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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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FILING FEES JURISDICTION SMALL CLAIMS Rule 1 RULE 2 CAUSE OF ACTION RULE 3 PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONS RULE 4 VENUE OF ACTIONS RULE 5 UNIFORM PROCEDURE IN TRIAL COURTS RULE 6 KINDS OF PLEADINGS RULE 7 PARTS OF A PLEADING RULE MANNER OF MAKING ALLEGATIONS IN PLEADINGS RULE 9 EFFECT OF FAILURE TO PLEAD RULE 1! AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS RULE 11 "#EN TO FILE RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS RULE 12 $ILL OF PARTICULARS RULE 14 SUMMONS RULE 15 MOTIONS RULE 16 MOTION TO DISMISS RULE 17 DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS RULE 1 PRE&TRIAL RULE 19 INTERVENTION RULE 2! CALENDAR OF CASES RULE 21 SU$POENA RULE 22 COMPUTATION OF TIME MODES OF DISCOVER' RULE 23 DEPOSITIONS PENDING ACTIONS RULE 24 DEPOSITIONS $EFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL( RULE 25 INTERROGATORIES TO PARTIES RULE 26 ADMISSION $' ADVERSE PART' RULE 27 PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR T#INGS RULE 2 P#'SICAL AND MENTAL E)AMINATION OF PERSONS RULE 29 REFUSAL TO COMPL' "IT# MODES OF DISCOVER' RULE 3! TRIAL
Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

3 4 7 9 11 14 23 26 29 35 37 4! 43 46 4 55 62 65 69 7! 74 75 75 77 77 7 4 5 6 7 7 9

RULE 13 FILING AND SERVICE OF PLEADINGS% JUDGMENTS AND OT#ER PAPERS 5!

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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RULE 31 CONSOLIDATION OR SEVERANCE RULE 32 TRIAL $' COMMISSIONER RULE 33 DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE RULE 34 JUDGMENT ON T#E PLEADINGS RULE 35 SUMMAR' JUDGMENTS RULE 36 JUDGMENTS% FINAL ORDERS AND ENTR' T#EREOF RULE 37 NE" TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION RULE 3 RELIEF FROM JUDGMENTS% ORDERS% OR OT#ER PROCEEDINGS RULE 39 E)ECUTION% SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS $*+e, -.e*.+e/ -, *e0e1+e2 APPEALS

91 91 93 94 94 95 97 99 1!1 116 116

RULE 4! APPEAL FROM MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS TO T#E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS 116 RULE 41 APPEAL FROM T#E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS RULE 44 ORDINAR' APPEALED CASES 3PROCEDURE IN CA4 RULE 42 117 121 123

PETITION FOR REVIE" FROM T#E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS TO T#E COURT OF APPEALS 123 123 RULE 43 APPEALS FROM T#E COURT OF TA) APPEALS AND 5UASI&JUDICIAL AGENCIES TO T#E COURT OF APPEALS RULE 45 APPEAL $' CERTIORARI TO T#E SUPREME COURT PROCEDURE IN T#E COURT OF APPEALS RULE 46 ORIGINAL CASES RULE 4 PRELIMINAR' CONFERENCE IN T#E CA RULE 49 ORAL ARGUMENT RULE 5! DISMISSAL OF APPEAL RULE 51 JUDGMENT RULE 52 MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION RULE 53 NE" TRIAL RULE 55 PU$LICATION OF JUDGMENTS AND FINAL RESOLUTION RULE 47 ANNULMENT OF JUDGMENTS OR FINAL ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS

125 127 129 129 13! 13! 13! 131 133 133 134 135

"(is reviewer is )ased on Atty* "ran#uil +alvador,s lectures- stu%% %rom Atty* &uevarra- &lenn "ua.on,s )rilliant lecture notes- cases- and /eria01oc(e,s )ook* $1o Riano since I le%t it in my locker' &ood luck2

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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FILING FEES

Important: Payment o% docket %ees is not only mandatory- )ut 34RI+5IC"I61AL* 7now t(e true nature o% t(e action )ecause it will determine t(e docket %ees* +o take note o% t(e %acts o% eac( case* o It may seem like a cancellation o% deed o% sale- )ut it can ultimately )e one %or t(e recovery o% property- making it a real action* $Ru)y +(elter v /ormaran III- 2 8' /or e9ample: i% t(e action is %or t(e cancellation o% a deed o% sale and t(e titles (ave already )een trans%erred to anot(er party- t(at,s a real action )ecause t(e ultimate purpose is t(e recovery o% real property* $t(at,s w(at (appened in Ru)y +(elter' I% t(e titles (ave not yet )een trans%erred- it can )e considered as a personal action* $Spouses de Leon cited in Ru)y +(elter' 5ocket %ees to )e paid: o Real action: depends on t(e /M: stated in t(e current ta9 declaration or current .onal valuation o% t(e ;IR $w(ic(ever is (ig(er'- or i% t(ere is none- t(e stated value o% t(e property in litigation*! o Cases involving actions incapa)le o% pecuniary estimation: %lat rate 5ocket %ees computation include interests- penalties- surc(arges- damages o% w(atever kindattorney,s %ees- court e9penses* $see %ootnote !' $Proton v ;an#ue 1ationale de Paris- 2 <' o +o- i% t(e plainti%% %ails to pay t(e docket %ees %or alleged interest payments accruing )e%ore t(e complaint is %iled- plainti%% can not recover suc(* $Proton- w(erein a certain period o% interest payment was alleged )ut t(e corresponding docket %ees pertaining to suc( was not paid' o Important2: Compare wit( amount %or =urisdictional purposes: only t(e principal claim is considered* It is t(e duty o% t(e parties claiming suc( damages to speci%y t(e amount soug(t on t(e )asis o% w(ic( t(e court may make a proper determination and %or t(e proper assessment o% t(e appropriate %ees* o "(e damages soug(t must )e placed in t(e PRA>?R o% t(e complaint* $P(ilippine /irst Insurance v Pyramid Logistics- 2 @- w(erein Pyramid amended t(eir complaint and still did not put t(e damages soug(t in t(e prayer* It was a sign o% )ad %ait( on t(eir part*' I% not- t(e complaint will )e e9punged* I% t(e pleading speci%ies t(e claim- )ut t(e %ees paid are insu%%icient- t(e court may allow a reasona)le time %or t(e payment o% t(e prescri)ed %ees- or t(e )alance t(ereo%* ?9ample: i% t(e party %iling t(e case paid less t(an t(e correct amount %or t(e docket %ees )ecause o% t(e wrong assessment o% t(e clerk o% court- t(e responsi)ility o% making a de%iciency assessment lies wit( t(e same clerk* Party cannot )e penali.ed %or suc(- so court will continue to (ave =d over t(e case* ;ut party will still (ave to pay t(e %ees $Montaner v +(ari,a 5istrict- 2 8' "(is also (appened in ;autista v 4nangst $2 @' w(ic( involved t(e de%icient assessment in t(e Court o% Appeals* +C said t(at it was not t(e appellant,s %ault )ut (e still (as to pay t(e de%icient %ees wit(in t(e reglementary period* $since it was on appeal' o ?9ception: no need to place t(e amount soug(t i% t(e damages arise A/"?R t(e %iling o% t(e complaint since you wouldn,t know (ow muc( t(at would )e Compulsory counterclaims and cross0claims must now pay docket %ees* $see %ootnote !'

Rule 141, Sec. 7. Clerks of Regional Trial Courts. a) For filing an action or a permissive OR COMPULSORY counter-claim, CROSS-CLAIM, or money claim against an estate not based on judgment, or for filing a third-party, fourth-party, etc. complaint, or a complaint-in-intervention, if the total sum claimed, INCLUSIVE OF INTERESTS, PENALTIES, SURCHARGES, DAMAGES OF WHATEVER KIND, AND ATTORNEYS FEES, LITIGATION EXPENSES AND COSTS and/or in cases involving property, the FAIR MARKET value of the REAL property in litigation STATED IN THE CURRENT TAX DECLARATION OR CURRENT ZONAL VALUATION OF THE BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE, WHICHEVER IS HIGHER, OR IF THERE IS NONE, THE STATED VALUE OF THE PROPERTY IN LITIGATION OR THE VALUE OF THE PERSONAL PROPERTY IN LITIGATION AS ALLEGED BY THE CLAIMANT, is: xxx Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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&R: docket %ees must )e paid w(en you %ile t(e complaint* $clerk will look at prayer and t(en determine (ow muc( you (ave to pay*' o ?9ceptions: I% t(e damages arose A/"?R t(e %iling- t(e additional docket %ee will serve as a lien on t(e =udgment Like interests accruing a%ter t(e %iling o% t(e complaint $Proton v ;1P' I% t(e complaint is amended and new damages are alleged- t(e additional docket %ee will )e allowed to )e paid wit(in a reasona)le time wit(in t(e applica)le prescriptive period or reglementary period $"acay- cited in P(ilippine /irst' I% t(e clerk makes a wrong assessment- t(e %ull amount must )e paid wit(in t(e applica)le prescriptive period or reglementary period* Recipients o% t(e service o% t(e 1ational Committee on Legal Aid and o% t(e Legal Aid o%%ices o% t(e I;P are ?A?MP" %rom payment o% %iling- docket %ees* $Re: Re#uest %or 1CLA- 2 8' o "(is e9emption does 16" apply to =uridical entities- even i% t(ese entities are %ormed %or c(arita)le purposes or make e9tremely delecta)le u)e =am* $Buery o% Mr Roger Prioresc(i o% t(e &ood +(ep(erd /oundation- AM 80C080+C'

JURISDICTION

5e%ine =urisdiction: o "(e power o% t(e court to (ear- try- or decide t(e case o A+ C61/?RR?5 )y law Court knows i% it (as =urisdiction )ased on t(e allegations o% t(e complaint* $:illacastin v Pelae.2 @- w(ere t(e +C said t(at t(e allegations o% a complaint made out an e=ectment case so t(e M"C- and not t(e 5ARA;- (ad =d over t(e case even i% t(e case was over agri land since it was not an agrarian dispute anyway*' "(e =urisdiction o% a court may )e #uestioned at any stage o% t(e proceedings* 1o estoppel* It is t(e duty o% t(e court to dismiss an action w(enever it appears t(at t(e court (as no =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matter* $:argas v Caminas- 2 @- w(ere =d was #uestioned )e%ore trial court decided' o ?AC?P": lac(es $"i=am- w(ere =d was #uestioned only a%ter !< years' /or a court to properly e9ercise =d over a case- t(e re#uirements o% law must )e complied wit(* o Dence- w(en a R"C takes cogni.ance over an indirect contempt case %iled t(roug( an unveri%ied motion $and not t(roug( a veri%ied petition wit( a certi%icate o% non0%orum s(opping as re#uired )y Rule E!'- t(e R"C (as gravely erred* 2 Can t(e +C create special courtsF G o 16* It can only designate* It can,t con%er =urisdiction- only law can do t(at* +C can only designate w(ic( courts will )ecome special courts* IMP6R"A1": in determining =urisdiction- you do 16" include damages- interest- attorney,s %eesetc* o 6nly limit t(e amount to t(e demand or t(e claim* ;ut- o% course- i% your action is %or damages- t(en t(e amount o% damages claimed is determinative* o "(e interest to e9clude is t(e accessory interest* 1ot t(e loan interest* ?9ample: "(e case is in Pampanga* "(e promissory note is %or P28@wit( interest o% ! H per annum- w(ere do you %ile t(e collection suit %or t(isF In t(e R"C o% Pampanga* "(e cause o% action revolves around t(e entire promissory note* M"C o 6riginal and e9clusive

Rule 71, Sec 4: How proceedings commenced. Proceedings for indirect conte !t a" #e initiated motu propio #" t$e court against %$ic$ t$e conte !t %as co itted #" an order or an" ot$er for al c$arge re&uiring t$e res!ondent to s$o% cause %$" $e s$ould not #e !unis$ed for conte !t. 'n all ot$er cases, c$arges for indirect conte !t s$all #e co enced #" a (erified !etition %it$ su!!orting !articulars and certified true co!ies of docu ents or !a!ers in(ol(ed t$erein, and u!on full co !liance %it$ t$e re&uire ents for filing initiator" !leadings for ci(il actions in t$e court concerned. 'f t$e conte !t c$arges arose out of or are related to a !rinci!al action !ending in t$e court, t$e !etition for conte !t s$all allege t$at fact #ut said !etition s$all #e docketed, $eard and decided se!aratel", unless t$e court in its discretion orders t$e consolidation of t$e conte !t c$arge and t$e !rinci!al action for )oint $earing and decision. *n+ 3 ,-a !les of ot$er s!ecial courts: .rugs court, ,n(iron ent court, Co ercial court, 'P court Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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6pposite o% R"C ?=ectmentIunlaw%ul detainer Regardless o% value M"C can determine owners(ip provisionally

R"C o

6riginal and ?9clusive Amount incapa)le o% pecuniary estimation Can 16" )e measured in money 5epends on t(e nature o% t(e action o J(ere t(e )asic issue is somet(ing ot(er t(an t(e rig(t to recover a sum o% money- w(ere t(e money claim is only incidental or a conse#uence o% t(e principal relie% soug(t- t(e action is incapa)le o% pecuniary estimation* $/?;"C v +(em)erg- 2 C- w(ere t(e +C (eld t(at an action to cancel mortgage %or want o% consideration is incapa)le o% pecuniary estimation' o ?9amples: rescission- re%ormation o% contract- speci%ic per%ormance o J(at a)out e9propriationF Always wit( R"C- w(et(er personal or real property- regardless o% value* Law .eroes in on t(e e9ercise o% suc( rig(t* o J(at a)out declaratory relie%F R"C- e9cept w(en t(ere is an issue o% constitutionality- +C can take it* o J(at a)out supportF /amily courts- regardless o% value* Civil actions involving title to- or possession o%- real property- or any interest t(erein- w(ere t(e A++?++?5 value o% t(e property involved e9ceeds P2 or e9ceeds P< i% in Metro Manila4 ?AC?P" actions %or %orci)le entry and unlaw%ul detainer $original =urisdiction over w(ic( is con%erred upon t(e M"C- Me"C- M"CC' Assessed value is t(e wort( or value o% property esta)lis(ed )y ta9ing aut(orities on t(e )asis o% w(ic( t(e ta9 rate is applied* $vda de ;arrera v Deirs o% Legaspi- 2 @- w(ic( was a accion pu)liciana case' In all actions in admiralty and maritime =urisdiction w(ere t(e demand or claim e9ceeds PG * or- in Metro Manila- e9ceeds P4 * R"C acting in general =urisdiction- no special maritime courts In all matters o% pro)ate- )ot( testate and intestate- w(ere t(e gross value o% t(e estate e9ceeds PG * or- in Metro Manila- e9ceeds P4 * J(at i% t(e value o% t(e estate is ! k- t(e M"C (as =urisdiction over t(atrig(tF ;ut will it )e su)=ect to summary procedureF o 1o* 6% course not* Pro)ate cases always under ordinary procedure since you (ave to determine t(e due e9ecution o% t(e will* o +ummary procedure rules e9plicitly e9clude pro)ate proceedings* In all actions involving t(e contract o% marriage and marital relations Like support- annulment- nullity Courts will act as /amily courts- special =urisdiction* In all cases not wit(in t(e e9clusive =urisdiction o% any court- tri)unal- person or )ody e9ercising =urisdiction o% any court- tri)unal- person or )ody e9ercising =udicial or #uasi0=udicial %unctions +o =uvenile- agrarian cases 6t(er cases in w(ic( t(e demand- e9clusive o% interest- damages o% w(atever kind- attorney,s %ees- litigation e9penses- and costs or t(e value o% t(e property in controversy e9ceeds PG - or in Metro Manila- e9ceeds P4 "(ose under t(e securities regulation code Cases involving devices or sc(emes employed )y t(e corporation amounting to %raud Intra0corporate or partners(ip relations Controversies in t(e election or appointments o% directors- trustess-

So if accion !u#liciana case and less t$an P/0,000 in 1anila, file %it$ 1TC

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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o%%icers- etc +uspension o% payments- etc o 6riginal and Concurrent $see +C and CA' o Appellate Cases decided )y t(e M"C- etc Court o% Appeals o 6riginal and ?9clusive Annul =udgments o% t(e R"C )ased on e9trinsic %raud or lack or =urisdiction o Concurrent wit( t(e +C Petitions %or t(e issuance o% writs o% certiorari- pro(i)ition and mandamus against t(e 1LRC- C+C- R"C o Concurrent wit( t(e R"C and +C Da)eas corpus- (a)eas data- writ o% amparo- #uo warranto- certiorari- mandamuspro(i)ition vs lower courts In "(ornton- 2 4- a writ o% (a)eas corpus was %iled wit( t(e CA* "(ere was an argument t(at only t(e R"C could issue a writ o% (a)eas corpus* +C said t(e CA can issue a writ o% (a)eas corpus especially in t(is case w(ere t(e w(erea)out o% t(e c(ild was unknown so a writ o% (a)eas corpus %rom t(e CA would )e more e%%ective t(an t(at %rom t(e R"C* < $+C and CA writs are en%orcea)le anyw(ere- w(ile R"C writs are en%orcea)le only wit(in t(eir territorial =urisdiction*' J(en it comes to concurrent =urisdiction- always remem)er t(e rule on (ierarc(y o% courts* I% you can %ile wit( t(e R"C %irst- t(en go a(ead* 6nce a court ac#uires =d- it e9cludes all ot(er courts* o Appellate 6ver R"C ?9ercising original =urisdiction ;y ordinary notice o% appeal $i% #uestion o% %act or #uestion o% %act and law' I% pure #uestion o% law in t(e R"C- go straig(t to +C2 6ver R"C e9ercising appellate =urisdiction over t(e M"C: ;y petition %or review- even i% pure #uestion o% law 6ver Buasi0=udicial agencies ;y petition %or review- even i% pure #uestion o% law +upreme Court o 6riginal and ?9clusive Petitions %or t(e issuance o% writs o% certiorari- pro(i)ition and mandamus against t(e: CA- C6M?L?C- CoA- +andigan)ayan- C"A 5eclaratory relie% only w(en t(ere is a #uestion o% constitutionality Like o% treaties- laws- etc o Concurrent wit( t(e CA Petitions %or t(e issuance o% writs o% certiorari- pro(i)ition and mandamus against t(e 1LRC- C+C- R"C o Concurrent wit( t(e R"C and CA Da)eas corpus- (a)eas data- writ o% amparo- #uo warranto- certiorari- mandamuspro(i)ition vs lower courts o Concurrent wit( t(e R"C Cases a%%ecting am)assadors- etc o Concurrent wit( t(e I;P Actions against mem)ers o% t(e ;ar o Appellate over R"C e9ercising original =urisdiction
inors, and t$e regular one under t$e R2C. T$e difference is t$at in t$e

T$ere are t%o kinds of %rit of $a#eas cor!us. 2ne for t$e custod" of for er, !re3trial is re&uired. 'n t$e latter, it is not. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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CA
SMALL CLAIMS (AM-8-8-7-SC, 2008)

)y petition %or review on certiorari $rule 4<' on pure #uestions o% law +andigan)ayan- C"A en )anc- CoA- Comelec

+mall claims are %iled in t(e M"C +mall claims cases involve cases wit( amounts 16" ?AC??5I1& P! k o 1o distinction )etween cases outside Metro Manila and Metro Manila J(at s(ould )e included in t(e P! kF o "(e claim itsel%- ?ACL4+I:? 6/ I1"?R?+"+ and C6+"+ C J(at i% t(e claim is %or damages itsel%F "(en it,s not covered )y small claims )ecause t(ese damages (ave yet to )e ascertained* 5amages cases $like %rom personal in=ury' are not akin to sum0o%0money cases* o +egue: w(at i% t(e case is %or P! k and is outside MM- w(at do you %ollow K small claims or summary procedureF Atty "ran#uil suggests t(at it is t(e option o% t(e complainant since t(ere is concurrent =d )etween small claims court and court o% summary procedure* 5oes it cover #uasi0delictsF o >es* It covers cases o% %aultInegligence- #uasi0contract- contract- and even t(e civil aspect o% criminal cases*E 1o need %or lawyers nor t(e %iling o% a regular complaint* >ou can =ust use t(e standard %orm given*@ Can you =oin separate claimsF o >es- as long as: Against same de%endant "otal does 16" e9ceed P! k- e9clusive o% interests and costs* 8 5o you (ave to pay docket %eesF o 4n%ortunately- yes*!

Section 2. Scope. 3 T$is Rule s$all go(ern t$e !rocedure in actions #efore t$e 1etro!olitan trial Courts, 1unici!al Trial Courts in Cities, 1unici!al Trial Courts and 1unici!al Circuit Trial Courts for !a" ent of one" %$ere t$e (alue of t$e clai does not e-ceed 2ne 5undred T$ousand Pesos *P100,000.00+ e-clusi(e of interest and costs. 7 Section 4. Applicability 3 T$e 1etro!olitan Trial Courts, 1unici!al Trial Courts in Cities, 1unici!al Trial Courts, and 1unici!al Circuit Trial Courts s$all a!!l" t$is Rule in all actions %$ic$ are6 *a+ !urel" ci(il in nature %$ere t$e clai or relief !ra"ed for #" t$e !laintiff is solel" for !a" ent or rei #urse ent of su of one", and *#+ t$e ci(il as!ect of cri inal action, or reser(ed u!on t$e filing of t$e cri inal action in court, !ursuant to Rule of 111 of t$e Re(ised Rules of Cri inal Procedure. T$ese clai s or de ands a" #e6 *a+ 7or one" o%ned under an" of t$e follo%ing6 1. Contract of 8ease6 2. Contract of 8oan6 3. Contract of Ser(ices6 4. Contract of Sale6 or /. Contract of 1ortgage6 *#+ 7or da ages arising fro an" of t$e follo%ing6 1. 7ault or negligence6 2. 9uasi3contract6 or 3. Contract6 *c+ T$e enforce ent of a #aranga" a ica#le settle ent or an ar#itration a%ard in(ol(ing a one" clai co(ered #" t$is Rule !ursuant to Sec. 417 of Re!u#lic :ct 7140, ot$er%ise kno%n as t$e 8ocal ;o(ern ent Code of 1<<1. = Section 5. Commencement of Small Claims Action. 3 : s all clai s action is co enced #" filing %it$ t$e court an acco !lis$ed and (erified State ent of Clai *7or 1 3 SCC+ in du!licate, acco !anied #" a Certification of >on3foru S$o!!ing *7or 13:,SCC+, and t%o *2+ dul" certified !$otoco!ies of t$e actiona#le docu ent?s su#)ects of t$e clai , as %ell as t$e affida(its of %itnesses and ot$er e(idence to su!!ort t$e clai . >o e(idence s$all #e allo%ed during t$e $earing %$ic$ %as not attac$ed to or su# itted toget$er %it$ t$e Clai , unless good cause is s$o%n for t$e ad ission of additional e(idence. >o for al !leading, ot$er t$an t$e State ent of Clai descri#ed in t$is Rule, is necessar" to initiate a s all clai s action. < Section 6. Joinder of Claims 3 Plaintiff a" )oin in a single state ent of clai one or ore se!arate s all clai s against a defendant !ro(ided t$at t$e total a ount clai ed, e-clusi(e of interest and costs, does not e-ceed P100,00.00. 10 Section 8. Payment of Filing Fees. 3 T$e !laintiff s$all !a" t$e docket and ot$er legal fees !rescri#ed under Rule 141 of t$e Re(ised Rules of Court, unless allo%ed to litigate as an indigent. : clai filed %it$ a otion to sue as indigent *7or 43SCC+ s$all #e referred to t$e ,-ecuti(e @udge for i ediate action in case of ulti3sala courts, or to t$e Presiding @udge of t$e court $earing t$e s all clai s case. 'f t$e otion is granted #" t$e ,-ecuti(e @udge, t$e case s$all #e Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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I% an indigent sues- it will immediately )e re%erred to t(e e9ecutive =udge* $+ee %ootnote' ?ven i% indigent- (e still (as to pay P!%or t(e summons %ee* Can t(e court dismiss t(e case outrig(tF o >es2!! I% court %inds no reason to dismiss outrig(t- it will issue summons and notice o% (earing to t(e de%endant*!2 o 5e%endant (as ! days to make a veri%ied response* "(e ! days can 16" )e e9tended* !G I% (e %ails to respond- t(e court can render =udgment )ased on t(e +tatement o% t(e Claim* "(e =udgment must )e limited to t(e amount o% t(e claim- )ut it can )e lowered )y t(e court*!4 Can t(e de%endant %ile a counterclaimF o >es- as long as: Also not e9ceeding P! k- e9clusive o% interests and costs Arising out o% t(e same transaction or event t(at is t(e su)=ect matter o% t(e claim 5oes not re#uire %or ad=udication Grd parties- and 1ot su)=ect o% a pending action* I% not %iled as a counterclaim- it is )arred*!< o I% it doesn,t arise out o% t(e same transaction or event- a counterclaim can still )e %iled in t(e response as long as docket %ees (ave )een paid %or it and t(e claim does not e9ceed P! k- e9clusive o% interests and costs* Can you %ile Rule C< Certiorari %rom an order o% t(e small claims courtF o 1o- it,s pro(i)ited*!C Can a lawyer appear in t(e (earingF

raffled off or assigned to t$e court designated to $ear s all clai s cases. 'f t$e otion is denied, t$e !laintiff s$all #e gi(en fi(e */+ da"s %it$in %$ic$ to !a" t$e docket fees, ot$er%ise, t$e case s$all #e dis issed %it$out !re)udice. 'n no case s$all a !art", e(en if declared an indigent, #e e-e !t fro t$e !a" ent of t$e P1,000.00 fee for ser(ice of su ons and !rocesses in ci(il cases. 11 Section 9. Dismissal of the Claim. 3 :fter t$e court deter ines t$at t$e case falls under t$is Rule, it a", fro an e-a ination of t$e allegations of t$e State ent of Clai and suc$ e(idence attac$ed t$ereto, #" itself, dis iss t$e case outrig$t of an" of t$e grounds a!!arent fro t$e Clai for t$e dis issal of a ci(il action. 12 Section 10. Summons and Notice of Hearing 3 'f no ground for dis issal is found, t$e court s$all fort$%it$ issue Su ons *7or 23SCC+ on t$e da" of recei!t of t$e State ent of Clai , directing t$e defendant to su# it a (erified Res!onse. T$e court s$all also issue a >otice *7or 43SCC+ to #ot$ !arties, directing t$e to a!!ear #efore it on a s!ecific date and ti e for $earing, %it$ a %arning t$at no un)ustified !ost!one ent s$all #e allo%ed, as !ro(ided in Section 1< of t$is Rule. T$e su ons and notice to #e ser(ed on t$e defendant s$all #e acco !anied #" a co!" of t$e State ent of Clai and docu ents su# itted #" !laintiff, and a co!" of t$e Res!onse *7or 33SCC+ to #e acco !lis$ed #" t$e defendant. T$e >otice s$all contain an e-!ress !ro$i#ition against t$e filing of a otion to dis iss or an" ot$er otion under Section 14 of t$is Rule. 13 Section 11. esponse 3 T$e defendant s$all file %it$ t$e court and ser(e on t$e !laintiff a dul" acco !lis$ed and (erified Res!onse %it$in a non 3 e-tendi#le !eriod of ten *10+ da"s fro recei!t of su ons. T$e Res!onse s$all #e acco !anied #" certified !$otoco!ies of docu ents, as %ell as affida(its of %itnesses and ot$er e(idence in su!!ort t$ereof. >o e(idence s$all #e allo%ed during t$e $earing %$ic$ %as not attac$ed to or su# itted toget$er %it$ t$e Res!onse, unless good cause is s$o%n for t$e ad ission of additional e(idence. 14 Section 12. !ffect of Failure to File esponse 3 S$ould t$e defendant fail to file $is res!onse %it$in t$e re&uired !eriod, t$e court #" itself s$all render )udge ent as a" #e %arranted #" t$e facts alleged in t$e State ent of clai li ited to %$at is !ra"ed for. T$e court $o%e(er, a", in its discretion, reduce t$e a ount of da ages for #eing e-cessi(e or unconsciona#le 1/ Section 13. Counterclaims "ithin the Co#erage of this ule 3 'f at t$e ti e t$e action is co enced, t$e defendant !ossesses a clai against t$e !laintiff t$at *a+ is %it$in t$e co(erage of t$is rule, e-clusi(e of interest and costs6 *#+ arises out of t$e sa e transaction or e(ent t$at is t$e su#)ect atter of t$e !laintiffAs clai 6 *c+ does not re&uire for its ad)udication t$e )oinder of t$ird !arties6 and *d+ is not t$e su#)ect of anot$er !ending action, t$e clai s$all #e filed as a counterclai in t$e res!onse6 ot$er%ise, t$e defendant s$all #e #arred fro suit on t$e counterclai . T$e defendant a" also elect to t$e file a counterclai against t$e !laintiff t$at does not arise out of t$e sa e transaction or occurrence , !ro(ided t$at t$e a ount and nature t$ereof are %it$in t$e co(erage of t$is Rule and t$e !rescri#ed docket and t$e ot$er legal fees are !aid. 14 Section 14. Prohibited Pleadings and $otions 3 T$e follo%ing !leadings, otions, and !etitions s$all not #e allo%ed in t$e cases co(ered #" t$is Rule: *a+ 1otion to dis iss t$e co !liant e-ce!t on t$e ground of lack of )urisdiction6 *#+ 1otion for a #ill of !articulars6 *c+ 1otion for ne% trial, or for reconsideration of a )udge ent, or for reo!ening of trial6 *d+ Petiton for relief fro )udge ent6 *e+ 1otion for e-tension of ti e to file !leadings, affida(its, or an" ot$er !a!er6 *f+ 1e oranda6 *g+ Petition for certiorari, anda us, or !ro$i#ition against an" interlocutor" order issued #" t$e court6 *$+ 1otion to declare t$e defendant in default6 *i+ .ilator" otions for !ost!one ent6 *)+ Re!l"6 *k+ T$ird3!art" co !laints6 and *l+ 'nter(entions. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o 1o* Lawyers are 1?:?R allowed* $unless t(ey are t(e ones claiming' !E J(at (appens i% a party is a)sent %rom t(e (earingF o Plainti%%: dismissal o% case 5e%endant w(o appears s(all )e allowed to recover %rom (is permissive counterclaim Compare to normal cases w(ere claim is dismissed $counterclaimsregardless o% nature- survive* 1ot sure i% t(is was an oversig(t only- )ut t(at,s w(at t(e codal says' o 5e%endant: as i% (e didn,t %ile a response o ;ot(: dismissal o% claim and counterclaim !@ Are postponements allowedF o >es 6nly 61C? per party- and 4pon proo% o% p(ysical disa)ility to appear in court* !8 /or =udgments and e9ecution- see %ootnote*2

Rule 1 Sect !" 1# T tle !$ t%e Rule&# T%e&e Rule& &%'ll (e )"!*" '"+ c te+ '& t%e Rule& !$ C!u,t# Sec# 2# I" *%'t c!u,t& '--l c'(le# T%e&e Rule& &%'ll '--l. " 'll t%e c!u,t&, e/ce-t '& !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e+ (. t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t# Sec# 2# C'&e& 3!0e,"e+# T%e&e Rule& &%'ll 3!0e," t%e -,!ce+u,e t! (e !(&e,0e+ " 'ct !"&, c 0 l !, c, 1 "'l, '"+ &-ec 'l -,!cee+ "3&# (') A c 0 l 'ct !" & !"e (. *% c% ' -',t. &ue& '"!t%e, $!, t%e e"$!,ce1e"t !, -,!tect !" !$ ' , 3%t, !, t%e -,e0e"t !" !, ,e+,e&& !$ ' *,!"3# A c 0 l 'ct !" 1'. e t%e, (e !,+ "',. !, &-ec 'l# 4!t% ',e 3!0e,"e+ (. t%e ,ule& $!, !,+ "',. c 0 l 'ct !"&, &u(5ect t! t%e &-ec $ c ,ule& -,e&c, (e+ $!, ' &-ec 'l c 0 l 'ct !"# (() A c, 1 "'l 'ct !" & !"e (. *% c% t%e St'te -,!&ecute& ' -e,&!" $!, '" 'ct !, !1 && !" -u" &%'(le (. l'*# (c) A &-ec 'l -,!cee+ "3 & ' ,e1e+. (. *% c% ' -',t. &ee)& t! e&t'(l &% ' &t'tu&, ' , 3%t, !, ' -',t cul', $'ct#

J(at is an actionF o /ormal demand o% one,s legal rig(ts in a court court or )y t(e law* o Met(od o% applying legal remedies according to 7inds o% actions: o Civil Protection or en%orcement o% a rig(t- or Can )e ordinary or special $sca' o Criminal 6nce t(e in%ormation is %iled in court- it o +pecial proceeding

o% =ustice in t(e manner prescri)ed )y t(e de%inite esta)lis(ed rules*

prevention or redress o% a wrong

)ecomes a criminal action*

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Section 17. Appearance of Attorneys Not Allowed. 3 >o attorne" s$all a!!ear in #e$alf of or re!resent a !art" at t$e $earing, unless t$e attorne" is t$e !laintiff or defendant. 'f t$e court deter ines t$at a !art" cannot !ro!erl" !resent $is?$er clai or defense and needs assistance, t$e court a", in its discretion, allo% anot$er indi(idual %$o is not an attorne" to assist t$at !art" u!on t$e latterAs consent. 1= Section 18. Non%appearance of Parties. 3 7ailure of t$e !laintiff to a!!ear s$all #e cause for t$e dis issal of t$e clai %it$out !re)udice. T$e defendant %$o a!!ears s$all #e entitled to )udge ent on a !er issi(e counterclai . 7ailure of t$e defendant to a!!ear s$all $a(e t$e sa e effect as failure to file a Res!onse under Section 12 of t$is Rule. T$is s$all not a!!l" %$ere one of t%o or ore defendants %$o are sued under a co on cause of action and $a(e !leaded a co on defense a!!ears at t$e $earing. 7ailure of #ot$ !arties to a!!ear s$all cause t$e dis issal %it$ !re)udice of #ot$ t$e clai and counterclai . 1< Section 19. Postponement "hen Allowed. 3 : re&uest for !ost!one ent of a $earing a" #e granted onl" u!on !roof of t$e !$"sical ina#ilit" of t$e !art" to a!!ear #efore t$e court on t$e sc$eduled date and ti e. : !art" a" a(ail of onl" one *1+ !ost!one ent. 20 Section 23. Decision. 3 :fter t$e $earing, t$e court s$all render its decision on t$e sa e da", #ased on t$e facts esta#lis$ed #" t$e e(idence *7or 133SCC+. T$e decision s$all i ediatel" #e entered #" t$e Clerk of Court in t$e court docket for ci(il cases and a co!" t$ereof fort$%it$ ser(ed on t$e !arties. T$e decision s$all #e final and una!!eala#le. Section 24. !&ecution. 3 'f t$e decision is rendered in fa(or of t$e !laintiff, e-ecution s$all issue u!on otion *7or <3SCC+. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Application or proceeding to esta)lis(: t(e status o% a party- or t(e rig(t o% a party- or a particular %act* ?9amples are petition %or adoption- petition %or (ospitali.ation o% an insane personsettlement o% estate o% a deceased person

Sec# 6# I" *%'t c'&e& "!t '--l c'(le# T%e&e Rule& &%'ll "!t '--l. t! elect !" c'&e&, l'"+ ,e3 &t,'t !", c'+'&t,'l, "'tu,'l 7't !" '"+ "&!l0e"c. -,!cee+ "3&, '"+ !t%e, c'&e& "!t %e,e " -,!0 +e+ $!,, e/ce-t (. '"'l!3. !, " ' &u--let!,. c%','cte, '"+ *%e"e0e, -,'ct c'(le '"+ c!"0e" e"t# Sec# 8# C!11e"ce1e"t !$ 'ct !"# A c 0 l 'ct !" & c!11e"ce+ (. t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e !, 3 "'l c!1-l' "t " c!u,t# I$ '" '++ t !"'l +e$e"+'"t & 1-le'+e+ " ' l'te, -le'+ "3, t%e 'ct !" & c!11e"ce+ * t% ,e3',+ t! % 1 !" t%e +'te !$ t%e $ l "3 !$ &uc% l'te, -le'+ "3, ,,e&-ect 0e !$ *%et%e, t%e 1!t !" $!, t& '+1 && !", $ "ece&&',., & +e" e+ (. t%e c!u,t#

"(e commencement o% an action interrupts t(e period o% prescription as to all t(e parties to t(e action* J(en does an action commenceF o 4pon %iling o% t(e original complaint in t(e court Jit( respect to an additional de%endant- w(en does it commenceF o "(e present rule provides t(at it is t(e date o% t(e %iling o% t(e amended complaint =oining t(e additional de%endant w(ic( is t(e date o% t(e commencement o% t(e action wit( regard to suc( additional de%endant* >ou only %ile a motion %or t(e admission o% suc( amended complaint w(en t(en (ere (as )een an answer served on t(e plainti%%* In cases w(ere t(e amended complaint is attac(ed to t(e motion %or its admissiont(e date o% %iling t(ereo% is t(e date o% t(e commencement o% t(e action wit( regard to t(e additional de%endant- irrespective o% t(e action o% t(e court on t(e motion* 5oes t(e %iling alone vest t(e court wit( =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matterF o 1o* >ou (ave to !' %ile and 2' pay t(e docket %ees* o It is important to remem)er t(at it is not simply t(e %iling o% t(e complaint or appropriate initiatory pleading )ut also t(e payment o% t(e prescri)ed docket %ee t(at vests a trial court wit( =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matter or nature o% t(e action* o Jit(out t(e payment o% t(e docket %ees- no original complaint or pleading is considered* o I% t(e complete amount o% t(e docket %ee is not paid- t(e prescriptive period continues to run as t(e complaint is deemed not %iled*

Sec# 9# C!"&t,uct !"# T%e&e Rule& &%'ll (e l (e,'ll. c!"&t,ue+ " !,+e, t! -,!1!te t%e , !(5ect 0e !$ &ecu, "3 ' 5u&t, &-ee+. '"+ "e/-e"& 0e + &-!& t !" !$ e0e,. 'ct !" '"+ -,!cee+ "3# RULE 2 CAUSE OF ACTION Sect !" 1# O,+ "',. c 0 l 'ct !"&, ('& & !$# E0e,. !,+ "',. c 0 l 'ct !" 1u&t (e ('&e+ !" ' c'u&e !$ 'ct !"# Sec# 2# C'u&e !$ 'ct !", +e$ "e+# A c'u&e !$ 'ct !" & t%e 'ct !, !1 && !" (. *% c% ' -',t. 0 !l'te& ' , 3%t !$ '"!t%e,#

J(at is a cause o% actionF o It is an act or omission o% one party in violation o% t(e legal rig(t or rig(ts o% t(e ot(er* o Its essential elements are: Legal rig(t o% t(e plainti%% Correlative o)ligation o% t(e de%endant Act or omission o% t(e de%endant in violation o% t(e plainti%%,s said legal rig(t*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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?9ample K Mario doesn,t pay Luigi as agreed upon in a de)t contract* o Luigi (as t(e legal rig(t to )e paid and Mario (as t(e o)ligation to pay- arising %rom t(e contract* o "(e non0payment o% de)t is t(e actIomission or t(e cause o% action* J(en must t(e cause o% action e9istF o At t(e time t(e complaint is %iled* Dence- a complaint w(ose cause o% action (as not yet accrued cannot )e cured )y an amended or supplemental pleading alleging t(e e9istence or accrual o% a cause o% action during t(e pendency o% t(e action* $"urner v Loren.o +(ipping- 2 ! - a corp case involving rig(t o% appraisal' ?ven i% t(ere is an e9isting contract- a tort can still )e t(e cause o% action i% w(at )reaks t(e contract is a tortious act* $Mindanao "erminal v P(oeni9- 2 8'

Sec# 2# O"e &u t $!, ' & "3le c'u&e !$ 'ct !"# A -',t. 1'. "!t "&t tute 1!,e t%'" !"e &u t $!, ' & "3le c'u&e !$ 'ct !"# Sec# 6# S-l tt "3 ' & "3le c'u&e !$ 'ct !": e$$ect !$# I$ t*! !, 1!,e &u t& ',e "&t tute+ !" t%e ('& & !$ t%e &'1e c'u&e !$ 'ct !", t%e $ l "3 !$ !"e !, ' 5u+31e"t u-!" t%e 1e, t& " '". !"e & '0' l'(le '& ' 3,!u"+ $!, t%e + &1 &&'l !$ t%e !t%e,&#

"(e purpose o% t(is rule is to prevent repeated litigation* "(e rule applies not only to complaints )ut also to counterclaims and cross0claims* I% two or more complaints are )roug(t %or di%%erent parts o% a single cause o% action- t(e %iling o% t(e %irst may )e pleaded in a)atement o% t(e ot(er* It can )e set up eit(er )y means o%: o A motion to dismiss or an a%%irmative de%ense in t(e answer* J(at groundF Res =udicata or litis pendentia* L+plitting a cause o% actionM is not a ground* J(ere t(ere is only one delict or wrong- t(ere is only one cause o% action regardless o% t(e num)er o% rig(ts t(at may (ave )een violated )elonging to one person* o +ame cause o% action )ut di%%erent prayers N splitting* >ou can,t splitO o Recovery o% property and damages o Annulment o% %oreclosure sale and damages $C(ua v M;"C- 2 8' o Recovery o% owners(ip o% and income %rom same land o Installments due and unpaid o 1on0payment o% de)t secured )y a mortgage $you can,t split it to payment o% de)t and %oreclosure o% mortgage- you (ave to c(oose one' o "otal )reac( o% entire contract As a general rule- a contract to do several t(ings at several times is divisi)le- and a =udgment %or a single )reac( o% a continuing contract is not a )ar to a suit %or a su)se#uent )reac(* ;ut w(ere t(e contract is entire- and t(e )reac( total- t(ere can )e only one action in w(ic( plainti%% must recover all damages* Can you consolidate split causes o% actionF o 1o* +o t(e two pending cases can,t )e consolidated* 6ne $or )ot(' will )e dismissed %or %orum s(opping* $see Rule and cases on consolidation- particularly Megaland v C?'

Sec# 8# J! "+e, !$ c'u&e& !$ 'ct !"# A -',t. 1'. " !"e -le'+ "3 '&&e,t, " t%e 'lte,"'t 0e !, !t%e,* &e, '& 1'". c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" '& %e 1'. %'0e '3' "&t '" !--!& "3 -',t., &u(5ect t! t%e $!ll!* "3 c!"+ t !"&; (') T%e -',t. 5! " "3 t%e c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" &%'ll c!1-l. * t% t%e ,ule& !" 5! "+e, !$ -',t e&: (() T%e 5! "+e, &%'ll "!t "clu+e &-ec 'l c 0 l 'ct !"& !, 'ct !"& 3!0e,"e+ (. &-ec 'l ,ule&: (c) <%e,e t%e c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" ',e (et*ee" t%e &'1e -',t e& (ut -e,t' " t! + $$e,e"t 0e"ue& !, 5u, &+ ct !"&, t%e 5! "+e, 1'. (e 'll!*e+ " t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t -,!0 +e+ !"e !$ t%e c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" $'ll& * t% " t%e 5u, &+ ct !" !$ &' + c!u,t '"+ t%e 0e"ue l e& t%e,e ": '"+ (+) <%e,e t%e cl' 1& " 'll t%e c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" ',e -, "c -'ll. $!, ,ec!0e,. !$ 1!"e., t%e '33,e3'te '1!u"t cl' 1e+ &%'ll (e t%e te&t !$ 5u, &+ ct !"#

Maraming angal si Mario versus Luigi (hindi nagbayad ng utang tapos kinain yung pasta niya na hindi nagpapaalam tapos hinalikan si Princess Daisy tapos sinuntok si Toad tapos hindi pina-tae si

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Yoshi, etc >ou do t(is w(en t(ere,s ! case )ut several causes o% action* o /or every )reac(- t(ere is one cause o% action* I% t(ere is a claim o% money and t(ere are claims o% damages $moral- e9emplary' arising %rom t(e claim o% money- t(ere is only one cause o% action* "(e claims %or damages are mere incidents o% t(e )reac( $%ailure to pay' I% t(ere are several promissory notes- )ut only one loan- and no payment on all notes- t(ere are several causes o% action $since )ased on P1s'* >ou can even do a =oinder o% AL"?R1A"I:? causes o% action* o ?9ample: s(ipping contract* /irst cause o% action is )ased on contract* +econd cause o% action is )ased on tort* Can you do alternative causes o% action against multipleIdi%%erent partiesF >es* Rule G- +ec C*2! ?9ample: 2 )uses collided wit( Mr* A,s car* Mr* A can %ile alternative causes o% action against t(e two )uses* J(at conditions must )e met %or a proper =oinder o% causes o% actionF o "(e rules on =oinder o% parties must )e o)served- meaning: It arises %rom t(e same or series o% transactions- and It involves a common #uestion o% law $Rule G- +ec C' IMP6R"A1": "(is must only )e %ollowed i% t(ere are multiple de%endants* o I% =ust )etween two parties- no need %or t(is rule* +cenario !: A versus > K can =oin as many causes o% action- even i% totally 41R?LA"?5* +ee Mario v Luigi a)ove* "otally unrelated causes o% action* +cenario 2: A versus A- ;- C- 5 $multiple' K can only =oin t(e causes o% action i% it complies wit( t(e rule on =oindermeaning series o% actions arising %rom t(e same or series o% transactions involving a common #uestion o% law' +een in Pantanco v +tandard- $2 <'- w(ere t(e plainti%% and t(eir insurance company soug(t relie% %rom t(e )us company* Court said t(ere was proper =oinder o% parties $and t(us =oinder o% causes o% action' )ecause t(ere was a single transaction common to all K t(e accident caused )y t(e )us company* +een in Pere. v Dermano $2 <'- w(ere plainti%%s properly =oined de%endant company and de%endant A )ecause said company allegedly misled plainti%% in signing a mortgage deed in %avor o% de%endant A* It,s an e9ample o% a #uestion o% law and %act arising %rom a Lseries o% transactions*M "o determine identity o% cause o% action- it must )e ascertained w(et(er t(e same evidence w(ic( is necessary to sustain t(e second cause o% action would (ave )een su%%icient to aut(ori.e a recovery in t(e %irst* $Pantranco v +tandard- t(is case is also relevant %or =urisdiction- as it %ocused on totality o% claims' o +pecial civil actions or actions governed )y special rules are not covered* >ou can,t =oin an e=ectment case wit( money claims )ecause e=ectment cases are governed )y special rules on summary procedure* >ou can,t =oin two special civil actions eit(er*

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Rule 3, Sec. 4. Per issi(e )oinder of !arties. :ll !ersons in %$o or against %$o an" rig$t to relief in res!ect to or arising out of t$e sa e transaction or series of transactions is alleged to e-ist, %$et$er )ointl", se(erall", or in t$e alternati(e, a", e-ce!t as ot$er%ise !ro(ided in t$ese Rules, )oin as !laintiffs or #e )oined as defendants in one co !laint, %$ere an" &uestion of la% or fact co on to all suc$ !laintiffs or to all suc$ defendants a" arise in t$e action6 #ut t$e court a" ake suc$ orders as a" #e )ust to !re(ent an" !laintiff or defendant fro #eing e #arrassed or !ut to e-!ense in connection %it$ an" !roceedings in %$ic$ $e a" $a(e no interest.

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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In cases o% di%%erent venues or =urisdiction )etween t(e +AM? parties- t(e =oinder may )e made in t(e R"C- provided it (as =urisdiction over one o% t(e causes o% action and t(e venue lies t(erein* I% one cause o% action %alls wit(in t(e R"C and t(e ot(er in t(e M"C- t(e action s(ould )e %iled in t(e R"C* I% t(e causes o% action (ave di%%erent venues- t(ey may )e =oined in any o% t(e courts o% proper venue* +o- a real action and a personal action may )e =oined eit(er in t(e R"C o% t(e place w(ere t(e real property is located or w(ere t(e parties reside* o Case !: +um o% money G< k- plainti%% resides in Makati- de%endant in BC o Case 2: Real property wort( @ k in Cavite* >ou can =oin t(ose two cases in eit(er Cavite- Makati or BC* $%or academic purposes' ;ut in practice- =ust severe )ecause ot(er lawyers don,t know a)out t(is* o J(ere all t(e causes o% action are %or recovery o% money- t(e aggregate amount claimed s(all )e t(e test o% =urisdiction* Important: "(is totality rule will only apply i% ALL cases o% action are %or recovery o% money* 5oes t(is mean we can,t (ave =oinder o% real action and personal actionF o 1o* Je can still do it- using +ec <$c'- )ut you =ust don,t use t(e totality rule* "(e totality o% t(e principal claims %or money determines w(ic( court (as =urisdiction* ;ut- in cases o% =oinder o% parties- t(e %irst condition s(ould apply* 3oinder o% causes o% action is permissive and not mandatory* It,s up to t(e litigant i% (e wants to avail o% suc(* ;ut w(en (e decides to do a =oinder- (e must comply wit( t(e re#uirements* $Pere. v Dermano- 2 <' o

Sec# 9# M &5! "+e, !$ c'u&e& !$ 'ct !"# M &5! "+e, !$ c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" & "!t ' 3,!u"+ $!, + &1 &&'l !$ '" 'ct !"# A 1 &5! "e+ c'u&e !$ 'ct !" 1'., !" 1!t !" !$ ' -',t. !, !" t%e " t 't 0e !$ t%e c!u,t, (e &e0e,e+ '"+ -,!cee+e+ * t% &e-','tel.#

Is mis=oinder a ground %or dismissal o% an actionF o 1o* It will not cause t(e dismissal o% t(e principal action* It is severed and will proceed separately- a%ter separate %iling* o In %act- i% neit(er t(e court nor t(e adverse party o)=ects- it will )e ad=udicated toget(er wit( t(e ot(er causes o% action* $Atty &uevarra' o ?9ample K a =oinder o% collection o% money and an e=ectment case* Di p!ede yan, boy" Pero kung !alang nagob#ect, oh di lusot"

RULE 2 =ARTIES TO CI>IL ACTIONS Sect !" 1# <%! 1'. (e -',t e&: -l' "t $$ '"+ +e$e"+'"t# O"l. "'tu,'l !, 5u, + c'l -e,&!"&, !, e"t t e& 'ut%!, 7e+ (. l'* 1'. (e -',t e& " ' c 0 l 'ct !"# T%e te,1 ?-l' "t $$? 1'. ,e$e, t! t%e cl' 1 "3 -',t., t%e c!u"te,-cl' 1'"t, t%e c,!&&-cl' 1'"t, !, t%e t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. -l' "t $$# T%e te,1 ?+e$e"+'"t? 1'. ,e$e, t! t%e !, 3 "'l +e$e"+ "3 -',t., t%e +e$e"+'"t " ' c!u"te,cl' 1, t%e c,!&&-+e$e"+'"t, !, t%e t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. +e$e"+'"t#

Plainti%%Nclaimant 5e%endantNagainst w(om t(e claim is asserted* J(o may )e parties to a civil actionF o 1atural persons o 3uridical persons o 5uly incorporated and registered wit( t(e +?C 6n /oreign Corporations Isolated transaction: can sue and )e sued 5oing )usiness and not licensed (ere: can 16" sue- )ut can )e sued
Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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?AC?P": i% ot(er party is estopped )ecause (e )ene%itted %rom dealing wit( suc( %oreign corporation 5oing )usiness and licensed: can sue and )e sued o ?ntities aut(ori.ed )y law $see Rule G- +ec !<' ?9amples: Political parties La)or unions Arc(diocese ?state Rule G- +ec !< $as de%endants' J(at a)out entities wit(out =uridical e9istenceF o Can 16" institute under t(e name o% t(e non0=uridical entity* "(ey (ave to sue individually* o ;ut t(ey can )e parties as de%endants- and named as suc(* $see Rule G- +ection !<' Can estates )e a partyF >es- Rule G- +ection 2 * Can e9ecutors or administrators )e partiesF >es- Rule @E- +ection !* Can t(e state )e suedF &enerally- no* ?9cept w(en: o "(ere is e9press consent $t(ere,s a law allowing it' o "(ere is implied consent- like w(en: "(e state enters into a private contract It enters into a )usiness operation- unless it does so only as a necessary incident o% its prime governmental %unction t(e state sues a private party- unless t(e suit is entered into only to resist a claim* "(ere is %ailure to a)ide )y w(at t(e law o% contract re#uires*

Sec# 2# =',t e& " "te,e&t# A ,e'l -',t. " "te,e&t & t%e -',t. *%! &t'"+& t! (e (e"e$ te+ !, "5u,e+ (. t%e 5u+31e"t " t%e &u t, !, t%e -',t. e"t tle+ t! t%e '0' l& !$ t%e &u t# U"le&& !t%e,* &e 'ut%!, 7e+ (. l'* !, t%e&e Rule&, e0e,. 'ct !" 1u&t (e -,!&ecute+ !, +e$e"+e+ " t%e "'1e !$ t%e ,e'l -',t. " "te,e&t#

"(e real party in interest is one w(o: o +tands to )e )ene%ited or in=ured )y t(e =udgment in t(e suit- or o Is entitled to t(e avails o% t(e suit* J(at,s important (ere is actual interest- not merely inc(oate or e9pectant interest* o Incidental interest also does not count* Dence- w(en t(e managing director o% a (otel %iles a complaint pertaining to a contract entered into )y t(e corporation- it is t(e corporation w(ic( is t(e RPI- not t(e managing director* Der interest is merely incidental* $Repu)lic v Coal)rine International- 2 ! ' Law uses LpartyM (ere so it applies to de%endants- t(ird party0de%endants- etc K anyone w(o is impleaded and w(o will )e )ene%itted or )e in=ured* ?very action must )e prosecuted or de%ended in t(e name o% t(e real party in interest* o Dence- w(en a la)or union %ails to include t(e name o% t(e employee t(at t(ey represent in t(e caption o% t(eir petition %or certiorari- t(e court rig(tly dismissed t(e petition )ased on t(e %ormal de%ect* $1LM706LALIA07M4 v 7ei(in- 2 ! ' o J(en t(e suit is against a government employee $like t(e .one administrator o% an economic .one'- t(e nature o% t(e suit is one against t(e +tate- and t(e Repu)lic is t(e RPI* $Repu)lic v Coal)rine' o J(en t(e suit involves private land- t(e Repu)lic is no longer a RPI* $Repu)lic v Agunoyw(ere t(e state made a mistake giving a land patent over private land* "(ey tried to get it )ack' o In a derivative suit- t(e corporation is t(e RPI and t(e suing stock(older is only a nominal party* $Cua v "an- 2 8 K more on t(is case in class suits v derivate suits' Dence- w(en two sets o% stock(olders %ile a derivate suits )ased on t(e same %actsalleging t(e same causes o% action- and praying %or t(e same relie%s- it,s tantamount to allowing t(e corporation to %ile t(e same suit twice* "(is results to

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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%orum0s(opping w(ic( is not allowed* $Cua v "an' In Cua- t(e Court noted t(at t(e indispensa)le parties were not only t(e ;oard o% 5irectors- )ut also t(e ma=ority stock(olders w(o approved and rati%ied t(e action t(at was t(e su)=ect o% t(e controversy* o In an action %or inspecting corporate )ooks and records- it is t(e stock(older demanding %or t(e inspection t(at is t(e RPI* "(e rig(t to inspect corporate )ooks is personal* $Cua v "an' 5i%%erence )etween RPI and legal standingIlocus standii o "(e concept o% RPI will only apply to private suits* o Locus standii usually applies to pu)lic suits %iled )y a private party* It pertains to government actions w(erein a person may su%%er in=ury* >ou can )ase your legal standing as a ta9payer- voter- Congressman- citi.ens suit22 $%or environment cases K (ere- even generations yet un)orn can )e parties )ased on a citi.ens suit* In %act- plainti%%s don,t need any interest in %iling a citi.ens suit* As long as (e,s Pinoy- (e can %ile*' Important: w(at is t(e remedy %or impleading t(e wrong partyF $/or e9ample- Darry sues Ronclaiming t(at Ron owns t(e property- )ut Ron doesn,t own it and doesn,t (ave anyt(ing to do wit( Darry in t(e %irst place' o Motion to 5ismiss* &round: Pleading states no cause o% action "(is ground a)sor)s t(e situation w(erein t(e party impleaded is not t(e RPI* $Atty* "ran#uilIRiano' 5i%%erence )etween Lpleading states no cause o% actionM and Llack o% cause o% actionM will )e discussed w(en we get to Motion to 5ismiss J(at (appens w(en t(e action (as commenced- )ut t(e party in interest c(angesF o "(e original action continues- and t(e original plainti%% )ecomes t(e representative o% t(e trans%eree o% t(e interest* $+ee +ection !8' J(at (appens w(en t(e interest (as c(anged- and t(en t(e action commencesF o "(e original plainti%% is no longer t(e party in interest*

