel in the town [1]. dating from 1338. Mostly all of the houses are bright and colourful. references from Roman writings mention the high quality of the wine produced in the region. "Love's Trail") and hiking trails in the hills and vineyards above the town.Overview Manarola may be the oldest of the towns in the Cinque Terre.