Sec# 2# Re-,e&e"t't 0e& '& -',t e&# <%e,e t%e 'ct !" & 'll!*e+ t! (e -,!&ecute+ !, +e$e"+e+ (. ' ,e-,e&e"t't 0e !, &!1e!"e 'ct "3 " ' $ +uc ',. c'-'c t., t%e (e"e$ c ',. &%'ll (e "clu+e+ " t%e t tle !$ t%e c'&e '"+ &%'ll (e +ee1e+ t! (e t%e ,e'l -',t. " "te,e&t# A ,e-,e&e"t't 0e 1'. (e ' t,u&tee !$ '" e/-,e&& t,u&t, ' 3u',+ '", '" e/ecut!, !, '+1 " &t,'t!,, !, ' -',t. 'ut%!, 7e+ (. l'* !, t%e&e Rule&# A" '3e"t 'ct "3 " % & !*" "'1e '"+ $!, t%e (e"e$ t !$ '" u"+ &cl!&e+ -, "c -'l 1'. &ue !, (e &ue+ * t%!ut 5! " "3 t%e -, "c -'l e/ce-t *%e" t%e c!"t,'ct "0!l0e& t% "3& (el!"3 "3 t! t%e -, "c -'l#

"(e )ene%iciary s(ould )e included in t(e title o% t(e case and s(all )e deemed to )e t(e real party in interest* o I% t(e )ene%iciary,s name is not included in t(e title- t(e de%ect can )e cured )y t(e simple e9pedient o% re#uiring t(e association to disclose t(e names o% t(e principals and to amend t(e title and averments o% t(e petition accordingly $MIAA v Rivera- 2 <- w(erein a (omeowners association %iled in )e(al% o% t(e (omeowners K compare to t(e later case o% 7ei(in- w(ere t(e court averred t(at it could (ave dismissed t(e case )ecause t(e 4nion did not disclose t(e name o% t(e employee it was (elping' A representative may )e: o A trustee o% an e9press trusto A guardiano An e9ecutor or administratoro A party aut(ori.ed )y law or t(ese Rules* An agent acting in (is own name and %or t(e )ene%it o% an undisclosed principal may )e sued or sue wit(out =oining t(e principal o ?AC?P" w(en t(e contract involves t(ings )elonging to t(e principal*

S,C. /. CitiBen suit.:n" 7ili!ino citiBen in re!resentation of ot$ers, including inors or generations "et un#orn, a" file an action to enforce rig$ts or o#ligations under en(iron ental la%s. C!on t$e filing of a citiBen suit, t$e court s$all issue an order %$ic$ s$all contain a #rief descri!tion of t$e cause of action and t$e reliefs !ra"ed for, re&uiring all interested !arties to anifest t$eir interest to inter(ene in t$e case %it$in fifteen *1/+ da"s fro notice t$ereof. T$e !laintiff a" !u#lis$ t$e order once in a ne%s!a!er of a general circulation in t$e P$ili!!ines or furnis$ all affected #aranga"s co!ies of said order. CitiBen suits filed under R.:. >o. =74< and R.:. >o. <003 s$all #e go(erned #" t$eir res!ecti(e !ro(isions. *:.1. >o. 0<343=3SC+
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Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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Sec# 6# S-!u&e& '& -',t e&# @u&('"+ '"+ * $e &%'ll &ue !, (e &ue+ 5! "tl., e/ce-t '& -,!0 +e+ (. l'*#

&eneral rule: Dus)and and wi%e s(all sue or )e sued =ointly as )ot( are co0administrators o% t(e community property* o ?9ceptions: +uit o% one against t(e ot(er ;ased on a criminal actIdelict 3udicial separation o% property A)andonment ?9clusive property o% spouses +uits involving t(e practice o% one,s pro%ession

Sec# 8# M "!, !, "c!1-ete"t -e,&!"&# A 1 "!, !, ' -e,&!" 'lle3e+ t! (e "c!1-ete"t, 1'. &ue !, (e &ue+, * t% t%e '&& &t'"ce !$ % & $'t%e,, 1!t%e,, 3u',+ '", !, $ %e %'& "!"e, ' 3u',+ '" '+ l te1#

Can a minor or incompetent )e a partyF o >es- )ut wit( t(e assistance o% (is %at(er- mot(er- guardian- or i% (e (as none- a guardian ad litem* A person need not )e =udicially declared to )e incompetent* It is enoug( t(at (e )e alleged to )e incompetent* $$a!a!a naman% Paano kung hindi talaga bobo&

Sec# 9# =e,1 && 0e 5! "+e, !$ -',t e&# All -e,&!"& " *%!1 !, '3' "&t *%!1 '". , 3%t t! ,el e$ " ,e&-ect t! !, ', & "3 !ut !$ t%e &'1e t,'"&'ct !" !, &e, e& !$ t,'"&'ct !"& & 'lle3e+ t! e/ &t, *%et%e, 5! "tl., &e0e,'ll., !, " t%e 'lte,"'t 0e, 1'., e/ce-t '& !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e+ " t%e&e Rule&, 5! " '& -l' "t $$& !, (e 5! "e+ '& +e$e"+'"t& " !"e c!1-l' "t, *%e,e '". Aue&t !" !$ l'* !, $'ct c!11!" t! 'll &uc% -l' "t $$& !, t! 'll &uc% +e$e"+'"t& 1'. ', &e " t%e 'ct !": (ut t%e c!u,t 1'. 1')e &uc% !,+e,& '& 1'. (e 5u&t t! -,e0e"t '". -l' "t $$ !, +e$e"+'"t $,!1 (e "3 e1(',,'&&e+ !, -ut t! e/-e"&e " c!""ect !" * t% '". -,!cee+ "3& " *% c% %e 1'. %'0e "! "te,e&t#

J(at are t(e re#uisites %or permissive =oinder o% partiesF o Claim arises %rom same or series o% transactions o Common #uestions o% law or %act in t(e action o Read wit( =oinder o% causes o% action It,s permissive in t(e standpoint o% t(e party initiating t(e cause o% action* ?9amples o Mario P Luigi versus ;owser P Princess o Mario- Luigi P Princess versus ;owser o Mario versus Luigi- Princess P ;owser

Sec# 7# C!1-ul&!,. 5! "+e, !$ "+ &-e"&'(le -',t e&# =',t e& " "te,e&t * t%!ut *%!1 "! $ "'l +ete,1 "'t !" c'" (e %'+ !$ '" 'ct !" &%'ll (e 5! "e+ e t%e, '& -l' "t $$& !, +e$e"+'"t&#

J(o is an indispensa)le partyF o Parties in interest wit(out w(om no %inal determination can )e (ad* o Jit(out t(em- t(ere will )e no resolution o% t(e case- no =udgment at all* ?9amples $see /eria )ook- p* 2GG' o Co0owners in an action %or partion o% an undivided interest in land* o :endee in an action %or annulment o% a contract o% sale* o "(ose wit( titled claims over t(e land in a petition %or reconstitution o% title*

Sec# 8# Nece&&',. -',t.# A "ece&&',. -',t. & !"e *%! & "!t "+ &-e"&'(le (ut *%! !u3%t t! (e 5! "e+ '& ' -',t. $ c!1-lete ,el e$ & t! (e 'cc!,+e+ '& t! t%!&e 'l,e'+. -',t e&, !, $!, ' c!1-lete +ete,1 "'t !" !, &ettle1e"t !$ t%e cl' 1 &u(5ect !$ t%e 'ct !"#

J(o is a necessary partyF Party in interest is one w(o is not indispensa)le )ut w(o oug(t to )e =oined

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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o i% complete relie% is to )e accorded as to t(ose already parties- or o %or a complete determination or settlement o% t(e claim su)=ect o% t(e action* Plainti%% may c(oose to %ile versus t(e necessary party not impleaded- )ut t(ey oug(t to )e =oined to avoid multiple litigation*

?9amples $see /eria )ook- p* 2GE' o Co0owners o% a promissory note in an action %or its collection o +olidarily lia)le- eit(er is indispensa)le- and t(e ot(er is not even necessary )ecause complete relie% may )e o)tained %rom eit(er* o 3ointly lia)le- eit(er is indispensa)le- and t(e ot(er is necessary to accord complete relie%* Pro)lem Action %ro recovery o% title and possession* A (olds title- > (as possession* "(e action is solely %or recovery o% title* Can you sue AF o >es- (e,s t(e proper party* o Can you sue > %or recovery o% title wit(out suing AF 1o- > mere possessor* A is (older o% title- (e,s t(e indispensa)le one* I"+ &-e"&'(le Jit(out w(om no %inal determination o% t(e case can )e (adQ ine9trica)ly intertwined wit( t(e ot(er parties, t(at (is legal presence is an a)solute necessity +(ould )e =oined under any and all conditions Nece&&',. Interest is distinct and divisi)le %rom t(e interest o% t(e ot(er partiesQ will not necessarily )e pre=udiced )y a =udgment w(ic( does complete =ustice to t(e parties in court +(ould )e =oined w(enever possi)leQ (is presence would merely permit complete relie% )etween (im and t(ose already parties to t(e action- or simply avoid multiple litigation

?%%ect o% %ailure to implead $important2' I% necessary party o &R: %ailure to implead is non0pre=udicial o 1o waiver o% rig(t to implead* "(ere is no waiver 41L?++ t(ere is an order to implead %rom t(e court- and you still did not implead* I% indispensa)le party o "(e court s(ould 6R5?R t(at t(e indispensa)le party )e impleaded* $5omingo case' o I% despite t(e order- you still did not comply- t(e case will )e dismissed* 6n w(at groundF /ailure to comply wit( an order o% t(e court* 2G o I% court did not notice t(e non0=oinder $and t(us did not order to implead t(e indispensa)le party'- and renders a decisionO w(at (appensF "(e =udgment is null and void*24 "(e a)sence o% an indispensa)le party renders all su)se#uent actions o% t(e court null and void %or want o% aut(ority to act- not only as to t(e a)sent parties )ut even to t(ose present* $1LM706lalia v 7ei(in- 2 ! '
Sec# B# N!"-5! "+e, !$ "ece&&',. -',t e& t! (e -le'+e+# <%e"e0e, " '". -le'+ "3 " *% c% ' cl' 1 & '&&e,te+ ' "ece&&',. -',t. & "!t 5! "e+, t%e -le'+e, &%'ll &et $!,t% % & "'1e, $ )"!*", '"+ &%'ll &t'te *%. %e & !1 tte+# S%!ul+ t%e c!u,t $ "+ t%e ,e'&!" $!, t%e !1 && !" u"1e, t!, !u&, t 1'. !,+e, t%e "clu& !" !$ t%e !1 tte+ "ece&&',. -',t. $ 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, % & -e,&!" 1'. (e !(t' "e+# T%e $' lu,e t! c!1-l. * t% t%e !,+e, $!, % & "clu& !", * t%!ut 5u&t $ '(le c'u&e, &%'ll (e +ee1e+ ' *' 0e, !$ t%e cl' 1 '3' "&t &uc% -',t.# T%e "!"- "clu& !" !$ ' "ece&&',. -',t. +!e& "!t -,e0e"t t%e c!u,t $,!1 -,!cee+ "3 " t%e 'ct !", '"+ t%e 5u+31e"t ,e"+e,e+ t%e,e " &%'ll (e * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! t%e , 3%t& !$ &uc% "ece&&',.
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Rule 17, Sec. 3. .is issal due to fault of !laintiff. 'f, for no )ustifia#le cause, t$e !laintiff fails to a!!ear on t$e date of t$e !resentation of $is e(idence in c$ief on t$e co !laint, or to !rosecute $is action for an unreasona#le lengt$ of ti e, or to co !l" %it$ t$ese Rules or an" order of t$e court, t$e co !laint a" #e dis issed u!on otion of t$e defendant or u!on t$e courtAs o%n otion, %it$out !re)udice to t$e rig$t of t$e defendant to !rosecute $is counterclai in t$e sa e or in a se!arate action. T$is dis issal s$all $a(e t$e effect of an ad)udication u!on t$e erits, unless ot$er%ise declared #" t$e court.
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T$e ruling in Re!u#lic ( Sandigan#a"an *2003+ stating t$at t$e )udg ent is still #inding on t$e !arties !resent during trial *e(en if so e indis!ensa#le !arties %ere a#sent+ is %rong. :tt". Tran&uil said itDs not #inding !recedent and is actuall" a Esensiti(eF )udg ent. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals -',t.#

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J(at i% a necessary party is not =oined- w(at (appensF o "(e pleader s(all set %ort( (is name and s(all state w(y (e is omitted* J(at i% t(e court %inds t(e reason %or (is omission unmeritoriousF o "(e may order t(e inclusion o% t(e omitted necessary party i% =urisdiction over (is person may )e o)tained* J(en i%- a%ter t(e order- t(e pleader %ails to e9plain to t(e non0=oinder or %ails to comply- wit(out =usti%ia)le cause- wit( t(e order o% t(e courtF $&iven t(at =urisdiction over t(e person may )e o)tained' o "(en it will )e deemed a waiver o% t(e claim against suc( party* J(at i% t(e =oint o)ligor can,t )e impleaded )ecause =urisdiction over t(e person couldn,t )e o)tainedF o "(e =udgment rendered against t(e impleaded =oint o)ligor will not pre=udice t(e rig(ts o% t(e =oint o)ligor not impleaded*

Sec# 10# U"* ll "3 c!--l' "t $$# I$ t%e c!"&e"t !$ '". -',t. *%! &%!ul+ (e 5! "e+ '& -l' "t $$ c'" "!t (e !(t' "e+, %e 1'. (e 1'+e ' +e$e"+'"t '"+ t%e ,e'&!" t%e,e$!, &%'ll (e &t'te+ " t%e c!1-l' "t#

J(at i% t(e consent o% a party w(o should )e =oined as plainti%% can not )e o)tainedF o De may )e made a de%endant- and o "(e reason t(ere%ore s(all )e stated in t(e complaint*

Sec# 11# M &5! "+e, '"+ "!"-5! "+e, !$ -',t e&# Ne t%e, 1 &5! "+e, "!, "!"-5! "+e, !$ -',t e& & 3,!u"+ $!, + &1 &&'l !$ '" 'ct !"# =',t e& 1'. (e +,!--e+ !, '++e+ (. !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t !" 1!t !" !$ '". -',t. !, !" t& !*" " t 't 0e 't '". &t'3e !$ t%e 'ct !" '"+ !" &uc% te,1& '& ',e 5u&t# A". cl' 1 '3' "&t ' 1 &5! "e+ -',t. 1'. (e &e0e,e+ '"+ -,!cee+e+ * t% &e-','tel.#

Is mis=oinder or non0=oinder o% parties a ground %or dismissal o% an actionF o 1o* o "(e non0=oinder o% an indispensa)le or a necessary party is not ipso 'acto a ground %or t(e dismissal* "(e court s(ould order t(e =oinder o% suc( party and non0compliance wit( t(e said order would )e a ground %or t(e dismissal o% t(e action* $ it(s the non-compliance !ith the order, not the mis#oinder itsel' Remem)er: "(e a)sence o% an indispensa)le party renders all su)se#uent actions o% t(e court null and void %or want o% aut(ority to act- not only as to t(e a)sent parties )ut even as to t(ose present*
& !"e !$ c!11!" !, 3e"e,'l "te,e&t t! 1'". -e,&!"& &! '& -',t e&, ' "u1(e, !$ t%e1 *% c% t%e c!u,t $ "+& t! (e t! $ull. -,!tect t%e "te,e&t& !$ 'll c!"ce,"e+ 1'. &ue !, "te,e&t &%'ll %'0e t%e , 3%t t! "te,0e"e t! -,!tect % &

Sec# 12# Cl'&& &u t# <%e" t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, !$ t%e c!"t,!0e,&. "u1e,!u& t%'t t & 1-,'ct c'(le t! 5! " 'll &u$$ c e"tl. "u1e,!u& '"+ ,e-,e&e"t't 0e '& +e$e"+ $!, t%e (e"e$ t !$ 'll# A". -',t. " "+ 0 +u'l "te,e&t#

Re#uisites o% a class suit o +u)=ect matter is one o% common or general interest to many personso "(e interested persons are so numerous t(at it is impractica)le to =oin t(em all as partiesand o "(e parties )ringing t(e class suit are su%%iciently numerous or representative o% t(e class and can %ully protect t(e interests o% all concerned $;anda v ?rmita- 2 ! ' An action does not )ecome a class suit merely )ecause it is designated as suc( in t(e pleadings* It must depend on t(e %acts o% t(e case* )ommon or general interest is essential" o /or e9ample- t(ere was a )us accident* +ome passengers died- some got in=ured- some got out scot0%ree* Can t(ere )e a class suitF 1o- )ecause t(e interests and t(e possi)le damages t(at eac( victim will want may di%%er* /or t(ere to )e a class suit- t(eir interests must )e t(e same* Remem)er common or general interest* $Atty* "ran#uil' *de+uacy o' representation is essential" $M:R+ case'

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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In determining t(e #uestion o% %air and ade#uate representation o% mem)ers o% a classdetermine: J(et(er t(e interest o% t(e named party is coe9tensive wit( t(e interest o% t(e ot(er mem)ers o% t(e class "(e proportion o% t(ose made a party to t(e total mem)ers(ip o% t(e class Any ot(er %actor )earing on t(e a)ility o% t(e named party to speak %or t(e rest o% t(e class 3ust )ecause a person represents a num)er o% people doesn,t mean it,s a class suit* It (as to comply wit( t(e re#uisites* o Courts e9ercise caution )e%ore allowing a class suit- w(ic( is t(e e9ception to t(e =oinder o% indispensa)le parties* J(yF ;ecause i% t(e =udgment against t(e class represented is not %avora)le- t(e represented would certainly claim denial o% due process* $MIAA v Rivera' 5i%%erentiate derivative suit %rom a class suit in t(e conte9t o% corporations o 5erivative suits are t(ose instituted )y an individual stock(older on )e(al% o% t(e corporation in order to protect or vindicate corporate rig(ts* 4sually %iled w(en t(ere is an allegation o% mismanagement or wrong%ul acts committed )y t(e directors or trustees* "(e wrong (ere is done to t(e corporation itsel%* o Class suits are t(ose instituted w(en t(e wrong is done to a group o%- let,s saystock(olders* An e9ample would )e a violation o% t(e rig(ts o% pre%erred stock(olders* "(e wrong (ere is done to t(e a certain group or class* &ive an e9ample o% a class suit t(at (as prospered* o 6posa v /actoran* Practical tip 'rom *tty ,uevara- I% a =udge denies t(e class suit- go %or a permissive =oinder o% parties* "(e t(ing (ere is t(at t(ose not pleaded will not )e a%%ected )y t(e =udgment $as compared to (aving a class suit w(ere all will get a%%ected' o

Sec# 12# Alte,"'t 0e +e$e"+'"t&# <%e,e t%e -l' "t $$ & u"ce,t' " '3' "&t *%! !$ &e0e,'l -e,&!"& %e & e"t tle+ t! ,el e$, %e 1'. 5! " '". !, 'll !$ t%e1 '& +e$e"+'"t& " t%e 'lte,"'t 0e, 'lt%!u3% ' , 3%t t! ,el e$ '3' "&t !"e 1'. (e "c!"& &te"t * t% ' , 3%t !$ ,el e$ '3' "&t t%e !t%e,#

I% you,re not sure w(o to go against- w(at do you doF o 3oin any or all o% t(em as de%endants in t(e alternative- alt(oug( a rig(t to relie% against one may )e inconsistent wit( a rig(t o% relie% against t(e ot(er* o 3ust )e care%ul- )ecause t(is will open yoursel% up to counter0suits*

Sec# 16# U")"!*" +e"t t. !, "'1e !$ +e$e"+'"t# <%e"e0e, t%e +e"t t. !, "'1e !$ ' +e$e"+'"t & u")"!*", %e 1'. (e &ue+ '& t%e u")"!*" !*"e,, %e ,, +e0 &ee, !, (. &uc% !t%e, +e& 3"'t !" '& t%e c'&e 1'. ,eAu ,e: *%e" % & +e"t t. !, t,ue "'1e & + &c!0e,e+, t%e -le'+ "3 1u&t (e '1e"+e+ 'cc!,+# Sec# 18# E"t t. * t%!ut 5u, + c'l -e,&!"'l t. '& +e$e"+'"t# <%e" t*! !, 1!,e -e,&!"& "!t !,3'" 7e+ '& '" e"t t. * t% 5u, + c'l -e,&!"'l t. e"te, "t! ' t,'"&'ct !", t%e. 1'. (e &ue+ u"+e, t%e "'1e (. *% c% t%e. ',e 3e"e,'ll. !, c!11!"l. )"!*"# I" t%e '"&*e, !$ &uc% +e$e"+'"t, t%e "'1e& '"+ '++,e&&e& !$ t%e -e,&!"& c!1-!& "3 &' + e"t t. 1u&t 'll (e ,e0e'le+#

"(ese %olk can only )e sued under t(e name w(ic( t(ey are generally or commonly known- ie as de%endants* o +ervice o% summons may )e e%%ected upon all t(e de%endants )y serving upon any one o% t(emQ or upon t(e person in c(arge o% t(e o%%ice or place o% )usiness maintained under suc( name* "(ey can,t sue as an entity- t(ey will (ave to %ile as individuals* J(at s(ould )e contained in t(eir answerF o "(eir answer must reveal t(e names and addresses o% t(e persons composing it- so t(at t(e =udgment rendered against t(em s(all set out t(eir individual or proper names*

Sec# 19# De't% !$ -',t.: +ut. !$ c!u"&el# <%e"e0e, ' -',t. t! ' -e"+ "3 'ct !" + e&, '"+ t%e cl' 1 & "!t t%e,e(. e/t "3u &%e+, t &%'ll (e t%e Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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+ut. !$ % & c!u"&el t! "$!,1 t%e c!u,t * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& '$te, &uc% +e't% !$ t%e $'ct t%e,e!$, '"+ t! 3 0e t%e "'1e '"+ '++,e&& !$ % & le3'l ,e-,e&e"t't 0e !, ,e-,e&e"t't 0e&# F' lu,e !$ c!u"&el t! c!1-l. * t% t% & +ut. &%'ll (e ' 3,!u"+ $!, + &c -l "',. 'ct !"# T%e %e ,& !$ t%e +ece'&e+ 1'. (e 'll!*e+ t! (e &u(&t tute+ $!, t%e +ece'&e+, * t%!ut ,eAu , "3 t%e '--! "t1e"t !$ '" e/ecut!, !, '+1 " &t,'t!, '"+ t%e c!u,t 1'. '--! "t ' 3u',+ '" '+ l te1 $!, t%e 1 "!, %e ,&# T%e c!u,t &%'ll $!,t%* t% !,+e, &' + le3'l ,e-,e&e"t't 0e !, ,e-,e&e"t't 0e& t! '--e', '"+ (e &u(&t tute+ * t% " ' -e, !+ !$ t% ,t. (20) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce# I$ "! le3'l ,e-,e&e"t't 0e & "'1e+ (. t%e c!u"&el $!, t%e +ece'&e+ -',t., !, $ t%e !"e &! "'1e+ &%'ll $' l t! '--e', * t% " t%e &-ec $ e+ -e, !+, t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, t%e !--!& "3 -',t., * t% " ' &-ec $ e+ t 1e, t! -,!cu,e t%e '--! "t1e"t !$ '" e/ecut!, !, '+1 " &t,'t!, $!, t%e e&t'te !$ t%e +ece'&e+ '"+ t%e l'tte, &%'ll 11e+ 'tel. '--e', $!, '"+ !" (e%'l$ !$ t%e +ece'&e+# T%e c!u,t c%',3e& " -,!cu, "3 &uc% '--! "t1e"t, $ +e$,'.e+ (. t%e !--!& "3 -',t., 1'. (e ,ec!0e,e+ '& c!&t&#

"(is provision applies w(en: o ?it(er party dies- and o "(e action survives J(at,s t(e test to determine w(et(er t(e action survives or notF o I% t(e wrong complained o% a%%ects primarily and principally property or property rig(ts- t(e action will survive- t(e in=uries to t(e person )eing merely incidental* Money claims o I% t(e in=ury complained o% is to t(e person and t(e in=uries to t(e property are incidentalt(en t(e action will not survive* Annulment o% marriage- legal separation K even i% it involves c(anges in t(e property relations J(at s(ould t(e lawyer doF $716J "DI+2' o De s(ould- wit(in G days a%ter t(e deat(- in%orm t(e court t(ereo%* Period: G days a%ter /AC" o% deat(* 1ot knowledge o% suc(* o &ive t(e name and address o% t(e legal representative o% t(e deceased* o "(e court will order: t(e representative to appear and )e su)stituted wit(in G days %rom notice* o 4pon %ailure to o% t(e legal rep to appear- t(e court may order t(e opposing party- wit(in a given period- to procure t(e appointment o% an e9ecutor or administrator w(o s(all immediately appear %or t(e estate o% t(e deceased* J(o s(ould t(e su)stitutes )eF o "(ose w(o are Laut(ori.ed )y lawM- meaning "(e legal (eirs- wit(out re#uiring t(e appointment o% an e9ecutor or administrator "(e administrator "(e e9ecutor- or "(e guardian $+umal=ag v Literato- 2 @- w(erein t(e court said t(e su)stitution o% someone w(o does not %all into t(is list is an invalid su)stitution' J(at (appens i% t(ere is no valid su)stitution )ecause o% eit(er t(e %ault o% t(e counsel or t(e %ailure o% t(e court to order a su)stitutionF o It will not invalidate t(e proceedings and t(e =udgment rendered t(ereon* o Mere %ailure to su)stitute a deceased party is 16" su%%icient ground to nulli%y a court,s decision* "(e party alleging nullity must prove t(at t(ere was an undenia)le violation o% due process* o "ag line: "(e rule on su)stitution o% (eirs is not a matter o% =urisdiction- )ut a R?B4IR?M?1" 6/ 54? PR6C?++* Dence- %ormal su)stitution )y (eirs is not necessary w(en t(ey t(emselves voluntarily appear- participate in t(e case- and present evidence in t(e de%ense o% t(e deceased* $1apere v ;ar)arona- 2 @'

Sec# 17# De't% !, &e-','t !" !$ ' -',t. *%! & ' -u(l c !$$ ce,# <%e" ' -u(l c !$$ ce, & ' -',t. " '" 'ct !" " % & !$$ c 'l c'-'c t. '"+ +u, "3 t& -e"+e"c. + e&, ,e& 3"&, !, !t%e,* &e ce'&e& t! %!l+ !$$ ce, t%e 'ct !" 1'. (e c!"t "ue+ '"+ 1' "t' "e+ (. !, '3' "&t % & &ucce&&!, $, * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& '$te, t%e &ucce&&!, t')e& !$$ ce !, &uc% t 1e '& 1'. (e 3,'"te+ (. t%e c!u,t, t & &'t &$'ct!, l. &%!*" t! t%e c!u,t (. '". -',t. t%'t t%e,e & ' &u(&t'"t 'l "ee+ $!, Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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c!"t "u "3 !, 1' "t' " "3 t '"+ t%'t t%e &ucce&&!, '+!-t& !, c!"t "ue& !, t%,e'te"& t! '+!-t !, c!"t "ue t%e 'ct !" !$ % & -,e+ece&&!,# 4e$!,e ' &u(&t tut !" & 1'+e, t%e -',t. !, !$$ ce, t! (e '$$ecte+, u"le&& e/-,e&&l. '&&e"t "3 t%e,et!, &%'ll (e 3 0e" ,e'&!"'(le "!t ce !$ t%e '--l c't !" t%e,e$!, '"+ 'cc!,+e+ '" !--!,tu" t. t! (e %e',+#

Re#uisites: o RemovalIdeat( o% pu)lic o%%icer and appointment o% successor wit(in G days unless ot(erwise provided o +uccessor adopts- continues- or t(reatens to continue t(e action sued against o "(ere is su)stantial need to continue t(e action +u)stitution is 16" automatic* "(e court must: o &ive notice to t(e new pu)lic o%%icer- and o &ive (im an opportunity to )e (eard Mere %act t(at (e is inclined to continue t(e action o% t(e predecessor is not enoug(

Sec# 18# I"c!1-ete"c. !, "c'-'c t.# I$ ' -',t. (ec!1e& "c!1-ete"t !, "c'-'c t'te+, t%e c!u,t, u-!" 1!t !" * t% "!t ce, 1'. 'll!* t%e 'ct !" t! (e c!"t "ue+ (. !, '3' "&t t%e "c!1-ete"t !, "c'-'c t'te+ -e,&!" '&& &te+ (. % & le3'l 3u',+ '" !, 3u',+ '" '+ l te1#

J(at do I do i% my client )ecomes incompetent or incapacitated midwayF /ile a motion wit( notice asking t(e court to continue t(e case and %or t(e client to )e assisted )y a legal guardian or guardian ad litem*
Sec# 1B# T,'"&$e, !$ "te,e&t# I" c'&e !$ '". t,'"&$e, !$ "te,e&t, t%e 'ct !" 1'. (e c!"t "ue+ (. !, '3' "&t t%e !, 3 "'l -',t., u"le&& t%e c!u,t u-!" 1!t !" + ,ect& t%e -e,&!" t! *%!1 t%e "te,e&t & t,'"&$e,,e+ t! (e &u(&t tute+ " t%e 'ct !" !, 5! "e+ * t% t%e !, 3 "'l -',t.#

?9ample: Mario 'iled an action 'or replevin o' his mushroom against Luigi% .hile the case !as pending, Luigi sold the mushroom to /o!ser% J(at i% t(ere was a trans%er o% interestF o "(e action may )e continued )y or against t(e original party* De will t(en (old t(e %ruits o% t(e action as sort o% trustee %or t(e use and )ene%it o% (is trans%eree* In t(e same manner t(at t(e trans%eree o% t(e original de%endant is )ound )y t(e =udgment against t(e latter* Can t(e court order t(at ;owser )e impleadedF o >es- upon motion* I% t(e court merely orders (im to )e impleaded- t(ere is no su)stitution;owser is =ust =oined* o "(ere can only )e su)stitution i% t(e court orders t(e su)stitution- not t(e mere impleading* o Dence- t(e )ottom line is t(at t(ere must )e a court order- eit(er to implead or to su)stitute* "(e trans%eree pendent elite is a proper party in t(e case )ut not an indispensa)le party* $Deritage Park v CIAC- 2 @' "(e su)stitution must )e done o during t(e li%etime o% t(e trans%eror o% t(e interest and o w(ile t(e mani%esting counsel as still t(e e%%ective and aut(ori.ed counsel %or t(e client0 trans%eror* It can,t )e done i% (e,s dead* $+umal=ag v Literato- 2 @'
Sec# 20# Act !" !" c!"t,'ctu'l 1!"e. cl' 1&# <%e" t%e 'ct !" & $!, ,ec!0e,. !$ 1!"e. ', & "3 $,!1 c!"t,'ct, e/-,e&& !, 1-l e+, '"+ t%e +e$e"+'"t + e& (e$!,e e"t,. !$ $ "'l 5u+31e"t " t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" *'& -e"+ "3 't t%e t 1e !$ &uc% +e't%, t &%'ll "!t (e + &1 &&e+ (ut &%'ll "&te'+ (e 'll!*e+ t! c!"t "ue u"t l e"t,. !$ $ "'l 5u+31e"t# A $'0!,'(le 5u+31e"t !(t' "e+ (. t%e -l' "t $$ t%e,e " &%'ll (e e"$!,ce+ " t%e 1'""e, e&-ec 'll. -,!0 +e+ " t%e&e Rule& $!, -,!&ecut "3 cl' 1& '3' "&t t%e e&t'te !$ ' +ece'&e+ -e,&!"#

Applies only i%: o Money claim- and o 5e%endant dies 5i%%erentiate %rom +ection !C $w(ere eit(er o% t(e party dies and no need %or it to

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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)e a money claim- as long as t(e action survives' J(at (appens i% t(e de%endant dies in a case involving a money claimF o 1o su)stitution $law does not mandate any su)stitution'* It =ust continues* o 6nce a %inal =udgment is entered against t(e estate o% t(e deceased- it s(all )e en%orced as a claim wit(out need o% proving t(e same* o I% )ased on a contract- %ile money claim in pro)ate court* o I% )ased on tort or delict- %ile against t(e e9ecutor or administrator*

Sec# 21# I"+ 3e"t -',t.# A -',t. 1'. (e 'ut%!, 7e+ t! l t 3'te % & 'ct !", cl' 1 !, +e$e"&e '& '" "+ 3e"t $ t%e c!u,t, u-!" '" e/ -',te '--l c't !" '"+ %e', "3, & &'t &$ e+ t%'t t%e -',t. & !"e *%! %'& "! 1!"e. !, -,!-e,t. &u$$ c e"t '"+ '0' l'(le $!, $!!+, &%elte, '"+ ('& c "ece&& t e& $!, % 1&el$ '"+ % & $'1 l.# Suc% 'ut%!, t. &%'ll "clu+e '" e/e1-t !" $,!1 -'.1e"t !$ +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, '"+ !$ t,'"&c, -t& !$ &te"!3,'-% c "!te& *% c% t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, t! (e $u," &%e+ % 1# T%e '1!u"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& *% c% t%e "+ 3e"t *'& e/e1-te+ $,!1 -'. "3 &%'ll (e ' l e" !" '". 5u+31e"t ,e"+e,e+ " t%e c'&e $'0!,'(le t! t%e "+ 3e"t, u"le&& t%e c!u,t !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e&# A". '+0e,&e -',t. 1'. c!"te&t t%e 3,'"t !$ &uc% 'ut%!, t. 't '". t 1e (e$!,e 5u+31e"t & ,e"+e,e+ (. t%e t, 'l c!u,t# I$ t%e c!u,t &%!ul+ +ete,1 "e '$te, %e', "3 t%'t t%e -',t. +ecl',e+ '& '" "+ 3e"t & " $'ct ' -e,&!" * t% &u$$ c e"t "c!1e !, -,!-e,t., t%e -,!-e, +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& &%'ll (e '&&e&&e+ '"+ c!llecte+ (. t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t# I$ -'.1e"t & "!t 1'+e * t% " t%e t 1e $ /e+ (. t%e c!u,t, e/ecut !" &%'ll &&ue $!, t%e -'.1e"t t%e,e!$, * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! &uc% !t%e, &'"ct !"& '& t%e c!u,t 1'. 1-!&e#

J(o can )e considered an indigentF *lgura v L,0 o' 1aga, 2334, answers t(is )y =u9taposing t(is section wit( Rule !4!- +ection 8* It gives a two tier test* o I% t(e indigent %its wit(in t(e parameters set out )y Rule !4!- +ection 8- it is MA15A"6R> upon t(e court to declare (im an indigent* &ross income + %amily income does not e9ceed twice o% mont(ly minimum wageand 6wns real property w(ose /M: is less or e#ual to PG k 2< o I% (e %ails t(at test- t(e court is given t(e discretion to determine w(et(er (e is an indigent or not )ased on Rule G- +ection 2!* $Indigency "est' Party is one w(o (as: o 1o money or property su%%icient and availa)le %or /ood +(elter ;asic necessities %or (imsel% and (is %amily* ;ene%its o% indigent parties: o +tenograp(ic notes: %ree o /iling %ees: no need to pay- )ut lien on =udgment J(at i% (e wasn,t an indigent and (e claimed (e wasF o "(e proper docket and law%ul %ees s(all )e assessed and collected )y t(e clerk o% court* o I% payment is not made wit(in t(e time %i9ed )y t(e court- e9ecution s(all issue or t(e payment t(ereo%- wit(out pre=udice to suc( ot(er sanctions as t(e court may impose*

Sec# 22# N!t ce t! t%e S!l c t!, Ge"e,'l# I" '". 'ct !" "0!l0 "3 t%e 0'l + t. !$ '". t,e't., l'*, !,+ "'"ce, e/ecut 0e !,+e,, -,e& +e"t 'l +ec,ee, ,ule& !, ,e3ul't !"&, t%e c!u,t, " t& + &c,et !", 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e '--e','"ce !$ t%e S!l c t!, Ge"e,'l *%! 1'. (e %e',+ " -e,&!" !, t%,!u3% ' ,e-,e&e"t't 0e +ul. +e& 3"'te+ (. % 1#
2/

Sec. 1<. 'ndigent litigants e-e !t fro !a" ent of legal fees. 3 'ndigent litigants *a+ %$ose gross inco e and t$at of t$eir i ediate fa il" do not e-ceed an a ount dou#le t$e ont$l" ini u %age of an e !lo"ee and *#+ %$o do not o%n real !ro!ert" %it$ : 7:'R 1:RG,T H:8C, :S ST:T,. '> T5, CCRR,>T T:I .,C8:R:T'2> of ore t$an T5R,, $undred t$ousand *P300,000.00+ !esos s$all #e e-e !t fro t$e !a" ent of legal fees. T$e legal fees s$all #e a lien on an" )udg ent rendered in t$e case fa(ora#le to t$e indigent litigant unless t$e court ot$er%ise !ro(ides. To #e entitled to t$e e-e !tion $erein !ro(ided, t$e litigant s$all e-ecute an affida(it t$at $e and $is i ediate fa il" do not earn a gross inco e a#o(e entioned, nor t$e" o%n an" real !ro!ert" %it$ t$e fair (alue afore entioned, su!!orted #" an affida(it of a disinterested !erson attesting to t$e trut$ of t$e litigantDs affida(it. T$e current ta- declaration, if an", s$all #e attac$ed to t$e litigantDs affida(it. :n" falsit" in t$e affida(it of litigant or disinterested !erson s$all #e sufficient cause to dis iss t$e co !laint or action or to strike out t$e !leading of t$at !art", %it$out !re)udice to %$ate(er cri inal lia#ilit" a" $a(e #een incurred. *14a+ Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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RULE 6 >ENUE OF ACTIONS

In determining t(e proper venue %or an action- you must consider two t(ings o /irst: Is it a real or personal actionF 4se +ection ! and 2 %or t(at- and our lesson in determining t(e real nature o% an action* o +econd: Is it covered )y a special law or )y stipulationF 4se +ection 4 %or t(is* Remem)er: i% venue is determined )y special law or )y a particular rule in t(e R6C- you can,t stipulate on venue* "(e law takes precedence over t(e stipulation*

Sect !" 1# >e"ue !$ ,e'l 'ct !"&# Act !"& '$$ect "3 t tle t! !, -!&&e&& !" !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t., !, "te,e&t t%e,e ", &%'ll (e c!11e"ce+ '"+ t, e+ " t%e -,!-e, c!u,t *% c% %'& 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e ',e' *%e,e " t%e ,e'l -,!-e,t. "0!l0e+, !, ' -!,t !" t%e,e!$, & & tu'te+# F!,c (le e"t,. '"+ +et' "e, 'ct !"& &%'ll (e c!11e"ce+ '"+ t, e+ " t%e 1u" c -'l t, 'l c!u,t !$ t%e 1u" c -'l t. !, c t. *%e,e " t%e ,e'l -,!-e,t. "0!l0e+, !, ' -!,t !" t%e,e!$, & & tu'te+#

J(at is t(e venue o% real actionsF o It,s t(e proper court w(ic( (as =urisdiction over t(e area w(erein t(e real property- or a portion t(ereo%- is situated* Real action o "(ose a%%ecting title to or possession o% real property- or interest t(erein* All else are personal actions* o "(e principal o)=ective or relie% soug(t is eit(er owners(ip or possession o% real property* o Remem)er t(e lessons in docket %ees2 Look %or t(e true nature o% t(e action2 o "(ese include Partition ?9propriation Action %or t(e annulment or rescission o% sale o% land $)ut i% t(e title (as not yet passed to t(e vendee- it can )e considered a personal action K Atty* "ran#uil'* :enue %or e=ectment cases o "(e M"C w(ere t(e property or a portion t(ereo% is situated* ?A: i% t(ere,s a stipulation Jait2 Can t(e venue %or e=ectment cases )e stipulatedF o >es2 "(e rule governing e=ectment cases $Rule E - +ec !' merely states t(at it s(ould )e %iled in t(e M"C- )ut it doesn,t say w(ic( M"C* $6t(er words- =urisdiction is indicated- )ut t(e venue isn,t*' 2C J(ere do you %ile an action %or e9tra0=udicial %oreclosureF o ?9tra=d %oreclosure is 16" a =udicial action and not covered )y t(e RoC* It,s covered )y Act 2!G<* o It s(ould )e %iled w(ere t(e property is located* o ;ut t(e mere %iling and payment o% %ees $%or multiple properties in various areas' can )e paid in one o%%ice- as long as it can )e esta)lis(ed t(at it covers all areas* ;ut t(e actual sale will only )e done in t(e place w(ere t(e properties are located* o 1ote: no need %or Certi%icate o% 1on0/orum +(opping in a Lpetition to get possessionM

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RC8, 70 Section 1. J$o

a" institute !roceedings, and %$en.

Su#)ect to t$e !ro(isions of t$e ne-t succeeding section, a !erson de!ri(ed of t$e !ossession of an" land or #uilding #" force, inti idation, t$reat, strateg", or stealt$, or a lessor, (endor, (endee, or ot$er !erson against %$o t$e !ossession of an" land or #uilding is unla%full" %it$$eld after t$e e-!iration or ter ination of t$e rig$t to $old !ossession, #" (irtue of an" contract, e-!ress or i !lied, or t$e legal re!resentati(es or assigns of an" suc$ lessor, (endor, (endee, or ot$er !erson, a", at an" ti e %it$in one *1+ "ear after suc$ unla%ful de!ri(ation or %it$$olding of !ossession, #ring an action in t$e !ro!er 1unici!al Trial Court against t$e !erson or !ersons unla%full" %it$$olding or de!ri(ing of !ossession, or an" !erson or !ersons clai ing under t$e , for t$e restitution of suc$ !ossession, toget$er %it$ da ages and costs. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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$since it,s not really a petition )ut a motion K P"A case' /or =udicial %oreclosure o Rule C@ does not provide %or t(e venue o% t(is +CA- )ut it is %iled w(ere t(e property is located* o I% t(e contract o% mortgage covers various properties in di%%erent provinces- %ile in R"C o% any o% t(e provinces covering t(e property* $Atty &uevara'

Sec# 2# >e"ue !$ -e,&!"'l 'ct !"&# All !t%e, 'ct !"& 1'. (e c!11e"ce+ '"+ t, e+ *%e,e t%e -l' "t $$ !, '". !$ t%e -, "c -'l -l' "t $$& ,e& +e&, !, *%e,e t%e +e$e"+'"t !, '". !$ t%e -, "c -'l +e$e"+'"t& ,e& +e&, !, " t%e c'&e !$ ' "!",e& +e"t +e$e"+'"t *%e,e %e 1'. (e $!u"+, 't t%e elect !" !$ t%e -l' "t $$#

J(at,s o o o o

t(e venue o% personal actionsF ?it(er in t(e place w(ere "(e plainti%% or any o% t(e principal plainti%% resides- or "(e de%endant or any o% t(e principal de%endant resides- or In t(e case o% a non0resident de%endant- w(ere (e may )e %ound At t(e election o% t(e plainti%% 6n t(e issue o% w(o t(e principal plainti%% is o In Marcos-*raneta v )* (2335 - Court ruled t(at it is t(e )ene%iciary o% a trust w(o is t(e principal plainti%%* "(e )ene%iciary is t(e RPI- not t(e trustees w(o merely represent t(e )ene%iciary* Dence- w(en t(e )ene%iciary lives in Makati- t(e action must )e commenced t(ere- and not w(ere t(e trustees reside* Action was a personal one: suit %or reconveyance o% stocks o "(e rule is suc( to prevent t(e plainti%% %rom c(oosing t(e residence o% a minor plainti%% or de%endant as t(e venue* J(at does residence mean in t(is ruleF o *ctual residence- w(ere t(ere is personal- actual and p(ysical (a)itation* ?9amples o% personal actions o 5amages o Recovery o% personal property o Cancellation o% real estate mortgage $to compel t(e mortgagee to accept payment o% t(e mortgage de)t'

Sec# 2# >e"ue !$ 'ct !"& '3' "&t "!"-,e& +e"t&# I$ '". !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t& +!e& "!t ,e& +e '"+ & "!t $!u"+ " t%e =% l -- "e&, '"+ t%e 'ct !" '$$ect& t%e -e,&!"'l &t'tu& !$ t%e -l' "t $$, !, '". -,!-e,t. !$ &' + +e$e"+'"t l!c'te+ " t%e =% l -- "e&, t%e 'ct !" 1'. (e c!11e"ce+ '"+ t, e+ " t%e c!u,t !$ t%e -l'ce *%e,e t%e -l' "t $$ ,e& +e&, !, *%e,e t%e -,!-e,t. !, '". -!,t !" t%e,e!$ & & tu'te+ !, $!u"+#

J(at i% any o% t(e de%endants does not reside and is not %ound in t(e P(ilippines- w(at,s t(e venueF o I% it involves t(e personal status o% t(e plainti%%- t(en in t(e court o% t(e place w(ere t(e plainti%% resides* o I% it involves t(e property o% t(e de%endant located in t(e P(ilippines- w(ere t(e property or any portion t(ereo% is situated or %ound* 3urisdiction is limited to t(e res- namely- t(e personal status o% t(e plainti%% or t(e property o% t(e de%endant located in t(e P(ilippines* "(e =udgment must )e con%ined to t(e res- and no personal =udgment can )e rendered against t(e de%endant- unless (e su)mits to t(e =urisdiction o% t(e court*

Sec# 6# <%e" Rule "!t '--l c'(le# T% & Rule &%'ll "!t '--l.; (') I" t%!&e c'&e& *%e,e ' &-ec $ c ,ule !, l'* -,!0 +e& !t%e,* &e: !, (() <%e,e t%e -',t e& %'0e 0'l +l. '3,ee+ " *, t "3 (e$!,e t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e 'ct !" !" t%e e/clu& 0e 0e"ue t%e,e!$#

?9amples o% cases w(ere a speci%ic rule or law provides ot(erwise o Buo warranto proceedings: R"C o% t(e residence o% t(e de%endant*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Action %or nullity o% marriage: w(ere plainti%% residents- w(ere t(e de%endant resides or w(ere t(eir con=ugal (ome is located o Adoption: w(ere t(e prospective adoptive parents reside o Pro)ate: w(ere t(e deceased last resided at (is time o% deat( o Contempt in #uasi0=udicial agencies: R"C w(ere t(e contempt was committed o Jrit o% (a)eas corpus on residence o% minors: &R is R"C w(ere t(e minor is supposed to )e %ound ?AC?P" w(en place is unknown or minor cannot )e %ound- can )e %iled in t(e CA or +C Can venue )e stipulatedF o >es- )ut it must not )e contrary to pu)lic policy* o A written agreement o% t(e parties as to venue )e%ore t(e %iling o% an action is not only )inding upon t(e parties )ut also on t(e courts* o "(e parties must employ categorical and suita)ly limiting language t(at t(ey wis( t(e venue o% t(e action )e laid only and e9clusively at a de%inite place* In t(e a)sence o% #uali%ying or restrictive words- t(e stipulation on venue s(ould )e deemed as merely an agreement on an additional %orum- not as limiting venue to t(e speci%ied place* $Lantin v Lantion- 2 C'* In Lantin- t(e action was a real one: nullity o% sale andIor mortgage )ecause t(e main o)=ective o% t(e case was t(e reconveyance o% t(e property sold o Important: w(ere t(e e9clusivity clause does not make it necessarily all encompassingsuc( t(at even t(ose not related to t(e en%orcement o% t(e contract s(ould )e su)=ect to t(e e9clusive venue- t(e stipulation designating venues s(ould )e strictly con%ined to t(e speci%ic undertaking or agreement* $+MC v Monasterio- 2 <' Dence- w(en t(e venue was stipulated in a ware(ousing agreement- )ut t(e cause o% action arose %rom cas(iering services w(ic( (ad not(ing to do wit( t(e ware(ousing agreement- t(e venue stipulation is 16" )inding on t(e cause o% action arising %rom t(e cas(iering services* $+MC v Monasterio' o Compare +MC to P/)6M v Lim- in t(at case- t(ere was a venue stipulation in a promissory note* Connected to t(e promissory note was a surety agreement w(ic( did 16" contain any venue stipulation* "(e plainti%% %iled an action against t(e surety in a place 16" stipulated in t(e P1* Court (eld t(at t(e venue stipulations in t(e promissory note s(ould )e read to t(e surety agreement )ecause t(e surety agreement was an accessory contract w(ic( couldn,t e9ist wit(out t(e P1* +o- improper venue* $;ottomline: in +MC- t(e cases were 16" related* In P;C6M- t(e cases were interrelated*' o "(e stipulation said- LO e9clusively in t(e R"C o% ;aguioM- is t(at validF 1o* "(e R"C,s =urisdiction is determined )y law* "o %i9 it- say LO e9clusively in t(e appropriate court in ;aguio- waiving %or t(is purpose any ot(er venue provided )y t(e Rules o% Court*M o ;ut remem)er: i% t(ere,s a speci%ic rule or law- t(at rule or law will govern over t(e stipulation* Remedy %or not %iling in proper venue: o Motion to 5ismiss- ground: improper venue o A =udge can 16" motu propio dismiss a case )ased on improper venue* $;ecause t(is is waived i% not raised in a M"5 or t(e answer'* $&uma)on' o 7mportance o' kno!ing i' the action is real or personal 7nowing i% t(e action is real or personal is important )ecause it will (ave legal implications on G t(ings: o 3urisdiction I% real- =d )ased on t(e assessed value o% t(e landQ i% personal $like rescission o% a contract'- incapa)le o% pecuniary estimation so R"C* o :enue I% real- w(ere property is located* I% personal- c(oice o% plainti%%* o /iling %ees I% real- docket %ees )ased on /M: $ta9 declaration or .onal valuation- w(ic(ever is (ig(er' or i% none- state value* I% personal- )ased on claims in prayer*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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RealIpersonal actions are not t(e same wit( in rem- #uasi in rem- in personam actions* o "(e %ormer determines venue- =urisidiction- and %iling %ees* o "(e latter merely determines w(o will )e )ound )y t(e =udgment $e%%ect o% =udgment'*

RULE 8 UNIFORM =ROCEDURE IN TRIAL COURTS Sect !" 1# U" $!,1 -,!ce+u,e# T%e -,!ce+u,e " t%e Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t& &%'ll (e t%e &'1e '& " t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t&, e/ce-t (') *%e,e ' -',t cul', -,!0 & !" e/-,e&&l. !, 1-l e+l. '--l e& !"l. t! e t%e, !$ &' + c!u,t&, !, (() " c 0 l c'&e& 3!0e,"e+ (. t%e Rule !" Su11',. =,!ce+u,e# Sec# 2# Me'" "3 !$ te,1&# T%e te,1 ?Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t&? '& u&e+ " t%e&e Rule& &%'ll "clu+e Met,!-!l t'" T, 'l C!u,t&, Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t& " C t e&, Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t&, '"+ Mu" c -'l C ,cu t T, 'l C!u,t&#

"o )e read wit( t(e Rules on +ummary Procedure In t(e M"Cs- t(e procedure is t(e same as in t(e R"C e9cept: o J(en )y e9press or implied provision o% law o In civil cases governed )y t(e Rules on +ummary Procedure Civil cases governed )y t(e Rules on +ummary Procedure: o ?=ectment cases- regardless o% t(e amount o% damages or unpaid rent soug(t to )e recovered* I% attorney,s %ees are to )e awarded- s(ouldn,t )e more t(an P2 * o All ot(er cases- e8cept probate proceedings- w(ere t(e total amount o% t(e plainti%%,s claim does 16" e9ceed P! or P2 $in MM'- e9clusive o% interest and costs*2E /or criminal cases- see codal* Court will issue an order stating t(at t(e case is governed or not )y t(e rules on summary procedure*2@ "(ree steps in summary procedure: o /IR+": /iling o% t(e complaint 4pon %iling- t(e court can: 5ismiss t(e case outrig(t Issue summons28 "(e responsive pleading (ere will )e an A1+J?R wit(in ! days $not t(e usual !< days'*G Can,t %ile a M"5 )ecause it,s a pro(i)ited pleading* Plainti%% can 16" %ile a reply eit(er since it,s a pro(i)ited pleading too* I% no answer- two t(ings can (appen: Court can render =udgment !' motu propio or 2' on motion o% t(e plainti%%*G!

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*1+ :ll cases of forci#le entr" and unla%ful detainer, irres!ecti(e of t$e a ount of da ages or un!aid rentals soug$t to #e reco(ered. J$ere attorne"As fees are a%arded, t$e sa e s$all not e-ceed t%ent" t$ousand !esos *P20,000.00+. *2+ :ll ot$er cases, e-ce!t !ro#ate !roceedings, %$ere t$e total a ount of t$e !laintiffAs clai does not e-ceed 2ne $udred t$ousand !esos *P100,000+ or T%o $undred t$ousand !esos *P200,000.00+ in 1etro 1anila, e-clusi(e of interest and costs, e-clusi(e of interest and costs. *:s a ended #" :1 0231130<3SC, >o(e #er 2/, 2002+* 2= Sec. 2. .eter ination of a!!lica#ilit". C!on t$e filing of a ci(il or cri inal action, t$e court s$all issue an order declaring %$et$er or not t$e case s$all #e go(erned #" t$is Rule : !atentl" erroneous deter ination to a(oid t$e a!!lication of t$e Rule on Su ar" Procedure is a ground for disci!linar" action.c$ 2< K. Herifications. :ll !leadings s$all #e (erified. Sec. 4. .ut" of court. :fter t$e court deter ines t$at t$e case falls under su ar" !rocedure, it a", fro an e-a ination of t$e allegations t$erein and suc$ e(idence as a" #e attac$ed t$ereto, dis iss t$e case outrig$t on an" of t$e grounds a!!arent t$erefro for t$e dis issal of a ci(il action. 'f no ground for dis issal is found it s$all fort$%it$ issue su ons %$ic$ s$all state t$at t$e su ar" !rocedure under t$is Rule s$all a!!l" 30 Sec. /. :ns%er. Jit$in ten *10+ da"s fro ser(ice of su ons, t$e defendant s$all file $is ans%er to t$e co !laint and ser(e a co!" t$ereof on t$e !laintiff. :ffir ati(e and negati(e defenses not !leaded t$erein s$all #e dee ed %ai(ed, e-ce!t for lack of )urisdiction o(er t$e su#)ect atter. Cross3clai s and co !ulsor" counterclai s not asserted in t$e ans%er s$all #e considered #arred. T$e ans%er to counterclai s or cross3clai s s$all #e filed and ser(ed %it$in ten *10+ da"s fro ser(ice of t$e ans%er in %$ic$ t$e" are !leaded. 31 Sec. 4. ,ffect of failure to ans%er. S$ould t$e defendant fail to ans%er t$e co !laint %it$in t$e !eriod a#o(e !ro(ided, t$e court, otu !ro!rio, or on otion of t$e !laintiff, s$all render )udg ent as a" #e %arranted #" t$e facts alleged in t$e co !laint and li ited to %$at is !ra"ed for t$erein: Pro(ided, $o%e(er, t$at t$e court a" in its discretion reduce t$e a ount of da ages and attorne"As fees clai ed for #eing e-cessi(e or ot$er%ise unconsciona#le. T$is is %it$out !re)udice to t$e a!!lica#ilit" of Section 4, Rule 1/ of t$e Rules of Court, if t$ere are t%o or ore defendants. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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1o motion to declare t(e de%endant in de%ault since it,s pro(i)ited too* *ng daming ba!al" So !hat are the allo!ed pleadings& Complaints Compulsory counterclaims and cross0claims pleaded in t(e answer- and t(e answers t(ereto* Remem)er: all t(e pleadings must )e :?RI/I?5*G2 A%ter t(e %iling o% t(e last pleading- we move on to preliminary con%erence* +?C615: Preliminary con%erence "(is is 16" pre0trial as in normal cases* It,s a preliminary con%erence* $Remem)er t(is w(en you (ave cases on e=ectment* +ee notes on pre0trial since pre0trial rules supplement preliminary con%erence rules in summary procedure' Court sets t(is wit(in G days a%ter t(e last answer is %iled* GG In t(e PC- t(e parties are asked to compromise- identi%y issues- etc* I% plainti%% is a)sent in t(e PC- t(e case will )e dismissed* I% t(e de%endant appears and t(e plainti%% is a)sent- t(e court can rule on t(e counterclaim* All cross0claims s(all )e dismissed* I% t(e sole de%endant is a)sent- t(e plainti%% s(all )e entitled to =udgment* Jon,t apply i% t(ere are two or more de%endants w(o are sued under a common cause o% action- and one o% t(em appears in t(e PC* +o w(at s(ould you do i% eit(er party is a)sentF Dave an e9planation or send a representative* Provision on aut(ori.ation does not appear in t(e Rules o% +ummary Procedure )ut in Macasaet v Macasaet- Court (eld t(at pre0trial rules apply suppletorily to preliminary con%erence* "ake note t(at i% t(e court %inds su%%icient evidence at t(is point in time- it can already render =udgment )ased on w(at,s presented in t(e PC* G4 I% t(ere is no =udgment yet in step ! and 2- we move on to t(e su)mission o% =udicial a%%idavits and position papers* "DIR5: +u)mission o% =udicial a%%idavits and position papers "(ere are 16 (earings or trials* Compare to criminal cases w(ere trial is needed- )ut direct e9amination can )e waived %or =udicial a%%idavits* A%%idavits and position papers must )e su)mitted ! days %rom receipt o% order o% t(e preliminary con%erence*G< &R: Court renders =udgment G days %rom t(e %iling o% t(e last a%%idavit or position paper or

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Sec. 3. Pleadings. :. Pleadings allo%ed. T$e onl" !leadings allo%ed to #e filed are t$e co !laints, co !ulsor" counterclai s and cross3clai sA !leaded in t$e ans%er, and t$e ans%ers t$ereto. K. Herifications. :ll !leadings s$all #e (erified. 33 Sec. 7. Preli inar" conference6 a!!earance of !arties. >ot later t$an t$irt" *30+ da"s after t$e last ans%er is filed, a !reli inar" conference s$all #e $eld. T$e rules on !re3trial in ordinar" cases s$all #e a!!lica#le to t$e !reli inar" conference unless inconsistent %it$ t$e !ro(isions of t$is Rule. T$e failure of t$e !laintiff to a!!ear in t$e !reli inar" conference s$all #e a cause for t$e dis issal of $is co !laint. T$e defendant %$o a!!ears in t$e a#sence of t$e !laintiff s$all #e entitled to )udg ent on $is counterclai in accordance %it$ Section 4 $ereof. :ll cross3clai s s$all #e dis issed. 'f a sole defendant s$all fail to a!!ear, t$e !laintiff s$all #e entitled to )udg ent in accordance %it$ Section 4 $ereof. T$is Rule s$all not a!!l" %$ere one of t%o or ore defendants sued under a co on cause of action %$o $ad !leaded a co on defense s$all a!!ear at t$e !reli inar" conference. 34 Sec. =. Record of !reli inar" conference. Jit$in fi(e */+ da"s after t$e ter ination of t$e !reli inar" conference, t$e court s$all issue an order stating t$e atters taken u! t$erein, including #ut not li ited to: *a+ J$et$er t$e !arties $a(e arri(ed at an a ica#le settle ent, and if so, t$e ter s t$ereof6 *#+ T$e sti!ulations or ad issions entered into #" t$e !arties6. *c+ J$et$er, on t$e #asis of t$e !leadings and t$e sti!ulations and ad issions ade #" t$e !arties, )udg ent a" #e rendered %it$out t$e need of furt$er !roceedings, in %$ic$ e(ent t$e )udg ent s$all #e rendered %it$in t$irt" *30+ da"s fro issuance of t$e order6 *d+ : clear s!ecification of aterial facts %$ic$ re ain contro(erted6 and (irtual la% li#rar" *e+ Suc$ ot$er atters intended to e-!edite t$e dis!osition of t$e case. 3/ Sec. <. Su# ission of affida(its and !osition !a!ers. Jit$in ten *10+ da"s fro recei!t of t$e order entioned in t$e ne-t !receding section, t$e !arties s$all su# it t$e affida(its of t$eir %itnesses and ot$er e(idence on t$e factual issues defined in t$e order, toget$er %it$ t$eir !osition !a!ers setting fort$ t$e la% and t$e facts relied u!on #" t$e . Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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t(e e9piration o% t(e period %or %iling t(e same* $note: not su)mission %or resolution )ut su)mission o% t(e last a%%idavitIposition paper' o ?AC?P": i% t(e court needs more clari%icatory stu%%- it will issue an order re#uiring more a%%idavits to )e given to t(e court wit(in ! days %rom receipt o% order* "(e court will t(en decide !< days a%ter t(e receipt o% t(e last clari%icatory a%%idavit* GC

Pro(i)ited pleadingsGE: o M"5- e9cept Lack o% 35 over su)=ect matter Cannot )e waived )y t(e parties or cured )y silence- ac#uieence or even e9press consent* $;ongato v Malvar- 2 2' ?9ample: prescription- %iling %or e=ectment case )eyond t(e !0year period /ailure to re%er to luponG@ $waiva)le according to ;anares case' 5ismissed )ut JI"D64" pre=udice o Reply o ;ill o% particulars o MR or M1" o Petition %or relie% %rom =udgment o Motion to declare in de%ault Also pro(i)ited in small claims cases and environment cases o "(ird party complaint o Memoranda o 5ilatory motions %or postponement Motions %or cancellation o% (earing are not dilatory )ut )e care%ul since t(e =udge will (ave to determine i% it,s dilatory in t(e %irst place o Motion %or e9tension o% time o Petition %or certiorari- mandamus- pro(i)ition against interlocutory orders o% t(e court o Interventions 5ecisions %rom t(e M"C can )e appealed to t(e R"C* G8 o 6n appeal in t(e R"C- a MR is no longer a pro(i)ited pleading* "(e appeal )e%ore t(e R"C is no longer covered )y t(e Rules on +ummary Procedure* $Macandangdang v &aviola- 2 8'

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Sec. 10. Rendition of )udg ent. Jit$in t$irt" *30+ da"s after recei!t of t$e last affida(its and !osition !a!ers, or t$e e-!iration of t$e !eriod for filing t$e sa e, t$e court s$all render )udg ent. 5o%e(er s$ould t$e court find it necessar" to clarif" certain aterial facts, it a", during t$e said !eriod, issue an order s!ecif"ing t$e atters to #e clarified, and re&uire t$e !arties to su# it affida(its or ot$er e(idence on t$e said atters %it$in ten *10+ da"s fro recei!t of said order. @udg ent s$all #e rendered %it$in fifteen *1/+ da"s after t$e recei!t of t$e last clarificator" affida(its, or t$e e-!iration of t$e !eriod for filing t$e sa e. T$e court s$all not resort to t$e clarificator" !rocedure to gain ti e for t$e rendition of t$e )udg ent. 37 Sec. 1<. Pro$i#ited !leadings and otions. T$e follo%ing !leadings, otions or !etitions s$all not #e allo%ed in t$e cases co(ered #" t$is Rule:c$an ro#les (irtual la% li#rar" *a+ 1otion to dis iss t$e co !laint or to &uas$ t$e co !laint or infor ation e-ce!t on t$e ground of lack of )urisdiction o(er t$e su#)ect atter, or failure to co !l" %it$ t$e !receding section6 *#+ 1otion for a #ill of !articulars6 *c+ 1otion for ne% trial, or for reconsideration of a )udg ent, or for o!ening of trial6 *d+ Petition for relief fro )udg ent6 *e+ 1otion for e-tension of ti e to file !leadings, affida(its or an" ot$er !a!er (irtual la% li#rar" *f+ 1e oranda6 *g+ Petition for certiorari, anda us, or !ro$i#ition against an" interlocutor" order issued #" t$e court6 *$+ 1otion to declare t$e defendant in default6 la% li#rar" *i+ .ilator" otions for !ost!one ent6 *)+ Re!l"6 *k+ T$ird !art" co !laints6 *l+ 'nter(entions. 3= Sec. 1=. Referral to 8u!on. Cases re&uiring referral to t$e 8u!on for conciliation under t$e !ro(isions of Presidential .ecree >o. 1/0= %$ere t$ere is no s$o%ing of co !liance %it$ suc$ re&uire ent, s$all #e dis issed %it$out !re)udice and a" #e re(i(ed onl" after suc$ re&uire ent s$all $a(e #een co !lied %it$. T$is !ro(ision s$all not a!!l" to cri inal cases %$ere t$e accused %as arrested %it$out a %arrant. 3< Sec. 21. :!!eal. T$e )udg ent or final order s$all #e a!!eala#le to t$e a!!ro!riate regional trial court %$ic$ s$all decide t$e sa e in accordance %it$ Section 22 of Katas Pa #ansa Klg. 12<. T$e decision of t$e regional trial court in ci(il cases go(erned #" t$is Rule, including forci#le entr" and unla%ful detainer, s$all #e i ediatel" e-ecutor", %it$out !re)udice to a furt$er a!!eal t$at a" #e taken t$erefro . Section 10 of Rule 70 s$all #e dee ed re!ealed. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Rules o% Court supplement t(e Rules on +ummary Procedure as long as t(ey are not inconsistent*4 o Dence- w(en t(e M"C dismisses a case )ecause o% lack o% re%erral to t(e lupon and t(e aggrieved party %ails to appeal wit(in !< days- it )ecomes %inal and e9ecutory and cannot )e revived )y a mere motion* $;anares- 2 ' Preliminary in=unction- )eing a provisional remedy- s(ould lend itsel% to t(e summary nature o% an e=ectment case* $Maderada v Mediodea' 3udges w(o %ail to %ollow t(e Rules on +ummary Procedure will )e (eld administratively lia)le*

RULE 9 CINDS OF =LEADINGS Sect !" 1# =le'+ "3& +e$ "e+# =le'+ "3& ',e t%e *, tte" &t'te1e"t& !$ t%e ,e&-ect 0e cl' 1& '"+ +e$e"&e& !$ t%e -',t e& &u(1 tte+ t! t%e c!u,t $!, '--,!-, 'te 5u+31e"t#

A pleading is a written statement o% t(e: o Respective claims and de%enses o% t(e parties o +u)mitted to t(e court %or appropriate =udgment* 1o claimF 1o de%enseF "(en not a pleading* JAR1I1&: +ir will ask a lot o% #uestions on Rule C0@ %or midterms so know t(e codal like t(e )ack o% your (and*

Sec# 2# =le'+ "3& 'll!*e+# T%e cl' 1& !$ ' -',t. ',e '&&e,te+ " ' c!1-l' "t, c!u"te,cl' 1, c,!&&-cl' 1, t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. c!1-l' "t, !, c!1-l' "t- "- "te,0e"t !"# T%e +e$e"&e& !$ ' -',t. ',e 'lle3e+ " t%e '"&*e, t! t%e -le'+ "3 '&&e,t "3 ' cl' 1 '3' "&t % 1# A" '"&*e, 1'. (e ,e&-!"+e+ t! (. ' ,e-l.# Sec# 2# C!1-l' "t# T%e c!1-l' "t & t%e -le'+ "3 'lle3 "3 t%e -l' "t $$D& c'u&e !, c'u&e& !$ 'ct !"# T%e "'1e& '"+ ,e& +e"ce& !$ t%e -l' "t $$ '"+ +e$e"+'"t 1u&t (e &t'te+ " t%e c!1-l' "t#

A complaint is a pleading alleging t(e plainti%%,s cause o% action* o It s(ould contain t(e names and residences o% t(e plainti%% and de%endant* J(at else s(ould it containF o &R: A concise statement o% t(e ultimate %acts constituting t(e plainti%%,s cause o% actionnot evidentiary %acts or legal conclusions* "(ese are t(e essential %acts constituting t(e plainti%%,s cause o% action* A general allegation o% owners(ip is a su%%icient averment o% t(e ultimate %act* An allegation t(at de%endant promised to pay is an ultimate %act* 1ot ultimate %acts: ?videntiary or immaterial %acts* Legal conclusions* Allegation t(at a contract is valid or void $it,s a legal conclusion' ?AC?P": in actiona)le documents- since you (ave to put t(e su)stance o% t(e document or its w(ole contents $see Rule @- +ec E' o It s(ould also contain t(e relie% prayed %or* It is t(e relie% )ased on t(e %acts alleged- and not t(e relie% demanded- w(ic( is t(e taken into consideration in determining t(e cause o% action* o I% it depends upon a condition precedent- (e must allege and prove t(e %ul%illment o% t(e condition or t(e legal e9cuse %or its non0%ul%illment* o Can also )e alleged: /raud- mistake- malice- intent- knowledge- illegality /or %raud and mistake- aver wit( particularity* /or t(e rest- general allegations will su%%ice*

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Sec. 22. :!!lica#ilit" of t$e regular rules. T$e regular !rocedure !rescri#ed in t$e Rules of Court s$all a!!l" to t$e s!ecial cases $erein !ro(ided for in a su!!letor" ca!acit" insofar as t$e" are not inconsistent $ere%it$. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 6# A"&*e,# A" '"&*e, & ' -le'+ "3 " *% c% ' +e$e"+ "3 -',t. &et& $!,t% % & +e$e"&e&#

An answer is a pleading in w(ic( a de%ending party sets %ort( (is de%enses*

J(en s(ould it )e %iledF 6rdinary service o% summons $Rule !!- +ec !' ?9traterritorial service +ummons )y pu)lication In response to an amended complaint $Rule !!- +ec G' I% amendment a matter o% rig(t I% amendment not a matter o% rig(t In response to a supplemental complaint $Rule !!- +ec E' In response to a counterclaim and cross0claim $Rule !!- +ec 4' In response to a t(ird0party complaint $Rule !!- +ec <' J(ere de%endant is a %oreign private =uridical entity and service: made on its resident agent designate in accordance wit( law %or t(at purpose made on t(e government o%%icial designated )y law to receive t(e same $Rule !!- +ec 2' A%ter service o% t(e )ill o% particularsor a%ter notice o% denial o% one,s motion %or a )ill o% particulars $Rule !2- +ec <' A%ter denial o% a motion to dismiss $Rule !<- +ec 4'

Jit(in !< days At least C days a%ter notice At least C days a%ter date o% t(e last pu)lication Jit(in !< days Jit(in ! days %rom notice o% t(e order admitting t(e same Jit(in ! days %rom notice o% t(e order admitting t(e same- unless a di%%erent period is %i9ed )y t(e court Jit(in ! days %rom service Jit(in !< days

Jit(in !< days Jit(in G days a%ter receipt o% summons )y suc( entity Jit(in t(e period remaining to w(ic( (e was entitled at t(e time o% %iling (is motionw(ic( s(all not )e less t(an < days in any event Jit(in t(e period remaining to w(ic( (e was entitled at t(e time o% %iling (is motionw(ic( s(all not )e less t(an < days in any eventcomputed %rom (is receipt o% t(e notice o% denial

Sec# 8# De$e"&e&# De$e"&e& 1'. e t%e, (e "e3't 0e !, '$$ ,1't 0e# A "e3't 0e +e$e"&e & t%e &-ec $ c +e" 'l !$ t%e 1'te, 'l $'ct !, $'ct& 'lle3e+ " t%e -le'+ "3 !$ t%e cl' 1'"t e&&e"t 'l t! % & c'u&e !, c'u&e& !$ 'ct !"# A" '$$ ,1't 0e +e$e"&e & '" 'lle3't !" !$ ' "e* 1'tte, *% c%, *% le %.-!t%et c'll. '+1 tt "3 t%e 1'te, 'l 'lle3't !"& " t%e -le'+ "3 !$ t%e cl' 1'"t, *!ul+ "e0e,t%ele&& -,e0e"t !, (', ,ec!0e,. (. % 1# T%e '$$ ,1't 0e +e$e"&e& "clu+e $,'u+, &t'tute !$ l 1 t't !"&, ,ele'&e, -'.1e"t, lle3'l t., &t'tute !$ $,'u+&, e&t!--el, $!,1e, ,ec!0e,., + &c%',3e " ('"),u-tc., '"+ '". !t%e, 1'tte, (. *'. !$ c!"$e&& !" '"+ '0! +'"ce#

J(at,s an a%%irmative de%enseF o It,s an allegation o% a new matter w(ic(- w(ile (ypot(etically admitting t(e material averments in t(e pleading o% t(e claimant- would prevent or )ar recovery* ?9amples:

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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J(at o o

J(at o o

Prescription- release- payment- statute o% %rauds $grounds %or motion to dismiss' I% you (ypot(etically admit- wit(out raising any de%ense- t(en t(ere,s no issue* "(is will lead to a =udgment on t(e pleadings* $Rule G4 K w(en t(e answer does not tender an issue or admits t(e material allegations' Raise t(ese %irst in your motion to dismiss $w(ic( you %ile )e%ore your answer'- t(en raise it again in your answer2 Dow do you plead a%%irmative de%ensesF I% estoppel- allege t(e %acts constituting it* I% %raud or mistake- aver wit( particularity* I% malice- intent- knowledge or ot(er condition o% t(e mind o% a person=ust aver it generally* is a negative de%enseF It,s a speci%ic denial o% t(e material %act or %acts allege in t(e pleading o% t(e claimant essential to (is causeIcauses o% action* A speci%ic denial can )e two t(ings $Rule @- +ec ! ': +peci%ic denial: "(e de%endant speci%ies eac( material allegation o% %act $(e doesn,t admit t(e trut(2' and w(enever practica)le- sets %ort( su)stance o% t(e matters (e relies upon to support (is denial- or i% (e denies only a part o% t(e averment- (e speci%ies so muc( o% it as is true and denies t(e remainder* $ /asically, he chooses stu'' 'rom the complaint and shoots them do!n by denying them 5isavowal o% knowledge: "(e de%endant states t(at (e does not (ave knowledge or in%ormation su%%icient to %orm a )elie% as to t(e trut( o% a material averment* $9e says he doesn(t kno! anything regarding a material averment Dowever- i% it t(e averment was in %act wit(in t(e knowledge o% t(e de%endant and (e still disavows knowledge- it is deemed admitted as a mere general denial* 5e%enses o% Llack o% knowledge %or lack o% privityM or Lina)ility to recall )ecause it (appened a long time agoM are insu%%icient de%enses* $Repu)lic v +andigan)ayan- 2 G' is a negative pregnantF It,s a %orm o% negative e9pression w(ic( carries wit( it an a%%irmation or at least an implication o% some kind %avora)le to t(e adverse party* It is a denial pregnant wit( an admission o% t(e su)stantial %acts alleged in t(e pleading* ?9ample: allegations were t(at t(ere were illegal %unds in a +wiss )ank account* Answer was t(at t(e %unds were legally ac#uired* Dence- t(e su)stantial %act t(at t(ere were %unds in a +wiss )ank account was not speci%ically denied- and t(us admitted*

Sec# 9# C!u"te,cl' 1# A c!u"te,cl' 1 & '". cl' 1 *% c% ' +e$e"+ "3 -',t. 1'. %'0e '3' "&t '" !--!& "3 -',t.#

Mario 'iled a collection case versus Luigi% Luigi 'iled a collection case versus Mario, claiming Mario o!ed him% A counterclaim is a distinct and independent cause o% action* o 4pon its %iling- t(e same proceedings are (ad as in t(e original complaint* Period to answer counterclaim: wit(in ! days %rom service* Properly interposed- t(e de%endant )ecomes t(e plainti%%*
Sec# 7# C!1-ul&!,. c!u"te,cl' 1# A c!1-ul&!,. c!u"te,cl' 1 & !"e *% c%, (e "3 c!3" 7'(le (. t%e ,e3ul', c!u,t& !$ 5u&t ce, ', &e& !ut !$ !, & c!""ecte+ * t% t%e t,'"&'ct !" !, !ccu,,e"ce c!"&t tut "3 t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, !$ t%e !--!& "3 -',t.D& cl' 1 '"+ +!e& "!t ,eAu ,e $!, t& '+5u+ c't !" t%e -,e&e"ce !$ t% ,+ -',t e& !$ *%!1 t%e c!u,t c'""!t 'cAu ,e 5u, &+ ct !"# Suc% ' c!u"te,cl' 1 1u&t (e * t% " t%e 5u, &+ ct !" !$ t%e c!u,t (!t% '& t! t%e '1!u"t '"+ t%e "'tu,e t%e,e!$, e/ce-t t%'t " '" !, 3 "'l 'ct !" (e$!,e t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t, t%e c!u"te,cl' 1 1'. (e c!"& +e,e+ c!1-ul&!,. ,e3',+le&& !$ t%e '1!u"t#

Re#uisites %or a compulsory counterclaim: o Must arise out o%- or )e necessarily connected wit(- t(e transaction or occurrence t(at is

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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t(e su)=ect matter o% t(e opposing party,s or co0party,s claimQ 5oes not re#uire %or its ad=udication t(e presence o% G rd parties o% w(om t(e court cannot ac#uire =urisdictionQ and o Must )e wit(in t(e =urisdiction o% t(e court- and is cogni.a)le )y t(e regular courts o% =ustice* +o i% t(e counterclaim is a la)or claim- it cannot )e considered compulsory )ecause it is t(e 1LRC w(o (as =urisdiction- not t(e regular courts* o "est o% complusoriness: duplicity o% cases o I% you don,t %ile a compulsory counterclaim in your answer- it is deemed waived and )arred %orever* $compare to permissive' Re#uisites %or a permissive counterclaim: o 5oes not arise out o% or is not necessarily connected wit( t(e transaction or occurrence t(at is t(e su)=ect matter o% t(e opposing party,s claimQ o 5oes not re#uire %or its ad=udication t(e presence o% t(ird parties o% w(om t(e court cannot ac#uire =urisdictionQ and o Must )e wit(in t(e =urisdiction o% t(e court- and is cogni.a)le )y t(e regular courts o% =ustice 1ot related at all to t(e original claim %iled- it,s permissive as to t(e party- not to t(e court* As you can see- t(ere is 16 need %or leave o% court %or a counterclaim* It,s up to t(e party involved* Important distinction )etween compulsory and permissive counterclaims: Compulsory: 1o need %or certi%icate o% non0%orum s(opping since not an initiatory pleading Permissive: 1eed %or certi%icate o% 1/+ 5ocket %ees are now re#uired %or )ot( compulsory and permissive counterclaims* Remem)er t(is2 $7orean "ec( v Lerma- 2 @' Rule on =urisdiction over counterclaims: o In t(e R"C- t(ere is no limit to t(e counterclaim* o In t(e M"C- t(e counterclaim is limited to t(e =d o% t(e in%erior court* +o t(e )alance is lost* +o =ust %ile separately* Mario %iled a collection suit versus Luigi in t(e R"C o% Manila %or P8 * Luigi made a counterclaim %or P!< * J(ic( court (as a =urisdictionF o R"C o% Manila* Mario %iled a collection suit versus Luigi in t(e M"C o% Manila %or P2< * Luigi made a counterclaim %or P< * J(at (appensF o "(is is not a compulsory counterclaim )ecause t(e counterclaim is not in t(e =urisdiction o% t(e original court $M"C'* 1or is it permissive %or t(e same reason* +o Luigi s(ould %ile it in t(e R"C as a separate action* o

Sec# 8# C,!&&-cl' 1# A c,!&&-cl' 1 & '". cl' 1 (. !"e -',t. '3' "&t ' c!--',t. ', & "3 !ut !$ t%e t,'"&'ct !" !, !ccu,,e"ce t%'t & t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, e t%e, !$ t%e !, 3 "'l 'ct !" !, !$ ' c!u"te,cl' 1 t%e,e "# Suc% c,!&&-cl' 1 1'. "clu+e ' cl' 1 t%'t t%e -',t. '3' "&t *%!1 t & '&&e,te+ & !, 1'. (e l '(le t! t%e c,!&&-cl' 1'"t $!, 'll !, -',t !$ ' cl' 1 '&&e,te+ " t%e 'ct !" '3' "&t t%e c,!&&-cl' 1'"t#

Mario 'iled a suit versus /o!ser and Luigi% Then, Luigi 'iles versus /o!ser% A cross claims is any claim )y one party against a co0party o arising out o% t(e transaction or occurrence t(at is t(e su)=ect matter eit(er o%: o t(e original action or o% a counterclaim t(erein* Period to answer cross0claim: ! days 1o need %or leave o% court
Sec# B# C!u"te,-c!u"te,cl' 1& '"+ c!u"te,-c,!&&-cl' 1&# A c!u"te,cl' 1 1'. (e '&&e,te+ '3' "&t '" !, 3 "'l c!u"te,-cl' 1'"t# A c,!&&-cl' 1 1'. 'l&! (e $ le+ '3' "&t '" !, 3 "'l c,!&&-cl' 1'"t#

Mario 'iled a collection case versus Luigi% Luigi 'iled a collection case versus Mario, claiming Mario o!ed him% Then Mario 'iled another case versus Luigi, not arising 'rom the same transaction% Atty &uevarra says t(is applies to permissive counterclaims- )ecause it would )e useless to %ile a counterclaim against a counterclaim i% it were compulsory since it would still pertain to t(e same
Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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transaction*
Sec# 10# Re-l.# A ,e-l. & ' -le'+ "3, t%e !$$ ce !, $u"ct !" !$ *% c% & t! +e"., !, 'lle3e $'ct& " +e" 'l !, '0! +'"ce !$ "e* 1'tte,& 'lle3e+ (. *'. !$ +e$e"&e " t%e '"&*e, '"+ t%e,e(. 5! " !, 1')e &&ue '& t! &uc% "e* 1'tte,&# I$ ' -',t. +!e& "!t $ le &uc% ,e-l., 'll t%e "e* 1'tte,& 'lle3e+ " t%e '"&*e, ',e +ee1e+ c!"t,!0e,te+# I$ t%e -l' "t $$ * &%e& t! "te,-!&e '". cl' 1& ', & "3 !ut !$ t%e "e* 1'tte,& &! 'lle3e+, &uc% cl' 1& &%'ll (e &et $!,t% " '" '1e"+e+ !, &u--le1e"t'l c!1-l' "t#

You 'ile this a'ter the ans!er% A reply is a pleading w(ose %unction is to: o 5eny- or o Allege %acts in denial or avoidance o% new matters J(ic( were alleged )y way o% de%ense in t(e answero And t(ere)y =oin or make issue as to suc( new matters* I% t(ere is 16 reply- all t(e new matters alleged in t(e answer are deemed controverted* o )ontroverted na pala eh, !hy 'ile a reply pa& ;ecause it,s not good practice* "(e proper %unction o% a reply is to allege new matters in avoidance o% any a%%irmative de%ense* It also %urt(er de%ines t(e issues and speci%ies matter %or trial* J(en s(ould one %ile a replyF Response to an answer $Rule !!- +ec C' I% in response to a supplemental answer A%ter service o% t(e )ill o% particulars- or a%ter notice o% denial o% one,s motion %or a )ill o% particulars $Rule !2- +ec <'

Jit(in ! days %rom service Jit(in ! days %rom notice o% order Jit(in t(e period remaining to w(ic( (e was entitled at t(e time o% %iling (is motion- w(ic( s(all not )e less t(an < days in any event

Sec# 11# T% ,+, ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. c!1-l' "t# A t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. c!1-l' "t & ' cl' 1 t%'t ' +e$e"+ "3 -',t. 1'., * t% le'0e !$ c!u,t, $ le '3' "&t ' -e,&!" "!t ' -',t. t! t%e 'ct !", c'lle+ t%e t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. +e$e"+'"t, $!, c!"t, (ut !", "+e1" t., &u(,!3't !" !, '". !t%e, ,el e$, " ,e&-ect !$ % & !--!"e"tD& cl' 1#

Mario 'iles versus Luigi on a promissory note% Luigi, !ith leave o' court, 'iles against /o!ser because Luigi lent hal' o' the amount to /o!ser% A t(ird0party complaint is a claim t(at a de%ending party may- wit( leave o% court- %ile against a person not a party to t(e action- %or o Contri)ution- indemnity- su)rogation or any ot(er relie%o In respect o% (is opponent,s claim* I% a court (as =urisdiction over t(e main action- it (as =urisdiction over a t(ird0party complaint w(ic( is ancillary t(ereto* A t(ird0party complaint must yield to t(e =urisdiction and venue o% t(e main action* Period to %ile an answer to a t(ird party compliant: !< days o It,s treated as an entirely new complaint* J(at is t(e test to determine propriety o% a t(ird0party complaintF o 5oes it arise out o% t(e same transaction on w(ic( t(e plainti%%,s claim is )ased- or does t(e t(ird0party,s claim arising out o% anot(er or di%%erent contract or transactionconnected wit( t(e plainti%%,s claimF &R: 1o need %or leave o% court %or pleadings $answer- counterclaims- cross0claims- etc'* o ?AC?P": in t(ird0party complaints* >ou 1??5 leave o% court* Dow do you o)tain leave o% courtF o /ile a motion under Rule !<* J(at (appens i% t(e motion is deniedF
Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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+uc( a claim may still )e en%orced in a separate action* "(e action is not lost* Is summons needed on t(e t(ird0party de%endantF o >es* 6% course* In order to o)tain =urisdiction over (imI(er* Can t(e original claimant amend (is pleading to =oin t(e t(ird party de%endantF o >es* De may amend (is pleadings to assert against t(e t(ird0party de%endant any claim w(ic( t(e %ormer mig(t (ave asserted against t(e latter (ad (e )een =oined originally as a party* "(e )ringing o% a t(ird0party de%endant is proper i% (e would )e lia)le to t(e plainti%% or t(e de%endant or )ot( %or all or part o% t(e plainti%%,s claim against t(e original de%endant- alt(oug( t(e Grd party de%endant,s lia)ility arises out o% anot(er transaction* A t(ird0party complaint must allege %acts w(ic( prima %acie s(ow t(at t(e de%endant is entitled to contri)ution- su)rogation- etc %rom t(e t(ird0party de%endant* ?9ample Mario sold land to Luigi% /o!ser sues Luigi to recover said parcel o' land, claiming he(s the real o!ner% Luigi then 'iles a third-party complaint versus Mario to en'orce the !arranty against eviction% /o!ser may amend his complaint to include Mario and claim damages 'or having deprived him o' said land% Is t(e Grd party de%endant )ound )y t(e ad=udication o% t(e t(ird0party plainti%%,s lia)ility to t(e original plainti%%F o >es* J(at is t(e e%%ect o% t(e dismissal o% t(e complaint on t(e t(ird0party complaintF o I% t(e complaint is dismissed- t(e t(ird0party complaint will also necessarily )e dismissed*

Sec# 12# 4, "3 "3 "e* -',t e&# <%e" t%e -,e&e"ce !$ -',t e& !t%e, t%'" t%!&e t! t%e !, 3 "'l 'ct !" & ,eAu ,e+ $!, t%e 3,'"t "3 !$ c!1-lete ,el e$ " t%e +ete,1 "'t !" !$ ' c!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1, t%e c!u,t &%'ll !,+e, t%e1 t! (e (,!u3%t " '& +e$e"+'"t&, $ 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e1 c'" (e !(t' "e+#

Dow is t(is di%%erent %rom a t(ird0party complaintF o In a t(ird party complaint- one o% t(e t(ird0party de%endants is not a party to t(e main action* o In t(is section- one or more o% t(e de%endants in a counterclaim or cross0claim is already a party to t(e action* "(ey can )e )roug(t as ot(er necessary parties under t(is section*

Sec# 12# A"&*e, t! t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. c!1-l' "t# A t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. +e$e"+'"t 1'. 'lle3e " % & '"&*e, % & +e$e"&e&, c!u"te,cl' 1& !, c,!&&cl' 1&, "clu+ "3 &uc% +e$e"&e& t%'t t%e t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. -l' "t $$ 1'. %'0e '3' "&t t%e !, 3 "'l -l' "t $$D& cl' 1# I" -,!-e, c'&e&, %e 1'. 'l&! '&&e,t ' c!u"te,cl' 1 '3' "&t t%e !, 3 "'l -l' "t $$ " ,e&-ect !$ t%e l'tte,D& cl' 1 '3' "&t t%e t% ,+--',t. -l' "t $$# RULE 7 =ARTS OF A =LEADING Sect !" 1# C'-t !"# T%e c'-t !" &et& $!,t% t%e "'1e !$ t%e c!u,t, t%e t tle !$ t%e 'ct !", '"+ t%e +!c)et "u1(e, $ '&& 3"e+# T%e t tle !$ t%e 'ct !" "+ c'te& t%e "'1e& !$ t%e -',t e&# T%e. &%'ll 'll (e "'1e+ " t%e !, 3 "'l c!1-l' "t !, -et t !": (ut " &u(&eAue"t -le'+ "3&, t &%'ll (e &u$$ c e"t $ t%e "'1e !$ t%e $ ,&t -',t. !" e'c% & +e (e &t'te+ * t% '" '--,!-, 'te "+ c't !" *%e" t%e,e ',e !t%e, -',t e&# T%e , ,e&-ect 0e -',t c -'t !" " t%e c'&e &%'ll (e "+ c'te+# Sec# 2# T%e (!+.# T%e (!+. !$ t%e -le'+ "3 &et& $!,t% t& +e& 3"'t !", t%e 'lle3't !"& !$ t%e -',t.D& cl' 1& !, +e$e"&e&, t%e ,el e$ -,'.e+ $!,, '"+ t%e +'te !$ t%e -le'+ "3# (') =','3,'-%&# - T%e 'lle3't !"& " t%e (!+. !$ ' -le'+ "3 &%'ll (e + 0 +e+ "t! -','3,'-%& &! "u1(e,e+ '& t! (e ,e'+ l. +e"t $ e+, e'c% !$ *% c% &%'ll c!"t' " ' &t'te1e"t !$ ' & "3le &et !$ c ,cu1&t'"ce& &! $', '& t%'t c'" (e +!"e * t% c!"0e" e"ce# A -','3,'-% 1'. (e ,e$e,,e+ t! (. t& "u1(e, " 'll &uccee+ "3 -le'+ "3&# (() @e'+ "3&# - <%e" t*! !, 1!,e c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" ',e 5! "e+, t%e &t'te1e"t !$ t%e $ ,&t &%'ll (e -,e$'ce+ (. t%e *!,+& ?$ ,&t c'u&e !$ 'ct !",? !$ t%e &ec!"+ (. ?&ec!"+ c'u&e !$ 'ct !",? '"+ &! !" $!, t%e !t%e,&# <%e" !"e !, 1!,e -','3,'-%& " t%e '"&*e, ',e '++,e&&e+ t! !"e !$ &e0e,'l c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" " t%e c!1-l' "t, t%e. &%'ll (e -,e$'ce+ (. t%e *!,+& ?'"&*e, t! t%e $ ,&t c'u&e !$ 'ct !"? !, Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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?'"&*e, t! t%e &ec!"+ c'u&e !$ 'ct !"? '"+ &! !": '"+ *%e" !"e !, 1!,e -','3,'-%& !$ t%e '"&*e, ',e '++,e&&e+ t! &e0e,'l c'u&e& !$ 'ct !", t%e. &%'ll (e -,e$'ce+ (. *!,+& t! t%'t e$$ect# (c) Rel e$# - T%e -le'+ "3 &%'ll &-ec $. t%e ,el e$ &!u3%t, (ut t 1'. '++ ' 3e"e,'l -,'.e, $!, &uc% $u,t%e, !, !t%e, ,el e$ '& 1'. (e +ee1e+ 5u&t !, eAu t'(le# (+) D'te# - E0e,. -le'+ "3 &%'ll (e +'te+# Sec# 2# S 3"'tu,e '"+ '++,e&&# E0e,. -le'+ "3 1u&t (e & 3"e+ (. t%e -',t. !, c!u"&el ,e-,e&e"t "3 % 1, &t't "3 " e t%e, c'&e % & '++,e&& *% c% &%!ul+ "!t (e ' -!&t !$$ ce (!/# T%e & 3"'tu,e !$ c!u"&el c!"&t tute& ' ce,t $ c'te (. % 1 t%'t %e %'& ,e'+ t%e -le'+ "3: t%'t t! t%e (e&t !$ % & )"!*le+3e, "$!,1't !", '"+ (el e$ t%e,e & 3!!+ 3,!u"+ t! &u--!,t t: '"+ t%'t t & "!t "te,-!&e+ $!, +el'.# A" u"& 3"e+ -le'+ "3 -,!+uce& "! le3'l e$$ect# @!*e0e,, t%e c!u,t 1'., " t& + &c,et !", 'll!* &uc% +e$ c e"c. t! (e ,e1e+ e+ $ t &%'ll '--e', t%'t t%e &'1e *'& +ue t! 1e,e "'+0e,te"ce '"+ "!t "te"+e+ $!, +el'.# C!u"&el *%! +el (e,'tel. $ le& '" u"& 3"e+ -le'+ "3, !, & 3"& ' -le'+ "3 " 0 !l't !" !$ t% & Rule, !, 'lle3e& &c'"+'l!u& !, "+ece"t 1'tte, t%e,e ", !, $' l& t! -,!1-tl. ,e-!,t t! t%e c!u,t ' c%'"3e !$ % & '++,e&&, &%'ll (e &u(5ect t! '--,!-, 'te + &c -l "',. 'ct !"#

?very pleading must )e signed )y t(e party or counsel representing (im- ot(erwise t(e pleading produces no legal e%%ect* $3ocson v CA- 2 8 w(erein t(e counsel o% Plainti%% A signed %or Plainti%% ; and t(e court said t(is can not )e done- wit(out proo% t(at counsel represented Plainti%% ; as well' 1o signature: no legal e%%ect o Can )e cured i% due to mere inadvertence or not intended %or delay +ignature o% counsel certi%ies t(at: o De read t(e pleadingo "(ere is good ground to support it- and o 1ot interposed %or delay Counsel must also in%orm t(e court o% (is c(ange o% address*

Sec# 6# >e, $ c't !"# E/ce-t *%e" !t%e,* &e &-ec $ c'll. ,eAu ,e+ (. l'* !, ,ule, -le'+ "3& "ee+ "!t (e u"+e, !'t%, 0e, $ e+ !, 'cc!1-'" e+ (. '$$ +'0 t# A -le'+ "3 & 0e, $ e+ (. '" '$$ +'0 t t%'t t%e '$$ '"t %'& ,e'+ t%e -le'+ "3 '"+ t%'t t%e 'lle3't !"& t%e,e " ',e t,ue '"+ c!,,ect !$ % & -e,&!"'l )"!*le+3e !, ('&e+ !" 'ut%e"t c ,ec!,+&# A -le'+ "3 ,eAu ,e+ t! (e 0e, $ e+ *% c% c!"t' "& ' 0e, $ c't !" ('&e+ !" ? "$!,1't !" '"+ (el e$,? !, u-!" ?)"!*le+3e, "$!,1't !" '"+ (el e$,? !, l'c)& ' -,!-e, 0e, $ c't !", &%'ll (e t,e'te+ '& '" u"& 3"e+ -le'+ "3#

&R: Pleadings need not )e veri%ied- under oat(- or accompanied )y an a%%idavit* o ?AC?P": i% speci%ically re#uired )y law or rule* A veri%ication states t(at t(e a%%iant (as read t(e pleading and t(e allegations t(erein are true* o It must )e under oat(* It is t(e PAR"> w(o signs t(e pleading- not t(e lawyer* o Alt(oug( t(e lawyer can sign it under compelling reasons* A minor can sign- )ut (e must )e assisted* :eri%ication is only a %ormal re#uirement* o It is not =urisdictional* /ailure to attac( is not %atal* ;ut in t(e +C and CA- t(ey dismiss wit(out pre=udice it %or %ailure to comply wit( procedural re#uirements* &R: /or cases involving multiple parties- ALL o% t(em must sign t(e veri%ication* $applies also to C1/+' o ?AC?P": w(en t(ey (ave a common interest among t(em* In t(is case- a signature o% one will su%%ice* $1o need %or aut(ority %rom ot(ers eit(er' ?9amples o% common interests: Deirs- wit( regard to property allegedly )e#ueat(ed to t(em $Iglesia v Pon%errada- 2 C- w(ere only one (eir signed t(e veri%ication and it was allowed )y t(e court' +pouses and %amily mem)ers- involving t(e %amily (ome Mem)ers o% a co0owners(ip- involving t(e property o% t(e coowners(ip Arising %rom t(e same transaction $3ua)an v ?spina w(erein

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 8# Ce,t $ c't !" '3' "&t $!,u1 &%!-- "3# T%e -l' "t $$ !, -, "c -'l -',t. &%'ll ce,t $. u"+e, !'t% " t%e c!1-l' "t !, !t%e, " t 't!,. -le'+ "3 '&&e,t "3 ' cl' 1 $!, ,el e$, !, " ' &*!," ce,t $ c't !" '""e/e+ t%e,et! '"+ & 1ult'"e!u&l. $ le+ t%e,e* t%; (') t%'t %e %'& "!t t%e,et!$!,e c!11e"ce+ '". 'ct !" !, $ le+ '". cl' 1 "0!l0 "3 t%e &'1e &&ue& " '". c!u,t, t, (u"'l !, Au'& -5u+ c 'l '3e"c. '"+, t! t%e (e&t !$ % & )"!*le+3e, "! &uc% !t%e, 'ct !" !, cl' 1 & -e"+ "3 t%e,e ": (() $ t%e,e & &uc% !t%e, -e"+ "3 'ct !" !, cl' 1, ' c!1-lete &t'te1e"t !$ t%e -,e&e"t &t'tu& t%e,e!$: '"+ (c) $ %e &%!ul+ t%e,e'$te, le'," t%'t t%e &'1e !, & 1 l', 'ct !" !, cl' 1 %'& (ee" $ le+ !, & -e"+ "3, %e &%'ll ,e-!,t t%'t $'ct * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& t%e,e$,!1 t! t%e c!u,t *%e,e " % & '$!,e&' + c!1-l' "t !, " t 't!,. -le'+ "3 %'& (ee" $ le+# F' lu,e t! c!1-l. * t% t%e $!,e3! "3 ,eAu ,e1e"t& &%'ll "!t (e cu,'(le (. 1e,e '1e"+1e"t !$ t%e c!1-l' "t !, !t%e, " t 't!,. -le'+ "3 (ut &%'ll (e c'u&e $!, t%e + &1 &&'l !$ t%e c'&e * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce, u"le&& !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e+, u-!" 1!t !" '"+ '$te, %e', "3# T%e &u(1 && !" !$ ' $'l&e ce,t $ c't !" !, "!"-c!1-l '"ce * t% '". !$ t%e u"+e,t') "3& t%e,e " &%'ll c!"&t tute "+ ,ect c!"te1-t !$ c!u,t, * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 '+1 " &t,'t 0e '"+ c, 1 "'l 'ct !"&# I$ t%e 'ct& !$ t%e -',t. !, % & c!u"&el cle',l. c!"&t tute * ll$ul '"+ +el (e,'te $!,u1 &%!-- "3, t%e &'1e &%'ll (e 3,!u"+ $!, &u11',. + &1 &&'l * t% -,e5u+ ce '"+ &%'ll c!"&t tute + ,ect c!"te1-t, '& *ell '& ' c'u&e $!, '+1 " &t,'t 0e &'"ct !"&#

J(at is %orum0s(oppingF o "(e %iling o% multiple suits in di%%erent courts- eit(er simultaneously or successively Involving t(e same parties "o ask t(e courts to: rule on t(e same or related causes- andIor grant t(e same or su)stantially same relie%s* "est: Is t(ere identity o%: o Partieso Rig(ts or causes o% action- and o Relie%s soug(tF J(o must sign itF o "(e party (imsel%- not t(e counsel* J(at i% multiple parties- do t(ey all (ave to signF &R: Like in veri%ication- yes- t(ey all (ave to sign* o ?AC?P": w(en t(ey all s(are a common interest and invoke a common cause o% action or de%ense- t(e signature o% only one o% t(em will su)stantially comply wit( t(e rules $3ua)an v ?spina2 @' o 6nly individuals vested wit( aut(ority )y a valid )oard resolution may sign t(e C1/+ on )e(al% o% a corporation* /ailure to provide a C1/+ or to accompany wit( proo% o% t(e signatory,s aut(ority are su%%icient grounds to dismiss t(e petition* $Repu)lic v Coal)rine2 ! ' J(en is it neededF o In every initiatory pleading* Dence- it is 16" needed in a motion $even i% it,s erroneously la)eled as a Lpetition*M' $P"A v Metro)ank- 2 ! - w(erein Metro)ank %iled %or a Rpetition, %or t(e issuance o% a writ o% possession %ollowing a %oreclosure sale* Court said t(at it,s really a motion and no C1/+ was needed*' Contents: o Certi%y- 415?R 6A"D- t(at (e (as not %iled a similar complaint involving t(e same issues in anot(er court- tri)unal- #uasi0=udicial agencyo I% t(ere is any ot(er pending claim- (e must provide t(e status o I% (e learns a)out similar action- (e must report suc( %act wit(in < days to t(e court A)sence o% C1/+: case will )e dismissed JI"D64" pre=udice o "(e de%ect cannot )e cured )y an amendment- =ust re0%ile t(at )iatc(2 ?%%ect o% non0compliance $Meaning- you %iled a C1/+ )ut you did not respect your commitment under suc( K ie- it,s %alse' o Indirect contempt $%ailure to comply wit( order or process o% court' o Administrative and criminal cases $since you lied under oat('

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o 5ismissal o% t(e case ?%%ect o% will%ul and deli)erate %orum s(opping $Meaning it,s not only %alse )ut you also deli)erately disregarded it': o 5ismissal wit( pre=udice o 5irect contempt I% t(ere are two pending cases- w(at case will )e dismissedF o &R: t(e later case* ?AC?P": t(e %irst case may )e t(e one dismissed i% t(e later action is t(e more appropriate ve(icle %or t(e ventilation o% t(e issues )etween t(e parties* $4CP; v ;eluso- 2 E'

RULE 8 MANNER OF MACING ALLEGATIONS IN =LEADINGS Sect !" 1# I" 3e"e,'l# E0e,. -le'+ "3 &%'ll c!"t' " " ' 1et%!+ c'l '"+ l!3 c'l $!,1, ' -l' ", c!"c &e '"+ + ,ect &t'te1e"t !$ t%e ult 1'te $'ct& !" *% c% t%e -',t. -le'+ "3 ,el e& $!, % & cl' 1 !, +e$e"&e, '& t%e c'&e 1'. (e, !1 tt "3 t%e &t'te1e"t !$ 1e,e e0 +e"t ',. $'ct&# I$ ' +e$e"&e ,el e+ !" & ('&e+ !" l'*, t%e -e,t "e"t -,!0 & !"& t%e,e!$ '"+ t%e , '--l c'( l t. t! % 1 &%'ll (e cle',l. '"+ c!"c &el. &t'te+#

J(at s(ould it containF o "(e ultimate %acts- not evidentiary %acts* o 4nlike a complaint w(ic( only alleges %acts- an answer may cite legal provisions relied upon %or de%ense $like statute o% limitations'

Sec# 2# Alte,"'t 0e c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e&# A -',t. 1'. &et $!,t% t*! !, 1!,e &t'te1e"t& !$ ' cl' 1 !, +e$e"&e 'lte,"'t 0el. !, %.-!t%et c'll., e t%e, " !"e c'u&e !$ 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e !, " &e-','te c'u&e& !$ 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e&# <%e" t*! !, 1!,e &t'te1e"t& ',e 1'+e " t%e 'lte,"'t 0e '"+ !"e !$ t%e1 $ 1'+e "+e-e"+e"tl. *!ul+ (e &u$$ c e"t, t%e -le'+ "3 & "!t 1'+e "&u$$ c e"t (. t%e "&u$$ c e"c. !$ !"e !, 1!,e !$ t%e 'lte,"'t 0e &t'te1e"t&#

Can a single cause o% action entitle a party to two alternative relie%sF o >es* "ake )reac( o% contract as an e9ample* ;reac( is t(e cause o% action- w(ile relie%s are eit(er speci%ic per%ormance or rescission* o Alternative statements may )e made eit(er in one cause o% action or de%ense or in separate causes o% action or de%enses* Can t(e plainti%% make alternative allegationsF o >es* "(ere are cases w(ere %acts- essential to t(e plainti%%,s cause o% action- are wit(in t(e knowledge o% t(e de%endant- )ut o% w(ic( t(e plainti%% is so imper%ectly in%ormed t(at (e canot state wit( certainty- even on in%ormation or )elie%* o "(e proper procedure is %or (im to state t(e %acts wit(in (is knowledge wit( certainty- )ut to plead in t(e alternative t(e dou)t%ul %acts w(ic( are w(olly wit(in t(e de%endant,s knowledge- and call upon t(e de%endant to make t(e %ull disclosure o% t(e %acts* Can t(e de%endant plead as many de%enses as (e wantsF o >es* o De (as t(e rig(t to set up negative de%ense in one cause o% action and a%%irmative de%ense in anot(er in t(e same action* "(e a%%irmative matter in a separate de%ense does not operate as a wit(drawal o% a de%ense in anot(er portion o% (is answer* o "(ose di%%erent de%enses may )e inconsistent wit( eac( ot(er- )ut it is su%%icient t(at eac( is consistent wit( itsel%*

Sec# 2# C!"+ t !"& -,ece+e"t# I" '". -le'+ "3 ' 3e"e,'l '0e,1e"t !$ t%e -e,$!,1'"ce !, !ccu,,e"ce !$ 'll c!"+ t !"& -,ece+e"t &%'ll (e &u$$ c e"t#

/arangay conciliation process, etc% "(ese must )e averred* I% not- it may )e dismissed on t(e ground o% lack o% cause o% action*
Sec# 6# C'-'c t.# F'ct& &%!* "3 t%e c'-'c t. !$ ' -',t. t! &ue !, (e &ue+ !, t%e 'ut%!, t. !$ ' -',t. t! &ue !, (e &ue+ " ' Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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,e-,e&e"t't 0e c'-'c t. !, t%e le3'l e/ &te"ce !$ '" !,3'" 7e+ '&&!c 't !" !$ -e,&!"& t%'t & 1'+e ' -',t., 1u&t (e '0e,,e+# A -',t. +e& , "3 t! ,' &e '" &&ue '& t! t%e le3'l e/ &te"ce !$ '". -',t. !, t%e c'-'c t. !$ '". -',t. t! &ue !, (e &ue+ " ' ,e-,e&e"t't 0e c'-'c t., &%'ll +! &! (. &-ec $ c +e" 'l, *% c% &%'ll "clu+e &uc% &u--!,t "3 -',t cul',& '& ',e -ecul ',l. * t% " t%e -le'+e,D& )"!*le+3e#

Jit( respect to capacity- t(e %acts concerning t(e %ollowing must )e averred: o "(e capacity o% a person to sue or )e sued o "(e aut(ority o% a party to sue or )e sued in a representative capacity o Legal e9istence o% an organi.ed association o% t(e persons t(at is made a party I% a party wis(es to raise an issue as to t(e legal e9istence o% any party- etc- w(at s(ould (e doF o De s(ould do so )y a speci%ic denial- w(ic( s(ould include suc( supporting particulars as are peculiarly wit(in t(e pleader,s knowledge* o I% t(e de%endant wis(es to raise an issue as to t(e plainti%%,s legal capacity to sue- (e may %ile a motion to dismiss on t(at ground- or set it up as an a%%irmative de%ense in t(e answer* o I% t(e de%endant wis(es to raise an issue as to (is legal capacity to )e sued- (e may #uestion t(e =urisdiction o% t(e court over (is person* o In eit(er case- t(e de%endant may deny t(e allegation o% capacity*

Sec# 8# F,'u+, 1 &t')e, c!"+ t !" !$ t%e 1 "+# I" 'll '0e,1e"t& !$ $,'u+ !, 1 &t')e, t%e c ,cu1&t'"ce& c!"&t tut "3 $,'u+ !, 1 &t')e 1u&t (e &t'te+ * t% -',t cul', t.# M'l ce, "te"t, )"!*le+3e !, !t%e, c!"+ t !" !$ t%e 1 "+ !$ ' -e,&!" 1'. (e '0e,,e+ 3e"e,'ll.#

I% %raud or mistake- t(e circumstances constituting it must )e stated wit( particularity* I% malice- intent- knowledge or ot(er condition o% t(e mind o% a person- =ust aver it generally*

Sec# 9# Ju+31e"t# I" -le'+ "3 ' 5u+31e"t !, +ec & !" !$ ' +!1e&t c !, $!,e 3" c!u,t, 5u+ c 'l !, Au'& -5u+ c 'l t, (u"'l, !, !$ ' (!',+ !, !$$ ce,, t & &u$$ c e"t t! '0e, t%e 5u+31e"t !, +ec & !" * t%!ut &ett "3 $!,t% 1'tte, &%!* "3 5u, &+ ct !" t! ,e"+e, t# Sec# 7# Act !" !, +e$e"&e ('&e+ !" +!cu1e"t# <%e"e0e, '" 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e & ('&e+ u-!" ' *, tte" "&t,u1e"t !, +!cu1e"t, t%e &u(&t'"ce !$ &uc% "&t,u1e"t !, +!cu1e"t &%'ll (e &et $!,t% " t%e -le'+ "3, '"+ t%e !, 3 "'l !, ' c!-. t%e,e!$ &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e -le'+ "3 '& '" e/% ( t, *% c% &%'ll (e +ee1e+ t! (e ' -',t !$ t%e -le'+ "3, !, &' + c!-. 1'. * t% l )e e$$ect (e &et $!,t% " t%e -le'+ "3#

Dow do you plead an action or de%ense )ased on a documentF o +et %ort( t(e su)stance o% t(e instrumentIdocument in t(e pleading and attac( or append t(e document- or o Reproduce t(e contents o% t(e document in t(e pleading en toto

Sec# 8# @!* t! c!"te&t &uc% +!cu1e"t&# <%e" '" 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e & $!u"+e+ u-!" ' *, tte" "&t,u1e"t, c!- e+ " !, 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 -le'+ "3 '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !", t%e 3e"u "e"e&& '"+ +ue e/ecut !" !$ t%e "&t,u1e"t &%'ll (e +ee1e+ '+1 tte+ u"le&& t%e '+0e,&e -',t., u"+e, !'t%, &-ec $ c'll. +e" e& t%e1, '"+ &et& $!,t% *%'t %e cl' 1& t! (e t%e $'ct&: (ut t%e ,eAu ,e1e"t !$ '" !'t% +!e& "!t '--l. *%e" t%e '+0e,&e -',t. +!e& "!t '--e', t! (e ' -',t. t! t%e "&t,u1e"t !, *%e" c!1-l '"ce * t% '" !,+e, $!, '" "&-ect !" !$ t%e !, 3 "'l "&t,u1e"t & ,e$u&e+#

J(at does Lgenuineness and due e9ecutionM meanF o &enuineness means not(ing more t(an t(e instrument is not spurious- counter%eit or o% di%%erent import on its %ace %rom t(e one e9ecuted o 5ue e9ecution means t(at it was done wit( aut(ority Dow does one contest itF o ;y speci%ically denying t(em under oat(- and setting %ort( w(at (e claims to )e t(e %acts An oat( is not re#uired w(en: Adverse party does not appear to )e party to t(e instrument- or J(en compliance wit( an order %or an inspection o% t(e original instrument

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o J(at o

J(at o o o

is re%used* It must )e speci%ically denied* Dence- w(en t(e de%endant merely states t(at t(e signature Lseems to )e (is*M "(is is an admission o% t(e document,s genuiness and due e9ecution* $Permanent +avings v :elarde- 2 4' are deemed admitted i% t(ere is no denial under oat(F Admission 61L> to t(e document,s genuineness and due e9ecution ;asically- i% you don,t deny under oat(- you are waiving t(e aut(entication process under Rule !G2- +ec !80GG* 1o need %or proo% o% e9ecution and aut(enticity wit( respect to t(e documents* 6ne w(o does not deny under oat(- admits: "(at (e voluntarily signed t(e document or it was signed )y anot(er %or (im and wit( (is aut(orityQ "(at at t(e time it was signed- it was in words and %igures e9actly as set out in t(e pleading o% t(e party relying upon itQ "(at t(e document was deliveredQ "(at any %ormalities re#uired )y law- suc( as a seal- an acknowledgment or revenue stamp- w(ic( it lackts- are waived )y (im $/ilipinas "e9tile Mills v CA' are not deemed admittedF "(e true nature or true intention is not admitted "(at,s payment- want or illegality o% consideration- %raud- mistake- compromise- etc /or e9ample- in %raudulent misrepresentation- you admit t(at your signature is genuine )ut not you can contest JD> you signed t(e document*

Sec# B# O$$ c 'l +!cu1e"t !, 'ct# I" -le'+ "3 '" !$$ c 'l +!cu1e"t !, !$$ c 'l 'ct, t & &u$$ c e"t t! '0e, t%'t t%e +!cu1e"t *'& &&ue+ !, t%e 'ct +!"e " c!1-l '"ce * t% l'*# Sec# 10# S-ec $ c +e" 'l# A +e$e"+'"t 1u&t &-ec $. e'c% 1'te, 'l 'lle3't !" !$ $'ct t%e t,ut% !$ *% c% %e +!e& "!t '+1 t '"+, *%e"e0e, -,'ct c'(le, &%'ll &et $!,t% t%e &u(&t'"ce !$ t%e 1'tte,& u-!" *% c% %e ,el e& t! &u--!,t % & +e" 'l# <%e,e ' +e$e"+'"t +e& ,e& t! +e". !"l. ' -',t !$ '" '0e,1e"t, %e &%'ll &-ec $. &! 1uc% !$ t '& & t,ue '"+ 1'te, 'l '"+ &%'ll +e". !"l. t%e ,e1' "+e,# <%e,e ' +e$e"+'"t & * t%!ut )"!*le+3e !, "$!,1't !" &u$$ c e"t t! $!,1 ' (el e$ '& t! t%e t,ut% !$ ' 1'te, 'l '0e,1e"t 1'+e " t%e c!1-l' "t, %e &%'ll &! &t'te, '"+ t% & &%'ll %'0e t%e e$$ect !$ ' +e" 'l# Sec# 11# Alle3't !"& "!t &-ec $ c'll. +e" e+ +ee1e+ '+1 tte+# M'te, 'l '0e,1e"t " t%e c!1-l' "t, !t%e, t%'" t%!&e '& t! t%e '1!u"t !$ u"l Au +'te+ +'1'3e&, &%'ll (e +ee1e+ '+1 tte+ *%e" "!t &-ec $ c'll. +e" e+# Alle3't !"& !$ u&u,. " ' c!1-l' "t t! ,ec!0e, u&u, !u& "te,e&t ',e +ee1e+ '+1 tte+ $ "!t +e" e+ u"+e, !'t%#

J(at is t(e e%%ect o% a general denialF o Material averments in t(e complaint s(all )e deemed admitted w(en not speci%ically denied* ?AC?P": t(ose as to t(e amount o% unli#uidated damages $i% li#uidated- t(ey are deemed admitted'- and immaterial averments $allegations )y way o% anticipation o% de%ense or conclusions o% law'
$ "! ,e&-!"& 0e -le'+ "3 & -e,1 tte+ +'.& '$te, t%e &e,0 ce !$ t%e -le'+ "3 c!u,t 1'. !,+e, '". -le'+ "3 t! (e 1-e,t "e"t, !, &c'"+'l!u& 1'tte, (e

Sec# 12# St, ) "3 !ut !$ -le'+ "3 !, 1'tte, c!"t' "e+ t%e,e "# U-!" 1!t !" 1'+e (. ' -',t. (e$!,e ,e&-!"+ "3 t! ' -le'+ "3 !,, (. t%e&e Rule&, u-!" 1!t !" 1'+e (. ' -',t. * t% " t*e"t. (20) u-!" % 1, !, u-!" t%e c!u,tD& !*" " t 't 0e 't '". t 1e, t%e &t, c)e" !ut !, t%'t '". &%'1 !, $'l&e, ,e+u"+'"t, 11'te, 'l, &t, c)e" !ut t%e,e$,!1# RULE B EFFECT OF FAILURE TO =LEAD

Sect !" 1# De$e"&e& '"+ !(5ect !"& "!t -le'+e+# De$e"&e& '"+ !(5ect !"& "!t -le'+e+ e t%e, " ' 1!t !" t! + &1 && !, " t%e '"&*e, ',e +ee1e+ *' 0e+# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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@!*e0e,, *%e" t '--e',& $,!1 t%e -le'+ "3& !, t%e e0 +e"ce !" ,ec!,+ t%'t t%e c!u,t %'& "! 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e &u(5ect 1'tte,, t%'t t%e,e & '"!t%e, 'ct !" -e"+ "3 (et*ee" t%e &'1e -',t e& $!, t%e &'1e c'u&e, !, t%'t t%e 'ct !" & (',,e+ (. ' -, !, 5u+31e"t !, (. &t'tute !$ l 1 t't !"&, t%e c!u,t &%'ll + &1 && t%e cl' 1#

&R: 5e%enses and o)=ections not raised in a motion to dismiss or in t(e answer are deemed waived* o ?AC?P": Lack o% =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matter Litis Pendentia :es #udicata +tatute o% limitationsIPrescription Lack or a)sence o% cause o% action $=urisprudence' o I% t(ese grounds appear %rom t(e pleadings or t(e evidence o% record- t(e court s(all dismiss t(e claim* "(e waiva)le grounds s(ould )e raised in t(e %irst motion to dismiss $i% ever su)se#uent ones are %iled as supplement'- and not in supplemental motions to dismiss* I% t(ey are raised only in a supplemental motion to dismiss- it is deemed waived* $Anunciacion v ;ocanegra- 2 8- w(erein lack o% =d over t(e person was raised only in a supplemental motion to dismiss* Court (eld t(at t(e de%ense was waived' &ive an e9ample w(ere t(e grounds must )e raised in an answer and not in a M"5: %or cases under Rules on +ummary Procedure w(ere M"5 is a pro(i)ited pleading* Is t(e waiver irrevoca)leF $/eria' o 1o* >ou can o)tain relie% %rom t(e conse#uences o% suc( waiver )y an amendment o% t(e answer wit( leave o% court* &ive a case w(erein no =d over a person was raised only on certiorari- and was still allowed* o +pouses Mason v Colum)us ;us- )ecause t(ere was no waiver $since t(e clients didn,t know o% t(e case' and t(ere was no valid service o% summons* $Atty* "ran#uil (andled t(is case* It,s an e9ceptional case )ecause o% t(e %acts*'

Sec# 2# C!1-ul&!,. c!u"te,cl' 1, !, c,!&&-cl' 1, "!t &et u- (',,e+# A c!1-ul&!,. c!u"te,cl' 1, !, ' c,!&&-cl' 1, "!t &et u- &%'ll (e (',,e+#

A compulsory counterclaim- or a cross0claim- not set up in t(e answer s(all )e )arred %orever* J(at s(ould you do i% you still want to set up a compulsory counterclaim a%ter %ailing to implead itF $/eria' o A compulsory counterclaim or a cross0claim may still )e set up via t(e %ollowing: an amended answer- provided t(at t(e counterclaim or cross0claim already e9isted at t(e time t(e original answer was %iled- )ut due to oversig(t- inadvertence or e9cusa)le neglect- it was not set up* A supplemental answer- i% t(e counterclaim or cross0claim matures or is ac#uired a%ter t(e original answer is %iled* o In )ot( cases- t(ey must )e %iled wit( leave o% court )e%ore =udgment* Can a compulsory counterclaim cure =urisdictional de%ects in t(e complaintF $/eria' o >es* o Alt(oug( t(e original claim involves less t(an t(e =urisdictional amount- =urisdiction can )e sustained i% t(e compulsory counterclaim- )ased upon t(e damages allegedly su%%ered )y t(e de%endant in conse#uence o% t(e %iling o% t(e complaint- %alls wit(in t(e =urisdictional amount*

Sec# 2# De$'ult: +ecl','t !" !$# I$ t%e +e$e"+ "3 -',t. $' l& t! '"&*e, * t% " t%e t 1e 'll!*e+ t%e,e$!,, t%e c!u,t &%'ll, u-!" 1!t !" !$ t%e cl' 1 "3 -',t. * t% "!t ce t! t%e +e$e"+ "3 -',t., '"+ -,!!$ !$ &uc% $' lu,e, +ecl',e t%e +e$e"+ "3 -',t. " +e$'ult# T%e,eu-!", t%e c!u,t &%'ll -,!cee+ t! ,e"+e, 5u+31e"t 3,'"t "3 t%e cl' 1'"t &uc% ,el e$ '& % & -le'+ "3 1'. *',,'"t, u"le&& t%e c!u,t " t& + &c,et !" ,eAu ,e& t%e cl' 1'"t t! &u(1 t e0 +e"ce# Suc% ,ece-t !" !$ e0 +e"ce 1'. (e +ele3'te+ t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t# (') E$$ect !$ !,+e, !$ +e$'ult# - A -',t. " +e$'ult &%'ll (e e"t tle+ t! "!t ce !$ &u(&eAue"t -,!cee+ "3& (ut "!t t! t')e -',t " t%e t, 'l# (() Rel e$ $,!1 !,+e, !$ +e$'ult# - A -',t. +ecl',e+ " +e$'ult 1'. 't '". t 1e '$te, "!t ce t%e,e!$ '"+ Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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(e$!,e 5u+31e"t $ le ' 1!t !" u"+e, !'t% t! &et '& +e t%e !,+e, !$ +e$'ult u-!" -,!-e, &%!* "3 t%'t % & $' lu,e t! '"&*e, *'& +ue t! $,'u+, 'cc +e"t, 1 &t')e !, e/cu&'(le "e3l 3e"ce '"+ t%'t %e %'& ' 1e, t!, !u& +e$e"&e# I" &uc% c'&e, t%e !,+e, !$ +e$'ult 1'. (e &et '& +e !" &uc% te,1& '"+ c!"+ t !"& '& t%e 5u+3e 1'. 1-!&e " t%e "te,e&t !$ 5u&t ce# (c) E$$ect !$ -',t 'l +e$'ult# - <%e" ' -le'+ "3 '&&e,t "3 ' cl' 1 &t'te& ' c!11!" c'u&e !$ 'ct !" '3' "&t &e0e,'l +e$e"+ "3 -',t e&, &!1e !$ *%!1 '"&*e, '"+ t%e !t%e,& $' l t! +! &!, t%e c!u,t &%'ll t,. t%e c'&e '3' "&t 'll u-!" t%e '"&*e,& t%u& $ le+ '"+ ,e"+e, 5u+31e"t u-!" t%e e0 +e"ce -,e&e"te+# (+) E/te"t !$ ,el e$ t! (e '*',+e+# - A 5u+31e"t ,e"+e,e+ '3' "&t ' -',t. " +e$'ult &%'ll "!t e/cee+ t%e '1!u"t !, (e + $$e,e"t " ) "+ $,!1 t%'t -,'.e+ $!, "!, '*',+ u"l Au +'te+ +'1'3e&# (e) <%e,e "! +e$'ult& 'll!*e+# - I$ t%e +e$e"+ "3 -',t. " '" 'ct !" $!, '""ul1e"t !, +ecl','t !" !$ "ull t. !$ 1',, '3e !, $!, le3'l &e-','t !" $' l& t! '"&*e,, t%e c!u,t &%'ll !,+e, t%e -,!&ecut "3 'tt!,"e. t! "0e&t 3'te *%et%e, !, "!t ' c!llu& !" (et*ee" t%e -',t e& e/ &t&, '"+ $ t%e,e & "! c!llu& !", t! "te,0e"e $!, t%e St'te " !,+e, t! &ee t! t t%'t t%e e0 +e"ce &u(1 tte+ & "!t $'(, c'te+#

7inds o% de%ault o In actions in rem- general order o% de%ault* "(ere are no de%endants- so notice is made to t(e pu)lic t(at all oppositors (ave to come %orward and o)=ect* 6t(erwise- t(eir claims are %orever )arred* 4sually in actions %or certi%icates %or pu)lic convenience- MARI1A permits o /ailure to attend pre0trial 4sed to )e called Las in de%aultM in t(e !8C4 Rules o% Court $no longer in t(e present rules- )ut old lawyers still use t(e p(rase' J(at it really is: w(en t(e de%endant %ails to attend t(e pre0trial- t(e plainti%% can =ust present evidence e9 parte $(ence- it,s not really t(e de%ault in t(is section )ecause pre0trial presupposes t(at an answer (as already )een %iled' o /ailure to %ile an answer $t(is section' J(en is one considered in de%ault $under t(is section'F o "(e court will declare t(e de%ending party in de%ault J(en (e %ails to answer wit(in t(e time allowed t(ere%ore $see t(e time periods2'and 4pon motion o% t(e claiming party- and Jit( notice to t(e de%ending party And proo% o% suc( %ailure* o &enerally- an order o% de%ault can )e made only upon motion o% t(e claiming party* ;ut see +antos v P16C $2 @'- w(ere even wit(out motion- t(e Court still allowed t(e de%ault )ecause t(e party could not )e %ound anyway* Can t(e court render =udgment wit(out presentation o% evidenceF o >es2 o "(e court s(all proceed to render =udgment granting t(e claimant suc( relie% as t(e pleading may warrant- 41L?++ its discretion re#uires t(e claimant to su)mit evidence* "(e Clerk will receive t(e evidence- i% ever* J(at,s t(e e%%ect o% t(e order o% de%aultF o "(e party in de%ault s(all )e entitled to notice o% su)se#uent proceedings- )ut not take part in t(e trial* $haha, loser% Relie% %rom an order o% de%ault: o De may- at any time- a%ter notice t(ereo% and )e%ore =udgment- %ile a motion 415?R 6A"D to set aside t(e order o% de%ault* o De must properly s(ow t(at (is %ailure to answer was due to: /raud ?A"RI1+IC %raud a(24! Accident Mistake ?9cusa)le negligence $/AM?2' o +tate t(at you (ave a meritorious de%ense- wit(out necessarily given an answer o Also see Repu)lic v +andigan)ayan- 2 E- w(erein t(e +C considered t(e trial court,s granting o% motions $motion to %ile responsive pleading and motion %or ;6P' as (aving t(e
)udg ent, otion for

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,-trinsic fraud is actuall" a su!er groundL 't can #e in(oked in 4 rules. 1otion for ne% trial, !etition for relief fro annul ent of )udg ent, :>. relief fro an order of detault

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same e%%ect o% li%ting t(e order o% de%ault I% =udgment already rendered- t(e de%aulted party (as t(e %ollowing options $Martine. v Repu)lic2 C': o I% =udgment already rendered w(en t(e de%endant discovered t(e de%ault- )ut )e%ore t(e same (as )ecome %inal and e9ecutor- %ile a motion %or 1?J "RIAL $grounds: /AM?' under +ec !- Rule GE o I% de%endant discovered t(e de%ault a%ter t(e =udgment (as )ecome %inal and e9ecutor- %ile a P?"I"I61 /6R R?LI?/ under +ec 2- Rule G@ o Appeal %rom t(e =udgment as contrary to evidence or to law- even i% no petition to set aside t(e order o% de%ault a(s )een presented )y (im* $+ec 2- Rule 4!' &rounds: Plainti%% %ailed to prove t(e material allegations o% t(e complaint- or 5ecision is contrary to law o Certiorari $Rule C<' J(at,s t(e e%%ect o% partial de%aultF o J(en a pleading asserting a claim states a common cause o% action against several de%ending parties- some o% w(om answer and t(e ot(ers %ail to do so- t(e court s(all try t(e case against all upon t(e answers t(us %iled and render =udgment upon t(e evidence presented* "(is doesn,t apply w(en t(e de%enses interposed )y t(ose present are personal* o Dence- in a case versus Mario- Jario- Luigi- and ;owser- wit( ;owser not %iling an answer* Mario- Jario- and Luigi can present evidence* ;owser can not* ;ut ;owser can still win on t(e strengt( o% t(e evidence given )y Mario- Jario- and Luigi* o "(e plainti%% will not )e given t(e c(ance to present evidence e9 parte since t(e ot(er de%endants aren,t in de%ault* J(at a)out t(e relie% to )e awardedF o Jell- it s(all not e9ceed t(e amount or )e di%%erent in kind %rom t(at prayed %or* o "(e court s(ould also not award unli#uidated damages $not supported )y evidence'* o ?ven i% t(e =udge orders more evidence to )e presented- t(e award s(ould still not e9ceed t(e amount prayed %or* $Atty* &uevara' o I% t(e contract states LO in case o' breach, damages !ill amount to P;33,333% M- t(en t(at,s not unli#uidated and t(e =udge can award t(at* J(en are de%aults not allowedF o Action %or legal separation o Action %or annulment or declaration o% nullity o% marriage In t(ese 2 cases- t(e court s(all order t(e prosecuting attorney to investigate w(et(er or not a collusion )etween t(e parties e9ists- and i% t(ere is none- to intervene %or t(e +tate in order to see to it t(at t(e evidence su)mitted is not %a)ricated* o +CAs like certiorari and pro(i)ition- w(erein t(e Court will order t(e respondent to comment ;ut in Interpleader- t(ere can )e de%ault since t(e rules don,t mention anyt(ing a)out it and t(us t(e R6C will apply suppletoritly Dow do you set aside an order o% Las in de%aultM $allowance %or plainti%% to present evidence e9 parte' o /ile an MR or motion to set aside order o% de%ault- also on t(e ground o% /AM?* $+aguid v CA' o 1o need to add t(at you (ave a meritorious de%ense- since you,re already in pre0trial*

RULE 10 AMENDED AND SU==LEMENTAL =LEADINGS Sect !" 1# A1e"+1e"t& " 3e"e,'l# =le'+ "3& 1'. (e '1e"+e+ (. '++ "3 !, &t, ) "3 !ut '" 'lle3't !" !, t%e "'1e !$ '". -',t., !, (. c!,,ect "3 ' 1 &t')e " t%e "'1e !$ ' -',t. !, ' 1 &t')e" !, "'+eAu'te 'lle3't !" !, +e&c, -t !" " '". !t%e, ,e&-ect, &! t%'t t%e 'ctu'l 1e, t& !$ t%e c!"t,!0e,&. 1'. &-ee+ l. (e +ete,1 "e+, * t%!ut ,e3',+ t! tec%" c'l t e&, '"+ " t%e 1!&t e/-e+ t !u& '"+ "e/-e"& 0e 1'""e,#

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J(at is an amended pleadingF "(ey are proper in order to allege %acts w(ic( occurred prior to t(e %iling o% t(e original pleadings)ut w(ic( %or some reason- suc( as oversig(t- inadvertence- or su)se#uent discovery- were not alleged t(erein* $compare wit( supplemental pleadings'
Sec# 2# A1e"+1e"t& '& ' 1'tte, !$ , 3%t# A -',t. 1'. '1e"+ % & -le'+ "3 !"ce '& ' 1'tte, !$ , 3%t 't '". t 1e (e$!,e ' ,e&-!"& 0e -le'+ "3 & &e,0e+ !,, " t%e c'&e !$ ' ,e-l., 't '". t 1e * t% " te" (l0) +'.& '$te, t & &e,0e+#

J(en are amendments a matter o% rig(tF o Anytime )e%ore t(e responsive pleading is served- or o In t(e case o% a reply- at any time wit(in ! days a%ter it is served* >ou can only amend as a matter o% rig(t once* Any su)se#uent amendments a%ter t(at needs leave o% court* All you need is a 16"IC? to amend* >ou can amend )ot( in %orm or su)stance* 5oes t(is mean you can amend your answerF o >es* "(e law says Lpleading*M o >ou can amend your answer anytime )e%ore t(e reply is served upon you* A%ter a motion to dismiss (as )een served on you- can you %ile an amendment o% your complaint as a matter o% rig(tF o >es- as a matter o% rig(t* A motion to dismiss is not a responsive pleading* o "(e plainti%% may %ile an amended complaint even a%ter t(e original complaint was ordered dismissed i% t(e order is not yet %inal and t(e amendment is )e%ore t(e answer* J(en s(ould you %ile your response to an amended complaintF o I% it was done as a matter o% rig(t- !< days a%ter )eing served wit( a copy t(ereo%* o I% it was not done as a matter o% rig(t- ! days %rom notice o% t(e order admitting t(e same* An answer earlier %iled may serve as t(e answer to t(e amended complaint i% no new answer is %iled* $1o de%ault, nag'ile ka na sa unang complaint eh2' $Rule !!- +ec G' o Dowever- new material allegations in t(e amended complaint w(ic( are not speci%ically denied are deemed admitted* $So sumagot ka"

Sec# 2# A1e"+1e"t& (. le'0e !$ c!u,t# E/ce-t '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e "e/t -,ece+ "3 &ect !", &u(&t'"t 'l '1e"+1e"t& 1'. (e 1'+e !"l. u-!" le'0e !$ c!u,t# 4ut &uc% le'0e 1'. (e ,e$u&e+ $ t '--e',& t! t%e c!u,t t%'t t%e 1!t !" *'& 1'+e * t% "te"t t! +el'.# O,+e,& !$ t%e c!u,t u-!" t%e 1'tte,& -,!0 +e+ " t% & &ect !" &%'ll (e 1'+e u-!" 1!t !" $ le+ " c!u,t, '"+ '$te, "!t ce t! t%e '+0e,&e -',t., '"+ '" !--!,tu" t. t! (e %e',+#

J(at is a su)stantial amendmentF o It modi%ies or alters t(e cause o% action or de%enses* Can you amend your cause o% action or de%enseF >es2 4sing t(is section* It s(ould )e done wit( leave o% court* J(en do you need leave o% court w(en amendingF o A%ter t(e service o% t(e responsive pleading A plainti%% cannot- a%ter de%endant,s answer- amend (is complaint )y c(anging t(e cause o% action or adding a new one wit(out previously o)taining leave o% court* Can an answer containing a general denial )e amended as to contain a speci%ic denialF o >es- it may )e wit(drawn wit( leave o% court i% t(ere is a =usti%ia)le reason t(ere%ore and i% t(e interests o% =ustice so re#uire $Rule @- +ec !!'* May a complaint stating no cause o% action )e cured )y an amendmentF o Atty "ran#uil said no* o /eria said yes* I% in %act- a cause o% action e9ists )ut t(e statement t(ereo% is de%ective %or %ailure to allege essential %acts and a motion to dismiss was %iled on t(e ground t(at it stated no cause o% action- t(e complaint may )e amended* J(at i% t(ere was no motion to dismissF o "(e de%ect may )e cured at t(e trial on t(e merits )y t(e presentation o% evidence* o I% no o)=ection was made- amendment is not necessary and may )e made at any timeeven a%ter =udgment* o I% o)=ected- t(e court may allow t(e complaint to )e amended and t(e evidence may )e

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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admitted* ;ut remem)er t(at t(e cause o% action must e9ist at t(e time t(e action was )egun* "(e plainti%% will not )e allowed )y an amendment to introduce a cause o% action w(ic( (ad not e9istence w(en t(e action was commenced* Dow does amendment relate to t(e statue o% limitationsF o A new cause o% action included in an amended complaint does not relate )ack to t(e date o% t(e %iling o% t(e original complaint under t(e statute o% limitations* ;ut i% it merely supplements t(e original complaint wit(out stating a new cause o% action- it relates )ack to t(e date o t(e %iling o% t(e original complaint* As we can see- t(e reckoning point is t(e %iling o% a responsive pleading* o ;e%ore responsive pleading: matter o% rig(t o A%ter responsive pleading: discretionary In criminal cases- t(e reckoning point is t(e plea* o ;e%ore plea: you can amend )ot( in %orm and in su)stance* o A%ter plea: only as to matters o% %orm- as long as it will not pre=udice t(e rig(ts o% t(e accused* "est: i% t(e original de%ense o% t(e accused will c(ange* Remem)er t(e implication o% amendments to docket %ees: i% t(e docket %ees were already paid %or t(e original pleading- t(e any increases in t(e new %ees )ecause o% t(e amendment will serve as a lien on t(e =udgment* $t(is presupposes t(at t(e original %ees were paid %or t(e original pleadingt(us giving t(e court =urisdiction over t(e case K PA&C6R v Lope.- 2 <' +u)stituting an actiona)le document w(ic( is appended to t(e complaint is akin to an amendment and must t(ere%ore )e done wit( leave o% court i% answer (as already )een served on t(e plainti%%* $"iu v P;C6M- 2 8' Amendments to pleadings are generally %avored and s(ould )e li)erally allowed in %urt(erance o% =ustice- unless t(ere are circumstances suc( as ine9cusa)le delay or )y taking t(e adverse party )y surprise w(ic( mig(t =usti%y a re%usal o% permission to amend* $"iu v P;C6M' o

Sec# 6# F!,1'l '1e"+1e"t&# A +e$ect " t%e +e& 3"'t !" !$ t%e -',t e& '"+ !t%e, cle',l. cle, c'l !, t.-!3,'-% c'l e,,!,& 1'. (e &u11', l. c!,,ecte+ (. t%e c!u,t 't '". &t'3e !$ t%e 'ct !", 't t& " t 't 0e !, !" 1!t !", -,!0 +e+ "! -,e5u+ ce & c'u&e+ t%e,e(. t! t%e '+0e,&e -',t.#

J(at a)out %ormal amendmentsF J(en can you do t(oseF o At any stage- upon motion o% t(e party or t(e court motu proprio

Sec# 8# A1e"+1e"t t! c!"$!,1 t! !, 'ut%!, 7e -,e&e"t't !" !$ e0 +e"ce# <%e" &&ue& "!t ,' &e+ (. t%e -le'+ "3& ',e t, e+ * t% t%e e/-,e&& !, 1-l e+ c!"&e"t !$ t%e -',t e&, t%e. &%'ll (e t,e'te+ " 'll ,e&-ect& '& $ t%e. %'+ (ee" ,' &e+ " t%e -le'+ "3&# Suc% '1e"+1e"t !$ t%e -le'+ "3& '& 1'. (e "ece&&',. t! c'u&e t%e1 t! c!"$!,1 t! t%e e0 +e"ce '"+ t! ,' &e t%e&e &&ue& 1'. (e 1'+e u-!" 1!t !" !$ '". -',t. 't '". t 1e, e0e" '$te, 5u+31e"t: (ut $' lu,e t! '1e"+ +!e& "!t '$$ect t%e ,e&ult !$ t%e t, 'l !$ t%e&e &&ue&# I$ e0 +e"ce & !(5ecte+ t! 't t%e t, 'l !" t%e 3,!u"+ t%'t t & "!t * t% " t%e &&ue& 1'+e (. t%e -le'+ "3&, t%e c!u,t 1'. 'll!* t%e -le'+ "3& t! (e '1e"+e+ '"+ &%'ll +! &! * t% l (e,'l t. $ t%e -,e&e"t't !" !$ t%e 1e, t& !$ t%e 'ct !" '"+ t%e e"+& !$ &u(&t'"t 'l 5u&t ce * ll (e &u(&e,0e+ t%e,e(.# T%e c!u,t 1'. 3,'"t ' c!"t "u'"ce t! e"'(le t%e '1e"+1e"t t! (e 1'+e#

"(is rule covers t(e situation w(erein w(at was alleged was di%%erent %rom w(at was proven* $claim: P< - proved: P!-2G * ' "(is rule allows t(e %ollowing: $/eria' o A complaint w(ic( states no cause o% action to )e cured eit(er )y evidence presented wit(out o)=ection- or in t(e event o% an o)=ection sustained )y t(e court- )y an amendment o% t(e complaint wit( leave o% court* ;ut i% t(ere is no cause o% action in t(e %irst place $compared to t(e %ailure to state a cause o% action'- t(en no amendment can cure t(is* o Admission o% evidence on a de%ense not raised in a motion to dismiss or an answer i% 1o o)=ection is made- or In t(e event t(at t(ere was an o)=ection- t(e amendment o% t(e answer in order to raise suc( de%ense*

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"(ere are two kinds o% amendments to con%orm to evidence: o /irst: no o)=ection on t(e part o% t(e ot(er party* As suc(- it will )e allowed even a%ter =udgment* "(is talks a)out a situation w(ere a party presents evidence and no one o)=ectseit(er e9pressly or impliedly* 9o! can one not ob#ect impliedly& o ;y cross0e9amining o ;y providing evidence in contra* In instances suc( as t(ese- t(e court will render =udgment and will =ust order t(e amendment so t(at t(e complaint will con%orm wit( t(e evidence presented and t(e =udgment rendered* o +econd: i% t(e ot(er party o)=ects- t(e amendment is le%t to t(e sound discretion o% t(e court* "(e court will s(all allow t(e pleadings to )e amended w(en t(e presentation o% t(e merits o% t(e action will )e su)served t(ere)y and t(e admission o% suc( evidence would not pre=udice t(e o)=ecting party in maintaining (is action or de%ense upon t(e merits* A%ter t(e amendment- t(e evidence o)=ected to may )e presented* "(is was seen in *sean Paci'ic Planners v )ity o' 0rdaneta, 2 @* &enio #uestion: J(en can t(e court order an amendment even wit(out motionIapplication to amendF o I% it,s a merely %ormal amendment* $typo2' o /or )ill o% particulars- t(e court can eit(er order compliance 6R an amendment o Motion to dismiss- t(e court can eit(er grant- deny- or order an amendment o In criminal case- in a motion to #uas(- t(e court can grant- deny or order an amendment*

Sec# 9# Su--le1e"t'l -le'+ "3&# U-!" 1!t !" !$ ' -',t. t%e c!u,t 1'., u-!" ,e'&!"'(le "!t ce '"+ u-!" &uc% te,1& '& ',e 5u&t, -e,1 t % 1 t! &e,0e ' &u--le1e"t'l -le'+ "3 &ett "3 $!,t% t,'"&'ct !"&, !ccu,,e"ce& !, e0e"t& *% c% %'0e %'--e"e+ & "ce t%e +'te !$ t%e -le'+ "3 &!u3%t t! (e &u--le1e"te+# T%e '+0e,&e -',t. 1'. -le'+ t%e,et! * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e !,+e, '+1 tt "3 t%e &u--le1e"t'l -le'+ "3#

J(at is a supplemental pleadingF o "(ey are proper in order to allege %acts w(ic( occurred a'ter t(e %iling o% t(e original pleadings* o "(ey are %iled pursuant to new transactions- occurrences or events $"6?' t(at (ave arisen a%ter t(e %iling o% t(e original pleadings* o 6% course- t(e original complaint must (ave a valid and su)sisting cause o% action to )egin wit(* Are supplemental pleadings ne! complaintsF o 1o* "(is means t(at supplemental complaints do not supersede t(e original complaints* $+ee Rule ! - +ec @' 5o you need leave o% courtF o >es* Can t(ey )e amendedF o >es- wit( leave o% court* $Atty* &uevara' J(en s(ould a response to a supplemental pleading )e madeF o Jit(in ! days- unless t(e Court gives a di%%erent period* $Rule !!- +ec E' "ake note t(at codal states LpleadingM so t(ere can )e a supplemental complaint- answer- replypetition* &R: /ile a supplemental pleading as long as t(ere are new transactions- occurrences- or events t(at occur a%ter t(e %iling o% t(e %irst pleading* o ?AC?P": in t(e +upreme Court* "(e +upreme Court will not accept stu%% unless t(ey ask %or it* Amendments 6mission o% a %act t(at (appened )e%ore +upplements "6? (appened only %ter %iling

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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%ilingQ it was t(ere at t(e time o% t(e pleading May )e %iled wit(out leave o% court $i% )e%ore responsive pleading'

Always wit( leave o% court

Sec# 7# F l "3 !$ '1e"+e+ -le'+ "3&# <%e" '". -le'+ "3 & '1e"+e+, ' "e* c!-. !$ t%e e"t ,e -le'+ "3, "c!,-!,'t "3 t%e '1e"+1e"t&, *% c% &%'ll (e "+ c'te+ (. '--,!-, 'te 1',)&, &%'ll (e $ le+#

Dow s(ould an amended pleading )e %iledF o Jit( a new copy o% t(e entire pleading w(ic( incorporates and indicates t(e amendments wit( appropriate marks +(ould t(e amended complaint )e served on t(e de%endantF o >es* $Page G<!- /eria'

Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ '1e"+e+ -le'+ "3&# A" '1e"+e+ -le'+ "3 &u-e,&e+e& t%e -le'+ "3 t%'t t '1e"+&# @!*e0e,, '+1 && !"& " &u-e,&e+e+ -le'+ "3& 1'. (e ,ece 0e+ " e0 +e"ce '3' "&t t%e -le'+e,: '"+ cl' 1& !, +e$e"&e& 'lle3e+ t%e,e " "!t "c!,-!,'te+ " t%e '1e"+e+ -le'+ "3 &%'ll (e +ee1e+ *' 0e+#

J(at is t(e e%%ect o% an amended pleadingF o It supersedes t(e pleading t(at it amends* J(at a)out t(e admissions in superseded pleadingsF o "(ey may )e received in evidence against t(e pleader* J(at a)out t(e claims or de%enses alleged in t(e superseded pleadingsF o I% t(ey are not incorporated in t(e amended pleading- t(ey s(all )e deemed waived*

RULE 11 <@EN TO FILE RES=ONSI>E =LEADINGS Sect !" 1# A"&*e, t! t%e c!1-l' "t# T%e +e$e"+'"t &%'ll $ le % & '"&*e, t! t%e c!1-l' "t * t% " $ $tee" (l8) +'.& '$te, &e,0 ce !$ &u11!"&, u"le&& ' + $$e,e"t -e, !+ & $ /e+ (. t%e c!u,t#

6rdinary service o% summons ?9traterritorial service +ummons )y pu)lication

Jit(in !< days At least C days a%ter notice At least C days a%ter date o% t(e last pu)lication

Sec# 2# A"&*e, !$ ' +e$e"+'"t $!,e 3" -, 0'te 5u, + c'l e"t t.# <%e,e t%e +e$e"+'"t & ' $!,e 3" -, 0'te 5u, + c'l e"t t. '"+ &e,0 ce !$ &u11!"& & 1'+e !" t%e 3!0e,"1e"t !$$ c 'l +e& 3"'te+ (. l'* t! ,ece 0e t%e &'1e, t%e '"&*e, &%'ll (e $ le+ * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& '$te, ,ece -t !$ &u11!"& (. &uc% e"t t.#

J(ere de%endant is a %oreign private =uridical entity and service: made on its resident agent Jit(in !< days designate in accordance wit( law %or t(at purpose made on t(e government o%%icial Jit(in G days a%ter receipt designated )y law to receive t(e o% summons )y suc( entity same $Rule !!- +ec 2' I% sent to t(e government o%%icial- t(e counting only starts a'ter receipt o% summons )y suc( entity +ervice o% summons to t(e designated government o%%icial s(ould )e made only in t(e a)sence o% a designated resident agent
Sec# 2# A"&*e, t! '1e"+e+ c!1-l' "t# <%e,e t%e -l' "t $$ $ le& '" '1e"+e+ c!1-l' "t '& ' 1'tte, !$ , 3%t, t%e +e$e"+'"t &%'ll '"&*e, t%e &'1e * t% " $ $tee" (l8) +'.& '$te, (e "3 &e,0e+ * t% ' c!-. t%e,e!$# <%e,e t& $ l "3 & "!t ' 1'tte, !$ , 3%t, t%e +e$e"+'"t &%'ll '"&*e, t%e '1e"+e+ c!1-l' "t * t% " te" Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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(10) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e !,+e, '+1 tt "3 t%e &'1e# A" '"&*e, e',l e, $ le+ 1'. &e,0e '& t%e '"&*e, t! t%e '1e"+e+ c!1-l' "t $ "! "e* '"&*e, & $ le+# T% & Rule &%'ll '--l. t! t%e '"&*e, t! '" '1e"+e+ c!u"te,cl' 1, '1e"+e+ c,!&&-cl' 1, '1e"+e+ t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#) -',t. c!1-l' "t, '"+ '1e"+e+ c!1-l' "t- "- "te,0e"t !"#

In response to an amended complaint $Rule !!- +ec G' I% amendment a matter o% rig(t I% amendment not a matter o% rig(t

Jit(in !< days Jit(in ! days %rom notice o% t(e order admitting t(e same Please see comments o% Rule ! - +ec 2*

Sec# 6# A"&*e, t! c!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1# A c!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1 1u&t (e '"&*e,e+ * t% " te" (l0) +'.& $,!1 &e,0 ce#

In response to a counterclaim and cross0claim

Jit(in ! days %rom service

Sec# 8# A"&*e, t! t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#)- -',t. c!1-l' "t# T%e t 1e t! '"&*e, ' t% ,+ ($!u,t%, etc#)- -',t. c!1-l' "t &%'ll (e 3!0e,"e+ (. t%e &'1e ,ule '& t%e '"&*e, t! t%e c!1-l' "t#

In response to a t(ird0party complaint $Rule !!- +ec <'

Jit(in !< days

Sec# 9# Re-l.# A ,e-l. 1'. (e $ le+ * t% " te" (l0) +'.& $,!1 &e,0 ce !$ t%e -le'+ "3 ,e&-!"+e+ t!#

Response to an answer I% in response to a amended or supplemental answer

Jit(in ! days %rom service Jit(in ! days %rom notice o% order

Sec# 7# A"&*e, t! &u--le1e"t'l c!1-l' "t# A &u--le1e"t'l c!1-l' "t 1'. (e '"&*e,e+ * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e !,+e, '+1 tt "3 t%e &'1e, u"le&& ' + $$e,e"t -e, !+ & $ /e+ (. t%e c!u,t# T%e '"&*e, t! t%e c!1-l' "t &%'ll &e,0e '& t%e '"&*e, t! t%e &u--le1e"t'l c!1-l' "t $ "! "e* !, &u--le1e"t'l '"&*e, & $ le+#

In response to a supplemental complaint $Rule !!- +ec E'

Jit(in ! days %rom notice o% t(e order admitting t(e same- unless a di%%erent period is %i9ed )y t(e court

Sec# 8# E/ &t "3 c!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1# A c!1-ul&!,. c!u"te,cl' 1 !, ' c,!&&-cl' 1 t%'t ' +e$e"+ "3 -',t. %'& 't t%e t 1e %e $ le& % & '"&*e, &%'ll (e c!"t' "e+ t%e,e "#

An e9isting compulsory counterclaim or cross0claim s(ould )e included in t(e answer* I% not- it s(all )e )arred unless wit( leave o% court- it is set up in an amended answer )e%ore =udgment*

Sec# B# C!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1 ', & "3 '$te, '"&*e,# A c!u"te,cl' 1 !, ' c,!&&-cl' 1 *% c% e t%e, 1'tu,e+ !, *'& 'cAu ,e+ (. ' -',t. '$te, &e,0 "3 % & -le'+ "3 1'., * t% t%e -e,1 && !" !$ t%e c!u,t, (e -,e&e"te+ '& ' c!u"te,cl' 1 !, ' c,!&&-cl' 1 (. &u--le1e"t'l -le'+ "3 (e$!,e 5u+31e"t#

"(is is an instance o% a supplemental answer* It must )e done wit( leave o% court and )e%ore =udgment*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 10# O1 tte+ c!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1# <%e" ' -le'+e, $' l& t! &et u- ' c!u"te,cl' 1 !, ' c,!&&-cl' 1 t%,!u3% !0e,& 3%t, "'+0e,te"ce, !, e/cu&'(le "e3lect, !, *%e" 5u&t ce ,eAu ,e&, %e 1'., (. le'0e !$ c!u,t, &et u- t%e c!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1 (. '1e"+1e"t (e$!,e 5u+31e"t#

"(is is an instance o% an amended answer* It must )e done wit( leave o% court and )e%ore =udgment*

Sec# 11# E/te"& !" !$ t 1e t! -le'+# U-!" 1!t !" '"+ !" &uc% te,1& '& 1'. (e 5u&t, t%e c!u,t 1'. e/te"+ t%e t 1e t! -le'+ -,!0 +e+ " t%e&e Rule&# T%e c!u,t 1'. 'l&!, u-!" l )e te,1&, 'll!* '" '"&*e, !, !t%e, -le'+ "3 t! (e $ le+ '$te, t%e t 1e $ /e+ (. t%e&e Rule&#

J(en s(ould a motion %or e9tension o% t(e time to plead )e %iledF o ;e%ore t(e e9piration o% t(e time soug(t to )e e9tended* J(at i% t(e last day o% t(e period %or %iling a pleading %alls on a weekend or legal (olidayF o >ou %ile it on t(e ne9t working day* ;4" Any e9tension o% time to %ile t(e same s(ould )e counted %rom t(e e9piration o% t(e period regardless o% t(e %act t(at said due date is a +aturday- +unday or legal (oliday* J(at i% you weren,t a)le to %ile your pleading on timeF o /ile a motion %or leave to %ile a pleading or motion- along wit( t(e pleading or motion soug(t to )e admitted* $Rule !<- +ec 8'

RULE 12 4ILL OF =ARTICULARS Sect !" 1# <%e" '--l e+ $!,: -u,-!&e# 4e$!,e ,e&-!"+ "3 t! ' -le'+ "3, ' -',t. 1'. 1!0e $!, ' +e$ " te &t'te1e"t !, $!, ' ( ll !$ -',t cul',& !$ '". 1'tte, *% c% & "!t '0e,,e+ * t% &u$$ c e"t +e$ " te"e&& !, -',t cul', t. t! e"'(le % 1 -,!-e,l. t! -,e-',e % & ,e&-!"& 0e -le'+ "3# I$ t%e -le'+ "3 & ' ,e-l., t%e 1!t !" 1u&t (e $ le+ * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 &e,0 ce t%e,e!$# Suc% 1!t !" &%'ll -! "t !ut t%e +e$ect& c!1-l' "e+ !$, t%e -','3,'-%& *%e,e " t%e. ',e c!"t' "e+, '"+ t%e +et' l& +e& ,e+#

J(y do you apply %or a )ill o% particularsF o "o prepare properly %or one,s responsive pleading w(en t(e ot(er party (as not averred wit( su%%icient de%initeness or particularity any matter* o >ou only move %or a )ill o% particulars w(en w(at,s am)iguous are t(e material allegationsIessential acts or omissions o "(e matters soug(t to )e o)tained s(ould )e t(e ultimate %acts J(en s(ould you move %or oneF o ;e%ore responding to a pleading $eit(er a complaint or an answer' o I% t(e )ill o% particulars is to clari%y a reply- ! days %rom service t(ereo%* A motion %or )ill o% particulars )ecomes moot and academic w(ere- prior to its %iling- t(e de%endant (as already %iled (is answer and several ot(er pleadings* $;aritua v Mercader' J(at s(ould it point outF o "(e de%ects complained o%- and o "(e paragrap(s w(erein t(ey are contained- and o "(e details desired* ;asically- I5?1"I/> t(e de%ects and I15ICA"? t(e details re#uired ;ut i% alleged is %raud or de%ect- don,t go %or a ;ill o% Particulars- =ust answer it* Tinuruan mo pa yung kalaban" K Atty* "ran#uil &olden nugget o% knowledge: A ;ill o% Particulars is also availa)le in criminal cases* $Rule !!C+ection 8'* C(icken nugget o% knowledge: A ;6P is 16" availa)le in Intra0Corporate Controversies* It is a pro(i)ited pleading* $Reyes v R"C o% Makati- 2 @- w(erein a ;6P %iled to speci%y %raudulent acts was not granted' 7norr nugget o% knowledge: In cases %or t(e recovery o% ill0gotten wealt(- a motion %or ;6P- not a M"5' is a remedy %or t(e perceived vagueness or am)iguities in t(e complaints* $Repu)lic v +andigan)ayan- 2 E- w(ere allegations like Lin %lagrant )reac( o% pu)lic trust-M Lun=ust

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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enric(ment-M Lem)arked upon a systematic plan to accumulate ill0gotten wealt(-M etc were cited as am)iguous*'
Sec# 2# Act !" (. t%e c!u,t# U-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e 1!t !", t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t 1u&t 11e+ 'tel. (, "3 t t! t%e 'tte"t !" !$ t%e c!u,t *% c% 1'. e t%e, +e". !, 3,'"t t !ut, 3%t, !, 'll!* t%e -',t e& t%e !--!,tu" t. t! (e %e',+#

"(e court can actually deny or grant t(e ;ill o% Particulars 64"RI&D"*

Sec# 2# C!1-l '"ce * t% !,+e,# I$ t%e 1!t !" & 3,'"te+, e t%e, " *%!le !, " -',t, t%e c!1-l '"ce t%e,e* t% 1u&t (e e$$ecte+ * t% " te" (l0) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e !,+e,, u"le&& ' + $$e,e"t -e, !+ & $ /e+ (. t%e c!u,t# T%e ( ll !$ -',t cul',& !, ' 1!,e +e$ " te &t'te1e"t !,+e,e+ (. t%e c!u,t 1'. (e $ le+ e t%e, " ' &e-','te !, " '" '1e"+e+ -le'+ "3, &e,0 "3 ' c!-. t%e,e!$ !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t.#

I% t(e motion is granted- w(en s(ould it )e complied wit(F o "(e adverse party must comply wit(in ! days %rom notice o% order* 4nless t(e court orders ot(erwise* Dow do you %ile t(e )ill o% particularsF o It can )e %iled eit(er in: +eparate pleading- or In an amended pleading*

Sec# 6# E$$ect !$ "!"-c!1-l '"ce# I$ t%e !,+e, & "!t !(e.e+, !, " c'&e !$ "&u$$ c e"t c!1-l '"ce t%e,e* t%, t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, t%e &t, ) "3 !ut !$ t%e -le'+ "3 !, t%e -!,t !"& t%e,e!$ t! *% c% t%e !,+e, *'& + ,ecte+ !, 1')e &uc% !t%e, !,+e, '& t +ee1& 5u&t#

J(at i% t(e order is not o)eyedF o "(e court may order t(e striking out o% t(e pleading or t(e portions t(ereo%* o 5ismiss t(e case )ased on non0compliance wit( a court order* $Rule !E- +ec G'

Sec# 8# St'. !$ -e, !+ t! $ le ,e&-!"& 0e -le'+ "3# A$te, &e,0 ce !$ t%e ( ll !$ -',t cul',& !, !$ ' 1!,e +e$ " te -le'+ "3, !, '$te, "!t ce !$ +e" 'l !$ % & 1!t !", t%e 1!0 "3 -',t. 1'. $ le % & ,e&-!"& 0e -le'+ "3 * t% " t%e -e, !+ t! *% c% %e *'& e"t tle+ 't t%e t 1e !$ $ l "3 % & 1!t !", *% c% &%'ll "!t (e le&& t%'" $ 0e (8) +'.& " '". e0e"t#

A%ter service o% t(e )ill o% particularsor a%ter notice o% denial o% one,s motion %or a )ill o% particulars $Rule !2- +ec <'

Jit(in t(e period remaining to w(ic( (e was entitled at t(e time o% %iling (is motionw(ic( s(all not )e less t(an < days in any event- counted %rom t(e service o% t(e )ill o% particulars or amended pleading "(e %iling o% a motion o% a )ill o% particulars suspends t(e running o% t(e period to %ile an answer or a motion to dismiss* It is resumed upon t(e amended complaint )eing %iled in compliance wit( t(e court,s order granting t(e motion %or a )ill o% particulars or w(en t(e movant is noti%ied o% t(e )ill,s denial* o I% t(e party %ails to %ile an answer in t(e time remaining- (e will )e declared in de%ault*

Sec# 9# 4 ll ' -',t !$ -le'+ "3# A ( ll !$ -',t cul',& (ec!1e& -',t !$ t%e -le'+ "3 $!, *% c% t & "te"+e+# RULE 12 FILING AND SER>ICE OF =LEADINGS, JUDGMENTS AND OT@ER =A=ERS Sect !" 1# C!0e,'3e# T% & Rule &%'ll 3!0e," t%e $ l "3 !$ 'll -le'+ "3& '"+ !t%e, -'-e,&, '& *ell '& t%e &e,0 ce t%e,e!$, e/ce-t t%!&e $!, *% c% ' + $$e,e"t 1!+e !$ &e,0 ce & -,e&c, (e+# Sec# 2# F l "3 '"+ &e,0 ce, +e$ "e+# F l "3 & t%e 'ct !$ -,e&e"t "3 t%e -le'+ "3 !, !t%e, -'-e, t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Se,0 ce & t%e 'ct !$ -,!0 + "3 ' -',t. * t% ' c!-. !$ t%e -le'+ "3 !, -'-e, c!"ce,"e+# I$ '". -',t. %'& '--e',e+ (. c!u"&el, &e,0 ce u-!" % 1 &%'ll (e 1'+e u-!" % & c!u"&el !, !"e !$ t%e1, u"le&& &e,0 ce u-!" t%e -',t. % 1&el$ & !,+e,e+ (. t%e c!u,t# <%e,e !"e c!u"&el '--e',& $!, &e0e,'l -',t e&, %e &%'ll !"l. (e e"t tle+ t! !"e c!-. !$ '". -'-e, &e,0e+ u-!" % 1 (. t%e !--!& te & +e#

J(at is %ilingF o It,s t(e act o% presenting t(e pleading or ot(er paper to t(e clerk o% court* J(at a)out serviceF o It,s t(e act o% providing a party wit( a copy o% t(e pleading or paper concerned* J(at i% a party (as appeared )y counselF o &R: +ervice upon t(e party s(all )e made upon (is counsel or one o% t(em 41L?++ service upon t(e party (imsel% is ordered )y t(e court* J(en will t(e court order service upon t(e partyF o J(en t(e attorney o% record cannot )e located eit(er )ecause (e gave no address or c(anged (is given address o An order to s(ow cause w(y a party s(ould not )e punis(ed %or contempt %or diso)eying a special =udgment* J(at i% t(ere are two attorneysF o "(e rule is t(at t(e notice o% (earing may )e made eit(er upon )ot( attorneys or upon one o% t(em- regardless o% w(et(er t(ey )elong to t(e same law %irm or are practicing one independently o% t(e ot(er*

Sec# 2# M'""e, !$ $ l "3# T%e $ l "3 !$ -le'+ "3&, '--e','"ce&, 1!t !"&, "!t ce&, !,+e,&, 5u+31e"t& '"+ 'll !t%e, -'-e,& &%'ll (e 1'+e (. -,e&e"t "3 t%e !, 3 "'l c!- e& t%e,e!$, -l' "l. "+ c'te+ '& &uc%, -e,&!"'ll. t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !, (. &e"+ "3 t%e1 (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l# I" t%e $ ,&t c'&e, t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t &%'ll e"+!,&e !" t%e -le'+ "3 t%e +'te '"+ %!u, !$ $ l "3# I" t%e &ec!"+ c'&e, t%e +'te !$ t%e 1' l "3 !$ 1!t !"&, -le'+ "3&, !, '". !t%e, -'-e,& !, -'.1e"t& !, +e-!& t&, '& &%!*" (. t%e -!&t !$$ ce &t'1- !" t%e e"0el!-e !, t%e ,e3 &t,. ,ece -t, &%'ll (e c!"& +e,e+ '& t%e +'te !$ t%e , $ l "3, -'.1e"t, !, +e-!& t " c!u,t# T%e e"0el!-e &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e c'&e#

J(at are t(e two ways o% %ilingF o Personally (anding it to t(e clerk o% court "(e clerk o% court s(all endorse in t(e pleading t(e date and (our o% %iling* +tamped- dated and signed )y t(e clerk o% court* Proo%: i% t(e pleading is %ound in t(e records o% t(e courtQ I% it does not appear- present t(e received copy $see +ec !2' o ;y registered mail "(e date o% t(e mailing as s(own )y t(e post o%%ice stamp on t(e envelope or t(e registry receipt s(all )e considered as t(e date o% t(eir %iling- payment- or deposit in court Proo%: $see +ec !2' Registry receipt A%%idavit o% t(e person mailing Return card J(at i% I (ad my papers sent )y a private courierF o In suc( cases- t(e actual receipt )y t(e clerk o% court- and not t(e private courier is t(e date counted %or %iling* 1o %iling )y ordinary mail* o ;ecause t(ere is no way t(e court can %ind out w(en you %iled it* 16"?: ;ut t(ere can )e service )y ordinary mail*

Sec# 6# ='-e,& ,eAu ,e+ t! (e $ le+ '"+ &e,0e+# E0e,. 5u+31e"t, ,e&!lut !", !,+e,, -le'+ "3 &u(&eAue"t t! t%e c!1-l' "t, *, tte" 1!t !", "!t ce, '--e','"ce, +e1'"+, !$$e, !$ 5u+31e"t !, & 1 l', -'-e,& &%'ll (e $ le+ * t% t%e c!u,t, '"+ &e,0e+ u-!" t%e -',t e& '$$ecte+#

J(at (as to )e %iled and served: o ?very 3udgment Resolution

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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J(at o o o

6rder Pleading su)se#uent ot t(e complaint Jritten motion 1otice Appearance 5emand 6%%er o% =udgment +imilar papers constitutes promulgationF "(e act o% %iling t(e =udgment- resolution and order o% t(e court constitutes rendition or promulgation t(ereo%* "(ey s(ould %irst )e %iled wit( t(e clerk o% court )e%ore t(ey are served upon t(e parties* In t(e case o% pleadings su)se#uent to t(e original compliant and written motions- t(ey s(ould %irst )e served on t(e parties )e%ore t(ey are %iled wit( t(e court*

Service
Sec# 8# M!+e& !$ &e,0 ce# Se,0 ce !$ -le'+ "3&, 1!t !"&, "!t ce&, !,+e,&, 5u+31e"t& '"+ !t%e, -'-e,& &%'ll (e 1'+e e t%e, -e,&!"'ll. !, (. 1' l#

Dow do you serve pleadings- motions- notices- orders- =udgments and ot(er papersF o Personally o ;y registered mail o ;y ordinary mail o Pu)lication or su)stitute service $)ut depends i% papers )y parties or papers emanating %rom t(e court' Dow is t(is di%%erent %rom service o% summonsF o +ervice o% summon is necessary in order t(at t(e court may ac#uire =urisdiction over t(e person o% t(e de%endant* o 6nce t(e court (as ac#uired suc( =urisdiction eit(er )y service o% summons or voluntary appearance- t(e de%endant may )e served copies o% t(e pleadings- eit(er personally or )y mail*

Sec# 9# =e,&!"'l &e,0 ce# Se,0 ce !$ t%e -'-e,& 1'. (e 1'+e (. +el 0e, "3 -e,&!"'ll. ' c!-. t! t%e -',t. !, % & c!u"&el, !, (. le'0 "3 t " % & !$$ ce * t% % & cle,) !, * t% ' -e,&!" %'0 "3 c%',3e t%e,e!$# I$ "! -e,&!" & $!u"+ " % & !$$ ce, !, % & !$$ ce & "!t )"!*", !, %e %'& "! !$$ ce, t%e" (. le'0 "3 t%e c!-., (et*ee" t%e %!u,& !$ e 3%t " t%e 1!," "3 '"+ & / " t%e e0e" "3, 't t%e -',t.D& !, c!u"&elD& ,e& +e"ce, $ )"!*", * t% ' -e,&!" !$ &u$$ c e"t '3e '"+ + &c,et !" t%e" ,e& + "3 t%e,e "#

Dow can papers )e personally servedF o ;y delivering personally a copy to t(e party or (is counsel- or o ;y leaving it in (is o%%ice wit( (is clerk or wit( a person (aving c(arge t(ereo%* o I% no person is %ound in (is o%%ice- or (is o%%ice is not known- t(en )y leaving t(e copy)etween @0C- at t(e party,s or counsel,s residence- i% known- wit( a person o% su%%icient age and discretion residing t(erein* Atty "ran#uil: As long as t(e party is represented )y counsel- service s(ould )e made to t(e counsel o% record- not to t(e party* o Dence- service made to a security guard o% t(e )uilding w(ere t(e law o%%ice is located is not proper service*

Sec# 7# Se,0 ce (. 1' l# Se,0 ce (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l &%'ll (e 1'+e (. +e-!& t "3 t%e c!-. " t%e !$$ ce, " ' &e'le+ e"0el!-e, -l' "l. '++,e&&e+ t! t%e -',t. !, % & c!u"&el 't % & !$$ ce, $ )"!*", !t%e,* &e 't % & ,e& +e"ce, $ )"!*", * t% -!&t'3e $ull. -,e--' +, '"+ * t% "&t,uct !"& t! t%e -!&t1'&te, t! ,etu," t%e 1' l t! t%e &e"+e, '$te, te" (l0) +'.& $ u"+el 0e,e+# I$ "! ,e3 &t,. &e,0 ce & '0' l'(le " t%e l!c'l t. !$ e t%e, t%e &e"+e, !, t%e '++,e&&ee, &e,0 ce 1'. (e +!"e (. !,+ "',. 1' l#

J(at a)out service )y mailF o ;y registered mail 5epositing t(e copy in t(e post o%%ice

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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In a sealed envelope Plainly addressed to t(e party or (is counsel at (is o%%ice- or ot(erwise at (is residence Jit( postage %ully prepaid- and Jit( instructions to t(e postmaster to return t(e mail to t(e sender a%ter ! days i% undelivered* I% no registry service is availa)le in t(e locality o% eit(er t(e sender or t(e addressee- t(en )y ordinary mail*

Sec# 8# Su(&t tute+ &e,0 ce# I$ &e,0 ce !$ -le'+ "3&, 1!t !"&, "!t ce&, ,e&!lut !"&, !,+e,& '"+ !t%e, -'-e,& c'""!t (e 1'+e u"+e, t%e t*! -,ece+ "3 &ect !"&, t%e !$$ ce '"+ -l'ce !$ ,e& +e"ce !$ t%e -',t. !, % & c!u"&el (e "3 u")"!*", &e,0 ce 1'. (e 1'+e (. +el 0e, "3 t%e c!-. t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t, * t% -,!!$ !$ $' lu,e !$ (!t% -e,&!"'l &e,0 ce '"+ &e,0 ce (. 1' l# T%e &e,0 ce & c!1-lete 't t%e t 1e !$ &uc% +el 0e,.#

I% all else %ails- w(at do we do to serve papersF o +u)stituted service to t(e clerk o% court- wit( proo% o% %ailure o% )ot( personal service and service )y mail* "(e service is complete at t(e time o% suc( delivery* o Remem)er: no su)stituted service %or =udgments- %inal orders or resolutions* Can you post an order in a wallF o 1o* "(is (appened in <=0-1:M< v <=0-1:M<=*-*<.- 2 C- w(erein t(e assumption order o% t(e La)or +ec was merely posted in t(e wall* +uc( posting is not prescri)ed )y t(e 1LRC rules or t(e R6C*

Sec# B# Se,0 ce !$ 5u+31e"t&, $ "'l !,+e,& !, ,e&!lut !"&# Ju+31e"t&, $ "'l !,+e,& !, ,e&!lut !"& &%'ll (e &e,0e+ e t%e, -e,&!"'ll. !, (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l# <%e" ' -',t. &u11!"e+ (. -u(l c't !" %'& $' le+ t! '--e', " t%e 'ct !", 5u+31e"t&, $ "'l !,+e,& !, ,e&!lut !"& '3' "&t % 1 &%'ll (e &e,0e+ u-!" % 1 'l&! (. -u(l c't !" 't t%e e/-e"&e !$ t%e -,e0' l "3 -',t.#

Dow do you serve =udgments- %inal orders or resolutionsF o Personally +o t(is includes leaving it in t(e o%%ice wit( t(e lawyer,s clerk or a person (aving c(arge t(ereo% $"opacio v ;anco /ilipino- 2 ! and +ection C' o ;y registered mail o Pu)lication $i% summoned )y pu)lication' +u)poenas do not go under t(is rule* It,s covered )y Rule !G* 3udgment not %inal until validly served* $"opacio v ;anco /ilipino' Compare wit( service o% papers- w(ic( can )e served: o Personally o ;y registered mail o ;y ordinary mail o +u)stituted service

Sec# 10# C!1-lete"e&& !$ &e,0 ce# =e,&!"'l &e,0 ce & c!1-lete u-!" 'ctu'l +el 0e,.# Se,0 ce (. !,+ "',. 1' l & c!1-lete u-!" t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ te" (10) +'.& '$te, 1' l "3, u"le&& t%e c!u,t !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e&# Se,0 ce (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l & c!1-lete u-!" 'ctu'l ,ece -t (. t%e '++,e&&ee, !, '$te, $ 0e (8) +'.& $,!1 t%e +'te %e ,ece 0e+ t%e $ ,&t "!t ce !$ t%e -!&t1'&te,, *% c%e0e, +'te & e',l e,#

J(en is service completedF o I% personal service- upon actual delivery o I% )y ordinary mail- upon t(e e9piration o% ! days a%ter mailing- unless t(e court ot(erwise provides o I% )y registered mail- complete upon actual receipt )y t(e addressee $as seen in t(e registry return card' or a%ter < days %rom t(e date (e received t(e %irst notice o% t(e postmaster $constructive service'- w(ic(ever is earlier* Presupposes t(at t(e addressee (as actually received t(e mail on said date* I% (e didn,t- t(en t(e presumption cannot apply*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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+ervice at t(e old address o% counsel o% record is valid* De did not in%orm t(e court t(at (e moved addresses* $?t(ics case2'

Sec# 11# =, !, t e& " 1!+e& !$ &e,0 ce '"+ $ l "3# <%e"e0e, -,'ct c'(le, t%e &e,0 ce '"+ $ l "3 !$ -le'+ "3& '"+ !t%e, -'-e,& &%'ll (e +!"e -e,&!"'ll.# E/ce-t * t% ,e&-ect t! -'-e,& e1'"'t "3 $,!1 t%e c!u,t, ' ,e&!,t t! !t%e, 1!+e& 1u&t (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. ' *, tte" e/-l'"'t !" *%. t%e &e,0 ce !, $ l "3 *'& "!t +!"e -e,&!"'ll.# A 0 !l't !" !$ t% & Rule 1'. (e c'u&e t! c!"& +e, t%e -'-e, '& "!t $ le+#

&R: In )ot( %iling and service- t(e priority is personal service* o ?AC?P": Papers emanating %rom t(e court $no need %or e9planation' Jit( su%%icient e9planation )y t(e party- i% )y registered mail Important: I% you don,t comply- it,s as i% t(e pleading was not %iled* o +een in 5omingo v CA- 2 ! I% not served or %iled personally- (ow,s t(atF o "(ere must )e a written e9planation w(y t(e service or %iling was not done personally*

Sec# 12# =,!!$ !$ $ l "3# T%e $ l "3 !$ ' -le'+ "3 !, -'-e, &%'ll (e -,!0e+ (. t& e/ &te"ce " t%e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e c'&e# I$ t & "!t " t%e ,ec!,+, (ut & cl' 1e+ t! %'0e (ee" $ le+ -e,&!"'ll., t%e $ l "3 &%'ll (e -,!0e+ (. t%e *, tte" !, &t'1-e+ 'c)"!*le+31e"t !$ t& $ l "3 (. t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !" ' c!-. !$ t%e &'1e: $ $ le+ (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l, (. t%e ,e3 &t,. ,ece -t '"+ (. t%e '$$ +'0 t !$ t%e -e,&!" *%! + + t%e 1' l "3, c!"t' " "3 ' $ull &t'te1e"t !$ t%e +'te '"+ -l'ce !$ +e-!& t "3 t%e 1' l " t%e -!&t !$$ ce " ' &e'le+ e"0el!-e '++,e&&e+ t! t%e c!u,t, * t% -!&t'3e $ull. -,e-' +, '"+ * t% "&t,uct !"& t! t%e -!&t1'&te, t! ,etu," t%e 1' l t! t%e &e"+e, '$te, te" (10) +'.& $ "!t +el 0e,e+#

Dow is %iling provedF o ;y t(e e9istence in t(e record o% t(e caseo I% not- and )y personally- )y t(e written or stamped acknowledgment o% its %iling )y t(e clerk o% court on a copy o% t(e same o I% )y registered mail )y t(e registry receipt and )y t(e a%%idavit o% t(e person w(o did t(e mailing- containing a %ull statement o% t(e important details- and )y t(e return card*

Sec# 12# =,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce# =,!!$ !$ -e,&!"'l &e,0 ce &%'ll c!"& &t !$ ' *, tte" '+1 && !" !$ t%e -',t. &e,0e+, !, t%e !$$ c 'l ,etu," !$ t%e &e,0e,, !, t%e '$$ +'0 t !$ t%e -',t. &e,0 "3, c!"t' " "3 ' $ull &t'te1e"t !$ t%e +'te, -l'ce '"+ 1'""e, !$ &e,0 ce# I$ t%e &e,0 ce & (. !,+ "',. 1' l, -,!!$ t%e,e!$ &%'ll c!"& &t !$ '" '$$ +'0 t !$ t%e -e,&!" 1' l "3 !$ $'ct& &%!* "3 c!1-l '"ce * t% &ect !" 7 !$ t% & Rule# I$ &e,0 ce & 1'+e (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l, -,!!$ &%'ll (e 1'+e (. &uc% '$$ +'0 t '"+ t%e ,e3 &t,. ,ece -t &&ue+ (. t%e 1' l "3 !$$ ce# T%e ,e3 &t,. ,etu," c',+ &%'ll (e $ le+ 11e+ 'tel. u-!" t& ,ece -t (. t%e &e"+e,, !, " l eu t%e,e!$ t%e u"cl' 1e+ lette, t!3et%e, * t% t%e ce,t $ e+ !, &*!," c!-. !$ t%e "!t ce 3 0e" (. t%e -!&t1'&te, t! t%e '++,e&&ee#

Dow is service provedF o I% personal service- t(en )y: Jritten admission o% t(e party served- or A%%idavit o% t(e party serving- or $w(en ot(er party re%uses to accept t(e pleading' "(e o%%icial return o% t(e server- $applies w(en served )y court' containing a %ull statement o% t(e date- place and manner o% service* o I% )y ordinary mail- t(en )y a%%idavit o% t(e person mailing o% %acts s(owing compliance wit( section E o% t(is rule o I% )y registered mail- )y: Registry receipt A%%idavit o% t(e person mailing t(e pleading containing a %ull statement o% t(e dateplace- and manner o% service Return card I% unclaimed- %ile t(e: o Return card

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o "(e unclaimed document o Certi%ication )y t(e post o%%ice I% t(e service is )y registered mail- t(e a%%idavit s(ould )e )y t(e person w(o actually mailed t(e pleading* $Romulo v Peralta- 2 E- w(erein t(e +C said t(ere was improper service )ecause t(e a%%idavit was not )y t(e person w(o actually mailed it- )ut was )y t(e person w(o made utos %or it to )e mailed' 6n t(e registry receipt- t(e receipt must indicate t(at t(e mail is a copy o% t(e pleadingdecision- etc* Actual knowledge o% a decision cannot )e attri)uted to t(e addressee o% a registered matter w(ere t(ere is no s(owing t(at t(e registry notice itsel% contains any indication t(at t(e registered matter is a copy o% t(e decision or t(at t(e registry notice re%ers to t(e case )eing ventilated* $Romulo v Peralta'

Sec# 16# N!t ce !$ l & -e"+e"&# I" '" 'ct !" '$$ect "3 t%e t tle !, t%e , 3%t !$ -!&&e&& !" !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t., t%e -l' "t $$ '"+ t%e +e$e"+'"t, *%e" '$$ ,1't 0e ,el e$ & cl' 1e+ " % & '"&*e,, 1'. ,ec!,+ " t%e !$$ ce !$ t%e ,e3 &t,. !$ +ee+& !$ t%e -,!0 "ce " *% c% t%e -,!-e,t. & & tu'te+ ' "!t ce !$ t%e -e"+e"c. !$ t%e 'ct !"# S' + "!t ce &%'ll c!"t' " t%e "'1e& !$ t%e -',t e& '"+ t%e !(5ect !$ t%e 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e, '"+ ' +e&c, -t !" !$ t%e -,!-e,t. " t%'t -,!0 "ce '$$ecte+ t%e,e(.# O"l. $,!1 t%e t 1e !$ $ l "3 &uc% "!t ce $!, ,ec!,+ &%'ll ' -u,c%'&e,, !, e"cu1(,'"ce, !$ t%e -,!-e,t. '$$ecte+ t%e,e(., (e +ee1e+ t! %'0e c!"&t,uct 0e "!t ce !$ t%e -e"+e"c. !$ t%e 'ct !", '"+ !"l. !$ t& -e"+e"c. '3' "&t t%e -',t e& +e& 3"'te+ (. t%e , ,e'l "'1e&# T%e "!t ce !$ l & -e"+e"& %e,e "'(!0e 1e"t !"e+ 1'. (e c'"celle+ !"l. u-!" !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t, '$te, -,!-e, &%!* "3 t%'t t%e "!t ce & $!, t%e -u,-!&e !$ 1!le&t "3 t%e '+0e,&e -',t., !, t%'t t & "!t "ece&&',. t! -,!tect t%e , 3%t& !$ t%e -',t. *%! c'u&e+ t t! (e ,ec!,+e+#

1otice o% lis pendens can )e annotated: o In an action involving rig(t- title- or interest over real property &R: t(e only instances w(ere a notice o% lis pendens may )e availed o% are as %ollows: o Action to recover possession o% real estate o An action %or =udicial partition o An action to remove clouds t(ereon o An action to #uiet title o Any ot(er court proceedings t(at directly a%%ect t(e title to t(e land or t(e )uilding t(ereon or t(e use or t(e occupation t(ereo% o ?sta)lis( a rig(t to- or an e#uita)le estate or interest in- a speci%ic real property o "o en%orce a lien- a c(arge or an encum)rance against it $Atlantic ?rectors v Der)al Cove2 G and Deirs o% Lope. v ?nri#ue.' Lis pendens (as 16 application in t(e %ollowing cases: o Preliminary attac(ments o Proceedings %or t(e pro)ate o% wills o Levies on e9ecution o Proceedings %or administration o% estate o% deceased persons- and o Proceedings in w(ic( t(e only o)=ect is t(e recovery o% a money =udgment $Deirs o% Lope.' "(e real property must )e 5IR?C"L> a%%ected- not merely incidental $Atlantic ?rectors- w(erein t(e construction company wanted lis pendens in a case w(ere t(ey wanted payment %or t(eir services $sum o% money case'* +C said t(e company was wrong' A notice o% lis pendens concerns litigation )etween a trans%eror and a t(ird party- w(ere t(e trans%eree w(o ac#uires land wit( a notice o% lis pendens annotated on t(e corresponding title stands in t(e s(oes o% (is predecessor and in w(ic( case t(e trans%eree,s title is su)=ect to t(e results o% t(e pending litigation* $:icente v Avera- 2 8- t(e notice annotated in a declaration o% nullity o% marriage did not a%%ect t(e title o% t(e :icente,s w(o were not in any way )ound )y t(e marriage case* Read original- (ard to digest in one sentence*' A notice o% lis pendens is 16" a lien on t(e property su)=ect o% t(e notice* 1o need %or court approval to e%%ect a notice o% lis pendens* o All you need to send is a memorandum or letter- attac(ing t(e complaint- to t(e R5 J(en do you need court approval wit( stu%% involving a notice o% lis pendensF o J(en you intend to cancel t(e notice- on t(e %ollowing grounds:

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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"(e purpose was to molest ot(er party "(ere was no need %or t(e notice to protect t(e rig(ts o% t(e parties w(o caused it o "(e trial court (as t(e in(erent power to cancel a notice o% lis pendens* Important: notice o% lis pendens only applies to =udicial cases- not #uasi0=udical cases* $Deirs o% Lope.' Movants are not entitled to %ile a notice o% lis pendens* $Deirs o% l6pe. v ?nri#ue.' A notice must contain: o A statement o% t(e institution o% an action or proceeding o "(e court w(ere t(e same is pendingo "(e date o% its institution o "(e re%erence to t(e num)er o% t(e certi%ication o% title- description o% t(e land- and registered owner

RULE 16 SUMMONS Sect !" 1# Cle,) t! &&ue &u11!"&# U-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e c!1-l' "t '"+ t%e -'.1e"t !$ t%e ,eAu & te le3'l $ee&, t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t &%'ll $!,t%* t% &&ue t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 &u11!"& t! t%e +e$e"+'"t&#

J(at is a summons anywayF o It,s a mode- writ- process- notice- or warning t(e service o% w(ic( con%ers =urisdiction to t(e court over t(e person o% t(e de%endant* o It is a writ )y w(ic( t(e de%endant is noti%ied o% t(e action )roug(t against (im or (er* $+ansio v Mogol- 2 8' I% t(e de%endant is not summoned or (as not volunatily appeared- =udgment against (im is void* o You(ve been served" .hat up%

Sec# 2# C!"te"t&# T%e &u11!"& &%'ll (e + ,ecte+ t! t%e +e$e"+'"t, & 3"e+ (. t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t u"+e, &e'l, '"+ c!"t' "; (') t%e "'1e !$ t%e c!u,t '"+ t%e "'1e& !$ t%e -',t e& t! t%e 'ct !": (() ' + ,ect !" t%'t t%e +e$e"+'"t '"&*e, * t% " t%e t 1e $ /e+ (. t%e&e Rule&: (c) ' "!t ce t%'t u"le&& t%e +e$e"+'"t &! '"&*e,&, -l' "t $$ * ll t')e 5u+31e"t (. +e$'ult '"+ 1'. (e 3,'"te+ t%e ,el e$ '--l e+ $!,# A c!-. !$ t%e c!1-l' "t '"+ !,+e, $!, '--! "t1e"t !$ 3u',+ '" '+ l te1, $ '"., &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e !, 3 "'l '"+ e'c% c!-. !$ t%e &u11!"&#

J(at does t(e summons containF o "(e name o% t(e court and t(e names o% t(e parties to t(e actionQ o A direction t(at t(e de%endant answer wit(in t(e time %i9ed )y t(ese RulesQ o A notice t(at unless t(e de%endant so answers- plainti%% will take =udgment )y de%ault and may )e granted t(e relie% applied %or* o A copy o% t(e complaint $and order %or appointment o% guardian ad litem- i% any' s(all )e attac(ed to t(e original and eac( copy o% t(e summons J(at i% an additional de%endant is =oinedF o De must )e served wit( summons as i% (e were an original party de%endant* ?9cept: In su)stitution o% an administrator or one,s (eirs to a deceased party $service o% order o% su)stitution is su%%icient' J(en s(ould service o% new summons )e done wit( an amended complaintF o I% a new cause o% action is alleged in an amended complaint be'ore t(e de%endant (as appeared in court- anot(er summons must )e served on t(e (im wit( t(e amended complaint* o I% t(e de%endant is in de%ault as to t(e original complaint- and an amended complaint is %iled w(ile suc( de%ault e9ists- a new summons $wit( regard to t(e amended complaint' must )e %iled* o ;asically- w(en t(e de%endant (as yet to appear in court- a new summons must )e %iled wit( an amended complaint* In #uasi0=udicial agencies- t(e rules on service o% summons is 16" strictly construed* +u)stantial

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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compliance is enoug(* $Cada v "ime +aver Laundry- 2 8' o Atty* "ran#uil: &et t(e internal rules o% #uasi0=udicial agencies* "(ey mig(t )e di%%erent %rom t(e R6C*
Sec# 2# 4. *%!1 &e,0e+# T%e &u11!"& 1'. (e &e,0e+ (. t%e &%e, $$, % & +e-ut., !, !t%e, -,!-e, c!u,t !$$ ce,, !, $!, 5u&t $ '(le ,e'&!"& (. '". &u t'(le -e,&!" 'ut%!, 7e+ (. t%e c!u,t &&u "3 t%e &u11!"&#

J(o must serve t(e summonsF o "(e s(eri%% o Dis deputy o 6t(er proper court o%%icer- or o /or =usti%ia)le reasons- )y any suita)le person aut(ori.ed )y t(e court +ervice )y ot(er t(an t(ose enumerated in +ection G is invalid* Jit(in (ow many days s(ould court issue summonsF +ee guidelines on pretrial* o Jit(in one day %rom receipt o% t(e complaint*

Sec# 6# Retu,"# <%e" t%e &e,0 ce %'& (ee" c!1-lete+, t%e &e,0e, &%'ll, * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& t%e,e$,!1, &e,0e ' c!-. !$ t%e ,etu,", -e,&!"'ll. !, (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l, t! t%e -l' "t $$D& c!u"&el, '"+ &%'ll ,etu," t%e &u11!"& t! t%e cle,) *%! &&ue+ t, 'cc!1-'" e+ (. -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce#

Sec# 8# I&&u'"ce !$ 'l '& &u11!"&# I$ ' &u11!"& & ,etu,"e+ * t%!ut (e "3 &e,0e+ !" '". !, 'll !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t&, t%e &e,0e, &%'ll 'l&! &e,0e ' c!-. !$ t%e ,etu," !" t%e -l' "t $$D& c!u"&el, &t't "3 t%e ,e'&!"& $!, t%e $' lu,e !$ &e,0 ce, * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& t%e,e$,!1# I" &uc% ' c'&e, !, $ t%e &u11!"& %'& (ee" l!&t, t%e cle,), !" +e1'"+ !$ t%e -l' "t $$, 1'. &&ue '" 'l '& &u11!"&#

I% t(e original summons (as )een lost or t(e original summons was returned to court unservedt(e plainti%% may demand %or an alias summons* An alias summons (as no limit* I% t(e de%endant %iles a M"5 )ased on lack o% =urisdiction over t(e person- can t(e court order motu propio t(e issuance o% an alias summonsF o >es2 It,s not &A5L?3* $P(ilam Li%e case cited )y Atty* "ran#uil' o Court said t(e case can )e re%iled anyway- so issuance o% an alias summons ok*

Sec# 9# Se,0 ce " -e,&!" !" +e$e"+'"t# <%e"e0e, -,'ct c'(le, t%e &u11!"& &%'ll (e &e,0e+ (. %'"+ "3 ' c!-. t%e,e!$ t! t%e +e$e"+'"t " -e,&!", !,, $ %e ,e$u&e& t! ,ece 0e '"+ & 3" $!, t, (. te"+e, "3 t t! % 1#

Personal service is t(e PRI6RI">* Dow is personal service o% summons madeF o ;y (anding a copy to t(e de%endant in person- or o I% (e re%uses to receive and sign %or it- )y tendering it to (im* "ake note: t(e Ltender wayM o% serving summons only applies to P?R+61AL service- it does not apply to su)stituted service* >ou can serve summons personally JD?R?:?R t(e de%endant is %ound in t(e P(ilippines* $+ansio P(ilippines v Mogol- w(erein t(e summons was served to t(e de%endants in court- and was deemed accepted w(en t(eir lawyer accepted and read t(e summons in %ront o% (is clients* ;y t(e lawyer,s receipt o% t(e summons and t(e copy o% t(e complaint- t(e act o% L(andingM a copy o% t(e summons was complete*' o +o you can serve it to (im w(ile (e,s playing )asket)all or w(ile (e,s running away or w(ile (e,s taking a )at(* o +ummons need 16" )e served in t(e residence o% t(e de%endants* $+ansio v Mogol' o Dowever- it,s not a worldwide t(ing- you can only serve summons wit(in t(e P(ilippines*

Sec# 7# Su(&t tute+ &e,0 ce# I$, $!, 5u&t $ '(le c'u&e&, t%e +e$e"+'"t c'""!t (e &e,0e+ * t% " ' ,e'&!"'(le t 1e '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !", &e,0 ce 1'. (e e$$ecte+ (') (. le'0 "3 c!- e& !$ t%e &u11!"& 't t%e +e$e"+'"tD& ,e& +e"ce * t% &!1e -e,&!" !$ &u t'(le '3e '"+ + &c,et !" t%e" ,e& + "3 t%e,e ", !, Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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(() (. le'0 "3 t%e c!- e& 't +e$e"+'"tD& !$$ ce !, ,e3ul', -l'ce !$ (u& "e&& * t% &!1e c!1-ete"t -e,&!" " c%',3e t%e,e!$#

J(en can you do su)stituted serviceF o 6nly w(en t(e de%endant cannot )e served personally wit(in a reasona)le time t(at a su)stituted service may )e made o Impossi)ility o% prompt service s(ould )e s(own )y stating t(e e%%orts made to %ind t(e de%endant personally and t(e %act t(at suc( e%%orts %ield* "(is statement s(ould )e made in t(e proo% o% service* Dow is su)stituted service e%%ectedF o ;y leaving copies o% t(e summons at t(e de%endant,s residence wit( some person o% suita)le age and discretion t(en residing t(erein- or o ;y leaving t(e copies at t(e de%endant,s o%%ice or regular place o% )usiness wit( some competent person in c(arge t(ereo%* Re#uirements to e%%ect a valid su)stituted service $Pascual v Pascual- Manotoc v CA': o Impossi)ility o% prompt personal service J(at do you mean )y Lreasona)le timeMF /or t(e s(eri%%- (e (as to serve t(e summons !<0G days* A%ter t(e G t( day- t(e court will re#uire t(e s(eri%% to su)mit t(e return* o >ou (ave to )e listo wit( t(is* I% you %ile a complaint and you don,t see to it t(at t(e summons is served wit(in a reasona)le timeyour complaint can )e dismissed %or %ailure to prosecute* o In re: %ailure to prosecute- see Repu)lic v &lasgow $2 @' w(ere t(e +C said t(at it was not t(e Repu)lic,s %ault t(at summons was not served wit(in a reasona)le time )ecause Repu)lic e9erted diligent e%%orts and &lasgow c(anged t(eir address wit(out in%orming t(e +?C* Dow many times s(ould t(e attempted personal service )een doneF At least G times- on at least 2 di%%erent dates $Pascual v Pascual- 2 8' o +peci%ic details in t(e return +(eri%% must descri)e in t(e return t(e %acts and circumstances surrounding t(e attempted personal service "(e e%%orts made to %ind t(e de%endant and t(e reasons )e(ind t(e %ailure must )e clearly narrated* In Manotoc- t(e return merely said t(at Lon many occasions several attempts were made to serve t(e summons*M Court (eld t(at t(is was de%icient* 5etails must )e speci%ic2 o I% in t(e residence- to a person o% suita)le age and discretion* J(at do you mean )y Lsuita)le ageMF !@ years old and a)ove Dow do you test LdiscretionMF Ask #uestions- are t(ey capa)le o% making =udgmentsF 5o t(ey understand w(at,s (appeningF Must )e a)le to speak ?nglis(* $6)iter in Manotoc' "(e presupposes t(at a relation o% con%idence e9ists )etween t(e person wit( w(om t(e copy is le%t and t(e de%endant- and assumes t(at suc( person will deliver t(e process to t(e de%endant* +ervice is made at t(e residence o% t(e de%endant- )ut (e was a)road- validF >es* Residence re%ers to t(e place w(ere t(e person named in t(e summons is living at t(e time w(en t(e service is made- even t(oug( (e may )e temporarily out o% t(e country at t(e time* Can you give t(e summons to a cousin w(o,s visitingF Atty* &uevara says no* +trict compliance must )e met* "(ey must )e residing t(erein* J(at a)out a (ouse(elperF C(eck two t(ings: o 5oes (e or s(e reside t(ereinF o Is (e or s(e o% suita)le age or discretionF

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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"(ese details must also )e written speci%ically in t(e return* $Manotoc' I% in t(e de%endant,s o%%ice or regular place o% )usiness- to a competent person in c(arge* Must )e t(e one managing t(e o%%ice or )usiness o% t(e de%endant $like t(e president or t(e manager'- and Must (ave su%%icient knowledge to understand t(e o)ligation o% t(e de%endant in t(e summons Can a middle manager t(e same rank as Mr* A receive summons %or Mr* AF o De must )e in c(arge o% receiving summons in t(e o%%ice* Can you tender in su)stituted serviceF o 1o* o

Sec# 8# Se,0 ce u-!" e"t t. * t%!ut 5u, + c'l -e,&!"'l t.# <%e" -e,&!"& '&&!c 'te+ " '" e"t t. * t%!ut 5u, + c'l -e,&!"'l t. ',e &ue+ u"+e, t%e "'1e (. *% c% t%e. ',e 3e"e,'ll. !, c!11!"l. )"!*", &e,0 ce 1'. (e e$$ecte+ u-!" 'll t%e +e$e"+'"t& (. &e,0 "3 u-!" '". !"e !$ t%e1, !, u-!" t%e -e,&!" " c%',3e !$ t%e !$$ ce !, -l'ce !$ (u& "e&& 1' "t' "e+ " &uc% "'1e# 4ut &uc% &e,0 ce &%'ll "!t ( "+ "+ 0 +u'll. '". -e,&!" *%!&e c!""ect !" * t% t%e e"t t. %'&, u-!" +ue "!t ce, (ee" &e0e,e+ (e$!,e t%e 'ct !" *'& (,!u3%t#

Dow can summons )e served upon entities wit(out =uridical personalitiesF o ;y serving eit(er: 4pon any one o% t(em- or 4pon t(e person in c(arge o% t(e o%%ice or place o% )usiness maintained in suc( name o +uc( service s(all not )ind any person w(ose connection wit( t(e entity (as- upon due notice- )een severed )e%ore t(e action was )roug(t*

Sec# B# Se,0 ce u-!" -, &!"e,&# <%e" t%e +e$e"+'"t & ' -, &!"e, c!"$ "e+ " ' 5' l !, "&t tut !", &e,0 ce &%'ll (e e$$ecte+ u-!" % 1 (. t%e !$$ ce, %'0 "3 t%e 1'"'3e1e"t !$ &uc% 5' l !, "&t tut !" *%! & +ee1e+ +e-ut 7e+ '& ' &-ec 'l &%e, $$ $!, &' + -u,-!&e#

Dow can summons )e served upon prisoners in a =ail or institutionF o It s(all )e e%%ected upon (im )y t(e o%%icer (aving t(e management o% suc( =ail or institution o "(e o%%icer is deemed deputi.ed as a s special s(eri%%

Sec# 10# Se,0 ce u-!" 1 "!,& '"+ "c!1-ete"t&# <%e" t%e +e$e"+'"t & ' 1 "!,, "&'"e !, !t%e,* &e '" "c!1-ete"t, &e,0 ce &%'ll (e 1'+e u-!" % 1 -e,&!"'ll. '"+ !" % & le3'l 3u',+ '" $ %e %'& !"e, !, $ "!"e, u-!" % & 3u',+ '" '+ l te1 *%!&e '--! "t1e"t &%'ll (e '--l e+ $!, (. t%e -l' "t $$# I" t%e c'&e !$ ' 1 "!,, &e,0 ce 1'. 'l&! (e 1'+e !" % & $'t%e, !, 1!t%e,#

Dow can summons )e served upon a minor- insane or incompetentF o ;y serving upon: Dim- personally- and Dis legal guardian- i% (e (as- or A guardian ad litem w(o s(all )e applied %or )y t(e plainti%% I% a minor- service may also )e made on (is %at(er or mot(er

Sec# 11# Se,0 ce u-!" +!1e&t c -, 0'te 5u, + c'l e"t t.# <%e" t%e +e$e"+'"t & ' c!,-!,'t !", -',t"e,&% - !, '&&!c 't !" !,3'" 7e+ u"+e, t%e l'*& !$ t%e =% l -- "e& * t% ' 5u, + c'l -e,&!"'l t., &e,0 ce 1'. (e 1'+e !" t%e -,e& +e"t, 1'"'3 "3 -',t"e,, 3e"e,'l 1'"'3e,, c!,-!,'te &ec,et',., t,e'&u,e,, !, "-%!u&e c!u"&el#

Dow can summons )e served upon a domestic =uridical entityF o ;y serving upon: "(e president Managing partner &eneral manager Corporate secretary "reasurer- or In0(ouse counsel

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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+trict compliance wit( t(e mode o% service is necessary* List is ?ACL4+I:?* Dowever- one s(ould look at t(e %unctions o% t(e o%%icer- not t(e nomenclature* o +o- service to t(e C66 is ok- (e,s t(e general manager* +o wit( t(e C/6- since (e,s t(e treasurer* $Atty* &uevara' Dow do you serve to a &6CCF o I% created )y law- see t(e c(arter w(o are aut(ori.ed to receive summons* o I% created t(roug( t(e corporation code- %ollow +ec !!*

SEC# 12# Se,0 ce u-!" $!,e 3" -, 0'te 5u, + c'l e"t t.# E <%e" t%e +e$e"+'"t & ' $!,e 3" -, 0'te 5u, + c'l e"t t. *% c% %'& t,'"&'cte+ (u& "e&& " t%e =% l -- "e&, &e,0 ce 1'. (e 1'+e !" t& ,e& +e"t '3e"t +e& 3"'te+ " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% l'* $!, t%'t -u,-!&e, !,, $ t%e,e (e "! &uc% '3e"t, !" t%e 3!0e,"1e"t !$$ c 'l +e& 3"'te+ (. l'* t! t%'t e$$ect, !, !" '". !$ t& !$$ ce,& !, '3e"t& * t% " t%e =% l -- "e&# I$ t%e $!,e 3" -, 0'te 5u, + c'l e"t t. & "!t ,e3 &te,e+ " t%e =% l -- "e& !, %'& "! ,e& +e"t '3e"t, &e,0 ce 1'., * t% le'0e !$ c!u,t, (e e$$ecte+ !ut !$ t%e =% l -- "e& t%,!u3% '". !$ t%e $!ll!* "3 1e'"&; ') 4. -e,&!"'l &e,0 ce c!u,&e+ t%,!u3% t%e '--,!-, 'te c!u,t " t%e $!,e 3" c!u"t,. * t% t%e '&& &t'"ce !$ t%e De-',t1e"t !$ F!,e 3" A$$' ,&: () 4. -u(l c't !" !"ce " ' "e*&-'-e, !$ 3e"e,'l c ,cul't !" " t%e c!u"t,. *%e,e t%e +e$e"+'"t 1'. (e $!u"+ '"+ (. &e,0 "3 ' c!-. !$ t%e &u11!"& '"+ t%e c!u,t !,+e, (.-,e3 &te,e+ 1' l 't t%e l'&t )"!*" '++,e&& !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t: c) 4. $'c& 1 le !, '". ,ec!3" 7e+ elect,!" c 1e'"& t%'t c!ul+ 3e"e,'te -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce: !, +) 4. &uc% !t%e, 1e'"& '& t%e c!u,t 1'. " t& + &c,et !" + ,ect# ('& '1e"+e+ (. AM 11-2-9-SC, M',c% 18, 2011)

Dow can summons )e served upon a %oreign private =uridical entityF o /or t(ose w(o (ave transacted )usiness (ere ;y serving upon: Its resident agent designated in accordance wit( law %or t(at purpose- or I% none- on t(e government o%%icial designate )y law to t(at e%%ect- or Any o% its o%%icers or agents wit(in t(e P(ilippines o Remem)er Atty* Ro)les usual kwento a)out (is =ap client getting a summons w(ile playing gol% in Jackwack o /or t(ose w(o are not registered in t(e P(ilippines or (ave no resident agents ;y serving: Personally t(roug( t(e appropriate court in t(e %oreign country wit( t(e assistance o% t(e 5/A- or ;y pu)lication once in a newspaper in t(e country w(ere t(e de%endant may )e %ound A15 )y serving a copy and t(e court order )y registered mail at t(e last known address- or ;y %a9 or )y any recogni.ed electronic means t(at could generate proo% o% service- or ;y ot(er means ordered )y t(e court Read t(is provision wit( Rule !!- +ect 2 $J(en to %ile responsive pleadings' "ake note: o I% t(e %oreign corporation (as a representative o%%ice (ere- serve it on t(e resident agentas stated in t(is section o I% t(e %oreign corporation (as a su)sidiary incorporated under t(e +?C- t(en use +ec !!since t(e su)sidiary is a domestic corporation*

Sec# 12# Se,0 ce u-!" -u(l c c!,-!,'t !"&# <%e" t%e +e$e"+'"t & t%e Re-u(l c !$ t%e =% l -- "e&, &e,0 ce 1'. (e e$$ecte+ !" t%e S!l c t!, Ge"e,'l: " c'&e !$ ' -,!0 "ce, c t. !, 1u" c -'l t., !, l )e -u(l c c!,-!,'t !"&, &e,0 ce 1'. (e e$$ecte+ !" t& e/ecut 0e %e'+, !, !" &uc% !t%e, !$$ ce, !, !$$ ce,& '& t%e l'* !, t%e c!u,t 1'. + ,ect# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Dow can summons )e served upon pu)lic corporationsF o I% t(e de%endant is t(e Repu)lic o% t(e P(ilippines- on t(e +ol &enQ o In case o% a province- city or municipality or like pu)lic corportations- on its e9ecutive (ead or suc( ot(er o%%icerIo%%icers as t(e law or t(e court may direct

+ec !4- !<- and !C talks o% summons )y pu)lication- )ut it is important to know t(e di%%erences in application and rules* +o take note w(en eac( section will apply*
Sec# 16# Se,0 ce u-!" +e$e"+'"t *%!&e +e"t t. !, *%e,e'(!ut& ',e u")"!*"# I" '". 'ct !" *%e,e t%e +e$e"+'"t & +e& 3"'te+ '& '" u")"!*" !*"e,, !, t%e l )e, !, *%e"e0e, % & *%e,e'(!ut& ',e u")"!*" '"+ c'""!t (e '&ce,t' "e+ (. + l 3e"t "Au ,., &e,0 ce 1'., (. le'0e !$ c!u,t, (e e$$ecte+ u-!" % 1 (. -u(l c't !" " ' "e*&-'-e, !$ 3e"e,'l c ,cul't !" '"+ " &uc% -l'ce& '"+ $!, &uc% t 1e '& t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e,#

>ou use +ec !4 w(en t(e de%endant is 41716J1 or (is w(erea)outs are 41716J1* J(en can summons )y pu)lication )e doneF o J(ere t(e de%endants is designated as an unknown owner- or t(e likeQ or o J(ere (is w(erea)outs are unknown and cannot )e ascertained )y diligent in#uiry 1o need %or personal service since you don,t know w(o t(e de%endant is or w(ere (e is anyway* Important: 4nlike +ec !< and !C- +ec !4 only re#uires pu)lication* 1o need to send t(e summons )y registered mail to t(e last known address* ;e%ore- you can only do t(is %or in rem cases- )ut now- you can do t(is in w(atever kind o% actionw(et(er in rem or in personam* $+antos v P16C'

Sec# 18# E/t,'te,, t!, 'l &e,0 ce# <%e" t%e +e$e"+'"t +!e& "!t ,e& +e '"+ & "!t $!u"+ " t%e =% l -- "e&, '"+ t%e 'ct !" '$$ect& t%e -e,&!"'l &t'tu& !$ t%e -l' "t $$ !, ,el'te& t!, !, t%e &u(5ect !$ *% c% &, -,!-e,t. * t% " t%e =% l -- "e&, " *% c% t%e +e$e"+'"t %'& !, cl' 1& ' l e" !, "te,e&t, 'ctu'l !, c!"t "3e"t, !, " *% c% t%e ,el e$ +e1'"+e+ c!"& &t&, *%!ll. !, " -',t, " e/clu+ "3 t%e +e$e"+'"t $,!1 '". "te,e&t t%e,e ", !, t%e -,!-e,t. !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t %'& (ee" 'tt'c%e+ * t% " t%e =% l -- "e&, &e,0 ce 1'., (. le'0e !$ c!u,t, (e e$$ecte+ !ut !$ t%e =% l -- "e& (. -e,&!"'l &e,0 ce '& u"+e, &ect !" 9: !, (. -u(l c't !" " ' "e*&-'-e, !$ 3e"e,'l c ,cul't !" " &uc% -l'ce& '"+ $!, &uc% t 1e '& t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e,, " *% c% c'&e ' c!-. !$ t%e &u11!"& '"+ !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t &%'ll (e &e"t (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l t! t%e l'&t )"!*" '++,e&& !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t, !, " '". !t%e, 1'""e, t%e c!u,t 1'. +ee1 &u$$ c e"t# A". !,+e, 3,'"t "3 &uc% le'0e &%'ll &-ec $. ' ,e'&!"'(le t 1e, *% c% &%'ll "!t (e le&& t%'" & /t. (90) +'.& '$te, "!t ce, * t% " *% c% t%e +e$e"+'"t 1u&t '"&*e,#

+ec !< will apply w(en t(e case is against a de%endant w(o does not reside in t(e P(ilippines A15 is not %ound (ere eit(er* J(en can e9traterritorial summons )e madeF o J(en t(e de%endant does not reside and is not %ound in t(e P(ilippines- and o "(e action a%%ects: "(e personal status o% t(e plainti%%- or Any property o% said de%endant located in t(e P(ilippines Property is attac(ed J(ere de%endant (as actual or contingent interest over t(e property Dow can service o% summons on a nonresident not %ound in t(e P(ilippines )e doneF o ;y personal service outside t(e country wit( leave o% court- or o ;y pu)lication in a newspaper o% general circulation in suc( places and %or suc( time as t(e court may order A15 a copy o% t(e summons and order o% t(e court s(all )e sent )y registered mail to t(e last known address o% t(e de%endant- $)ot( must concur2 Important2' or o In any ot(er manner t(at t(e court may deem su%%icient Important: "ake note t(at t(ere is no su)stituted service to a non0resident* $compare wit( +ec !C' o ?9cept i% t(ere is a resident spouse w(o was previously appointed as attorney0in0%act* $&" notes- don,t know t(e )asis' +ervice o% summons in t(e manner provided in t(is section is not %or t(e purpose o% vesting it wit( =urisdiction over t(e person o% t(e de%endant )ut %or complying wit( t(e re#uirement o% %air play or due process- so t(at (e will )e in%ormed o% t(e pendency o% t(e action against (im* "(is was seen in Acance v CA $2 <'- w(erein t(e +C (eld t(at t(e service o% summons )y

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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pu)lication was de%ective )ecause: o It was not sent )y registered mail to t(e last known address o% t(e de%endants $w(o lived in t(e +tates'- and o "(ere was %ailure to present t(e a%%idavit o% t(e printer- %oreman- etc o% t(e newspaper were t(e summons was allegedly pu)lis(ed* $see +ec !8'
Sec# 19# Re& +e"t& te1-!,', l. !ut !$ t%e =% l -- "e&# <%e" '". 'ct !" & c!11e"ce+ '3' "&t ' +e$e"+'"t *%! !,+ "', l. ,e& +e& * t% " t%e =% l -- "e&, (ut *%! & te1-!,', l. !ut !$ t, &e,0 ce 1'., (. le'0e !$ c!u,t, (e 'l&! e$$ecte+ !ut !$ t%e =% l -- "e&, '& u"+e, t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !"#

>ou use t(is w(en t(e de%endant is a resident )ut is "?MP6RARIL> a)sent %rom t(e P(ilippines* Dow do you serve summons to a resident temporarily out o% t(e P(ilippinesF o +ame as +ec !<- or o +u)stituted service- i% t(ere is impossi)ility and t(ere are earnest e%%orts to serve* $Palma v &alve.- 2 ! - w(erein summons was served to t(e de%endant,s (us)and w(ile t(e de%endant was a)road* "(is was valid*' "ake note t(at t(e section uses LmayM- so resorting to +ec !< is not mandatory )e%ore going %or su)stituted service* $Palma v &alve.' +ec !4 4nknown de%endantunknown w(erea)outs Pu)lication$no need %or personal service- no need %or service via registered mail to last address' A A +ec !< 5oes not reside and not %ound in t(e P(ilippines Personal service wit( leave o% courtPu)lication A15 registered mail to last address6t(er means A >e.2 +ec !C Resident a)road

"o w(om: Modes:

temporarily

+u)stituted service Registered mail re#uirement

Personal service wit( leave o% courtPu)lication A15 registered mail to last address+u)stituted service6t(er means >e.2 6poe.2

Sec# 17# Le'0e !$ c!u,t# A". '--l c't !" t! t%e c!u,t u"+e, t% & Rule $!, le'0e t! e$$ect &e,0 ce " '". 1'""e, $!, *% c% le'0e !$ c!u,t & "ece&&',. &%'ll (e 1'+e (. 1!t !" " *, t "3, &u--!,te+ (. '$$ +'0 t !$ t%e -l' "t $$ !, &!1e -e,&!" !" % & (e%'l$, &ett "3 $!,t% t%e 3,!u"+& $!, t%e '--l c't !"# Sec# 18# =,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce# T%e -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ ' &u11!"& &%'ll (e 1'+e " *, t "3 (. t%e &e,0e, '"+ &%'ll &et $!,t% t%e 1'""e,, -l'ce, '"+ +'te !$ &e,0 ce: &%'ll &-ec $. '". -'-e,& *% c% %'0e (ee" &e,0e+ * t% t%e -,!ce&& '"+ t%e "'1e !$ t%e -e,&!" *%! ,ece 0e+ t%e &'1e: '"+ &%'ll (e &*!," t! *%e" 1'+e (. ' -e,&!" !t%e, t%'" ' &%e, $$ !, % & +e-ut.#

Dow do you prove service o% summonsF o In writing )y t(e server- setting %ort( t(e manner- place and date o% service o It s(ould also speci%y any papers w(ic( (ave )een served wit( t(e process and t(e name o% t(e person w(o received it o 1eeds to )e sworn to w(en made )y a person ot(er t(an a s(eri%% or deputy o +(eri%%s or deputies need not swear since it,s part o% t(eir o%%icial duties ;asically- prove it )y t(e s(eri%%,s return* J(at,s t(e importance o% t(e s(eri%% returnF o +tarts t(e counting %or t(e period to %ile an answer o 5etermines i% t(ere,s proper service o% summons

Sec# 1B# =,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce (. -u(l c't !"# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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I$ t%e &e,0 ce %'& (ee" 1'+e (. -u(l c't !", &e,0 ce 1'. (e -,!0e+ (. t%e '$$ +'0 t !$ t%e -, "te,, % & $!,e1'" !, -, "c -'l cle,), !, !$ t%e e+ t!,, (u& "e&& !, '+0e,t & "3 1'"'3e,, t! *% c% '$$ +'0 t ' c!-. !$ t%e -u(l c't !" &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+, '"+ (. '" '$$ +'0 t &%!* "3 t%e +e-!& t !$ ' c!-. !$ t%e &u11!"& '"+ !,+e, $!, -u(l c't !" " t%e -!&t !$$ ce, -!&t'3e -,e-' +, + ,ecte+ t! t%e +e$e"+'"t (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l t! % & l'&t )"!*" '++,e&&#

Dow do you prove service o% summons )y pu)licationF ;y two a%%idavits* o ;y an a%%idavit o% "(e printer /oreman Principal clerk- or ?ditor or )usiness or advertising manager Attac(ed to it is a copy o% t(e pu)lication o A%%idavit s(owing t(e deposit o% a copy o% t(e summons and order %or pu)lication in t(e post o%%ice- etc etc +een in Acance v CA- 2 <

Sec# 20# >!lu"t',. '--e','"ce# T%e +e$e"+'"tD& 0!lu"t',. '--e','"ce " t%e 'ct !" &%'ll (e eAu 0'le"t t! &e,0 ce !$ &u11!"&# T%e "clu& !" " ' 1!t !" t! + &1 && !$ !t%e, 3,!u"+& '& +e $,!1 l'c) !$ 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e -e,&!" !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t &%'ll "!t (e +ee1e+ ' 0!lu"t',. '--e','"ce#

:oluntary appearance is not e#uivalent to summons- )ut i% t(ere is voluntary appearancesummons can )e dispensed wit(* Is t(e assertion o% an a%%irmative de%enseIs a waiver o% t(e de%ense o% lack o% =urisdiction over t(e personF o 1o* ;ut lack o% =d over t(e person must )e seasona)ly raised- lest t(e person )e estopped* Dence- you can assert ot(er grounds K =ust make sure you also raise lack o% =d over t(e person* o /iling o% answer wit(out o)=ection is voluntary appearance* o /iling o% motion %or e9tension o% time to %ile answer is voluntary appearance*

RULE 18 MOTIONS Sect !" 1# M!t !" +e$ "e+# A 1!t !" & '" '--l c't !" $!, ,el e$ !t%e, t%'" (. ' -le'+ "3#

A motion may )e %inal or interlocutory* "(ere are also motions w(ic( pray %or a =udgment on t(e merits* A motion seeks relie%- )ut is not a pleading* It does not raise a claim- nor does it raise de%enses in an answer* Dence- a M"5 does not take t(e nature o% an answer )ecause it does not lead to a =oinder o% issues*

Sec# 2# M!t !"& 1u&t (e " *, t "3# All 1!t !"& &%'ll (e " *, t "3 e/ce-t t%!&e 1'+e " !-e" c!u,t !, " t%e c!u,&e !$ ' %e', "3 !, t, 'l# Sec# 2# C!"te"t&# A 1!t !" &%'ll &t'te t%e ,el e$ &!u3%t t! (e !(t' "e+ '"+ t%e 3,!u"+& u-!" *% c% t & ('&e+, '"+ $ ,eAu ,e+ (. t%e&e Rule& !, "ece&&',. t! -,!0e $'ct& 'lle3e+ t%e,e ", &%'ll (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. &u--!,t "3 '$$ +'0 t& '"+ !t%e, -'-e,&#

J(at s(ould t(e motion containF o "(e relie% soug(t to )e o)tained o &rounds upon w(ic( it is )ased o I% re#uired )y t(e Rules or necessary to prove %acts alleged t(erein- it s(ould )e accompanied )y supporting a%%idavits o 1otice o% (earing $see +ec 4' J(en are supporting a%%idavits necessaryF o I% t(e %acts alleged in t(e motion are not o% record or o% =udicial notice

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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A motion %or setting aside a =udgment )y de%ault must )e accompanied )y an a%%idavit o% merit $to prove t(at t(ere is a meritorious de%ense' J(en are t(ey not necessaryF o J(en t(e grounds upon w(ic( t(e motion is )ased can )e %ound in t(e record o

Sec# 6# @e', "3 !$ 1!t !"# E/ce-t $!, 1!t !"& *% c% t%e c!u,t 1'. 'ct u-!" * t%!ut -,e5u+ c "3 t%e , 3%t& !$ t%e '+0e,&e -',t., e0e,. *, tte" 1!t !" &%'ll (e &et $!, %e', "3 (. t%e '--l c'"t# E0e,. *, tte" 1!t !" ,eAu ,e+ t! (e %e',+ '"+ t%e "!t ce !$ t%e %e', "3 t%e,e!$ &%'ll (e &e,0e+ " &uc% ' 1'""e, '& t! e"&u,e t& ,ece -t (. t%e !t%e, -',t. 't le'&t t%,ee (2) +'.& (e$!,e t%e +'te !$ %e', "3, u"le&& t%e c!u,t $!, 3!!+ c'u&e &et& t%e %e', "3 !" &%!,te, "!t ce#

J(at must )e done wit( t(e notice o% (earingF o All litigated (earings s(all )e set %or (earing )y t(e applicant ando +(all )e served toget(er wit( t(e notice o% (earing in suc( a manner as to insure receipt )y t(e ot(er party at least t(ree days )e%ore (e date o% (earing* o >ou need notice o' hearing and proo' o' service% +erved A15 received )y t(e ot(er party G days )e%ore t(e (earing* >ou serve t(e notice o% (earing to t(e ot(er party* o ;ut also give notice to t(e clerk o% court )ecause (e sc(edules t(e (earing* "(e a)sence o% a notice o% (earing makes t(e motion a M?R? scrap o% paper* o Implication: t(e reglementary period keeps running* J(at motions can )e acted upon wit(out (earingF o =8 parte motions like motion %or e9tension o% time to %ile pleadings- motion %or e9tension o% time to %ile an answer- preliminary attac(ment $ yes, it !ill adversely a''ect the other party, but to re+uire a hearing 'or this !ill de'eat the purpose o' the motion% /aka tumakas lang yung other party o "(ese can )e acted upon immediately wit(out pre=udice to t(e adverse pary J(at motions s(ould (ave a (earingF o Litigated motions, like motion %or reconsideration- motion to set aside order o% de%aultpreliminary in=unction- temporary restraining order $wit( e9ceptions' o "(ese will su)stantially a%%ect t(e adverse party Atty "ran#uil: It is t(e court w(o will conclude w(et(er a motion is a litigious one or not- so =ust put a notice o% (earing on ALL motions* o As long as in t(e trial court $eit(er original or appellate capacity'- you need a notice o% (earing* 5o you need notice o% (earing in appellate courtsF o 1o* +ee Rule 48 and Rule <C* o I% you put pa- super%luous lang yan% Dow do you attack a court order arising %rom a motionF o I% it,s a %inal order $like an order granting a motion to dismiss- =udgment on t(e pleadingsdemurrer- summary =udgment'- your remedy is )y appeal* o I% it,s interlocutory $like an order not granting a motion to dismiss'- your remedy is )y certiorari under rule C<* "(e G0day notice rule- (owever- is 16" a)solute* A li)eral construction is proper w(ere t(e lapse in t(e literal o)servance o% t(e rule (as not pre=udiced t(e adverse party* $Presyler v Manila +out(coast- 2 ! - w(ere t(e respondent received t(e notice o% (earing a%ter t(e sc(eduled (earing- )ut it did not pre=udice (im since t(e (earing was reset G time wit( due notice to )ot( parties'* o J(yF +ince t(e G0day notice rule is %or %air play and to allow t(e ot(er party a c(ance to prepare %or t(e #uestions raised )y t(e motion* &ive an e9ample o% a motion w(ic( doesn,t %ollow t(e G0day ruleF o Motion %or summary =udgment: must )e served ! days )e%ore t(e (earing 42

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Rule 3/, Sec. 3. 1otion and !roceedings t$ereon. T$e otion s$all #e ser(ed at least ten *10+ da"s #efore t$e ti e s!ecified for t$e $earing. T$e ad(erse !art" a" ser(e o!!osing affida(its, de!ositions, or ad issions at least t$ree *3+ da"s #efore t$e $earing. :fter t$e $earing, t$e )udg ent soug$t s$all #e rendered fort$%it$ if t$e !leadings, su!!orting affida(its, de!ositions, and ad issions on file, s$o% t$at, e-ce!t as to t$e a ount of da ages, t$ere is no genuine issue as Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 8# N!t ce !$ %e', "3# T%e "!t ce !$ %e', "3 &%'ll (e '++,e&&e+ t! 'll -',t e& c!"ce,"e+, '"+ &%'ll &-ec $. t%e t 1e '"+ +'te !$ t%e %e', "3 *% c% 1u&t "!t (e l'te, t%'" te" (10) +'.& '$te, t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e 1!t !"#

J(en s(ould t(e date o% t(e (earing )e setF o 1ot later t(an ! days a%ter t(e %iling o% t(e motion* "(e ! 0day Lno laterM rule is mandatory to prevent dilatory tactics )y t(e movant* $;acelonia v CA- 2 ! ' o >ou %ile %or it 5ec C- t(e last day t(at you can set t(e (earing is on 5ec !C* J(en s(ould notice )e given to t(e ot(er partyF o It s(ould )e served t(ree days )e%ore t(e motion day at t(e latest* o Count )ackwards2 ;asically- notice s(ould )e received )y t(e ot(er party G days )e%ore t(e (earing w(ic( s(ould )e set not later t(an ! days a%ter t(e %iling o% t(e motion* "(e ordinary motion day is on a /riday* o .hen should the notice be served to the other party& It s(ould )e served )y "uesday at t(e latest* o 7' you !ant to send the notice by ordinary mail, !hen should you do it& "en days )e%ore "uesday* $or prove t(at it was received on "uesday' o 7' you !ant to send the notice by registered mail - !hen should you do it& It s(ould actually )e received )y "uesday- or i% not claimed %rom t(e post o%%ice- t(e date o% t(e %irst notice o% t(e postmaster s(ould )e at least < days )e%ore "uesday*

Sec# 9# =,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce "ece&&',.# N! *, tte" 1!t !" &et $!, %e', "3 &%'ll (e 'cte+ u-!" (. t%e c!u,t * t%!ut -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce t%e,e!$#

J(at is t(e e%%ect o% lack o% notice and proo% o% serviceF It is not(ing )ut a piece o% paper %iled wit( t(e court* It,s scrap* Legal implication is t(at it does not toll t(e running o% t(e period o% appeal

Sec# 7# M!t !" +'.# E/ce-t $!, 1!t !"& ,eAu , "3 11e+ 'te 'ct !", 'll 1!t !"& &%'ll (e &c%e+ule+ $!, %e', "3 !" F, +'. '$te,"!!"&, !, $ F, +'. & ' "!"-*!,) "3 +'., " t%e '$te,"!!" !$ t%e "e/t *!,) "3 +'.#

/riday a%ternoon is t(e designated motion day* o I% it is a (oliday- set on t(e ne9t working day* It is MA15A"6R> on t(e courts )ecause o% +C Circular passed in 2

@*

Sec# 8# O1" (u& 1!t !"# Su(5ect t! t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ &ect !" 1 !$ Rule B, ' 1!t !" 'tt'c) "3 ' -le'+ "3, !,+e,, 5u+31e"t, !, -,!cee+ "3 &%'ll "clu+e 'll !(5ect !"& t%e" '0' l'(le, '"+ 'll !(5ect !"& "!t &! "clu+e+ &%'ll (e +ee1e+ *' 0e+#

6mni)us motion rule: include all grounds availa)le- or else- it is deemed waived* o ?AC?P": Lack o% =d over su)=ect matter Res =udicata Litis pendentia prescription

Sec# B# M!t !" $!, le'0e# A 1!t !" $!, le'0e t! $ le ' -le'+ "3 !, 1!t !" &%'ll (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. t%e -le'+ "3 !, 1!t !" &!u3%t t! (e '+1 tte+# Sec# 10# F!,1# T%e Rule& '--l c'(le t! -le'+ "3& &%'ll '--l. t! *, tte" 1!t !"& &! $', '& c!"ce,"& c'-t !", +e& 3"'t !", & 3"'tu,e, '"+ !t%e, 1'tte,& !$ $!,1#

5o you need a certi%ication %or non0%orum s(opping in motionsF


o(ing !art" is entitled to a )udg ent as a atter of la%.

to an" aterial fact and t$at t$e

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o 1o* It,s not an initiatory pleading* J(en is a motion Lpro %ormaMF o J(en t(ere is /AIL4R? to +erve a copy to t(e ot(er party Include a notice o% (earing Con%orm wit( t(e G0day notice rule Con%orm wit( t(e ! 0day rule

RULE 19 MOTION TO DISMISS Sect !" 1# G,!u"+&# < t% " t%e t 1e $!, (ut (e$!,e $ l "3 t%e '"&*e, t! t%e c!1-l' "t !, -le'+ "3 '&&e,t "3 ' cl' 1, ' 1!t !" t! + &1 && 1'. (e 1'+e !" '". !$ t%e $!ll!* "3 3,!u"+&; (') T%'t t%e c!u,t %'& "! 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e -e,&!" !$ t%e +e$e"+ "3 -',t.: (() T%'t t%e c!u,t %'& "! 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, !$ t%e cl' 1: (c) T%'t 0e"ue & 1-,!-e,l. l' +: (+) T%'t t%e -l' "t $$ %'& "! le3'l c'-'c t. t! &ue: (e) T%'t t%e,e & '"!t%e, 'ct !" -e"+ "3 (et*ee" t%e &'1e -',t e& $!, t%e &'1e c'u&e: ($) T%'t t%e c'u&e !$ 'ct !" & (',,e+ (. ' -, !, 5u+31e"t !, (. t%e &t'tute !$ l 1 t't !"&: (3) T%'t t%e -le'+ "3 '&&e,t "3 t%e cl' 1 &t'te& "! c'u&e !$ 'ct !": (%) T%'t t%e cl' 1 !, +e1'"+ &et $!,t% " t%e -l' "t $$D& -le'+ "3 %'& (ee" -' +, *' 0e+, '('"+!"e+, !, !t%e,* &e e/t "3u &%e+: ( ) T%'t t%e cl' 1 !" *% c% t%e 'ct !" & $!u"+e+ & u"e"$!,ce'(le u"+e, t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ t%e &t'tute !$ $,'u+&: '"+ (5) T%'t ' c!"+ t !" -,ece+e"t $!, $ l "3 t%e cl' 1 %'& "!t (ee" c!1-l e+ * t%#

7inds o% dismissal in civ pro: o M"5 )y t(e de%endant $Rule !C' o M"5 )y t(e plainti%% $Rule !E' Also covers %ailure to prosecute- w(ic( is anot(er %orm o% M"5 o 5emurrer to evidence J(en s(ould a motion to dismiss )e %iledF o ;e%ore %iling t(e answer to t(e complaint or pleading asserting a complaint o "(is can )e done )y any de%ending party J(at are t(e groundsF o 1o =urisdiction over t(e de%endant Look into t(e proper service o% summons or voluntary appearance o 1o =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matter 5epends on law o Improper venue +ee Rule 4- or special rules under speci%ic laws o Plainti%% no legal capacity to sue C(eck t(e CAPACI"> to sue 1atural person K must )e age o% ma=ority o I% minor or incompetent- must )e assisted Corporation K must )e duly organi.ed and e9isting in t(e laws o% country w(ere it was organi.ed Attorney0in0%act K look into t(e scope o% aut(ority o Litis pendentia Re#uisites: +ame parties +ame interest +ame rig(ts asserted +ame relie% prayed %or Could )e pleaded as res =udicata i% t(e pending case (as )een disposed o% /orum s(opping is 16" a ground* >ou usually use litis pendentia or res =udicata w(en %orum s(opping or splitting cause o% action occurs* $Read wit( Rule 2- +ec 4' I% t(ere are two pending cases- w(at case will )e dimissedF o &R: t(e later case*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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?AC?P": t(e %irst case may )e t(e one dismissed i% t(e later action is t(e more appropriate ve(icle %or t(e ventilation o% t(e issues )etween t(e parties* $4CP; v ;eluso- 2 E'

o o

Res =udicata Re#uisites: /inal =udgment ;y a court (aving =urisdiction o% t(e su)=ect matter o% t(e parties Must )e on t(e merits $wit( trial- considering t(e evidence* ?9ception would )e =udgment on t(e pleadings- order o% dismissal K t(ese are still res #udicata' +ame parties- su)=ect matter and cause o% action Prescription4G Pleading asserting t(e claim states no cause o% action $PAC+0C6A' 5oes not go into t(e %alsity or trut(%ulness o% t(e claim Pleading- on its %ace- does not appear to state a C6A &round is also invoked w(en a party is not t(e RPI $+trongworld Construction v Perello- 2 C- w(ere individual w(o )roug(t suit was not aut(ori.ed )y t(e corporation to %ile a case in its )e(al%' J(at,s t(e test to determine i% t(e complaint %ails to state a cause o% actionF Ask: (ypot(etically admitting t(e %acts alleged- can t(e court render a valid =udgment in accordance wit( t(e relie% prayed %orF "(is must )e determined %rom t(e allegations o% %act in t(e complaint alone* "(is is t(e only ground o% a motion to dismiss w(ic( must appear on t(e %ace o% t(e complaint* J(en will t(e court not Ladmit allegations as trueMF $e9ceptions to t(e (ypot(etical admission o% allegations' J(en t(ere is =udicial notice o% t(e %alsity J(en it,s legally impossi)le J(en t(e %acts are inadmissi)le in evidence J(en t(e %acts are un%ounded- as appearing in t(e record or document in t(e pleading "(ere is evidence w(ic( (as )een presented to t(e court )y stipulation o% t(e parties or in t(e course o% t(e (earings related to t(e case o +ee Deirs o% Loreto Maramag v Maramag $2 8' w(erein t(e +C used t(e e9ceptions since it was an insurance case and t(e (eirs were not )ene%iciaries- so under t(e Insurance Code- t(ey couldn,t recover even i% t(e %acts alleged were deemed (ypot(etically admitted' Important: J(at,s t(e di%%erence )etween no cause o% action and PAC+0C6AF 4se t(e %ormer in t(e answer as a de%ense or as a demurrer* o ;ut i% used as a demurrer $Rule GG'- it must )e %iled a%ter t(e plainti%% (as presented evidence and rested its case* $Manila ;anking v 4ni o% ;aguio- 2 E- w(erein t(e uni %iled a M"5 a%ter it %iled an answer )ut )e%ore t(e plainti%% rested its case* +o it wasn,t a +ec !C M"5 nor a demurrer*'

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Real actions o(er i o(a#les30 "ears *#ut if ac&uired %it$ good fait$ and )ust title, onl" 10 "ears to ac&uire o%ners$i!+Real actions o(er o(a#les= "ears *#ut if ac&uired %it$ good fait$ and )ust title, onl" 4 "ears to ac&uire o%ners$i!+1ortgage action10 "earsJritten contract 2#ligation created #" la% @udg ent10 "ears 2ral contract 9uasi3contract4 "ears 'n)ur" to t$e rig$ts of t$e !laintiff 9uasi3delict4 "ears7orci#le entr" Cnla%ful detainer

defa ation1 "ear:ll ot$ers not fi-ed #" ot$er la%s/ "ears
Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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&round %or demurrer: insu%%iciency o% evidence 4se t(e latter as a ground %or motion to dismiss* 4sually t(e complaint is incomplete- de%ective or lacks allegations* It,s )ased on preliminary o)=ections* o PAC+0C6A is waived i% not raised in M"5 or answer* o 1o cause o% action is not waived* $F' o Claim (as )een paid- waived- a)andoned- e9tinguis(ed $)ar to re%illing' o 4nen%orcea)le under statute o% %rauds $)ar to re%illing' o Condition precedent not complied wit( /ailure to re%er to katarungang pam)arangay $waiva)le- not =urisdicitional' ?arnest e%%orts to compromise ?9(austion o% admin remedies &R: 5ismissal on t(ese grounds is wit(out pre=udice* It can )e re0%illed* $remedy: Rule C<)ecause o% Rule 4!- +ec!' $see +ec < %or codal' o ?AC?P" $)ar to re%illing': Prescription 4nen%orcea)le under +tatute o% %rauds Res =udicata ?9tinguis(ed claim or demand Remedy in t(ese cases: appeal $see +ec < o% t(is rule'

Sec# 2# @e', "3 !$ 1!t !"# At t%e %e', "3 !$ t%e 1!t !", t%e -',t e& &%'ll &u(1 t t%e , ',3u1e"t& !" t%e Aue&t !"& !$ l'* '"+ t%e , e0 +e"ce !" t%e Aue&t !"& !$ $'ct "0!l0e+ e/ce-t t%!&e "!t '0' l'(le 't t%'t t 1e# S%!ul+ t%e c'&e 3! t! t, 'l, t%e e0 +e"ce -,e&e"te+ +u, "3 t%e %e', "3 &%'ll 'ut!1't c'll. (e -',t !$ t%e e0 +e"ce !$ t%e -',t. -,e&e"t "3 t%e &'1e#

?vidence presented during t(e M"5 (earing is automatically part o% t(e evidence o% t(e party presenting t(e same*

Sec# 2# Re&!lut !" !$ 1!t !"# A$te, t%e %e', "3, t%e c!u,t 1'. + &1 && t%e 'ct !" !, cl' 1, +e". t%e 1!t !", !, !,+e, t%e '1e"+1e"t !$ t%e -le'+ "3# T%e c!u,t &%'ll "!t +e$e, t%e ,e&!lut !" !$ t%e 1!t !" $!, t%e ,e'&!" t%'t t%e 3,!u"+ ,el e+ u-!" & "!t "+u( t'(le# I" e0e,. c'&e, t%e ,e&!lut !" &%'ll &t'te cle',l. '"+ + &t "ctl. t%e ,e'&!"& t%e,e$!,#

"(e court is limited to t(ree actions- in resolving a motion: o 5ismiss t(e action or claimo 5eny t(e motion- or o 6rder t(e amendment o% t(e pleading ;ut remem)er t(e P(il0am case- w(ere t(e +C allowed t(e "C,s action o% issuing an alias summons- stating t(at no &A5L?3 in t(is case* J(at are your remediesF o I% it was denied- you (ave two remedies: )y certiorari under rule C< ;ut take note t(at even i% t(ere is a pending petition %or certiorari- t(e main proceedings will 16" )e suspended unless you o)tain a "R6* 1o more =udicial courtesy* or "(e ordinary procedure to )e %ollowed is to %ile an answer and interpose as de%enses t(e o)=ections raised in t(e motion- proceed to trial- and i% t(e decision is adverse- reiterate t(e issue on appeal %rom t(e %inal =udgment*

Sec# 6# T 1e t! -le'+# I$ t%e 1!t !" & +e" e+, t%e 1!0'"t &%'ll $ le % & '"&*e, * t% " t%e ('l'"ce !$ t%e -e, !+ -,e&c, (e+ (. Rule 11 t! *% c% %e *'& e"t tle+ 't t%e t 1e !$ &e,0 "3 % & 1!t !", (ut "!t le&& t%'" $ 0e (8) +'.& " '". e0e"t, c!1-ute+ $,!1 % & ,ece -t !$ t%e "!t ce !$ t%e +e" 'l# I$ t%e -le'+ "3 & !,+e,e+ t! (e '1e"+e+, %e &%'ll $ le % & '"&*e, * t% " t%e -e, !+ -,e&c, (e+ (. Rule 11 c!u"te+ $,!1 &e,0 ce !$ t%e '1e"+e+ -le'+ "3, u"le&& t%e c!u,t -,!0 +e& ' l!"3e, -e, !+#

I% denied

Jit(in

t(e

)alance

o%

t(e

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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period to w(ic( (e was entitled at t(e time o% %iling (is motionw(ic( s(all not )e less t(an < days in any event $similar to ;ill o% Particulars' I% ordered )y t(e court to )e amended $new period2 >?A>2' Matter o% rig(t 1ot a matter o% rig(t !< days ! days %rom service o% amended pleading /res( period rule does 16" apply to M"5* It applies to MR* $1eypes'

Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ + &1 &&'l# Su(5ect t! t%e , 3%t !$ '--e'l, '" !,+e, 3,'"t "3 ' 1!t !" t! + &1 && ('&e+ !" -','3,'-%& ($), (%) '"+ ( ) !$ &ect !" 1 %e,e!$ &%'ll (', t%e ,e$ l "3 !$ t%e &'1e 'ct !" !, cl' 1#

J(at,s t(e e%%ect o% dismissal on t(e ground o% %ailure to state a cause o% actionF o A complaint s(ould not )e dismissed %or %ailure to state a cause o% action i% t(e de%ect may )e corrected )y amendment* o ;ut- i% t(e plainti%% cannot or does not amend t(e complaint- t(e dismissal operates as an ad=udication upon t(e merits- unless- ot(erwise ordered )y t(e court* $/ailure to Comply wit( order o% court- Rule !E- +ec G' o A dismissal )ecause t(e cause o% action (ad not yet accrued at t(e time t(e complaint was %iled is not a )ar to a su)se#uent action a%ter t(e cause o% action accrues*

Sec# 9# =le'+ "3 3,!u"+& '& '$$ ,1't 0e +e$e"&e&# I$ "! 1!t !" t! + &1 && %'& (ee" $ le+, '". !$ t%e 3,!u"+& $!, + &1 &&'l -,!0 +e+ $!, " t% & Rule 1'. (e -le'+e+ '& '" '$$ ,1't 0e +e$e"&e " t%e '"&*e, '"+, " t%e + &c,et !" !$ t%e c!u,t, ' -,el 1 "',. %e', "3 1'. (e %'+ t%e,e!" '& $ ' 1!t !" t! + &1 && %'+ (ee" $ le+# T%e + &1 &&'l !$ t%e c!1-l' "t u"+e, t% & &ect !" &%'ll (e * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! t%e -,!&ecut !" " t%e &'1e !, &e-','te 'ct !" !$ ' c!u"te,cl' 1 -le'+e+ " t%e '"&*e,#

J(at (appens i% no motion to dismiss was %iled- can I raise t(e grounds as an a%%irmative de%ense in t(e answerF o >es* o A preliminary (earing may )e (ad t(ereon as i' a motion o% dismiss (ad )een %iled* 4p to t(e court i% it wants a preliminary (earing* +o t(e de%endant s(ould %ile a motion to set a preliminary (earing* LAs i% a M"5M makes it seem t(at an answer can )e treated as a M"5* o I% a M"5 (ad )een previously %iled- you can,t ask %or a preliminary (earing anymore since t(at was already done* >ou can still use t(e grounds as a%%irmative de%enses t(oug(* o "(e reason %or t(is new rule is t(at w(en t(e court issues summons- it persuades t(e parties not to %ile an M"5- )ut to %ile an answer wit( an a%%irmative de%ense* $M"5s are usually %iled to delay kasi' "(e court attitude is t(at issues will )e =oined in an answer and pre0trial comes w(ere parties can compromise* I% I (ave a compulsory counterclaim- s(ould I %ile a motion to dismissF o 1o* o I s(ould allege t(e grounds o% t(e motion to dismiss as a%%irmative de%enses in my answer and allege t(e compulsory counterclaim* o A preliminary (earing may )e (eld and in t(e event t(e complaint is dismissed- t(e de%endant can prosecute (is counterclaim* o "(e codal provides t(at t(e dismissal o% t(e complaint is wit(out pre=udice to t(e prosecution o% said counterclaim in t(e same or separate action* o I% I %ile a motion to dismiss- and t(e grounds t(en availa)le were not alleged- t(ey will )e deemed waived- su)=ect to a %ew e9ceptions* $6mni)us Motion rule'

RULE 17 DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS Sect !" 1# D &1 &&'l u-!" "!t ce (. -l' "t $$# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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A c!1-l' "t 1'. (e + &1 &&e+ (. t%e -l' "t $$ (. $ l "3 ' "!t ce !$ + &1 &&'l 't '". t 1e (e$!,e &e,0 ce !$ t%e '"&*e, !, !$ ' 1!t !" $!, &u11',. 5u+31e"t# U-!" &uc% "!t ce (e "3 $ le+, t%e c!u,t &%'ll &&ue '" !,+e, c!"$ ,1 "3 t%e + &1 &&'l# U"le&& !t%e,* &e &t'te+ " t%e "!t ce, t%e + &1 &&'l & * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce, e/ce-t t%'t ' "!t ce !-e,'te& '& '" '+5u+ c't !" u-!" t%e 1e, t& *%e" $ le+ (. ' -l' "t $$ *%! %'& !"ce + &1 &&e+ " ' c!1-ete"t c!u,t '" 'ct !" ('&e+ !" !, "clu+ "3 t%e &'1e cl' 1#

"(e plainti%% (as two ways to dismiss (is action: o As a matter o% rig(t $+ec !' K )e%ore service o% answer- or )e%ore a motion %or summary =udgment* ;y mere notice* o As a matter o% discretion )y t(e court $+ec 2' K at any stage o% t(e proceedings ot(er t(an )e%ore service o% an answer or a motion %or summary =udgment* ;y motion and order o% t(e court* J(en can t(e plainti%% dismiss an action )y noticeF o Any time )e%ore service o% t(e answer- or o Any time )e%ore a motion %or summary =udgment o "(e court will t(en issue an order con%irming t(e dismissal* J(at is t(e e%%ect o% t(e dismissalF o It is wit(out pre=udice- so case can )e re0%iled ?AC?P": I% it is stated in t(e notice t(at t(e dismissal is wit( pre=udice- or I% t(e plainti%% (as once dismissed in a competent court an action )ased on or including t(e same claim $two0dismissal rule' 1o counterclaim yet since dismissal was )e%ore t(e answer*

Sec# 2# D &1 &&'l u-!" 1!t !" !$ -l' "t $$# E/ce-t '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !", ' c!1-l' "t &%'ll "!t (e + &1 &&e+ 't t%e -l' "t $$D& "&t'"ce &'0e u-!" '--,!0'l !$ t%e c!u,t '"+ u-!" &uc% te,1& '"+ c!"+ t !"& '& t%e c!u,t +ee1& -,!-e,# I$ ' c!u"te,cl' 1 %'& (ee" -le'+e+ (. ' +e$e"+'"t -, !, t! t%e &e,0 ce u-!" % 1 !$ t%e -l' "t $$D& 1!t !" $!, + &1 &&'l, t%e + &1 &&'l &%'ll (e l 1 te+ t! t%e c!1-l' "t# T%e + &1 &&'l &%'ll (e * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! t%e , 3%t !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t t! -,!&ecute % & c!u"te,cl' 1 " ' &e-','te 'ct !" u"le&& * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e 1!t !" %e 1'" $e&t& % & -,e$e,e"ce t! %'0e % & c!u"te,cl' 1 ,e&!l0e+ " t%e &'1e 'ct !"# U"le&& !t%e,* &e &-ec $ e+ " t%e !,+e,, ' + &1 &&'l u"+e, t% & -','3,'-% &%'ll (e * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce# A cl'&& &u t &%'ll "!t (e + &1 &&e+ !, c!1-,!1 &e+ * t%!ut t%e '--,!0'l !$ t%e c!u,t#

J(at (appens i% t(ere (as already )een an answerF o Plainti%% can only dismiss via a motion* "(is can )e done at any stage o% t(e proceedings ot(er t(an )e%ore service o% an answer or a motion %or summary =udgment* $Limaco v +(onan &akuen' o An order o% t(e court is necessary upon suc( terms and conditions as t(e court deems proper* o "(e dismissal under t(is section is wit(out pre=udice unless ot(erwise speci%ied in t(e order o% t(e court* J(at i% t(ere,s a counterclaimF o It does 16" get dismissed* "(e dismissal s(all )e limited to t(e complaint* $Pinga v Deirs o% +antiago- 2 C'44 It covers ;6"D permissive and compulsory counterclaims* o "(e de%endant can still prosecute (is counterclaim in a separate action- unless wit(in !< days %rom notice o% t(e motion- (e mani%ests (is pre%erence to (ave (is counterclaim resolved in t(e same action*

Sec# 2# D &1 &&'l +ue t! $'ult !$ -l' "t $$# I$, $!, "! 5u&t $ '(le c'u&e, t%e -l' "t $$ $' l& t! '--e', !" t%e +'te !$ t%e -,e&e"t't !" !$ % & e0 +e"ce " c% e$ !" t%e c!1-l' "t, !, t! -,!&ecute % & 'ct !" $!, '" u",e'&!"'(le le"3t% !$ t 1e, !, t! c!1-l. * t% t%e&e Rule& !, '". !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t, t%e c!1-l' "t 1'. (e + &1 &&e+ u-!" 1!t !" !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t !, u-!" t%e c!u,tD& !*" 1!t !", * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! t%e , 3%t !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t t! -,!&ecute % & c!u"te,cl' 1 " t%e &'1e !, " ' &e-','te 'ct !"# T% & + &1 &&'l &%'ll %'0e t%e e$$ect !$ '" '+5u+ c't !" u-!" t%e 1e, t&, u"le&& !t%e,* &e +ecl',e+ (. t%e c!u,t#
44

T$e onl" de#ata#le e-ce!tion %ould #e if it is alleged in t$e counterclai t$at it %as t$e (er" act of t$e !laintiff in filing t$e co !laint %$ic$ caused t$e (iolation of t$e defendantDs rig$ts. Kut it re ains de#ata#le if it is sufficient to o#(iate t$e !ending cause of action #" t$e defendant against t$e !laintiff. *Pinga ( 5eirs of ;er an Santiago+ Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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J(en will t(e dismissal due to t(e plainti%% )e wit( pre=udiceF o "(e %ailure o% t(e plainti%% to appear wit(out =usti%ia)le cause on t(e date o% t(e presentation o% (is evidence in c(ie% on t(e complaint o "(e %ailure o% t(e plainti%% to prosecute (is action %or an unreasona)le lengt( o% time o /ailure o% t(e plainti%% to comly wit( t(e Rules o% Court or any order o% t(e court "(ese can )e grounds o% dismissal )ased upon motion o% t(e de%endant or upon t(e court motu proprio "ake note: dismissal under t(is section will (ave t(e same e%%ect as an ad=udication upon t(e merits- unless ot(erwise declared )y t(e court*

Sec# 6# D &1 &&'l !$ c!u"te,cl' 1, c,!&&-cl' 1, !, t% ,+--',t. c!1-l' "t# T%e -,!0 & !"& !$ t% & Rule &%'ll '--l. t! t%e + &1 &&'l !$ '". c!u"te,cl' 1, c,!&&-cl' 1, !, t% ,+--',t. c!1-l' "t# A 0!lu"t',. + &1 &&'l (. t%e cl' 1'"t (. "!t ce '& " &ect !" 1 !$ t% & Rule, &%'ll (e 1'+e (e$!,e ' ,e&-!"& 0e -le'+ "3 !, ' 1!t !" $!, &u11',. 5u+31e"t & &e,0e+ !,, $ t%e,e & "!"e, (e$!,e t%e "t,!+uct !" !$ e0 +e"ce 't t%e t, 'l !, %e', "3#

"(e rules a)ove also apply to dismissals o% counterclaims- cross0claims or t(ird0party complaints o %or dismissals )y notice- t(ere is an additional reckoning point: )e%ore t(e introduction o% evidence at t(e trial or (earing

RULE 18 =RE-TRIAL Sect !" 1# <%e" c!"+ucte+# A$te, t%e l'&t -le'+ "3 %'& (ee" &e,0e+ '"+ $ le+, t &%'ll (e t%e +ut. !$ t%e -l' "t $$ t! -,!1-tl. 1!0e e/ -',te t%'t t%e c'&e (e &et $!, -,e-t, 'l#

J(at does last pleading meanF o "(e answer- or t(e reply- depending on t(e case J(en must t(e plainti%% move %or pre0trialF o 2 4 &uidelines say t(at it must )e set wit(in < days a%ter t(e last pleading (as )een %iled*4< o I% t(e plainti%% %ails to move %or pre0trial- it is t(e duty o% t(e clerk o% court to issue a notice o% pre0trial*

Sec# 2# N'tu,e '"+ -u,-!&e# T%e -,e-t, 'l & 1'"+'t!,.# T%e c!u,t &%'ll c!"& +e,; (') T%e -!&& ( l t. !$ '" '1 c'(le &ettle1e"t !, !$ ' &u(1 && !" t! 'lte,"'t 0e 1!+e& !$ + &-ute ,e&!lut !": (() T%e & 1-l $ c't !" !$ t%e &&ue&: (c) T%e "ece&& t. !, +e& ,'( l t. !$ '1e"+1e"t& t! t%e -le'+ "3&: (+) T%e -!&& ( l t. !$ !(t' " "3 &t -ul't !"& !, '+1 && !"& !$ $'ct& '"+ !$ +!cu1e"t& t! '0! + u""ece&&',. -,!!$: (e) T%e l 1 t't !" !$ t%e "u1(e, !$ * t"e&&e&: ($) T%e '+0 &'( l t. !$ ' -,el 1 "',. ,e$e,e"ce !$ &&ue& t! ' c!11 && !"e,: (3) T%e -,!-, et. !$ ,e"+e, "3 5u+31e"t !" t%e -le'+ "3&, !, &u11',. 5u+31e"t, !, !$ + &1 && "3 t%e 'ct !" &%!ul+ ' 0'l + 3,!u"+ t%e,e$!, (e $!u"+ t! e/ &t: (%) T%e '+0 &'( l t. !, "ece&& t. !$ &u&-e"+ "3 t%e -,!cee+ "3&: '"+ ( ) Suc% !t%e, 1'tte,& '& 1'. ' + " t%e -,!1-t + &-!& t !" !$ t%e 'ct !"#

J(at,re t(e purposes o% pre0trialF o Amica)le settlement

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Jit$in one da" fro recei!t of t$e co !laint: 1.1 Su ons s$all #e !re!ared and s$all contain a re inder to defendant to o#ser(e restraint in filing a otion to dis iss and instead allege t$e grounds t$ereof as defenses in t$e :ns%er, in confor it" %it$ 'KP32C: 1e orandu on Polic" ;uidelines dated 1arc$ 12, 2002. : co!" of t$e su ons is $ereto attac$ed as :nne- M:6M and 1.2 T$e court s$all issue an order re&uiring t$e !arties to a(ail of interrogatories to !arties under Rule 2/ and re&uest for ad ission #" ad(erse !art" under Rule 24 or at t$eir discretion ake use of de!ositions under Rule 23 or ot$er easures under Rules 27 and 2= %it$in fi(e da"s fro t$e filing of t$e ans%er.1 : co!" of t$e order s$all #e ser(ed u!on t$e defendant toget$er %it$ t$e su ons and u!on t$e !laintiff. Jit$in fi(e */+ da"s fro date of filing of t$e re!l", t$e !laintiff ust !ro !tl" o(e e- !arte t$at t$e case #e set for !re3trial conference.'f t$e !laintiff fails to file said otion %it$in t$e gi(en !eriod, t$e Kranc$ C2C s$all issue a notice of !re3trial. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o ?9pedite proceedings ;e%ore actual pre0trial- t(e =udge will re%er t(e parties to t(e PMC mediation unit %or mediation i% availa)le*4C o "(e parties will pay t(e %ees %or t(e mediator* o "(e pre0trial proceedings are suspended %or G 0C days* I% mediation %ails- preliminary con%erence will )e set wit( t(e )ranc( C6C*4E o "(e preliminary con%erence is like a mini pre0trial* o In t(e preliminary con%erence- t(e )ranc( C6C s(all e9plore t(e possi)ility o% compromiseascertain admission o% %acts and due e9ecution P genuineness o% t(e documents- etc* +egue: is t(ere preliminary con%erence in t(e CA and in +CF >es* +ee Rule 4@ and Rule <C- )ot( %or cases on appeal and original cases* "ake note t(at in e=ectment cases- t(ere is preliminary con%erence- instead o% pre0 trial* ;ut pre0trial rules apply suppletorily* +o in Macasaet v Macasaet $2 4'- t(e +C allowed t(e party to )e represented )y (is counsel via a +PA even i% t(e rules on e=ectment cases were silent a)out it* A%ter t(e preliminary con%erence- t(e =udge will study all t(e pleadings and try to reduce and limit t(e issues* o "(e =udge- wit( all tact- patience- impartiality and wit( due regard to t(e rig(ts o% t(e parties- s(all try to persuade t(em to settle* 4@ o De talks to counsel and parties %irst* I% it %ails- (e will talk to t(e parties only* I% t(ere is still no settlement- t(e =udge s(all among ot(ers: o Adopt t(e minutes o% t(e preliminary con%erence o +crutini.e every single allegation o% t(e complaint o 5e%ine and simpli%y t(e %actual and legal issues %rom t(e pleadings* o Ask parties to agree on speci%ic trial dates- keeping in mind two rules: 6ne0day e9amination o% witness rule K witness (as to )e %ully e9amined in ! day only- i% possi)le Most important witness rule K =udge will determine t(e most important witnesses to )e (eard and limit t(e num)er o% witnesses o Pre0mark t(e evidence $i% not done during preliminary con%erence' Important: i% evidence is not pre0marked during pre0trial- t(en it can no longer )e presented* +ame rule wit( witnesses: witnesses not named during pre0trial will not )e allowed to testi%y ?9ception to evidence and witnesses: i% t(e court allows in t(e interest o% =ustice or i% newly discovered

Sec# 2# N!t ce !$ -,e-t, 'l# T%e "!t ce !$ -,e-t, 'l &%'ll (e &e,0e+ !" c!u"&el, !, !" t%e -',t. *%! %'& "! c!u"&el# T%e c!u"&el &e,0e+ * t% &uc% "!t ce & c%',3e+ * t% t%e +ut. !$ "!t $. "3 t%e -',t. ,e-,e&e"te+ (. % 1#

1otice is served: o 6n t(e counselo I% no counsel- on t(e party It is incum)ent on t(e lawyer to advise (is client a)out a sc(eduled pre0trial- and t(e %ormer,s %ailure to do so constitutes negligence w(ic( )inds t(e latter* $5ia. v CA- 2 C'

44

:t t$e start of t$e !re3trial conference, t$e )udge s$all i ediatel" refer t$e !arties and?or t$eir counsel if aut$oriBed #" t$eir clients to t$e P1C ediation unit for !ur!oses of ediation if a(aila#le. 'f ediation fails, t$e )udge %ill sc$edule t$e continuance of t$e !re3trial conference. 47 Kefore t$e continuance, t$e @udge a" refer t$e case to t$e Kranc$ C2C for a !reli inar" conference to assist t$e !arties in reac$ing a settle ent, to ark t$e docu ents or e-$i#its to #e !resented #" t$e !arties and co!ies t$ereof to #e attac$ed to t$e records after co !arison and to consider suc$ ot$er atters as a" aid in its !ro !t dis!osition 4= Kefore t$e continuation of t$e !re3trial conference, t$e )udge ust stud" all t$e !leadings of t$e case, and deter ine t$e issues t$ereof and t$e res!ecti(e !ositions of t$e !arties t$ereon to ena#le $i to intelligentl" steer t$e !arties to%ard a !ossi#le a ica#le settle ent of t$e case, or, at t$e (er" least, to $el! reduce and li it t$e issues. T$e )udge s$ould not allo% t$e ter ination of !re3trial si !l" #ecause of t$e anifestation of t$e !arties t$at t$e" cannot settle t$e case. 5e s$ould e-!ose t$e !arties to t$e ad(antages of !re3trial. 5e ust also #e indful t$at t$ere are ot$er i !ortant as!ects of t$e !re3trial t$at oug$t to #e taken u! to e-!edite t$e dis!osition of t$e case. 7 T$e @udge %it$ all tact, !atience, i !artialit" and %it$ due regard to t$e rig$ts of t$e !arties s$all endea(or to !ersuade t$e to arri(e at a settle ent of t$e dis!ute Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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"(ere are two dates in t(e notice: o 5ate o% preliminary con%erence o 5ate o% pre0trial itsel%

Sec# 6# A--e','"ce !$ -',t e&# It &%'ll (e t%e +ut. !$ t%e -',t e& '"+ t%e , c!u"&el t! '--e', 't t%e -,e-t, 'l# T%e "!"-'--e','"ce !$ ' -',t. 1'. (e e/cu&e+ !"l. $ ' 0'l + c'u&e & &%!*" t%e,e$!, !, $ ' ,e-,e&e"t't 0e &%'ll '--e', " % & (e%'l$ $ull. 'ut%!, 7e+ " *, t "3 t! e"te, "t! '" '1 c'(le &ettle1e"t, t! &u(1 t t! 'lte,"'t 0e 1!+e& !$ + &-ute ,e&!lut !", '"+ t! e"te, "t! &t -ul't !"& !, '+1 && !"& !$ $'ct& '"+ !$ +!cu1e"t&#

J(o (as to go to t(e pre0trialF o "(e parties- and o "(eir counsel A representative can go )ut (e needs a written +PA aut(ori.ing (im to: o ?nter into an amica)le settlemento +u)mit to alternative modes o% dispute resolution o ?nter into stipulations or admissions o% %acts and documents

Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ $' lu,e t! '--e',# T%e $' lu,e !$ t%e -l' "t $$ t! '--e', *%e" &! ,eAu ,e+ -u,&u'"t t! t%e "e/t -,ece+ "3 &ect !" &%'ll (e c'u&e $!, + &1 &&'l !$ t%e 'ct !"# T%e + &1 &&'l &%'ll (e * t% -,e5u+ ce, u"le&& !t%e,* &e !,+e,e+ (. t%e c!u,t# A & 1 l', $' lu,e !" t%e -',t !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t &%'ll (e c'u&e t! 'll!* t%e -l' "t $$ t! -,e&e"t % & e0 +e"ce e/ -',te '"+ t%e c!u,t t! ,e"+e, 5u+31e"t !" t%e ('& & t%e,e!$#

J(at i% t(e plainti%% doesn,t s(ow upF o Case dismissed wit( pre=udice- unless ot(erwise ordered )y t(e court* J(at i% t(e de%endant doesn,t s(ow upF o Plainti%% may )e allowed to present (is evidence e8 parte% o "(e de%endant is not in de%ault as (e already %iled an answer* o +een in Alcara. v CA $2 C'- w(ere t(e de%endant and (is lawyer did not appear during pre0trial* Court said t(at even i% t(ey were sick- it was not an e9cuse )ecause t(ere was no medical certi%icate $so it wasn,t =usti%ied' and t(e lawyer could (ave )een replaced )y ot(er lawyers in (is %irm* o Inasmuc( as t(e de%endant (as %iled an answer- t(e plainti%% may utili.e admissions made )y t(e de%endant in (is answer* Compare: In e=ectment cases $rule E '- %ailure o% de%endant to s(ow up in t(e preliminary con%erence will allow =udgment to )e rendered immediately* 48 J(at i% t(e client is present- )ut t(e lawyer isn,t t(ereF o 1o adverse e%%ect* o Lawyer to )e reprimanded* J(at i% t(e lawyer is t(e attorney0at0%act o% t(e plainti%% also- and (e didn,t attend pre0trialF o 5ismissed wit( pre=udice**

Sec# 9# =,e-t, 'l (, e$# T%e -',t e& &%'ll $ le * t% t%e c!u,t '"+ &e,0e !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t., " &uc% 1'""e, '& &%'ll e"&u,e t%e , ,ece -t t%e,e!$ 't le'&t t%,ee (2) +'.& (e$!,e t%e +'te !$ t%e -,e-t, 'l, t%e , ,e&-ect 0e -,e-t, 'l

4<

Sec. =. Preli inar" conference6 a!!earance of !arties. >ot later t$an t$irt" *30+ da"s after t$e last ans%er is filed, a !reli inar" conference s$all #e $eld. T$e !ro(isions of Rule 1= on !re3trial s$all #e a!!lica#le to t$e !reli inar" conference unless inconsistent %it$ t$e !ro(isions of t$is Rule. T$e failure of t$e !laintiff to a!!ear in t$e !reli inar" conference s$all #e cause for t$e dis issal of $is co !laint. T$e defendant %$o a!!ears in t$e a#sence of t$e !laintiff s$all #e entitled to )udg ent on $is counterclai in accordance %it$ t$e ne-t !receding section. :ll cross3clai s s$all #e dis issed. 'f a sole defendant s$all fail to a!!ear, t$e !laintiff s$all like%ise #e entitled to )udg ent in accordance %it$ t$e ne-t !receding section. T$is !rocedure s$all not a!!l" %$ere one of t%o or ore defendants sued under a co on cause of action %$o $ad !leaded a co on defense s$all a!!ear at t$e !reli inar" conference. >o !ost!one ent of t$e !reli inar" conference s$all #e granted e-ce!t for $ig$l" eritorious grounds and %it$out !re)udice to suc$ sanctions as t$e court in t$e e-ercise of sound discretion a" i !ose on t$e o(ant. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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(, e$& *% c% &%'ll c!"t' ", '1!"3 !t%e,&; (') A &t'te1e"t !$ t%e , * ll "3"e&& t! e"te, "t! '1 c'(le &ettle1e"t !, 'lte,"'t 0e 1!+e& !$ + &-ute ,e&!lut !", "+ c't "3 t%e +e& ,e+ te,1& t%e,e!$: (() A &u11',. !$ '+1 tte+ $'ct& '"+ -,!-!&e+ &t -ul't !" !$ $'ct&: (c) T%e &&ue& t! (e t, e+ !, ,e&!l0e+: (+) T%e +!cu1e"t& !, e/% ( t& t! (e -,e&e"te+, &t't "3 t%e -u,-!&e t%e,e!$: (e) A 1'" $e&t't !" !$ t%e , %'0 "3 '0' le+ !, t%e , "te"t !" t! '0' l t%e1&el0e& !$ + &c!0e,. -,!ce+u,e& !, ,e$e,,'l t! c!11 && !"e,&: '"+ ($) T%e "u1(e, '"+ "'1e& !$ t%e * t"e&&e&, '"+ t%e &u(&t'"ce !$ t%e , ,e&-ect 0e te&t 1!" e&# F' lu,e t! $ le t%e -,e-t, 'l (, e$ &%'ll %'0e t%e &'1e e$$ect '& $' lu,e t! '--e', 't t%e -,e-t, 'l#

J(at is t(e e%%ect o% %ailure to %ile t(e pre0trial )rie%F o +ame as %ailure to appear at t(e pre0trial*

Sec# 7# Rec!,+ !$ -,e-t, 'l# T%e -,!cee+ "3& " t%e -,e-t, 'l &%'ll (e ,ec!,+e+# U-!" t%e te,1 "'t !" t%e,e!$, t%e c!u,t &%'ll &&ue '" !,+e, *% c% &%'ll ,ec te " +et' l t%e 1'tte,& t')e" u- " t%e c!"$e,e"ce, t%e 'ct !" t')e" t%e,e!", t%e '1e"+1e"t& 'll!*e+ t! t%e -le'+ "3&, '"+ t%e '3,ee1e"t& !, '+1 && !"& 1'+e (. t%e -',t e& '& t! '". !$ t%e 1'tte,& c!"& +e,e+# S%!ul+ t%e 'ct !" -,!cee+ t! t, 'l, t%e !,+e, &%'ll e/-l c tl. +e$ "e '"+ l 1 t t%e &&ue& t! (e t, e+# T%e c!"te"t& !$ t%e !,+e, &%'ll c!"t,!l t%e &u(&eAue"t c!u,&e !$ t%e 'ct !", u"le&& 1!+ $ e+ (e$!,e t, 'l t! -,e0e"t 1'" $e&t "5u&t ce#

"(e pre0trial order is t(e )i)le o% t(e trial* It: o ;inds t(e parties o Limits t(e trial to matters not disposed o% o Controls t(e course o% action during trial "(e =udge will issue it wit(in ! days %rom t(e end o% pre0trial* o 6r- t(e =udge can dictate t(e pre0trial order in open court in t(e presence o% t(e parties and t(eir counsel* It will )e printed and given to t(em a%terward* < 5i%%erence )etween criminal and civil pre0trial: o I% prosecution is a)sent- pre0trial will )e re0sc(eduled* o I% accused is a)sent- prosecution cannot present evidence e90parte )ecause it will violate t(e accused person,s rig(t to con%ront witness* Accused will eit(er )e arrested to compel (im to appear or )ail will )e %or%eited* o I% private complainant a)sent- no dismissal o% case since (e is merely a complaining witness 41L?++ t(ere is repeated a)sence on (isI(er part* o "(e only similarity is t(at w(en t(e counsel is a)sent- (e will )e sanctioned* o /or admissions o% t(e accused to )e taken against (im- it must )e in writing and signed)y )ot( t(e accused and (is counsel* <! 1o similar provision in civil cases* 3udicial dispute resolution $AM 40 !0!20+C' o "(ere is now 35R in Makati and in Manila* o J(o is a 35R =udgeF De is t(e one w(o acts as a mediator- conciliator- and independent evaluator in t(e stage )etween t(e %iling o% t(e complaint and )e%ore pre0trial* 4nless t(e parties consent to continue wit( t(e 35R =udge- it is mandatory t(at t(ere will )e a new ra%%le K and t(e new =udge w(o will (ear- try- and decide t(e case is t(e trial =udge*

RULE 1B INTER>ENTION Sect !" 1# <%! 1'. "te,0e"e#


/0

T$e )udge s$all issue t$e re&uired Pre3Trial 2rder %it$in ten *10+ da"s after t$e ter ination of t$e !re3trial. Said 2rder s$all #ind t$e !arties, li it t$e trial to atters not dis!osed of and control t$e course of t$e action during t$e trial. : sa !le Pre3Trial 2rder is $ereto attac$ed as :nne- M..M 5o%e(er, t$e Court a" o!t to dictate t$e Pre3Trial 2rder in o!en court in t$e !resence of t$e !arties and t$eir counsel and %it$ t$e use of a co !uter, s$all $a(e t$e sa e i ediatel" finaliBed and !rinted. 2nce finis$ed, t$e !arties and?or t$eir counsel s$all sign t$e sa e to anifest t$eir confor it" t$ereto. /1 :ll agree ents or ad issions ade or entered during t$e !re3trial conference s$all #e reduced in %riting and signed #" t$e accused and counsel, ot$er%ise, t$e" cannot #e used against t$e accused. T$e agree ents co(ering t$e atters referred to in Section 1 of Rule 11= s$all #e a!!ro(ed #" t$e court. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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A -e,&!" *%! %'& ' le3'l "te,e&t " t%e 1'tte, " l t 3't !", !, " t%e &ucce&& !$ e t%e, !$ t%e -',t e&, !, '" "te,e&t '3' "&t (!t%, !, & &! & tu'te+ '& t! (e '+0e,&el. '$$ecte+ (. ' + &t, (ut !" !, !t%e, + &-!& t !" !$ -,!-e,t. " t%e cu&t!+. !$ t%e c!u,t !, !$ '" !$$ ce, t%e,e!$ 1'., * t% le'0e !$ c!u,t, (e 'll!*e+ t! "te,0e"e " t%e 'ct !"# T%e c!u,t &%'ll c!"& +e, *%et%e, !, "!t t%e "te,0e"t !" * ll u"+ul. +el'. !, -,e5u+ ce t%e '+5u+ c't !" !$ t%e , 3%t& !$ t%e !, 3 "'l -',t e&, '"+ *%et%e, !, "!t t%e "te,0e"!,D& , 3%t& 1'. (e $ull. -,!tecte+ " ' &e-','te -,!cee+ "3#

In intervention- a t(ird party takes part in a case )etween ot(er parties )ecause o% o Legal interest in t(e matter in litigation In t(e success o% eit(er parties against )ot( o situated as to )e adversely a%%ected )y a distri)ution or ot(er disposition o% property in t(e custody o% t(e court or an o%%icer t(ereo% Must )e done wit( leave o% court Court will c(eck w(et(er: o It will unduly delay or pre=udice t(e ad=udication o% t(e rig(ts o% t(e original parties- and o I% intervenor,s rig(ts may )e %ully protected in a separate proceeding "(e intervenor must (ave (isI(er own cause o% action* $1ordic case' o "(ere was a mortgage over a vessel to secure a loan* "(ere was de%ault in payment- so t(ere was e9tra=udicial %oreclosure* J(ile t(e %oreclosure was pending- t(ere was a complaint %iled )y t(e crew mem)ers o% t(e vessel %or sum o% money against t(e vessel* "(e mortgagee soug(t to intervene in t(e sum o% money case )ecause it (eld a pre%erred mortgage* +C said no legal interest* Dere- mortgagee (ad no interest in t(e sum o% money case- and in t(is case- t(e mortgagee can protect its rig(ts in t(e %oreclosure case* 5ismissal o% original action will result into dismissal o% t(e intervention* $compare wit( counterclaim2' o "(e =urisdiction o% t(e intervention is governed )y t(e main action* +o i% t(e court (as no =d over t(e principal action- t(en it (as no =d over an intervention* $A"I v ;autista0 Rica%ort- 2 C- w(erein t(e main action- and t(e intervention- was %iled in t(e wrong court*' 5i%%erence )etween intervention and interpleader o In intervention- intervenor must (ave legal interest o In interpleader- t(e interpleading dude (as no legal interest in t(e property in possession 6t(er provisions on intervention: o Rule <E- +ec !4 $on attac(ment' K G rd party claimant can intervene o Rule G8- +ec !C K can no longer vindicate in same action- as t(ere was %inal =udgment already

Sec# 2# T 1e t! "te,0e"e# T%e 1!t !" t! "te,0e"e 1'. (e $ le+ 't '". t 1e (e$!,e ,e"+ t !" !$ 5u+31e"t (. t%e t, 'l c!u,t# A c!-. !$ t%e -le'+ "3- "- "te,0e"t !" &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e 1!t !" '"+ &e,0e+ !" t%e !, 3 "'l -',t e&#

Intervention can )e done A" A1> "IM? )e%ore rendition o% =udgment )y t(e "RIAL C64R"* 1o provision on intervention in appellate courts* +o- appellate courts can allow intervention in t(eir sound discretion* A%ter =udgment- can t(ere still )e interventionF o &R: 1o* ?AC?P" i% indispensa)le party- t(e court may allow intervention even a%ter =udgment* $Looyuko v CA- 2 !- w(erein =unior creditors were 16" allowed to intervene in a decided %oreclosure case )ecause t(ey were not indispensa)le parties'

Sec# 2# =le'+ "3&- "- "te,0e"t !"# T%e "te,0e"!, &%'ll $ le ' c!1-l' "t- "- "te,0e"t !" $ %e '&&e,t& ' cl' 1 '3' "&t e t%e, !, 'll !$ t%e !, 3 "'l -',t e&, !, '" '"&*e,- "- "te,0e"t !" $ %e u" te& * t% t%e +e$e"+ "3 -',t. " ,e& &t "3 ' cl' 1 '3' "&t t%e l'tte,#

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 6# A"&*e, t! c!1-l' "t- "- "te,0e"t !"# T%e '"&*e, t! t%e c!1-l' "t- " - "te,0e"t !" &%'ll (e $ le+ * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e !,+e, '+1 tt "3 t%e &'1e, u"le&& ' + $$e,e"t -e, !+ & $ /e+ (. t%e c!u,t# RULE 20 CALENDAR OF CASES Sect !" 1# C'le"+', !$ c'&e&# T%e cle,) !$ c!u,t, u"+e, t%e + ,ect &u-e,0 & !" !$ t%e 5u+3e, &%'ll )ee- ' c'le"+', !$ c'&e& $!, -,et, 'l, $!, t, 'l, t%!&e *%!&e t, 'l& *e,e '+5!u,"e+ !, -!&t-!"e+, '"+ t%!&e * t% 1!t !"& t! &et $!, %e', "3# =,e$e,e"ce &%'ll (e 3 0e" t! %'(e'& c!,-u& c'&e&, elect !" c'&e&, &-ec 'l c 0 l 'ct !"&, '"+ t%!&e &! ,eAu ,e+ (. l'*# Sec# 2# A&& 3"1e"t !$ c'&e&# T%e '&& 3"1e"t !$ c'&e& t! t%e + $$e,e"t (,'"c%e& !$ ' c!u,t &%'ll (e +!"e e/clu& 0el. (. ,'$$le# T%e '&& 3"1e"t &%'ll (e +!"e " !-e" &e&& !" !$ *% c% '+eAu'te "!t ce &%'ll (e 3 0e" &! '& t! '$$!,+ "te,e&te+ -',t e& t%e !--!,tu" t. t! (e -,e&e"t#

RULE 21 SU4=OENA Sect !" 1# Su(-!e"' '"+ &u(-!e"' +uce& tecu1# Su(-!e"' & ' -,!ce&& + ,ecte+ t! ' -e,&!" ,eAu , "3 % 1 t! 'tte"+ '"+ t! te&t $. 't t%e %e', "3 !, t%e t, 'l !$ '" 'ct !", !, 't '". "0e&t 3't !" c!"+ucte+ (. c!1-ete"t 'ut%!, t., !, $!, t%e t') "3 !$ % & +e-!& t !"# It 1'. 'l&! ,eAu ,e % 1 t! (, "3 * t% % 1 '". (!!)&, +!cu1e"t&, !, !t%e, t% "3& u"+e, % & c!"t,!l, " *% c% c'&e t & c'lle+ ' &u(-!e"' +uce& tecu1#

Ad testi%icandum: appear and testi%y 5uces tecum: appear and )ring wit( (im t(e documents or t(ings o Person wit( t(e documents must appear too* De =ust can,t mail t(e t(ings or documents*

Sec# 2# 4. *%!1 &&ue+# T%e &u(-!e"' 1'. (e &&ue+ (.; ') t%e c!u,t (e$!,e *%!1 t%e * t"e&& & ,eAu ,e+ t! 'tte"+: () t%e c!u,t !$ t%e -l'ce *%e,e t%e +e-!& t !" & t! (e t')e": c) t%e !$$ ce, !, (!+. 'ut%!, 7e+ (. l'* t! +! &! " c!""ect !" * t% "0e&t 3't !"& c!"+ucte+ (. &' + !$$ ce, !, (!+.: !, +) '". Ju&t ce !$ t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t !, !$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& " '". c'&e !, "0e&t 3't !" -e"+ "3 * t% " t%e =% l -- "e&# <%e" '--l c't !" $!, ' &u(-!e"' t! ' -, &!"e, & 1'+e, t%e 5u+3e !, !$$ ce, &%'ll e/'1 "e '"+ &tu+. c',e$ull. &uc% '--l c't !" t! +ete,1 "e *%et%e, t%e &'1e & 1'+e $!, ' 0'l + -u,-!&e# N! -, &!"e, &e"te"ce+ t! +e't%, ,eclu& !" -e,-etu' !, l $e 1-, &!"1e"t '"+ *%! & c!"$ "e+ " '". -e"'l "&t tut !" &%'ll (e (,!u3%t !ut& +e t%e &' + -e"'l "&t tut !" $!, '--e','"ce !, 'tte"+'"ce " '". c!u,t u"le&& 'ut%!, 7e+ (. t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t#

J(o can issue a su)poenaF o "(e court w(ere witness must attend o Court w(ere deposition is taken o 6%%icerI)ody aut(ori.ed )y law in connection wit( investigations conducted )y o%%icerI)ody 6M; can issue a su)poena 1;I also 6%%ice o% t(e prosecutor also $see Rule !!2- +ec G' ?9cept in ;P22 cases $not sure w(y- )ut Atty "ran#uil said so' o +CICA =ustice in any case or investigation pending wit(in t(e P(ilippines Can a clerk o% court issue a su)poenaF o Ad testi%icandum: yes- as long as t(ere is a pending case* o 5uces tecum: yes- as long as t(ere is a pending case and t(ere is a court order to do so* A clerk o% court can not issue a su)poena in t(e a)sence o% a =udicial actionIcase- no matter (is good intentions* $Collado v ;ravo- 2 !!' Can =udge issue a su)poena to a convictF o >es* ;ut it must )e %or a valid purpose*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o /or t(ose under deat(IRPIli%e- +C must aut(ori.e t(e appearance I% court %ails to issue a su)poena- %ile Rule C< &A5L?3*

Sec# 2# F!,1 '"+ c!"te"t&# A &u(-!e"' &%'ll &t'te t%e "'1e !$ t%e c!u,t '"+ t%e t tle !$ t%e 'ct !" !, "0e&t 3't !", &%'ll (e + ,ecte+ t! t%e -e,&!" *%!&e 'tte"+'"ce & ,eAu ,e+, '"+ " t%e c'&e !$ ' &u(-!e"' +uce& tecu1, t &%'ll 'l&! c!"t' " ' ,e'&!"'(le +e&c, -t !" !$ t%e (!!)&, +!cu1e"t& !, t% "3& +e1'"+e+ *% c% 1u&t '--e', t! t%e c!u,t -, 1' $'c e ,ele0'"t#

Re#uisites %or issuance o% su)poenas duces tecum: o "est o% relevancy: t(e t(ings re#uested must appear prima %acie relevant to t(e issue su)=ect o% t(e controversy +een in Roco v Contreras $2 <' w(erein documents soug(t to prove payment were deemed irrelevant in a ;P22 case- so su)poena %or suc( was #ueas(ed o "est o% de%initeness: suc( must )e reasona)ly descri)ed )y t(e parties to )e readily identi%ied

Sec# 6# Fu'&% "3 ' &u(-!e"'# T%e c!u,t 1'. Au'&% ' &u(-!e"' +uce& tecu1 u-!" 1!t !" -,!1-tl. 1'+e '"+, " '". e0e"t, 't !, (e$!,e t%e t 1e &-ec $ e+ t%e,e " $ t & u",e'&!"'(le '"+ !--,e&& 0e, !, t%e ,ele0'"c. !$ t%e (!!)&, +!cu1e"t& !, t% "3& +!e& "!t '--e',, !, $ t%e -e,&!" " *%!&e (e%'l$ t%e &u(-!e"' & &&ue+ $' l& t! '+0'"ce t%e ,e'&!"'(le c!&t !$ t%e -,!+uct !" t%e,e!$# T%e c!u,t 1'. Au'&% ' &u(-!e"' '+ te&t $ c'"+u1 !" t%e 3,!u"+ t%'t t%e * t"e&& & "!t (!u"+ t%e,e(.# I" e t%e, c'&e, t%e &u(-!e"' 1'. (e Au'&%e+ !" t%e 3,!u"+ t%'t t%e * t"e&& $ee& '"+ ) l!1et,'3e 'll!*e+ (. t%e&e Rule& *e,e "!t te"+e,e+ *%e" t%e &u(-!e"' *'& &e,0e+#

&rounds %or #uas(ing a su)poena: o Ad testi%icandum Jitness is not )ound t(ere)y Like w(en t(e witness is not #uali%ied- or would %all under a known privilege Jitness %ees and kilometrage allowed )y t(e Rules were not tendered ! km rule $witness must live ! km wit(in t(e place w(ere t(e (earing is conducted' o i% witness re%uses- (e can )e arrested to compel (im to appear o 5uces tecum 4nreasona)le and oppressive Relevancy o% t(e )ooks- documents- t(ings does not appear /ailure to tender t(e costs o% production 7ilometrageIwitness %ees not tendered /ailure to descri)e wit( particularity

Sec# 8# Su(-!e"' $!, +e-!& t !"&# =,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ ' "!t ce t! t')e ' +e-!& t !", '& -,!0 +e+ " &ect !"& 18 '"+ 28 !$ Rule 22, &%'ll c!"&t tute &u$$ c e"t 'ut%!, 7't !" $!, t%e &&u'"ce !$ &u(-!e"'& $!, t%e -e,&!"& "'1e+ " &' + "!t ce (. t%e cle,) !$ t%e c!u,t !$ t%e -l'ce " *% c% t%e +e-!& t !" & t! (e t')e"# T%e cle,) &%'ll "!t, %!*e0e,, &&ue ' &u(-!e"' +uce& tecu1 t! '". &uc% -e,&!" * t%!ut '" !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t# Sec# 9# Se,0 ce# Se,0 ce !$ ' &u(-!e"' &%'ll (e 1'+e " t%e &'1e 1'""e, '& -e,&!"'l !, &u(&t tute+ &e,0 ce !$ &u11!"&# T%e !, 3 "'l &%'ll (e e/% ( te+ '"+ ' c!-. t%e,e!$ +el 0e,e+ t! t%e -e,&!" !" *%!1 t & &e,0e+, te"+e, "3 t! % 1 t%e $ee& $!, !"e +'.G& 'tte"+'"ce '"+ t%e ) l!1et,'3e 'll!*e+ (. t%e&e Rule&, e/ce-t t%'t, *%e" ' &u(-!e"' & &&ue+ (. !, !" (e%'l$ !$ t%e Re-u(l c !$ t%e =% l -- "e& !, '" !$$ ce, !, '3e"c. t%e,e!$, t%e te"+e, "ee+ "!t (e 1'+e# T%e &e,0 ce 1u&t (e 1'+e &! '& t! 'll!* t%e * t"e&& ' ,e'&!"'(le t 1e $!, -,e-','t !" '"+ t,'0el t! t%e -l'ce !$ 'tte"+'"ce# I$ t%e &u(-!e"' & +uce& tecu1, t%e ,e'&!"'(le c!&t !$ -,!+uc "3 t%e (!!)&, +!cu1e"t& !, t% "3& +e1'"+e+ &%'ll 'l&! (e te"+e,e+# Sec# 7# =e,&!"'l '--e','"ce " c!u,t# A -e,&!" -,e&e"t " c!u,t (e$!,e ' 5u+ c 'l !$$ ce, 1'. (e ,eAu ,e+ t! te&t $. '& $ %e *e,e " 'tte"+'"ce u-!" ' &u(-!e"' &&ue+ (. &uc% c!u,t !, !$$ ce,# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 8# C!1-ell "3 'tte"+'"ce# I" c'&e !$ $' lu,e !$ ' * t"e&& t! 'tte"+, t%e c!u,t !, 5u+3e &&u "3 t%e &u(-!e"', u-!" -,!!$ !$ t%e &e,0 ce t%e,e!$ '"+ !$ t%e $' lu,e !$ t%e * t"e&&, 1'. &&ue ' *',,'"t t! t%e &%e, $$ !$ t%e -,!0 "ce, !, % & +e-ut., t! ',,e&t t%e * t"e&& '"+ (, "3 % 1 (e$!,e t%e c!u,t !, !$$ ce, *%e,e % & 'tte"+'"ce & ,eAu ,e+, '"+ t%e c!&t !$ &uc% *',,'"t '"+ &e 7u,e !$ &uc% * t"e&& &%'ll (e -' + (. t%e * t"e&& $ t%e c!u,t &&u "3 t &%'ll +ete,1 "e t%'t % & $' lu,e t! '"&*e, t%e &u(-!e"' *'& * ll$ul '"+ * t%!ut 5u&t e/cu&e# Sec# B# C!"te1-t# F' lu,e (. '". -e,&!" * t%!ut '+eAu'te c'u&e t! !(e. ' &u(-!e"' &e,0e+ u-!" % 1 &%'ll (e +ee1e+ ' c!"te1-t !$ t%e c!u,t $,!1 *% c% t%e &u(-!e"' & &&ue+# I$ t%e &u(-!e"' *'& "!t &&ue+ (. ' c!u,t, t%e + &!(e+ e"ce t%e,et! &%'ll (e -u" &%e+ " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e '--l c'(le l'* !, Rule# Sec# 10# E/ce-t !"&# T%e -,!0 & !"& !$ &ect !"& 8 '"+ B !$ t% & Rule &%'ll "!t '--l. t! ' * t"e&& *%! ,e& +e& 1!,e t%'" !"e %u"+,e+ (100) ) l!1ete,& $,!1 % & ,e& +e"ce t! t%e -l'ce *%e,e %e & t! te&t $. (. t%e !,+ "',. c!u,&e !$ t,'0el, !, t! ' +ete"t !" -, &!"e, $ "! -e,1 && !" !$ t%e c!u,t " *% c% % & c'&e & -e"+ "3 *'& !(t' "e+#

RULE 22 COM=UTATION OF TIME Sect !" 1# @!* t! c!1-ute t 1e# I" c!1-ut "3 '". -e, !+ !$ t 1e -,e&c, (e+ !, 'll!*e+ (. t%e&e Rule&, !, (. !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t, !, (. '". '--l c'(le &t'tute, t%e +'. !$ t%e 'ct !, e0e"t $,!1 *% c% t%e +e& 3"'te+ -e, !+ !$ t 1e (e3 "& t! ,u" & t! (e e/clu+e+ '"+ t%e +'te !$ -e,$!,1'"ce "clu+e+# I$ t%e l'&t +'. !$ t%e -e, !+, '& t%u& c!1-ute+, $'ll& !" ' S'tu,+'., ' Su"+'., !, ' le3'l %!l +'. " t%e -l'ce *%e,e t%e c!u,t & t&, t%e t 1e &%'ll "!t ,u" u"t l t%e "e/t *!,) "3 +'.# Sec# 2# E$$ect !$ "te,,u-t !"# S%!ul+ '" 'ct (e +!"e *% c% e$$ect 0el. "te,,u-t& t%e ,u"" "3 !$ t%e -e, !+, t%e 'll!*'(le -e, !+ '$te, &uc% "te,,u-t !" &%'ll &t',t t! ,u" !" t%e +'. '$te, "!t ce !$ t%e ce&&'t !" !$ t%e c'u&e t%e,e!$# T%e +'. !$ t%e 'ct t%'t c'u&e+ t%e "te,,u-t !" &%'ll (e e/clu+e+ " t%e c!1-ut't !" !$ t%e -e, !+#

Important sections2 5on,t =ust gloss over2 ;R?A7 M41A2

MODES OF DISCO>ERH

J(at are t(e 4 modes o% discoveryF o 5epositions pending action $Rule 2G' o Re#uest %or admission )y adverse party $Rule 2C' o Motion %or production o% documents or inspection o% t(ings $Rule 2E' o P(ysical and Mental ?9amination o% Persons $Rule 2@' In general- t(e modes are availed o% a%ter t(e issues (ave )een =oined wit( t(e %iling o% t(e answer* "(e primary %unction o% modes is to supplement t(e pleadings %or t(e purpose o% disclosing t(e real points o% dispute and a%%ording an ade#uate %actual )asis during t(e preapartion %or trial* $3onat(an Land 6il'

RULE 22 DE=OSITIONS =ENDING ACTIONS Sect !" 1# De-!& t !"& -e"+ "3 'ct !", *%e" 1'. (e t')e"# 4. le'0e !$ c!u,t '$te, 5u, &+ ct !" %'& (ee" !(t' "e+ !0e, '". +e$e"+'"t !, !0e, -,!-e,t. *% c% & t%e &u(5ect !$ t%e 'ct !", !, * t%!ut &uc% le'0e '$te, '" '"&*e, %'& (ee" &e,0e+, t%e te&t 1!". !$ '". -e,&!", *%et%e, ' -',t. !, "!t, 1'. (e t')e", 't t%e "&t'"ce !$ '". -',t., (. +e-!& t !" u-!" !,'l e/'1 "'t !" !, *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e&# T%e 'tte"+'"ce !$ * t"e&&e& 1'. (e c!1-elle+ (. t%e u&e !$ ' &u(-!e"' '& -,!0 +e+ " Rule 21# De-!& t !"& &%'ll (e t')e" !"l. " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e&e Rule&# T%e +e-!& t !" !$ ' -e,&!" c!"$ "e+ " -, &!" 1'. (e t')e" !"l. (. le'0e !$ c!u,t !" &uc% te,1& '& t%e c!u,t -,e&c, (e&#

J(en may a deposition pending action )e taken and (owF o A%ter =urisdiction over any de%endant or over property: )y leave o% court J(en else do you need leave o% courtF

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I% deposition o% a prisoner is needed A%ter an answer (as )een served: matter o% rig(tQ mere notice needed +ince issues (ave already )een =oined J(at i% w(at was %iled was an ans!er ad cautelam- wit( leave o% court or )y mere noticeF ;y mere notice* An answer ad cautelam is still an answer* It doesn,t make it less o% an answer* $Rosete v Lim- 2 C' 5epositions may )e taken A1> time a%ter institution o% any action* $=ust depends i% wit( leave o% court or not' o It can even )e used in a (earing %or a motion to #uas( e9ecution* $3onat(an Land 6il v Mangudadatu- 2 4' Can non0resident %oreign corporations use depositions %or t(eir witnesses w(o live a)roadF o >es- t(ere is no distinction as to w(o can use Rule 2G* It* 56?+1,"* MA""?R* $+an Luis v Ro=as- 2 @- w(ere written interrogatories were to )e used' 5oes Rule 2G apply in criminal casesF o 162 It does not2 $At least it didn,t in Manguerra v Risos- 2 @- w(erein t(e prosecuting witness was deposed in Makati )ut t(e case was in Ce)u* Court (eld t(at Rule !!8- +ec !< must )e %ollowed* "(e prosecuting witness must )e e9amined )e%ore t(e court w(ere t(e case is pending*'<2 o

Sec# 2# Sc!-e !$ e/'1 "'t !"# U"le&& !t%e,* &e !,+e,e+ (. t%e c!u,t '& -,!0 +e+ (. &ect !" 19 !, 18 !$ t% & Rule, t%e +e-!"e"t 1'. (e e/'1 "e+ ,e3',+ "3 '". 1'tte,, "!t -, 0 le3e+, *% c% & ,ele0'"t t! t%e &u(5ect !$ t%e -e"+ "3 'ct !", *%et%e, ,el't "3 t! t%e cl' 1 !, +e$e"&e !$ '". !t%e, -',t., "clu+ "3 t%e e/ &te"ce, +e&c, -t !", "'tu,e, cu&t!+., c!"+ t !", '"+ l!c't !" !$ '". (!!)&, +!cu1e"t&, !, !t%e, t'"3 (le t% "3& '"+ t%e +e"t t. '"+ l!c't !" !$ -e,&!"& %'0 "3 )"!*le+3e !$ ,ele0'"t $'ct&#

J(at can )e t(e su)=ect o% t(e depositionF o A1> matter as long as not privileged- and is relevant to t(e su)=ect o% t(e pending action*

Sec# 2# E/'1 "'t !" '"+ c,!&&-e/'1 "'t !"# E/'1 "'t !" '"+ c,!&&-e/'1 "'t !" !$ +e-!"e"t& 1'. -,!cee+ '& -e,1 tte+ 't t%e t, 'l u"+e, &ect !"& 2 t! 18 !$ Rule 122# Sec# 6# U&e !$ +e-!& t !"&# At t%e t, 'l !, u-!" t%e %e', "3 !$ ' 1!t !" !, '" "te,l!cut!,. -,!cee+ "3, '". -',t !, 'll !$ ' +e-!& t !", &! $', '& '+1 && (le u"+e, t%e ,ule& !$ e0 +e"ce, 1'. (e u&e+ '3' "&t '". -',t. *%! *'& -,e&e"t !, ,e-,e&e"te+ 't t%e t') "3 !$ t%e +e-!& t !" !, *%! %'+ +ue "!t ce t%e,e!$, " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% '". !"e !$ t%e $!ll!* "3 -,!0 & !"&; (') A". +e-!& t !" 1'. (e u&e+ (. '". -',t. $!, t%e -u,-!&e !$ c!"t,'+ ct "3 !, 1-e'c% "3 t%e te&t 1!". !$ +e-!"e"t '& ' * t"e&&: (() T%e +e-!& t !" !$ ' -',t. !, !$ '". !"e *%! 't t%e t 1e !$ t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !" *'& '" !$$ ce,, + ,ect!,, !, 1'"'3 "3 '3e"t !$ ' -u(l c !, -, 0'te c!,-!,'t !", -',t"e,&% -, !, '&&!c 't !" *% c% & ' -',t. 1'. (e u&e+ (. '" '+0e,&e -',t. $!, '". -u,-!&e: (c) T%e +e-!& t !" !$ ' * t"e&&, *%et%e, !, "!t ' -',t., 1'. (e u&e+ (. '". -',t. $!, '". -u,-!&e $ t%e c!u,t $ "+&; (1) t%'t t%e * t"e&& & +e'+: !,
/2

Sec. 1/. ,-a ination of %itness for t$e !rosecution. J$en it is satisfactoril" a!!ears t$at a %itness for t$e !rosecution is too sick or infir to a!!ear at t$e trial as directed #" t$e court, of $as to lea(e t$e P$ili!!ines %it$ no definite date of returning, $e a" fort$%it$ #e conditionall" e-a ined #efore t$e court %$ere t$e case is !ending. Suc$ e-a ination, in t$e !resence of t$e accused, or in $is a#sence after reasona#le notice to attend t$e e-a ination $as #een ser(ed on $i , s$all #e conducted in t$e sa e anner as an e-a ination at t$e trial. 7ailure or refusal of t$e accused to attend t$e e-a ination at t$e trial. 7ailure or refusal of t$e accused to attend t$e e-a ination after notice s$all #e considered a %ai(er. T$e state ent taken a" #e ad itted in #e$alf of or against t$e accused. *differentiate %it$ defense %itness+ Sec. 13. ,-a ination of defense %itness6 $o% ade. 'f t$e court is satisfied t$at t$e e-a ination of a %itness for t$e accused is necessar", an order s$all #e ade directing t$at t$e %itness #e e-a ined at a s!ecific date, ti e and !lace and t$at a co!" of t$e order #e ser(ed on t$e !rosecutor at least t$ree *3+ da"s #efore t$e sc$eduled e-a ination. T$e e-a ination s$all #e taken #efore a )udge, or, if not !ractica#le, a e #er of t$e Kar in good standing so designated #" t$e )udge in t$e order, or if t$e order #e ade #" a court of su!erior )urisdiction, #efore an inferior court to #e designated t$erein. T$e e-a ination s$all !roceed not%it$standing t$e a#sence of t$e !rosecutor !ro(ided $e %as dul" notified of t$e $earing. : %ritten record of t$e testi on" s$all #e taken. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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(2) t%'t t%e * t"e&& ,e& +e& 't ' + &t'"ce 1!,e t%'" !"e %u"+,e+ (100) ) l!1ete,& $,!1 t%e -l'ce !$ t, 'l !, %e', "3, !, & !ut !$ t%e =% l -- "e&, u"le&& t '--e',& t%'t % & '(&e"ce *'& -,!cu,e+ (. t%e -',t. !$$e, "3 t%e +e-!& t !": !, (2) t%'t t%e * t"e&& & u"'(le t! 'tte"+ !, te&t $. (ec'u&e !$ '3e, & c)"e&&, "$ ,1 t., !, 1-, &!"1e"t: !, (6) t%'t t%e -',t. !$$e, "3 t%e +e-!& t !" %'& (ee" u"'(le t! -,!cu,e t%e 'tte"+'"ce !$ t%e * t"e&& (. &u(-!e"': !, (8) u-!" '--l c't !" '"+ "!t ce, t%'t &uc% e/ce-t !"'l c ,cu1&t'"ce& e/ &t '& t! 1')e t +e& ,'(le, " t%e "te,e&t !$ 5u&t ce '"+ * t% +ue ,e3',+ t! t%e 1-!,t'"ce !$ -,e&e"t "3 t%e te&t 1!". !$ * t"e&&e& !,'ll. " !-e" c!u,t, t! 'll!* t%e +e-!& t !" t! (e u&e+: '"+ (+) I$ !"l. -',t !$ ' +e-!& t !" & !$$e,e+ " e0 +e"ce (. ' -',t., t%e '+0e,&e -',t. 1'. ,eAu ,e % 1 t! "t,!+uce 'll !$ t *% c% & ,ele0'"t t! t%e -',t "t,!+uce+, '"+ '". -',t. 1'. "t,!+uce '". !t%e, -',t&#

J(at are t(e uses o% depositionsF o "o impeac( t(e testimony o% a witness o 4sed against t(e adverse party %or any purpose o 4sed in lieu o% t(e oral testimony o% a witness i% t(e deponent: Is dead ;ut to use (is deposition- it is necessary t(at (e was cross0e9amined $so it won,t )e (earsay' Lives more t(an ! 7M %rom t(e place o% trial or is out o% t(e P(ilippines 4nless t(e a)sence was procured )y t(e party o%%ering t(e deposition 4na)le to testi%y or attend due to age- sickness- imprisonment Could not )e compelled to attend t(roug( a su)poena ?9ceptional cases ;ut take note: general rule is t(at you still (ave to put t(e witness in t(e stand* "(at,s t(e priority* 5epositions are not meant to su)stitute %or t(e actual testimony in open court o% a party or witness* $+ales v +a)ino- 2 <' I% a part o% a deposition is o%%ered in evidence- t(e adverse party may re#uire t(e party to introduce ALL o% it* Mere %ailure to appear a%ter a su)poena was issued is insu%%icient to prove ina)ility to testi%y* "(e court can e9ercise its coercive power to arrest* "(ere must )e e%%orts to (ave t(e witness arrested* $Cariaga v CA- 2 !- w(ic( was a criminal case so Rule !!< and Rule !G were strictly complied wit('

Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ &u(&t tut !" !$ -',t e&# Su(&t tut !" !$ -',t e& +!e& "!t '$$ect t%e , 3%t t! u&e +e-!& t !"& -,e0 !u&l. t')e": '"+, *%e" '" 'ct !" %'& (ee" + &1 &&e+ '"+ '"!t%e, 'ct !" "0!l0 "3 t%e &'1e &u(5ect & '$te,*',+ (,!u3%t (et*ee" t%e &'1e -',t e& !, t%e , ,e-,e&e"t't 0e& !, &ucce&&!,& " "te,e&t, 'll +e-!& t !"& l'*$ull. t')e" '"+ +ul. $ le+ " t%e $!,1e, 'ct !" 1'. (e u&e+ " t%e l'tte, '& $ !, 3 "'ll. t')e" t%e,e$!,# Sec# 9# O(5ect !"& t! '+1 && ( l t.# Su(5ect t! t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ &ect !" 2B !$ t% & Rule, !(5ect !" 1'. (e 1'+e 't t%e t, 'l !, %e', "3 t! ,ece 0 "3 " e0 +e"ce '". +e-!& t !" !, -',t t%e,e!$ $!, '". ,e'&!" *% c% *!ul+ ,eAu ,e t%e e/clu& !" !$ t%e e0 +e"ce $ t%e * t"e&& *e,e t%e" -,e&e"t '"+ te&t $. "3# Sec# 7# E$$ect !$ t') "3 +e-!& t !"&# A -',t. &%'ll "!t (e +ee1e+ t! 1')e ' -e,&!" % & !*" * t"e&& $!, '". -u,-!&e (. t') "3 % & +e-!& t !"# Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ u& "3 +e-!& t !"&# T%e "t,!+uct !" " e0 +e"ce !$ t%e +e-!& t !" !, '". -',t t%e,e!$ $!, '". -u,-!&e !t%e, t%'" t%'t !$ c!"t,'+ ct "3 !, 1-e'c% "3 t%e +e-!"e"t 1')e& t%e +e-!"e"t t%e * t"e&& !$ t%e -',t. "t,!+uc "3 t%e +e-!& t !", (ut t% & &%'ll "!t '--l. t! t%e u&e (. '" '+0e,&e -',t. !$ ' +e-!& t !" '& +e&c, (e+ " -','3,'-% (() !$ &ect !" 6 !$ t% & Rule#

"aking a deposition is di%%erent %rom using one* o >ou are not compelled to use t(e deposition in court i% you don,t want* I% you use a deposition- t(e opposing lawyer can cross0e9amine on t(e deposition

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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again- so it,s a matter o% need and strategy* I% you use t(e deposition o% a deponent- t(e deponent )ecomes your witness* o 4nless it,s %or t(e purpose o% contradicting or impeac(ing*

Sec# B# Re(utt "3 +e-!& t !"# At t%e t, 'l !, %e', "3, '". -',t. 1'. ,e(ut '". ,ele0'"t e0 +e"ce c!"t' "e+ " ' +e-!& t !" *%et%e, "t,!+uce+ (. % 1 !, (. '". !t%e, -',t.# Sec# 10# =e,&!"& (e$!,e *%!1 +e-!& t !"& 1'. (e t')e" * t% " t%e =% l -- "e&# < t% " t%e =% l -- "e&, +e-!& t !"& 1'. (e t')e" (e$!,e '". 5u+3e, "!t',. -u(l c, !, t%e -e,&!" ,e$e,,e+ t! " &ect !" 16 %e,e!$#

In t(e o o o

P(ilippines- w(o can take depostionsF Any =udge 1otary pu)lic- or Person aut(ori.ed to administer oat(s stipulated and agreed upon in writing )y t(e parties

Sec# 11# =e,&!"& (e$!,e *%!1 +e-!& t !"& 1'. (e t')e" " $!,e 3" c!u"t, e&# I" ' $!,e 3" &t'te !, c!u"t,., +e-!& t !"& 1'. (e t')e" (') !" "!t ce (e$!,e ' &ec,et',. !$ e1('&&. !, le3't !", c!"&ul 3e"e,'l, c!"&ul, 0 ce-c!"&ul, !, c!"&ul', '3e"t !$ t%e Re-u(l c !$ t%e =% l -- "e&: (() (e$!,e &uc% -e,&!" !, !$$ ce, '& 1'. (e '--! "te+ (. c!11 && !" !, u"+e, lette,& ,!3't!,.: !, (c) t%e -e,&!" ,e$e,,e+ t! " &ect !" 16 %e,e!$#

A)road- w(o can take depositionsF o +ecretary o% an em)assyIlegation- consul general- consul- vice0consul or consular agent o +uc( person or o%%icer as appointed )y a commission or under letters rogatory- or o Person aut(ori.ed to administer oat(s stipulated and agreed upon in writing )y t(e parties

Sec# 12# C!11 && !" !, lette,& ,!3't!,.# A c!11 && !" !, lette,& ,!3't!,. &%'ll (e &&ue+ !"l. *%e" "ece&&',. !, c!"0e" e"t, !" '--l c't !" '"+ "!t ce, '"+ !" &uc% te,1& '"+ * t% &uc% + ,ect !" '& ',e 5u&t '"+ '--,!-, 'te# O$$ ce,& 1'. (e +e& 3"'te+ " "!t ce& !, c!11 && !"& e t%e, (. "'1e !, +e&c, -t 0e t tle '"+ lette,& ,!3't!,. 1'. (e '++,e&&e+ t! t%e '--,!-, 'te 5u+ c 'l 'ut%!, t. " t%e $!,e 3" c!u"t,.#

Commission: issued )y t(e court as a directive to an o%%icial o% t(e P(ilippines- aut(ori.ing (im to take t(e deposition o% t(e witness o "aken in accordance wit( t(e rules o% t(e court issuing t(e commission Letters rogatory: re#uests to %oreign tri)unals to give its aid in securing t(e desired in%ormation o "aken in accordance wit( t(e rules o% t(e %oreign =d +ee 5ulay v 5ulay- $2 <'- w(ere letters rogatory were sent to ;oston )ut was ignored- so t(e deposition was taken )e%ore a 1> notary- w(o was duly certi%ied )y t(e P(ilippine Consul and under P(ilippine rules* It was allowed )y t(e +C )ecause t(ere was no consular o%%ice in ;oston and it wasn,t t(e %ault o% t(e respondent t(at t(e ;oston court ignored t(e letters rogatory*

Sec# 12# D &Au'l $ c't !" (. "te,e&t# N! +e-!& t !" &%'ll (e t')e" (e$!,e ' -e,&!" *%! & ' ,el't 0e * t% " t%e & /t% +e3,ee !$ c!"&'"3u " t. !, '$$ " t., !, e1-l!.ee !, c!u"&el !$ '". !$ t%e -',t e&: !, *%! & ' ,el't 0e * t% " t%e &'1e +e3,ee, !, e1-l!.ee !$ &uc% c!u"&el: !, *%! & $ "'"c 'll. "te,e&te+ " t%e 'ct !"#

J(o are dis#uali%ied to )e deposition o%%icersF o +i9t( degree o% consanguinity or a%%inity %rom party or employeeIcounsel o% party o +i9t( degree o% consanguinity or a%%inity %rom counsel or employee o% counsel o 6ne %inancially interested in t(e action 6)=ection )ased on a dis#uali%ication must )e raised o )e%ore t(e taking o% t(e deposition- or o as soon as t(e d# )ecomes known or could )e discovered wit( reasona)le diligence* I% not- waived*

Sec# 16# St -ul't !"& ,e3',+ "3 t') "3 !$ +e-!& t !"&# I$ t%e -',t e& &! &t -ul'te " *, t "3, +e-!& t !"& 1'. (e t')e" (e$!,e '". -e,&!" 'ut%!, 7e+ t! '+1 " &te, !'t%&, 't '". t 1e !, -l'ce, " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e&e Rule&, '"+ *%e" &! t')e" 1'. (e u&e+ l )e !t%e, +e-!& t !"&# Sec# 18# De-!& t !" u-!" !,'l e/'1 "'t !": "!t ce: t 1e '"+ -l'ce# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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A -',t. +e& , "3 t! t')e t%e +e-!& t !" !$ '". -e,&!" u-!" !,'l e/'1 "'t !" &%'ll 3 0e ,e'&!"'(le "!t ce " *, t "3 t! e0e,. !t%e, -',t. t! t%e 'ct !"# T%e "!t ce &%'ll &t'te t%e t 1e '"+ -l'ce $!, t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !" '"+ t%e "'1e '"+ '++,e&& !$ e'c% -e,&!" t! (e e/'1 "e+, $ )"!*", '"+ $ t%e "'1e & "!t )"!*", ' 3e"e,'l +e&c, -t !" &u$$ c e"t t! +e"t $. % 1 !, t%e -',t cul', cl'&& !, 3,!u- t! *% c% %e (el!"3&# O" 1!t !" !$ '". -',t. u-!" *%!1 t%e "!t ce & &e,0e+, t%e c!u,t 1'. $!, c'u&e &%!*" e"l',3e !, &%!,te" t%e t 1e#

All o)=ections wit( t(e notice must )e promptly served in writing upon t(e party giving t(e notice- or else it is waived*

Sec# 19# O,+e,& $!, t%e -,!tect !" !$ -',t e& '"+ +e-!"e"t&# A$te, "!t ce & &e,0e+ $!, t') "3 ' +e-!& t !" (. !,'l e/'1 "'t !", u-!" 1!t !" &e'&!"'(l. 1'+e (. '". -',t. !, (. t%e -e,&!" t! (e e/'1 "e+ '"+ $!, 3!!+ c'u&e &%!*", t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & -e"+ "3 1'. 1')e '" !,+e, t%'t t%e +e-!& t !" &%'ll "!t (e t')e", !, t%'t t 1'. (e t')e" !"l. 't &!1e +e& 3"'te+ -l'ce !t%e, t%'" t%'t &t'te+ " t%e "!t ce, !, t%'t t 1'. (e t')e" !"l. !" *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e&, !, t%'t ce,t' " 1'tte,& &%'ll "!t (e "Au ,e+ "t!, !, t%'t t%e &c!-e !$ t%e e/'1 "'t !" &%'ll (e %el+ * t% "! !"e -,e&e"t e/ce-t t%e -',t e& t! t%e 'ct !" '"+ t%e , !$$ ce,& !, c!u"&el, !, t%'t '$te, (e "3 &e'le+ t%e +e-!& t !" &%'ll (e !-e"e+ !"l. (. !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t, !, t%'t &ec,et -,!ce&&e&, +e0el!-1e"t&, !, ,e&e',c% "ee+ "!t (e + &cl!&e+, !, t%'t t%e -',t e& &%'ll & 1ult'"e!u&l. $ le &-ec $ e+ +!cu1e"t& !, "$!,1't !" e"cl!&e+ " &e'le+ e"0el!-e& t! (e !-e"e+ '& + ,ecte+ (. t%e c!u,t: !, t%e c!u,t 1'. 1')e '". !t%e, !,+e, *% c% 5u&t ce ,eAu ,e& t! -,!tect t%e -',t. !, * t"e&& $,!1 '""!.'"ce, e1(',,'&&1e"t, !, !--,e&& !"# Sec# 18# M!t !" t! te,1 "'te !, l 1 t e/'1 "'t !"# At '". t 1e +u, "3 t%e t') "3 !$ t%e +e-!& t !", !" 1!t !" !, -et t !" !$ '". -',t. !, !$ t%e +e-!"e"t '"+ u-!" ' &%!* "3 t%'t t%e e/'1 "'t !" & (e "3 c!"+ucte+ " ('+ $' t% !, " &uc% 1'""e, '& u",e'&!"'(l. t! '""!., e1(',,'&&, !, !--,e&& t%e +e-!"e"t !, -',t., t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & -e"+ "3 !, t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t !$ t%e -l'ce *%e,e t%e +e-!& t !" & (e "3 t')e" 1'. !,+e, t%e !$$ ce, c!"+uct "3 t%e e/'1 "'t !" t! ce'&e $!,t%* t% $,!1 t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !", !, 1'. l 1 t t%e &c!-e '"+ 1'""e, !$ t%e t') "3 !$ t%e +e-!& t !", '& -,!0 +e+ " &ect !" 19 !$ t% & Rule# I$ t%e !,+e, 1'+e te,1 "'te& t%e e/'1 "'t !", t &%'ll (e ,e&u1e+ t%e,e'$te, !"l. u-!" t%e !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & -e"+ "3# U-!" +e1'"+ !$ t%e !(5ect "3 -',t. !, +e-!"e"t, t%e t') "3 !$ t%e +e-!& t !" &%'ll (e &u&-e"+e+ $!, t%e t 1e "ece&&',. t! 1')e ' "!t ce $!, '" !,+e,# I" 3,'"t "3 !, ,e$u& "3 &uc% !,+e,, t%e c!u,t 1'. 1-!&e u-!" e t%e, -',t. !, u-!" t%e * t"e&& t%e ,eAu ,e1e"t t! -'. &uc% c!&t& !, e/-e"&e& '& t%e c!u,t 1'. +ee1 ,e'&!"'(le#

>ou use t(is section to oppose t(e taking o% a deposition* ;utO (owF o ;y motion )y t(e party or t(e person to )e e9amined- and o /or good cause s(own* 4nder w(at groundsF o "o protect t(e party or witness %rom annoyance- em)arrassment- or oppression* o 6r t(at w(at is soug(t is irrelevant in t(e action* "(ese are t(e same grounds used in a motion to terminate or limit t(e e9amination* $+ec !@'

Sec# 17# Rec!,+ !$ e/'1 "'t !": !'t%: !(5ect !"&# T%e !$$ ce, (e$!,e *%!1 t%e +e-!& t !" & t! (e t')e" &%'ll -ut t%e * t"e&& !" !'t% '"+ &%'ll -e,&!"'ll., !, (. &!1e !"e 'ct "3 u"+e, % & + ,ect !" '"+ " % & -,e&e"ce, ,ec!,+ t%e te&t 1!". !$ t%e * t"e&&# T%e te&t 1!". &%'ll (e t')e" &te"!3,'-% c'll. u"le&& t%e -',t e& '3,ee !t%e,* &e# All !(5ect !"& 1'+e 't t%e t 1e !$ t%e e/'1 "'t !" t! t%e Au'l $ c't !"& !$ t%e !$$ ce, t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !", !, t! t%e 1'""e, !$ t') "3 t, !, t! t%e e0 +e"ce -,e&e"te+, !, t! t%e c!"+uct !$ '". -',t., '"+ '". !t%e, !(5ect !" t! t%e -,!cee+ "3&, &%'ll (e "!te+ (. t%e !$$ ce, u-!" t%e +e-!& t !"# E0 +e"ce !(5ecte+ t! &%'ll (e t')e" &u(5ect t! t%e !(5ect !"&# I" l eu !$ -',t c -'t "3 " t%e !,'l e/'1 "'t !", -',t e& &e,0e+ * t% "!t ce !$ t') "3 ' +e-!& t !" 1'. t,'"&1 t *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e& t! t%e !$$ ce,&, *%! &%'ll -,!-!u"+ t%e1 t! t%e * t"e&& '"+ ,ec!,+ t%e '"&*e,& 0e,('t 1#

6)=ections to t(e competency o% a witness or t(e competency- relevancy- or materiality o% testimony are 16" waivedo unless t(e ground o% t(e o)=ection is one w(ic( mig(t (ave )een o)viated or removied i% presented at t(at time*

Sec# 1B# Su(1 && !" t! * t"e&&: c%'"3e&: & 3" "3# <%e" t%e te&t 1!". & $ull. t,'"&c, (e+, t%e +e-!& t !" &%'ll (e &u(1 tte+ t! t%e * t"e&& $!, e/'1 "'t !" '"+ &%'ll (e ,e'+ t! !, (. % 1, u"le&& &uc% e/'1 "'t !" '"+ ,e'+ "3 ',e *' 0e+ (. t%e * t"e&& '"+ (. t%e -',t e&# A". c%'"3e& " $!,1 !, &u(&t'"ce *% c% t%e * t"e&& +e& ,e& t! 1')e &%'ll (e e"te,e+ u-!" t%e +e-!& t !" (. t%e !$$ ce, * t% ' &t'te1e"t !$ t%e ,e'&!"& 3 0e" (. t%e * t"e&& $!, Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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1') "3 t%e1# T%e +e-!& t !" &%'ll t%e" (e & 3"e+ (. t%e * t"e&&, u"le&& t%e -',t e& (. &t -ul't !" *' 0e t%e & 3" "3 !, t%e * t"e&& & ll !, c'""!t (e $!u"+ !, ,e$u&e& t! & 3"# I$ t%e +e-!& t !" & "!t & 3"e+ (. t%e * t"e&&, t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll & 3" t '"+ &t'te !" t%e ,ec!,+ t%e $'ct !$ t%e *' 0e, !, !$ t%e ll"e&& !, '(&e"ce !$ t%e * t"e&& !, t%e $'ct !$ t%e ,e$u&'l t! & 3" t!3et%e, * t% t%e ,e'&!" 3 0e" t%e,e$!,, $ '"., '"+ t%e +e-!& t !" 1'. t%e" (e u&e+ '& $ull. '& t%!u3% & 3"e+, u"le&& !" ' 1!t !" t! &u--,e&& u"+e, &ect !" 2B ($) !$ t% & Rule, t%e c!u,t %!l+& t%'t t%e ,e'&!"& 3 0e" $!, t%e ,e$u&'l t! & 3" ,eAu ,e ,e5ect !" !$ t%e +e-!& t !" " *%!le !, " -',t# Sec# 20# Ce,t $ c't !" '"+ $ l "3 (. !$$ ce,# T%e !$$ ce, &%'ll ce,t $. !" t%e +e-!& t !" t%'t t%e * t"e&& *'& +ul. &*!," t! (. % 1 '"+ t%'t t%e +e-!& t !" & ' t,ue ,ec!,+ !$ t%e te&t 1!". 3 0e" (. t%e * t"e&&# @e &%'ll t%e" &ecu,el. &e'l t%e +e-!& t !" " '" e"0el!-e "+!,&e+ * t% t%e t tle !$ t%e 'ct !" '"+ 1',)e+ ?De-!& t !" !$ (%e,e "&e,t t%e "'1e !$ * t"e&&)? '"+ &%'ll -,!1-tl. $ le t * t% t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & -e"+ "3 !, &e"+ t (. ,e3 &te,e+ 1' l t! t%e cle,) t%e,e!$ $!, $ l "3# Sec# 21# N!t ce !$ $ l "3# T%e !$$ ce, t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !" &%'ll 3 0e -,!1-t "!t ce !$ t& $ l "3 t! 'll t%e -',t e&# Sec# 22# Fu," &% "3 c!- e&# U-!" -'.1e"t !$ ,e'&!"'(le c%',3e& t%e,e$!,, t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll $u," &% ' c!-. !$ t%e +e-!& t !" t! '". -',t. !, t! t%e +e-!"e"t#

"(e deposition must )e signed )y t(e witness* o 4nless parties stipulated t(e waiver o% t(e signing- or o Jitness is illo Cannot )e %ound- or o Re%uses to sign In t(ese cases- t(e o%%icer will sign instead- and it can )e used* 4nless a motion to suppress is duly granted )y t(e court*

Sec# 22# F' lu,e t! 'tte"+ !$ -',t. 3 0 "3 "!t ce# I$ t%e -',t. 3 0 "3 t%e "!t ce !$ t%e t') "3 !$ ' +e-!& t !" $' l& t! 'tte"+ '"+ -,!cee+ t%e,e* t% '"+ '"!t%e, 'tte"+& " -e,&!" !, (. c!u"&el -u,&u'"t t! t%e "!t ce, t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, t%e -',t. 3 0 "3 t%e "!t ce t! -'. &uc% !t%e, -',t. t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e ,e'&!"'(le e/-e"&e& "cu,,e+ (. % 1 '"+ % & c!u"&el " &! 'tte"+ "3, "clu+ "3 ,e'&!"'(le 'tt!,"e.G& $ee&# Sec# 26# F' lu,e !$ -',t. 3 0 "3 "!t ce t! &e,0e &u(-!e"'# I$ t%e -',t. 3 0 "3 t%e "!t ce !$ t%e t') "3 !$ ' +e-!& t !" !$ ' * t"e&& $' l& t! &e,0e ' &u(-!e"' u-!" % 1 '"+ t%e * t"e&& (ec'u&e !$ &uc% $' lu,e +!e& "!t 'tte"+, '"+ $ '"!t%e, -',t. 'tte"+& " -e,&!" !, (. c!u"&el (ec'u&e %e e/-ect& t%e +e-!& t !" !$ t%'t * t"e&& t! (e t')e", t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, t%e -',t. 3 0 "3 t%e "!t ce t! -'. t! &uc% !t%e, -',t. t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e ,e'&!"'(le e/-e"&e& "cu,,e+ (. % 1 '"+ % & c!u"&el " &! 'tte"+ "3, "clu+ "3 ,e'&!"'(le 'tt!,"e.G& $ee&# Sec# 28# De-!& t !" u-!" *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e&: &e,0 ce !$ "!t ce '"+ !$ "te,,!3't!, e&# A -',t. +e& , "3 t! t')e t%e +e-!& t !" !$ '". -e,&!" u-!" *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e& &%'ll &e,0e t%e1 u-!" e0e,. !t%e, -',t. * t% ' "!t ce &t't "3 t%e "'1e '"+ '++,e&& !$ t%e -e,&!" *%! & t! '"&*e, t%e1 '"+ t%e "'1e !, +e&c, -t 0e t tle '"+ '++,e&& !$ t%e !$$ ce, (e$!,e *%!1 t%e +e-!& t !" & t! (e t')e"# < t% " te" (10) +'.& t%e,e'$te,, ' -',t. &! &e,0e+ 1'. &e,0e c,!&&- "te,,!3't!, e& u-!" t%e -',t. -,!-!& "3 t! t')e t%e +e-!& t !"# < t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& t%e,e'$te,, t%e l'tte, 1'. &e,0e ,e-+ ,ect "te,,!3't!, e& u-!" ' -',t. *%! %'& &e,0e+ c,!&&- "te,,!3't!, e&# < t% " t%,ee (2) +'.& '$te, (e "3 &e,0e+ * t% ,e-+ ,ect "te,,!3't!, e&, ' -',t. 1'. &e,0e ,ec,!&&- "te,,!3't!, e& u-!" t%e -',t. -,!-!& "3 t! t')e t%e +e-!& t !"# Sec# 29# O$$ ce,& t! t')e ,e&-!"&e& '"+ -,e-',e ,ec!,+# A c!-. !$ t%e "!t ce '"+ c!- e& !$ 'll "te,,!3't!, e& &e,0e+ &%'ll (e +el 0e,e+ (. t%e -',t. t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !" t! t%e !$$ ce, +e& 3"'te+ " t%e "!t ce, *%! &%'ll -,!cee+ -,!1-tl., " t%e 1'""e, -,!0 +e+ (. &ect !"& 17, 1B '"+ 20 !$ t% & Rule, t! t')e t%e te&t 1!". !$ t%e * t"e&& " ,e&-!"&e t! t%e "te,,!3't!, e& '"+ t! -,e-',e, ce,t $., '"+ $ le !, 1' l t%e +e-!& t !", 'tt'c% "3 t%e,et! t%e c!-. !$ t%e "!t ce '"+ t%e "te,,!3't!, e& ,ece 0e+ (. % 1# Sec# 27# N!t ce !$ $ l "3 '"+ $u," &% "3 c!- e&# <%e" ' +e-!& t !" u-!" "te,,!3't!, e& & $ le+, t%e !$$ ce, t') "3 t &%'ll -,!1-tl. 3 0e "!t ce t%e,e!$ t! 'll t%e -',t e&, '"+ 1'. $u," &% c!- e& t! t%e1 !, t! t%e +e-!"e"t u-!" -'.1e"t !$ ,e'&!"'(le c%',3e& t%e,e$!,# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 28# O,+e,& $!, t%e -,!tect !" !$ -',t e& '"+ +e-!"e"t&# A$te, t%e &e,0 ce !$ t%e "te,,!3't!, e& '"+ -, !, t! t%e t') "3 !$ t%e te&t 1!". !$ t%e +e-!"e"t, t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & -e"+ "3, !" 1!t !" -,!1-tl. 1'+e (. ' -',t. !, ' +e-!"e"t, '"+ $!, 3!!+ c'u&e &%!*", 1'. 1')e '". !,+e, &-ec $ e+ " &ect !"& 18, 19 '"+ 18 !$ t% & Rule *% c% & '--,!-, 'te '"+ 5u&t !, '" !,+e, t%'t t%e +e-!& t !" &%'ll "!t (e t')e" (e$!,e t%e !$$ ce, +e& 3"'te+ " t%e "!t ce !, t%'t t &%'ll "!t (e t')e" e/ce-t u-!" !,'l e/'1 "'t !"#

+ec 2<028 talk o% written interrogatories* o "(ey %ollow t(e same rules as oral depositions e9cept %or t(e stu%% on t(e periods %or serving cross0interrogatories- etc* 6)=ections to t(e %orm o% written interrogatories must )e made wit(in o t(e time allowed %or serving succeeding cross or ot(er interrogatories- and o wit(in G days a%ter service o% t(e last interrogatories aut(ori.ed*

Sec# 2B# E$$ect& !$ e,,!,& '"+ ,,e3ul', t e& " +e-!& t !"&# (') A& t! "!t ce#- All e,,!,& '"+ ,,e3ul', t e& " t%e "!t ce $!, t') "3 ' +e-!& t !" ',e *' 0e+ u"le&& *, tte" !(5ect !" & -,!1-tl. &e,0e+ u-!" t%e -',t. 3 0 "3 t%e "!t ce# (() A& t! + &Au'l $ c't !" !$ !$$ ce,#- O(5ect !" t! t') "3 ' +e-!& t !" (ec'u&e !$ + &Au'l $ c't !" !$ t%e !$$ ce, (e$!,e *%!1 t & t! (e t')e" & *' 0e+ u"le&& 1'+e (e$!,e t%e t') "3 !$ t%e +e-!& t !" (e3 "& !, '& &!!" t%e,e'$te, '& t%e + &Au'l $ c't !" (ec!1e& )"!*" !, c!ul+ (e + &c!0e,e+ * t% ,e'&!"'(le + l 3e"ce# (c) A& t! c!1-ete"c. !, ,ele0'"c. !$ e0 +e"ce#- O(5ect !"& t! t%e c!1-ete"c. !$ ' * t"e&& !, t%e c!1-ete"c., ,ele0'"c., !, 1'te, 'l t. !$ te&t 1!". ',e "!t *' 0e+ (. $' lu,e t! 1')e t%e1 (e$!,e !, +u, "3 t%e t') "3 !$ t%e +e-!& t !", u"le&& t%e 3,!u"+ !$ t%e !(5ect !" & !"e *% c% 1 3%t %'0e (ee" !(0 'te+ !, ,e1!0e+ $ -,e&e"te+ 't t%'t t 1e# (+) A& t! !,'l e/'1 "'t !" '"+ !t%e, -',t cul',&#- E,,!,& '"+ ,,e3ul', t e& !ccu,, "3 't t%e !,'l e/'1 "'t !" " t%e 1'""e, !$ t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !", " t%e $!,1 !$ t%e Aue&t !"& !, '"&*e,&, " t%e !'t% !, '$$ ,1't !", !, " t%e c!"+uct !$ t%e -',t e& '"+ e,,!,& !$ '". ) "+ *% c% 1 3%t (e !(0 'te+, ,e1!0e+, !, cu,e+ $ -,!1-tl. -,!&ecute+, ',e *' 0e+ u"le&& ,e'&!"'(le !(5ect !" t%e,et! & 1'+e 't t%e t') "3 !$ t%e +e-!& t !"# (e) A& t! $!,1 !$ *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e&#- O(5ect !"& t! t%e $!,1 !$ *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e& &u(1 tte+ u"+e, &ect !"& 28 '"+ 29 !$ t% & Rule ',e *' 0e+ u"le&& &e,0e+ " *, t "3 u-!" t%e -',t. -,!-!u"+ "3 t%e1 * t% " t%e t 1e 'll!*e+ $!, &e,0 "3 &uccee+ "3 c,!&& !, !t%e, "te,,!3't!, e& '"+ * t% " t%,ee (2) +'.& '$te, &e,0 ce !$ t%e l'&t "te,,!3't!, e& 'ut%!, 7e+# ($) A& t! 1'""e, !$ -,e-','t !"#- E,,!,& '"+ ,,e3ul', t e& " t%e 1'""e, " *% c% t%e te&t 1!". & t,'"&c, (e+ !, t%e +e-!& t !" & -,e-',e+, & 3"e+, ce,t $ e+, &e'le+, "+!,&e+, t,'"&1 tte+, $ le+, !, !t%e,* &e +e'lt * t% (. t%e !$$ ce, u"+e, &ect !"& 17, 1B, 20 '"+ 29 !$ t% & Rule ',e *' 0e+ u"le&& ' 1!t !" t! &u--,e&& t%e +e-!& t !" !, &!1e -',t t%e,e!$ & 1'+e * t% ,e'&!"'(le -,!1-t"e&& '$te, &uc% +e$ect &, !, * t% +ue + l 3e"ce 1 3%t %'0e (ee", '&ce,t' "e+#

&R: 6)=ections to errors and irregularities are waiva)le* o ?AC?P": o)=ections to t(e competency or relevancy o% evidence during t(e taking o% t(e deposition* "(ese are not waived- 41L?++ t(e ground o% t(e o)=ection is one w(ic( mig(t (ave )een o)viated or removed i% presented at t(at time* ?rror and irregularities in terms o% t(e preparation are waived unless a motion to suppress t(e deposition or some part t(ereo% is made wit( reasona)le promptness a%ter discovery o% t(e error* Can counsel o)=ect to t(e admissi)ility o% a deposition i% (e actively cross0e9amined in t(e taking o% t(e depositionF o >es* "aking is di%%erent %rom using* +een in +ales v +a)ino- w(ere t(e o)=ection was t(at t(e witness s(ould testi%y )ecause s(e was allegedly in t(e country $w(ic(- in %act- s(e wasn,t*' 6)=ection was to t(e use- not to t(e taking*

RULE 26 DE=OSITIONS 4EFORE ACTION OR =ENDING A==EAL# Sect !" 1# De-!& t !"& (e$!,e 'ct !": -et t !"# A -e,&!" *%! +e& ,e& t! -e,-etu'te % & !*" te&t 1!". !, t%'t !$ '"!t%e, -e,&!" ,e3',+ "3 '". 1'tte, t%'t 1'. (e c!3" 7'(le " '". c!u,t !$ t%e =% l -- "e&, 1'. $ le ' 0e, $ e+ -et t !" " t%e c!u,t !$ t%e -l'ce !$ t%e ,e& +e"ce !$ '". e/-ecte+ '+0e,&e -',t.# Sec# 2# C!"te"t& !$ -et t !"# T%e -et t !" &%'ll (e e"t tle+ " t%e "'1e !$ t%e -et t !"e, '"+ &%'ll &%!*; (') t%'t t%e -et t !"e, e/-ect& t! (e ' -',t. t! '" 'ct !" " ' c!u,t !$ t%e =% l -- "e& (ut & -,e&e"tl. u"'(le t! (, "3 t !, c'u&e t t! (e (,!u3%t: (() t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, !$ t%e e/-ecte+ 'ct !" '"+ % & "te,e&t t%e,e ": (c) t%e Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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$'ct& *% c% %e +e& ,e& t! e&t'(l &% (. t%e -,!-!&e+ te&t 1!". '"+ % & ,e'&!"& $!, +e& , "3 t! -e,-etu'te t: (+) t%e "'1e& !, ' +e&c, -t !" !$ t%e -e,&!"& %e e/-ect& * ll (e '+0e,&e -',t e& '"+ t%e , '++,e&&e& &! $', '& )"!*": '"+ (e) t%e "'1e& '"+ '++,e&&e& !$ t%e -e,&!"& t! (e e/'1 "e+ '"+ t%e &u(&t'"ce !$ t%e te&t 1!". *% c% %e e/-ect& t! el c t $,!1 e'c%, '"+ &%'ll '&) $!, '" !,+e, 'ut%!, 7 "3 t%e -et t !"e, t! t')e t%e +e-!& t !"& !$ t%e -e,&!"& t! (e e/'1 "e+ "'1e+ " t%e -et t !" $!, t%e -u,-!&e !$ -e,-etu't "3 t%e , te&t 1!".# Sec# 2# N!t ce '"+ &e,0 ce# T%e -et t !"e, &%'ll &e,0e ' "!t ce u-!" e'c% -e,&!" "'1e+ " t%e -et t !" '& '" e/-ecte+ '+0e,&e -',t., t!3et%e, * t% ' c!-. !$ t%e -et t !", &t't "3 t%'t t%e -et t !"e, * ll '--l. t! t%e c!u,t, 't ' t 1e '"+ -l'ce "'1e+ t%e,e ", $!, t%e !,+e, +e&c, (e+ " t%e -et t !"# At le'&t t*e"t. (20) +'.& (e$!,e t%e +'te !$ t%e %e', "3, t%e c!u,t &%'ll c'u&e "!t ce t%e,e!$ t! (e &e,0e+ !" t%e -',t e& '"+ -,!&-ect 0e +e-!"e"t& " t%e 1'""e, -,!0 +e+ $!, &e,0 ce !$ &u11!"&# Sec# 6# O,+e, '"+ e/'1 "'t !"# I$ t%e c!u,t & &'t &$ e+ t%'t t%e -e,-etu't !" !$ t%e te&t 1!". 1'. -,e0e"t ' $' lu,e !, +el'. !$ 5u&t ce, t &%'ll 1')e '" !,+e, +e& 3"'t "3 !, +e&c, ( "3 t%e -e,&!"& *%!&e +e-!& t !" 1'. (e t')e" '"+ &-ec $. "3 t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, !$ t%e e/'1 "'t !" '"+ *%et%e, t%e +e-!& t !"& &%'ll (e t')e" u-!" !,'l e/'1 "'t !" !, *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e&# T%e +e-!& t !"& 1'. t%e" (e t')e" " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% Rule 22 (e$!,e t%e %e', "3# Sec# 8# Re$e,e"ce t! c!u,t# F!, t%e -u,-!&e !$ '--l. "3 Rule 22 t! +e-!& t !"& $!, -e,-etu't "3 te&t 1!"., e'c% ,e$e,e"ce t%e,e " t! t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & -e"+ "3 &%'ll (e +ee1e+ t! ,e$e, t! t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e -et t !" $!, &uc% +e-!& t !" *'& $ le+# Sec# 9# U&e !$ +e-!& t !"# I$ ' +e-!& t !" t! -e,-etu'te te&t 1!". & t')e" u"+e, t% & Rule, !, $, 'lt%!u3% "!t &! t')e", t *!ul+ (e '+1 && (le " e0 +e"ce, t 1'. (e u&e+ " '". 'ct !" "0!l0 "3 t%e &'1e &u(5ect 1'tte, &u(&eAue"tl. (,!u3%t " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ &ect !"& 6 '"+ 8 !$ Rule 22#

5epositions )e%ore actions are also called perpetuation o% testimony* "(ere is no pending case $kaya nga )e%ore action'- so i% you want to perpetuate testiomney- you %ile a case %or t(e purpose o% suc(* 4sually availed o% w(en t(e petitioner e9pects to )e a party to an action in a court in t(e P(ilippines )ut is presently una)le to )ring it cause it to )e )roug(t* J(ere do you %ile itF o Place w(ere t(e e9pected adverse party resides* $special rule2 Remem)er2'

Sec# 7# De-!& t !"& -e"+ "3 '--e'l# I$ '" '--e'l %'& (ee" t')e" $,!1 ' 5u+31e"t !$ ' c!u,t, "clu+ "3 t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& " -,!-e, c'&e&, !, (e$!,e t%e t') "3 !$ '" '--e'l $ t%e t 1e t%e,e$!, %'& "!t e/- ,e+, t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 5u+31e"t *'& ,e"+e,e+ 1'. 'll!* t%e t') "3 !$ +e-!& t !"& !$ * t"e&&e& t! -e,-etu'te t%e , te&t 1!". $!, u&e " t%e e0e"t !$ $u,t%e, -,!cee+ "3& " t%e &' + c!u,t# I" &uc% c'&e t%e -',t. *%! +e& ,e& t! -e,-etu'te t%e te&t 1!". 1'. 1')e ' 1!t !" " t%e &' + c!u,t $!, le'0e t! t')e t%e +e-!& t !"&, u-!" t%e &'1e "!t ce '"+ &e,0 ce t%e,e!$ '& $ t%e 'ct !" *'& -e"+ "3 t%e,e "# T%e 1!t !" &%'ll &t'te (') t%e "'1e& '"+ '++,e&&e& !$ t%e -e,&!"& t! (e e/'1 "e+ '"+ t%e &u(&t'"ce !$ t%e te&t 1!". *% c% %e e/-ect& t! el c t $,!1 e'c%: '"+ (() t%e ,e'&!" $!, -e,-etu't "3 t%e , te&t 1!".# I$ t%e c!u,t $ "+& t%'t t%e -e,-etu't !" !$ t%e te&t 1!". & -,!-e, t! '0! + ' $' lu,e !, +el'. !$ 5u&t ce, t 1'. 1')e '" !,+e, 'll!* "3 t%e +e-!& t !"& t! (e t')e", '"+ t%e,eu-!" t%e +e-!& t !"& 1'. (e t')e" '"+ u&e+ " t%e &'1e 1'""e, '"+ u"+e, t%e &'1e c!"+ t !"& '& ',e -,e&c, (e+ " t%e&e Rule& $!, +e-!& t !"& t')e" " -e"+ "3 'ct !"&#

5epositions pending appeal are also allowed- )ut w(enF o ;e%ore =udgment )ecomes %inal* It is also called perpetuation o% testimony* J(at i% pending case %or certiorari- can you take a deposition pending appealF o 1u0(u(* It ain,t an appeal- (ater* 3ust go %or Rule 2G or Rule 2<*

RULE 28 INTERROGATORIES TO =ARTIES Sect !" 1# I"te,,!3't!, e& t! -',t e&: &e,0 ce t%e,e!$# U"+e, t%e &'1e c!"+ t !"& &-ec $ e+ " &ect !" 1 !$ Rule 22, '". -',t. +e& , "3 t! el c t 1'te, 'l '"+ ,ele0'"t $'ct& $,!1 '". '+0e,&e -',t e& &%'ll $ le '"+ &e,0e u-!" t%e l'tte, *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e& t! (e '"&*e,e+ (. t%e -',t. &e,0e+ !,, $ t%e -',t. &e,0e+ & ' -u(l c !, -, 0'te c!,-!,'t !" !, ' -',t"e,&% !, '&&!c 't !", (. '". !$$ ce, t%e,e!$ c!1-ete"t t! te&t $. " t& (e%'l$# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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Sec# 2# A"&*e, t! "te,,!3't!, e&# T%e "te,,!3't!, e& &%'ll (e '"&*e,e+ $ull. " *, t "3 '"+ &%'ll (e & 3"e+ '"+ &*!," t! (. t%e -e,&!" 1') "3 t%e1# T%e -',t. u-!" *%!1 t%e "te,,!3't!, e& %'0e (ee" &e,0e+ &%'ll $ le '"+ &e,0e ' c!-. !$ t%e '"&*e,& !" t%e -',t. &u(1 tt "3 t%e "te,,!3't!, e& * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& '$te, &e,0 ce t%e,e!$, u"le&& t%e c!u,t, !" 1!t !" '"+ $!, 3!!+ c'u&e &%!*", e/te"+& !, &%!,te"& t%e t 1e# Sec# 2# O(5ect !"& t! "te,,!3't!, e&# O(5ect !"& t! '". "te,,!3't!, e& 1'. (e -,e&e"te+ t! t%e c!u,t * t% " te" (10) +'.& '$te, &e,0 ce t%e,e!$, * t% "!t ce '& " c'&e !$ ' 1!t !": '"+ '"&*e,& &%'ll (e +e$e,,e+ u"t l t%e !(5ect !"& ',e ,e&!l0e+, *% c% &%'ll (e 't '& e',l. ' t 1e '& & -,'ct c'(le# Sec# 6# Nu1(e, !$ "te,,!3't!, e&# N! -',t. 1'., * t%!ut le'0e !$ c!u,t, &e,0e 1!,e t%'" !"e &et !$ "te,,!3't!, e& t! (e '"&*e,e+ (. t%e &'1e -',t.# Sec# 8# Sc!-e '"+ u&e !$ "te,,!3't!, e&# I"te,,!3't!, e& 1'. ,el'te t! '". 1'tte,& t%'t c'" (e "Au ,e+ "t! u"+e, &ect !" 2 !$ Rule 22, '"+ t%e '"&*e,& 1'. (e u&e+ $!, t%e &'1e -u,-!&e& -,!0 +e+ " &ect !" 6 !$ t%e &'1e Rule# Sec# 9# E$$ect !$ $' lu,e t! &e,0e *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e&# U"le&& t%e,e'$te, 'll!*e+ (. t%e c!u,t $!, 3!!+ c'u&e &%!*" '"+ t! -,e0e"t ' $' lu,e !$ 5u&t ce, ' -',t. "!t &e,0e+ * t% *, tte" "te,,!3't!, e& 1'. "!t (e c!1-elle+ (. t%e '+0e,&e -',t. t! 3 0e te&t 1!". " !-e" c!u,t, !, t! 3 0e ' +e-!& t !" -e"+ "3 '--e'l#

5istinguis( Rule 2G wit( Rule 2< Rule 2G Rule 2< "o w(omF "o parties or witnesses- any "o parties- always and only to person2 parties Dow must 5irect- cross- re0direct and It,s =ust one set o% #uestions to #uestions )e re0cross )e answered )y t(e ot(er partay answeredF "ime to answer 1o %i9ed time to answer !< days to respond $depends on t(e o%%icer ! days to oppose taking t(e deposition' 4ses "(e same J(at is t(e e%%ect o% %ailure to serve written interrogatoriesF o A party not served may 16" )e compelled )y t(e adverse party to give: "estimony in open court- or A deposition pending appeal* J(at is t(e e%%ect o% %ailure to answer speci%ic #uestions in written interrogatoriesF $Read wit( Rule 28' o 16" de%ault- no- not yet2 Proponent must %irst move to compel t(e ot(er party to answer* $3aravata v 7arolus- 2 E* +ee Rule 28- +ec ! P G* *tty Tran+uil said this modi'ied the rules, but 7 don(t see or kno! ho!' J(at is t(e e%%ect o% %ailure to answer ALL #uestions in written interrogatoriesF o Rule 28- +ec < s(ould apply- not Rule 28- +ec G* $Sepeda v C(ina ;anking- 2 C'

RULE 29 ADMISSION 4H AD>ERSE =ARTH Sect !" 1# ReAue&t $!, '+1 && !"# At '". t 1e '$te, &&ue& %'0e (ee" 5! "e+, ' -',t. 1'. $ le '"+ &e,0e u-!" '". !t%e, -',t. ' *, tte" ,eAue&t $!, t%e '+1 && !" (. t%e l'tte, !$ t%e 3e"u "e"e&& !$ '". 1'te, 'l '"+ ,ele0'"t +!cu1e"t +e&c, (e+ " '"+ e/% ( te+ * t% t%e ,eAue&t !, !$ t%e t,ut% !$ '". 1'te, 'l '"+ ,ele0'"t 1'tte, !$ $'ct &et $!,t% " t%e ,eAue&t# C!- e& !$ t%e +!cu1e"t& &%'ll (e +el 0e,e+ * t% t%e ,eAue&t u"le&& c!- e& %'0e 'l,e'+. (ee" $u," &%e+# Sec# 2# I1-l e+ '+1 && !"# E'c% !$ t%e 1'tte,& !$ *% c% '" '+1 && !" & ,eAue&te+ &%'ll (e +ee1e+ '+1 tte+ u"le&&, * t% " ' -e, !+ +e& 3"'te+ " t%e ,eAue&t, *% c% &%'ll "!t (e le&& t%'" $ $tee" (18) +'.& '$te, &e,0 ce t%e,e!$, !, * t% " &uc% $u,t%e, t 1e '& t%e c!u,t 1'. 'll!* !" 1!t !", t%e -',t. t! *%!1 t%e ,eAue&t & + ,ecte+ $ le& '"+ &e,0e& u-!" t%e -',t. ,eAue&t "3 t%e '+1 && !" ' &*!," &t'te1e"t e t%e, +e". "3 &-ec $ c'll. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

am+dg

t%e 1'tte,& !$ *% c% '" '+1 && !" & ,eAue&te+ !, &ett "3 $!,t% " +et' l t%e ,e'&!"& *%. %e c'""!t t,ut%$ull. e t%e, '+1 t !, +e". t%!&e 1'tte,&# O(5ect !"& t! '". ,eAue&t $!, '+1 && !" &%'ll (e &u(1 tte+ t! t%e c!u,t (. t%e -',t. ,eAue&te+ * t% " t%e -e, !+ $!, '"+ -, !, t! t%e $ l "3 !$ % & &*!," &t'te1e"t '& c!"te1-l'te+ " t%e -,ece+ "3 -','3,'-% '"+ % & c!1-l '"ce t%e,e* t% &%'ll (e +e$e,,e+ u"t l &uc% !(5ect !"& ',e ,e&!l0e+, *% c% ,e&!lut !" &%'ll (e 1'+e '& e',l. '& -,'ct c'(le# Sec# 2# E$$ect !$ '+1 && !"# A". '+1 && !" 1'+e (. ' -',t. -u,&u'"t t! &uc% ,eAue&t & $!, t%e -u,-!&e !$ t%e -e"+ "3 'ct !" !"l. '"+ &%'ll "!t c!"&t tute '" '+1 && !" (. % 1 $!, '". !t%e, -u,-!&e "!, 1'. t%e &'1e (e u&e+ '3' "&t % 1 " '". !t%e, -,!cee+ "3# Sec# 6# < t%+,'*'l# T%e c!u,t 1'. 'll!* t%e -',t. 1') "3 '" '+1 && !" u"+e, t% & Rule, *%et%e, e/-,e&& !, 1-l e+, t! * t%+,'* !, '1e"+ t u-!" &uc% te,1& '& 1'. (e 5u&t# Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ $' lu,e t! $ le '"+ &e,0e ,eAue&t $!, '+1 && !"# U"le&& !t%e,* &e 'll!*e+ (. t%e c!u,t $!, 3!!+ c'u&e &%!*" '"+ t! -,e0e"t ' $' lu,e !$ 5u&t ce, ' -',t. *%! $' l& t! $ le '"+ &e,0e ' ,eAue&t $!, '+1 && !" !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t. !$ 1'te, 'l '"+ ,ele0'"t $'ct& 't &&ue *% c% ',e, !, !u3%t t! (e, * t% " t%e -e,&!"'l )"!*le+3e !$ t%e l'tte,, &%'ll "!t (e -e,1 tte+ t! -,e&e"t e0 +e"ce !" &uc% $'ct&#

J(en can you re#uest %or admissionsF o 6nly A/"?R t(e answer is %iled* )ompare to depositions* In re#uests %or admission- w(at is it t(at you want admittedF o "(e genuineness o% any materialIrelevant document 1ot t(e contents o% t(e document- =ust t(e genuineness Party re#uesting must attac( t(e document o "rut( o% any material and relevant matter J(o do you address it toF o "(e adverse party2 $1ot t(e counsel2' J(at are t(e relevant periodsF o "o answer: !< days- unless upon motion- allowed )y court to e9tend o "o oppose: !< days )ompare to opposing !ritten interrogatories to parties (>3 days +(ould your answer )e in any particular %ormF o Jell- it s(ould )e 415?R 6A"D* J(at a)out your oppositionIcommentF In 5;P v CA- it wasn,t under oat(- )ut t(e +C allowed it* J(at (appens i% you %ail to answerIopposeF o ?veryt(ing soug(t to )e admitted will )e deemed admitted2 J(at i% you don,t re#uest %or admissions %rom t(e adverse partyF o >ou won,t )e permitted to present evidence on suc( %acts* Can a re#uest %or admission )e used instead o% an o%%er to stipulateF o >es- so i% party %ails to answer t(e re#uest- t(en %acts are admitted* $Man.ano v 5espalidares- 2 4- =udge asked t(em to make an o%%er to stipulate during pre0trial' Any limitationsF o >es* 1o re#uest %or admission on matters w(ic( are precisely t(e issues in t(e cases- or irrelevant matters- or opinions- or conclusions o% law- or privileged matters- or merely reiterations o% allegations in t(e complaint* $+ime 5ar)y v 1LRC- 2 CQ 5;P v CA- 2 <Q Limos v +pouses- 2 !!'

RULE 27 =RODUCTION OR INS=ECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR T@INGS Sect !" 1# M!t !" $!, -,!+uct !" !, "&-ect !": !,+e,# U-!" 1!t !" !$ '". -',t. &%!* "3 3!!+ c'u&e t%e,e$!,, t%e c!u,t " *% c% '" 'ct !" & -e"+ "3 1'. (') !,+e, '". -',t. t! -,!+uce '"+ -e,1 t t%e "&-ect !" '"+ c!-. "3 !, -%!t!3,'-% "3, (. !, !" (e%'l$ Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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!$ t%e 1!0 "3 -',t., !$ '". +e& 3"'te+ +!cu1e"t&, -'-e,&, (!!)&, 'cc!u"t&, lette,&, -%!t!3,'-%&, !(5ect& !, t'"3 (le t% "3&, "!t -, 0 le3e+, *% c% c!"&t tute !, c!"t' " e0 +e"ce 1'te, 'l t! '". 1'tte, "0!l0e+ " t%e 'ct !" '"+ *% c% ',e " % & -!&&e&& !", cu&t!+. !, c!"t,!l: !, (() !,+e, '". -',t. t! -e,1 t e"t,. u-!" +e& 3"'te+ l'"+ !, !t%e, -,!-e,t. " % & -!&&e&& !" !, c!"t,!l $!, t%e -u,-!&e !$ "&-ect "3, 1e'&u, "3, &u,0e. "3, !, -%!t!3,'-% "3 t%e -,!-e,t. !, '". +e& 3"'te+ ,ele0'"t !(5ect !, !-e,'t !" t%e,e!"# T%e !,+e, &%'ll &-ec $. t%e t 1e, -l'ce '"+ 1'""e, !$ 1') "3 t%e "&-ect !" '"+ t') "3 c!- e& '"+ -%!t!3,'-%&, '"+ 1'. -,e&c, (e &uc% te,1& '"+ c!"+ t !"& '& ',e 5u&t#

J(at is applied %orF o Production and permission to inspect documents- papers- o)=ects- ot(er tangi)le t(ings o Permit entry into a place under control o% t(e ot(er party and allow inspections "(e writ o% amparo is likened to a production order* $+ec o% 1ational 5e%ense v Manalo- 2 @' o It is not an unreasona)le searc( under t(e Constitution* Are you re#uired to present t(e evidence w(ic( you o)tain using Rule 2EF o 1o* 1o o)ligation to present* "(e production order is not t(e same as a su)poena duces tecum* o J(yF "(e documents to )e produced s(ould )e descri)ed wit( particularity* o It s(ould not )e a )lanket re#uest or inspection* $+olid)ank v &ateway- 2 @- w(ere a re#uest %or all documents was asked' 5ocuments s(ould o 16" )e privileged o Contain or constitute evidence material to any matter involved in t(e action o 5ocuments are in t(e possession- custody- or control o% t(e ot(er party

RULE 28 =@HSICAL AND MENTAL EIAMINATION OF =ERSONS Sect !" 1# <%e" e/'1 "'t !" 1'. (e !,+e,e+# I" '" 'ct !" " *% c% t%e 1e"t'l !, -%.& c'l c!"+ t !" !$ ' -',t. & " c!"t,!0e,&., t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & -e"+ "3 1'. " t& + &c,et !" !,+e, % 1 t! &u(1 t t! ' -%.& c'l !, 1e"t'l e/'1 "'t !" (. ' -%.& c '"# Sec# 2# O,+e, $!, e/'1 "'t !"# T%e !,+e, $!, e/'1 "'t !" 1'. (e 1'+e !"l. !" 1!t !" $!, 3!!+ c'u&e &%!*" '"+ u-!" "!t ce t! t%e -',t. t! (e e/'1 "e+ '"+ t! 'll !t%e, -',t e&, '"+ &%'ll &-ec $. t%e t 1e, -l'ce, 1'""e,, c!"+ t !"& '"+ &c!-e !$ t%e e/'1 "'t !" '"+ t%e -e,&!" !, -e,&!"& (. *%!1 t & t! (e 1'+e# Sec# 2# Re-!,t !$ $ "+ "3&# I$ ,eAue&te+ (. t%e -',t. e/'1 "e+, t%e -',t. c'u& "3 t%e e/'1 "'t !" t! (e 1'+e &%'ll +el 0e, t! % 1 ' c!-. !$ ' +et' le+ *, tte" ,e-!,t !$ t%e e/'1 " "3 -%.& c '" &ett "3 !ut % & $ "+ "3& '"+ c!"clu& !"&# A$te, &uc% ,eAue&t '"+ +el 0e,., t%e -',t. c'u& "3 t%e e/'1 "'t !" t! (e 1'+e &%'ll (e e"t tle+ u-!" ,eAue&t t! ,ece 0e $,!1 t%e -',t. e/'1 "e+ ' l )e ,e-!,t !$ '". e/'1 "'t !", -,e0 !u&l. !, t%e,e'$te, 1'+e, !$ t%e &'1e 1e"t'l !, -%.& c'l c!"+ t !"# I$ t%e -',t. e/'1 "e+ ,e$u&e& t! +el 0e, &uc% ,e-!,t, t%e c!u,t !" 1!t !" '"+ "!t ce 1'. 1')e '" !,+e, ,eAu , "3 +el 0e,. !" &uc% te,1& '& ',e 5u&t, '"+ $ ' -%.& c '" $' l& !, ,e$u&e& t! 1')e &uc% ' ,e-!,t t%e c!u,t 1'. e/clu+e % & te&t 1!". $ !$$e,e+ 't t%e t, 'l# Sec# 6# <' 0e, !$ -, 0 le3e# 4. ,eAue&t "3 '"+ !(t' " "3 ' ,e-!,t !$ t%e e/'1 "'t !" &! !,+e,e+ !, (. t') "3 t%e +e-!& t !" !$ t%e e/'1 "e,, t%e -',t. e/'1 "e+ *' 0e& '". -, 0 le3e %e 1'. %'0e " t%'t 'ct !" !, '". !t%e, "0!l0 "3 t%e &'1e c!"t,!0e,&., ,e3',+ "3 t%e te&t 1!". !$ e0e,. !t%e, -e,&!" *%! %'& e/'1 "e+ !, 1'. t%e,e'$te, e/'1 "e % 1 " ,e&-ect !$ t%e &'1e 1e"t'l !, -%.& c'l e/'1 "'t !"#

>ou can only use t(is mode i% t(e mental or p(ysical condition o% t(e party is in controversy* 6nly mode w(ere t(e court can motu propio issue* o "(e ot(ers- you (ave to apply %or* J(at is t(e conse#uence i% t(e copy o% t(e e9amination is given to t(e re#uesting partyF o >ou waive t(e privilege* o ;ecause o% your re#uest- t(e ot(er party can now also ask %or previous or su)se#uent e9amination* I% t(e re#uesting party re%uses and (is p(ysicians were allowed to testi%y- t(eir testimonies can )e e9cluded* ;y re#uesting an e9amination o% t(e ot(er party or )y taking t(e deposition o% t(e e9aminer- t(e

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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party e9amined waives any privilege (e may (ave involving t(e same controversy- wit( respect to t(e testimony o% anyone w(o (as or will e9amine (im* 5octor0patient privilege only applies to civil cases- not criminal* $Remem)er /rancis Lim2'

RULE 2B REFUSAL TO COM=LH <IT@ MODES OF DISCO>ERH Sect !" 1# Re$u&'l t! '"&*e,# I$ ' -',t. !, !t%e, +e-!"e"t ,e$u&e& t! '"&*e, '". Aue&t !" u-!" !,'l e/'1 "'t !", t%e e/'1 "'t !" 1'. (e c!1-lete+ !" !t%e, 1'tte,& !, '+5!u,"e+ '& t%e -,!-!"e"t !$ t%e Aue&t !" 1'. -,e$e,# T%e -,!-!"e"t 1'. t%e,e'$te, '--l. t! t%e -,!-e, c!u,t !$ t%e -l'ce *%e,e t%e +e-!& t !" & (e "3 t')e", $!, '" !,+e, t! c!1-el '" '"&*e,# T%e &'1e -,!ce+u,e 1'. (e '0' le+ !$ *%e" ' -',t. !, ' * t"e&& ,e$u&e& t! '"&*e, '". "te,,!3't!,. &u(1 tte+ u"+e, Rule& 22 !, 28# I$ t%e '--l c't !" & 3,'"te+, t%e c!u,t &%'ll ,eAu ,e t%e ,e$u& "3 -',t. !, +e-!"e"t t! '"&*e, t%e Aue&t !" !, "te,,!3't!,. '"+ $ t 'l&! $ "+& t%'t t%e ,e$u&'l t! '"&*e, *'& * t%!ut &u(&t'"t 'l 5u&t $ c't !", t 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e ,e$u& "3 -',t. !, +e-!"e"t !, t%e c!u"&el '+0 & "3 t%e ,e$u&'l, !, (!t% !$ t%e1, t! -'. t%e -,!-!"e"t t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e ,e'&!"'(le e/-e"&e& "cu,,e+ " !(t' " "3 t%e !,+e,, "clu+ "3 'tt!,"e.G& $ee&# I$ t%e '--l c't !" & +e" e+ '"+ t%e c!u,t $ "+& t%'t t *'& $ le+ * t%!ut &u(&t'"t 'l 5u&t $ c't !", t%e c!u,t 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e -,!-!"e"t !, t%e c!u"&el '+0 & "3 t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e '--l c't !", !, (!t% !$ t%e1, t! -'. t! t%e ,e$u& "3 -',t. !, +e-!"e"t t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e ,e'&!"'(le e/-e"&e& "cu,,e+ " !--!& "3 t%e '--l c't !", "clu+ "3 'tt!,"e.G& $ee&# Sec# 2# C!"te1-t !$ c!u,t# I$ ' -',t. !, !t%e, * t"e&& ,e$u&e& t! (e &*!," !, ,e$u&e& t! '"&*e, '". Aue&t !" '$te, (e "3 + ,ecte+ t! +! &! (. t%e c!u,t !$ t%e -l'ce " *% c% t%e +e-!& t !" & (e "3 t')e", t%e ,e$u&'l 1'. (e c!"& +e,e+ ' c!"te1-t !$ t%'t c!u,t# Sec# 2# Ot%e, c!"&eAue"ce&# I$ '". -',t. !, '" !$$ ce, !, 1'"'3 "3 '3e"t !$ ' -',t. ,e$u&e& t! !(e. '" !,+e, 1'+e u"+e, &ect !" 1 !$ t% & Rule ,eAu , "3 % 1 t! '"&*e, +e& 3"'te+ Aue&t !"&, !, '" !,+e, u"+e, Rule 27 t! -,!+uce '". +!cu1e"t !, !t%e, t% "3 $!, "&-ect !", c!-. "3, !, -%!t!3,'-% "3 !, t! -e,1 t t t! (e +!"e, !, t! -e,1 t e"t,. u-!" l'"+ !, !t%e, -,!-e,t., !, '" !,+e, 1'+e u"+e, Rule 28 ,eAu , "3 % 1 t! &u(1 t t! ' -%.& c'l !, 1e"t'l e/'1 "'t !", t%e c!u,t 1'. 1')e &uc% !,+e,& " ,e3',+ t! t%e ,e$u&'l '& ',e 5u&t, '"+ '1!"3 !t%e,& t%e $!ll!* "3; (') A" !,+e, t%'t t%e 1'tte,& ,e3',+ "3 *% c% t%e Aue&t !"& *e,e '&)e+, !, t%e c%','cte, !, +e&c, -t !" !$ t%e t% "3 !, l'"+, !, t%e c!"te"t& !$ t%e -'-e,, !, t%e -%.& c'l !, 1e"t'l c!"+ t !" !$ t%e -',t., !, '". !t%e, +e& 3"'te+ $'ct& &%'ll (e t')e" t! (e e&t'(l &%e+ $!, t%e -u,-!&e& !$ t%e 'ct !" " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e cl' 1 !$ t%e -',t. !(t' " "3 t%e !,+e,: (() A" !,+e, ,e$u& "3 t! 'll!* t%e + &!(e+ e"t -',t. t! &u--!,t !, !--!&e +e& 3"'te+ cl' 1& !, +e$e"&e& !, -,!% ( t "3 % 1 $,!1 "t,!+uc "3 " e0 +e"ce +e& 3"'te+ +!cu1e"t& !, t% "3& !, te1& !$ te&t 1!"., !, $,!1 "t,!+uc "3 e0 +e"ce !$ -%.& c'l !, 1e"t'l c!"+ t !": (c) A" !,+e, &t, ) "3 !ut -le'+ "3& !, -',t& t%e,e!$, !, &t'. "3 $u,t%e, -,!cee+ "3& u"t l t%e !,+e, & !(e.e+, !, + &1 && "3 t%e 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3 !, '". -',t t%e,e!$, !, ,e"+e, "3 ' 5u+31e"t (. +e$'ult '3' "&t t%e + &!(e+ e"t -',t.: '"+ (+) I" l eu !$ '". !$ t%e $!,e3! "3 !,+e,& !, " '++ t !" t%e,et!, '" !,+e, + ,ect "3 t%e ',,e&t !$ '". -',t. !, '3e"t !$ ' -',t. $!, + &!(e. "3 '". !$ &uc% !,+e,& e/ce-t '" !,+e, t! &u(1 t t! ' -%.& c'l !, 1e"t'l e/'1 "'t !"# Sec# 6# E/-e"&e& !" ,e$u&'l t! '+1 t# I$ ' -',t. '$te, (e "3 &e,0e+ * t% ' ,eAue&t u"+e, Rule 29 t! '+1 t t%e 3e"u "e"e&& !$ '". +!cu1e"t !, t%e t,ut% !$ '". 1'tte, !$ $'ct, &e,0e& ' &*!," +e" 'l t%e,e!$ '"+ $ t%e -',t. ,eAue&t "3 t%e '+1 && !"& t%e,e'$te, -,!0e& t%e 3e"u "e"e&& !$ &uc% +!cu1e"t !, t%e t,ut% !$ '". &uc% 1'tte, !$ $'ct, %e 1'. '--l. t! t%e c!u,t $!, '" !,+e, ,eAu , "3 t%e !t%e, -',t. t! -'. % 1 t%e ,e'&!"'(le e/-e"&e& "cu,,e+ " 1') "3 &uc% -,!!$, "clu+ "3 'tt!,"e.G& $ee&# U"le&& t%e c!u,t $ "+& t%'t t%e,e *e,e 3!!+ ,e'&!"& $!, t%e +e" 'l !, t%'t '+1 && !"& &!u3%t *e,e !$ "! &u(&t'"t 'l 1-!,t'"ce, &uc% !,+e, &%'ll (e &&ue+# Sec# 8# F' lu,e !$ -',t. t! 'tte"+ !, &e,0e '"&*e,&# I$ ' -',t. !, '" !$$ ce, !, 1'"'3 "3 '3e"t !$ ' -',t. * l$ull. $' l& t! '--e', (e$!,e t%e !$$ ce, *%! & t! t')e % & +e-!& t !", '$te, (e "3 &e,0e+ * t% ' -,!-e, "!t ce, !, $' l& t! &e,0e '"&*e,& t! "te,,!3't!, e& &u(1 tte+ u"+e, Rule 28 '$te, -,!-e, &e,0 ce !$ &uc% "te,,!3't!, e&, t%e c!u,t !" 1!t !" '"+ "!t ce, 1'. &t, )e !ut 'll !, '". -',t !$ '". -le'+ "3 !$ t%'t -',t., !, + &1 && t%e 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3 !, '". -',t t%e,e!$, !, e"te, ' 5u+31e"t (. +e$'ult '3' "&t t%'t -',t., '"+ " t& + &c,et !", !,+e, % 1 t! -'. ,e'&!"'(le e/-e"&e& "cu,,e+ (. t%e !t%e,, "clu+ "3 'tt!,"e.G& $ee&#

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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Sec# 9# E/-e"&e& '3' "&t t%e Re-u(l c !$ t%e =% l -- "e&# E/-e"&e& '"+ 'tt!,"e.G& $ee& ',e "!t t! (e 1-!&e+ u-!" t%e Re-u(l c !$ t%e =% l -- "e& u"+e, t% & Rule#

J(at i% t(ere was a re%usal to answer any #uestion upon an oral deposition or written interrogatoryF o Proponent must %irst apply to t(e proper court o% t(e place w(ere t(e deposition is )eing taken %or an order to compel an answer* I% granted and court %inds t(at t(ere was no =usti%ication %or t(e re%usal- t(e deponent or t(e counsel $or )ot(' will pay t(e e9penses* I% denied and t(e application was un=usti%ied- it is t(e proponent w(o will pay* Re%usal to )e sworn in or re%usal to answer a%ter )eing ordered to do so will )ring a)out contempt* 4pon re%usal to comply wit( an order $like to answer a speci%ic #uestion'- t(e court can also order t(e %ollowing: o Contempt o 5ismissal o% t(e case i% re%usal )y plainti%% o 3udgment )y de%ault i% re%usal )y de%endant o Pleadings )e stricken out In lieu o% all o% t(is- t(e diso)eying party can )e arrested ?9cept i% )ased on re%usal to su)mit to a p(ysical or mental e9amination I% t(e party re%uses to appear or %ails to serve answers to interrogatories $(ere- no need %or ordert(e violation is more )latant'- t(e court can order: o 5ismissal o% t(e case i% re%usal )y plainti%% o 3udgment )y de%ault i% re%usal )y de%endant o Pleadings )e stricken out o Pay reasona)le e9penses

RULE 20 TRIAL Sect !" 1# N!t ce !$ t, 'l# U-!" e"t,. !$ ' c'&e " t%e t, 'l c'le"+',, t%e cle,) &%'ll "!t $. t%e -',t e& !$ t%e +'te !$ t& t, 'l " &uc% 1'""e, '& &%'ll e"&u,e % & ,ece -t !$ t%'t "!t ce 't le'&t $ 0e (8) +'.& (e$!,e &uc% +'te# Sec# 2# A+5!u,"1e"t& '"+ -!&t-!"e1e"t&# A c!u,t 1'. '+5!u," ' t, 'l $,!1 +'. t! +'., '"+ t! '". &t'te+ t 1e, '& t%e e/-e+ t !u& '"+ c!"0e" e"t t,'"&'ct !" !$ (u& "e&& 1'. ,eAu ,e, (ut &%'ll %'0e "! -!*e, t! '+5!u," ' t, 'l $!, ' l!"3e, -e, !+ t%'" !"e 1!"t% $!, e'c% '+5!u,"1e"t, "!, 1!,e t%'" t%,ee 1!"t%& " 'll, e/ce-t *%e" 'ut%!, 7e+ " *, t "3 (. t%e C!u,t A+1 " &t,'t!,, Su-,e1e C!u,t# Sec# 2# ReAu & te& !$ 1!t !" t! -!&t-!"e t, 'l $!, '(&e"ce !$ e0 +e"ce# A 1!t !" t! -!&t-!"e ' t, 'l !" t%e 3,!u"+ !$ '(&e"ce !$ e0 +e"ce c'" (e 3,'"te+ !"l. u-!" '$$ +'0 t &%!* "3 t%e 1'te, 'l t. !, ,ele0'"c. !$ &uc% e0 +e"ce, '"+ t%'t +ue + l 3e"ce %'& (ee" u&e+ t! -,!cu,e t# 4ut $ t%e '+0e,&e -',t. '+1 t& t%e $'ct& t! (e 3 0e" " e0 +e"ce, e0e" $ %e !(5ect& !, ,e&e,0e& t%e , 3%t t! t%e , '+1 && ( l t., t%e t, 'l &%'ll "!t (e -!&t-!"e+# Sec# 6# ReAu & te& !$ 1!t !" t! -!&t-!"e t, 'l $!, ll"e&& !$ -',t. !, c!u"&el# A 1!t !" t! -!&t-!"e ' t, 'l !" t%e 3,!u"+ !$ ll"e&& !$ ' -',t. !, c!u"&el 1'. (e 3,'"te+ $ t '--e',& u-!" '$$ +'0 t !, &*!," ce,t $ c't !" t%'t t%e -,e&e"ce !$ &uc% -',t. !, c!u"&el 't t%e t, 'l & "+ &-e"&'(le '"+ t%'t t%e c%','cte, !$ % & ll"e&& & &uc% '& t! ,e"+e, % & "!"-'tte"+'"ce e/cu&'(le#

&rounds %or postponing a (earingItrial: o A)sence o% evidence ?vidence must )e material or relevant- and It could not )e produced despite due diligence Must appear in an a%%idavit o Illness o% a party or counsel Presence o% eit(er is indispensa)le at trial- and C(aracter o% illness is suc( as to render (is non0attendance e9cusa)le Must appear in an a%%idavit or sworn certi%ication A motion %or postponement must )e )ased on eit(er somet(ing t(at is unavoida)le or somet(ing

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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t(at could not (ave )een %oreseen* $de Castro v de Castro- 2 8- w(ere +C (eld t(at a)sence o% t(e party due to )eing a)road and a)sence o% t(e doctor witness due to a convention was neit(er unavoida)le or un%oreseea)le given t(at t(e (earing was set a mont( )e%ore'
Sec# 8# O,+e, !$ t, 'l# Su(5ect t! t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ &ect !" 2 !$ Rule 21, '"+ u"le&& t%e c!u,t $!, &-ec 'l ,e'&!"& !t%e,* &e + ,ect&, t%e t, 'l &%'ll (e l 1 te+ t! t%e &&ue& &t'te+ " t%e -,e-t, 'l !,+e, '"+ &%'ll -,!cee+ '& $!ll!*&; (') T%e -l' "t $$ &%'ll '++uce e0 +e"ce " &u--!,t !$ % & c!1-l' "t: (() T%e +e$e"+'"t &%'ll t%e" '++uce e0 +e"ce " &u--!,t !$ % & +e$e"&e, c!u"te,cl' 1, c,!&&-cl' 1 '"+ t% ,+--',t. c!1-l' "t: (c) T%e t% ,+--',t. +e$e"+'"t, $ '"., &%'ll '++uce e0 +e"ce !$ % & +e$e"&e, c!u"te,cl' 1, c,!&&-cl' 1 '"+ $!u,t%--',t. c!1-l' "t: (+) T%e $!u,t%--',t., '"+ &! $!,t%, $ '"., &%'ll '++uce e0 +e"ce !$ t%e 1'te, 'l $'ct& -le'+e+ (. t%e1: (e) T%e -',t e& '3' "&t *%!1 '". c!u"te,cl' 1 !, c,!&&-cl' 1 %'& (ee" -le'+e+, &%'ll '++uce e0 +e"ce " &u--!,t !$ t%e , +e$e"&e, " t%e !,+e, t! (e -,e&c, (e+ (. t%e c!u,t: ($) T%e -',t e& 1'. t%e" ,e&-ect 0el. '++uce ,e(utt "3 e0 +e"ce !"l., u"le&& t%e c!u,t, $!, 3!!+ ,e'&!"& '"+ " t%e $u,t%e,'"ce !$ 5u&t ce, -e,1 t& t%e1 t! '++uce e0 +e"ce u-!" t%e , !, 3 "'l c'&e: '"+ (3) U-!" '+1 && !" !$ t%e e0 +e"ce, t%e c'&e &%'ll (e +ee1e+ &u(1 tte+ $!, +ec & !", u"le&& t%e c!u,t + ,ect& t%e -',t e& t! ',3ue !, t! &u(1 t t%e , ,e&-ect 0e 1e1!,'"+' !, '". $u,t%e, -le'+ "3&# I$ &e0e,'l +e$e"+'"t& !, t% ,+--',t. +e$e"+'"t&, '"+ &! $!,t%, %'0 "3 &e-','te +e$e"&e& '--e', (. + $$e,e"t c!u"&el, t%e c!u,t &%'ll +ete,1 "e t%e ,el't 0e !,+e, !$ -,e&e"t't !" !$ t%e , e0 +e"ce#

Plainti%%- in t(e usual and ordinary course o% t(ings- presents )e%ore t(e de%endant* "(e order can )e reversed i% t(ere is an a%%irmative de%ense*

Sec# 9# A3,ee+ &t'te1e"t !$ $'ct&# T%e -',t e& t! '". 'ct !" 1'. '3,ee, " *, t "3, u-!" t%e $'ct& "0!l0e+ " t%e l t 3't !", '"+ &u(1 t t%e c'&e $!, 5u+31e"t !" t%e $'ct& '3,ee+ u-!", * t%!ut t%e "t,!+uct !" !$ e0 +e"ce# I$ t%e -',t e& '3,ee !"l. !" &!1e !$ t%e $'ct& " &&ue, t%e t, 'l &%'ll (e %el+ '& t! t%e + &-ute+ $'ct& " &uc% !,+e, '& t%e c!u,t &%'ll -,e&c, (e#

Can t(ere )e =udgment wit(out trialF o >es* J(en t(e parties agree- in writing- on t(e %acts and su)mit t(e case on t(e %acts agreed upon* 1o need %or introduction o% evidence*

Sec# 7# St'te1e"t !$ 5u+3e# Du, "3 t%e %e', "3 !, t, 'l !$ ' c'&e '". &t'te1e"t 1'+e (. t%e 5u+3e * t% ,e$e,e"ce t! t%e c'&e, !, t! '". !$ t%e -',t e&, * t"e&&e& !, c!u"&el, &%'ll (e 1'+e !$ ,ec!,+ " t%e &te"!3,'-% c "!te&# Sec# 8# Su&-e"& !" !$ 'ct !"&# T%e &u&-e"& !" !$ 'ct !"& &%'ll (e 3!0e,"e+ (. t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ t%e C 0 l C!+e# Sec# B# Ju+3e t! ,ece 0e e0 +e"ce: +ele3't !" t! cle,) !$ c!u,t# T%e 5u+3e !$ t%e c!u,t *%e,e t%e c'&e & -e"+ "3 &%'ll -e,&!"'ll. ,ece 0e t%e e0 +e"ce t! (e '++uce+ (. t%e -',t e&# @!*e0e,, " +e$'ult !, e/ -',te %e', "3&, '"+ " '". c'&e *%e,e t%e -',t e& '3,ee " *, t "3, t%e c!u,t 1'. +ele3'te t%e ,ece-t !" !$ e0 +e"ce t! t& cle,) !$ c!u,t *%! & ' 1e1(e, !$ t%e (',# T%e cle,) !$ c!u,t &%'ll %'0e "! -!*e, t! ,ule !" !(5ect !"& t! '". Aue&t !" !, t! t%e '+1 && !" !$ e/% ( t&, *% c% !(5ect !"& &%'ll (e ,e&!l0e+ (. t%e c!u,t u-!" &u(1 && !" !$ % & ,e-!,t '"+ t%e t,'"&c, -t& * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 te,1 "'t !" !$ t%e %e', "3#

&R: 3udge receives t(e evidence o ?AC?P": clerk can receive w(en In de%ault proceedings ?9 parte (earings o Like de%ault - application o% indigent- Las inM de%ault Parties agree in writing Clerk (owever (as no power to rule on o)=ections o In de%aultIe9 parte (earings- ot(er party is not t(ere- so no one will o)=ect- rig(tF Jellclerk o% court will (ave to note down t(e o)=ection i% it is clear

RULE 21 CONSOLIDATION OR SE>ERANCE Sect !" 1# C!"&!l +'t !"# <%e" 'ct !"& "0!l0 "3 ' c!11!" Aue&t !" !$ l'* !, $'ct ',e -e"+ "3 (e$!,e t%e c!u,t, t 1'. !,+e, ' Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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5! "t %e', "3 !, t, 'l !$ '". !, 'll t%e 1'tte,& " &&ue " t%e 'ct !"&: t 1'. !,+e, 'll t%e 'ct !"& c!"&!l +'te+: '"+ t 1'. 1')e &uc% !,+e,& c!"ce," "3 -,!cee+ "3& t%e,e " '& 1'. te"+ t! '0! + u""ece&&',. c!&t& !, +el'.#

Consolidation may )e done w(en t(ere is a commonality o% %act or law pending )e%ore t(e courto provided t(e court (as =urisdiction over t(e case to )e consolidated and t(at a =oint trial will not give one party undue advantage or pre=udice t(e ot(er* +een in Sulueta v Asia ;rewery $2 !'- w(ere t(e common %act was t(at t(e 2 cases involved t(e same agreement J(ere will t(e cases )e consolidatedF o In t(e court (aving t(e case wit( t(e lowest docket num)er* Can consolidation )e done in cases %iled in di%%erent =udicial regionsF o >es* In Sulueta- t(e two cases were in Iloilo and Makati* ?ven i% t(ere is no %ormal motion to consolidate- t(e court can still consolidate i% t(e parties agree to it* $Ro#ue v Magno- 2 C- w(ere t(ere parties did not o)=ect- t(roug( t(eir actions- to t(e consolidation done )y t(e =udge' Consolidation is 1?:?R a remedy %or %orum s(opping* $Megaland v C? Construction- 2 E' o &enerally- t(e later case will )e dismissed*

Sec# 2# Se-','te t, 'l&# T%e c!u,t, " $u,t%e,'"ce !$ c!"0e" e"ce !, t! '0! + -,e5u+ ce, 1'. !,+e, ' &e-','te t, 'l !$ '". cl' 1, c,!&&-cl' 1, c!u"te,cl' 1, !, t% ,+--',t. c!1-l' "t, !, !$ '". &e-','te &&ue !, !$ '". "u1(e, !$ cl' 1&, c,!&&-cl' 1&, c!u"te,cl' 1&, t% ,+--',t. c!1-l' "t& !, &&ue&#

"(e court can also order separate trials )ased on t(e claims*

RULE 22 TRIAL 4H COMMISSIONER Sect !" 1# Re$e,e"ce (. c!"&e"t# 4. *, tte" c!"&e"t !$ (!t% -',t e&, t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, '". !, 'll !$ t%e &&ue& " ' c'&e t! (e ,e$e,,e+ t! ' c!11 && !"e, t! (e '3,ee+ u-!" (. t%e -',t e& !, t! (e '--! "te+ (. t%e c!u,t# A& u&e+ " t%e&e Rule&, t%e *!,+ ?c!11 && !"e,? "clu+e& ' ,e$e,ee, '" 'u+ t!, '"+ '" e/'1 "e,# Sec# 2# Re$e,e"ce !,+e,e+ !" 1!t !"# <%e" t%e -',t e& +! "!t c!"&e"t, t%e c!u,t 1'., u-!" t%e '--l c't !" !$ e t%e, !, !$ t& !*" 1!t !", + ,ect ' ,e$e,e"ce t! ' c!11 && !"e, " t%e $!ll!* "3 c'&e&; (') <%e" t%e t, 'l !$ '" &&ue !$ $'ct ,eAu ,e& t%e e/'1 "'t !" !$ ' l!"3 'cc!u"t !" e t%e, & +e, " *% c% c'&e t%e c!11 && !"e, 1'. (e + ,ecte+ t! %e', '"+ ,e-!,t u-!" t%e *%!le &&ue !, '". &-ec $ c Aue&t !" "0!l0e+ t%e,e ": (() <%e" t%e t') "3 !$ '" 'cc!u"t & "ece&&',. $!, t%e "$!,1't !" !$ t%e c!u,t (e$!,e 5u+31e"t, !, $!, c',,. "3 ' 5u+31e"t !, !,+e, "t! e$$ect: (c) <%e" ' Aue&t !" !$ $'ct, !t%e, t%'" u-!" t%e -le'+ "3&, ', &e& u-!" 1!t !" !, !t%e,* &e, " '". &t'3e !$ ' c'&e, !, $!, c',,. "3 ' 5u+31e"t !, !,+e, "t! e$$ect#

A commissioner is a person aut(ori.ed )y t(e court to Any matter can )e re%erred to t(e commissioner i% )ot( parties consent to it in writing* o I% parties do not agree- t(e court- upon motion o% eit(er o% t(e parties or motu propio- can still re%er t(e case to a commissioner i%: Case re#uires e9amination o% a long account "aking o% account is necessary %or court,s in%ormation %or it to render =udgmentIe9ecute suc( =udgment "(ere is #uestion o% %act- ot(er t(en upon t(e pleadings- arising %rom motion Commissioners are mandatory in e9propriation cases $second stage: =ust compensation part' In partition cases- commissioners MA> )e availed o% i% t(e parties do not agree on t(e partition*

Sec# 2# O,+e, !$ ,e$e,e"ce: -!*e,& !$ t%e c!11 && !"e,# <%e" ' ,e$e,e"ce & 1'+e, t%e cle,) &%'ll $!,t%* t% $u," &% t%e c!11 && !"e, * t% ' c!-. !$ t%e !,+e, !$ ,e$e,e"ce# T%e !,+e, 1'. &-ec $. !, l 1 t t%e -!*e,& !$ t%e c!11 && !"e,, '"+ 1'. + ,ect % 1 t! ,e-!,t !"l. u-!" -',t cul', &&ue&, !, t! +! !, -e,$!,1 -',t cul', 'ct&, !, t! ,ece 0e '"+ ,e-!,t e0 +e"ce !"l., '"+ 1'. $ / t%e +'te $!, (e3 "" "3 '"+ cl!& "3 t%e %e', "3& '"+ $!, t%e $ l "3 !$ % & ,e-!,t# Su(5ect t! t%e &-ec $ c't !"& '"+ l 1 t't !"& &t'te+ " t%e !,+e,, t%e c!11 && !"e, %'& '"+ &%'ll e/e,c &e t%e -!*e, t! ,e3ul'te t%e -,!cee+ "3& " e0e,. %e', "3 (e$!,e % 1 '"+ t! +! 'll 'ct& '"+ t')e 'll 1e'&u,e& "ece&&',. !, -,!-e, $!, t%e e$$ c e"t -e,$!,1'"ce !$ % & +ut e& u"+e, t%e !,+e,# @e 1'. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

am+dg

&&ue &u(-!e"'& '"+ &u(-!e"'& +uce& tecu1, &*e', * t"e&&e&, '"+ u"le&& !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e+ " t%e !,+e, !$ ,e$e,e"ce, %e 1'. ,ule u-!" t%e '+1 && ( l t. !$ e0 +e"ce# T%e t, 'l !, %e', "3 (e$!,e % 1 &%'ll -,!cee+ " 'll ,e&-ect& '& t *!ul+ $ %el+ (e$!,e t%e c!u,t#

"(e order o% re%erence outlines t(e powers o% t(e commissioner* Can a commissioner issue a su)poenaF o >es* o De can even issue a su)poena duces tecum2 o De can even rule on o)=ections $unless t(is power is taken away )y t(e order o% re%erence' 5i%%erence )etween a clerk and a commissioner: Clerk can 16" issue su)poena duces tecum wit(out court order* Commissioner can issue a su)poena duces tecum* Clerk can 16" rule on o)=ections* Commissioner can*

Sec# 6# O't% !$ c!11 && !"e,# 4e$!,e e"te, "3 u-!" % & +ut e& t%e c!11 && !"e, &%'ll (e &*!," t! ' $' t%$ul '"+ %!"e&t -e,$!,1'"ce t%e,e!$# Sec# 8# =,!cee+ "3& (e$!,e c!11 && !"e,# U-!" ,ece -t !$ t%e !,+e, !$ ,e$e,e"ce '"+ u"le&& !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e+ t%e,e ", t%e c!11 && !"e, &%'ll $!,t%* t% &et ' t 1e '"+ -l'ce $!, t%e $ ,&t 1eet "3 !$ t%e -',t e& !, t%e , c!u"&el t! (e %el+ * t% " te" (l0) +'.& '$te, t%e +'te !$ t%e !,+e, !$ ,e$e,e"ce '"+ &%'ll "!t $. t%e -',t e& !, t%e , c!u"&el# Sec# 9# F' lu,e !$ -',t e& t! '--e', (e$!,e c!11 && !"e,# I$ ' -',t. $' l& t! '--e', 't t%e t 1e '"+ -l'ce '--! "te+, t%e c!11 && !"e, 1'. -,!cee+ e/ -',te !,, " % & + &c,et !", '+5!u," t%e -,!cee+ "3& t! ' $utu,e +'., 3 0 "3 "!t ce t! t%e '(&e"t -',t. !, % & c!u"&el !$ t%e '+5!u,"1e"t# Sec# 7# Re$u&'l !$ * t"e&&# T%e ,e$u&'l !$ ' * t"e&& t! !(e. ' &u(-!e"' &&ue+ (. t%e c!11 && !"e, !, t! 3 0e e0 +e"ce (e$!,e % 1, &%'ll (e +ee1e+ ' c!"te1-t !$ t%e c!u,t *% c% '--! "te+ t%e c!11 && !"e,# Sec# 8# C!11 && !"e, &%'ll '0! + +el'.&# It & t%e +ut. !$ t%e c!11 && !"e, t! -,!cee+ * t% 'll ,e'&!"'(le + l 3e"ce# E t%e, -',t., !" "!t ce t! t%e -',t e& '"+ c!11 && !"e,, 1'. '--l. t! t%e c!u,t $!, '" !,+e, ,eAu , "3 t%e c!11 && !"e, t! e/-e+ te t%e -,!cee+ "3& '"+ t! 1')e % & ,e-!,t# Sec# B# Re-!,t !$ c!11 && !"e,# U-!" t%e c!1-let !" !$ t%e t, 'l !, %e', "3 !, -,!cee+ "3 (e$!,e t%e c!11 && !"e,, %e &%'ll $ le * t% t%e c!u,t % & ,e-!,t " *, t "3 u-!" t%e 1'tte,& &u(1 tte+ t! % 1 (. t%e !,+e, !$ ,e$e,e"ce# <%e" % & -!*e,& ',e "!t &-ec $ e+ !, l 1 te+, %e &%'ll &et $!,t% % & $ "+ "3& !$ $'ct '"+ c!"clu& !"& !$ l'* " % & ,e-!,t# @e &%'ll 'tt'c% t%e,et! 'll e/% ( t&, '$$ +'0 t&, +e-!& t !"&, -'-e,& '"+ t%e t,'"&c, -t, $ '"., !$ t%e te&t 1!" 'l e0 +e"ce -,e&e"te+ (e$!,e % 1# Sec# 10# N!t ce t! -',t e& !$ t%e $ l "3 !$ ,e-!,t# U-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e ,e-!,t, t%e -',t e& &%'ll (e "!t $ e+ (. t%e cle,), '"+ t%e. &%'ll (e 'll!*e+ te" (l0) +'.& * t% " *% c% t! & 3" $. 3,!u"+& !$ !(5ect !"& t! t%e $ "+ "3& !$ t%e ,e-!,t, $ t%e. &! +e& ,e# O(5ect !"& t! t%e ,e-!,t ('&e+ u-!" 3,!u"+& *% c% *e,e '0' l'(le t! t%e -',t e& +u, "3 t%e -,!cee+ "3& (e$!,e t%e c!11 && !"e,, !t%e, t%'" !(5ect !"& t! t%e $ "+ "3& '"+ c!"clu& !"& t%e,e " &et $!,t%, &%'ll "!t (e c!"& +e,e+ (. t%e c!u,t u"le&& t%e. *e,e 1'+e (e$!,e t%e c!11 && !"e,# Sec# 11# @e', "3 u-!" ,e-!,t# U-!" t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ !$ te" (l0) +'.& ,e$e,,e+ t! " t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !", t%e ,e-!,t &%'ll (e &et $!, %e', "3, '$te, *% c% t%e c!u,t &%'ll &&ue '" !,+e, '+!-t "3, 1!+ $. "3, !, ,e5ect "3 t%e ,e-!,t " *%!le !, " -',t, !, ,ec!11 tt "3 t * t% "&t,uct !"&, !, ,eAu , "3 t%e -',t e& t! -,e&e"t $u,t%e, e0 +e"ce (e$!,e t%e c!11 && !"e, !, t%e c!u,t#

A%ter t(e (earing on t(e report- t(e court can eit(er: o adopt- modi%y or re=ect t(e commissioner,s report in w(ole or in parto recommit it wit( instructions- or o re#uire parties to present %urt(er evidence )e%ore t(e commissioner or t(e court*

Sec# 12# St -ul't !"& '& t! $ "+ "3&# <%e" t%e -',t e& &t -ul'te t%'t ' c!11 && !"e,G& $ "+ "3& !$ $'ct &%'ll (e $ "'l, !"l. Aue&t !"& !$ l'* Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

<2

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals &%'ll t%e,e'$te, (e c!"& +e,e+#

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Sec# 12# C!1-e"&'t !" !$ c!11 && !"e,# T%e c!u,t &%'ll 'll!* t%e c!11 && !"e, &uc% ,e'&!"'(le c!1-e"&'t !" '& t%e c ,cu1&t'"ce& !$ t%e c'&e *',,'"t, t! (e t'/e+ '& c!&t& '3' "&t t%e +e$e'te+ -',t., !, '--!,t !"e+, '& 5u&t ce ,eAu ,e&#

"(e loser pays %or t(e cost- unless t(e court apportions- as =ustice re#uires*

RULE 22 DEMURRER TO E>IDENCE Sect !" 1# De1u,,e, t! e0 +e"ce# A$te, t%e -l' "t $$ %'& c!1-lete+ t%e -,e&e"t't !" !$ % & e0 +e"ce, t%e +e$e"+'"t 1'. 1!0e $!, + &1 &&'l !" t%e 3,!u"+ t%'t u-!" t%e $'ct& '"+ t%e l'* t%e -l' "t $$ %'& &%!*" "! , 3%t t! ,el e$# I$ % & 1!t !" & +e" e+, %e &%'ll %'0e t%e , 3%t t! -,e&e"t e0 +e"ce# I$ t%e 1!t !" & 3,'"te+ (ut !" '--e'l t%e !,+e, !$ + &1 &&'l & ,e0e,&e+ %e &%'ll (e +ee1e+ t! %'0e *' 0e+ t%e , 3%t t! -,e&e"t e0 +e"ce#

5emurrer is also called :motion to dismiss on t(e ground o% insu%%iciency o% evidence*M $P v Cac(ola- 2 4' J(en do you apply %or a demurrerF o Civ: A%ter t(e plainti%% (as completely presented (is evidence* $a%ter %ormal o%%er o% o)=ect evidence- remem)er evidence2' o Crim: A%ter prosecution rests its case &round: upon t(e %acts and t(e law- t(e plainti%% (as s(own no rig(t to relie% 5o you need leave o% court in civil casesF o 1o* Dow a)out in criminal cases- do you need leave o% courtF 1o as well* ;4" %iling wit(out leave can lead to dire and serious conse#uences* o 1o leave and denied: accused waives rig(t to present evidence o Jit( leave and denied: accused can still present evidence* /or civil cases- w(at (appens wit( a motion %or dismissal on a demurrerF o I% motion is denied- de%endant can present evidence* o I% motion is granted )ut on appeal t(e order o% dismissal is reversed- de%endant is deemed to (ave waived t(e rig(t to present evidence* "(e appellate court can 16" remand t(e case* It must rule on its merits* $Radiowealt( v del Rosario- 2 ' /or )ot( civil and criminal cases- t(e grant o% a demurrer is considered an ad=udication on t(e merits o% t(e case* J(at are t(e implicationsF o In civil- t(e losing party (as to %ile an appeal )ecause it,s a %inal disposition* o In criminal- t(e losing party $t(e People' can 16" %ile an appeal or %ile %or certiorari $c(eck on certiorari' )ecause t(e accused (as already )een ac#uitted* 5ou)le =eopardy (as already set it* It,s 6:?R* $compare to civil cases- t(at w(en t(e demurrer is granted- t(e appellate court can still overturn t(e grant and rule on t(e case' 5emurrer is one o% t(e e9ceptions to t(e general rule t(at dismissal )y t(e accused will not )ring a)out dou)le =eopardy* "(e ot(er e9ception is ac#uittal )ased on speedy trial*

RULE 26 JUDGMENT ON T@E =LEADINGS Sect !" 1# Ju+31e"t !" t%e -le'+ "3&# <%e,e '" '"&*e, $' l& t! te"+e, '" &&ue, !, !t%e,* &e '+1 t& t%e 1'te, 'l 'lle3't !"& !$ t%e '+0e,&e -',t.G& -le'+ "3, t%e c!u,t 1'., !" 1!t !" !$ t%'t -',t., + ,ect 5u+31e"t !" &uc% -le'+ "3# @!*e0e,, " 'ct !"& $!, +ecl','t !" !$ "ull t. !, '""ul1e"t !$ 1',, '3e !, $!, le3'l &e-','t !", t%e 1'te, 'l $'ct& 'lle3e+ " t%e c!1-l' "t &%'ll 'l*'.& (e -,!0e+#

3udgment on t(e pleadings can )e availed o% w(en: o "(e answer %ails to tender an issue- or o "(e answer admits t(e material allegations o% t(e adverse party,s pleading Must )e done on motion o% a party $t(e plainti%% or de%endant in a counterclaim' Court can 16" motu propio render a =udgment on t(e pleadings* $;ascug v Aranday- 2 2- w(ere a =udge rendered 36P wit(out application o% any o%

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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t(e parties' o In pre0trial- a =udge may prompt t(e parties to (ave 36P- )ut ultimately- t(e party involved must consent* 36P not availa)le in: o 5eclaration o% nullity or annulment o% marriage or %or legal separation 16 partial =udgment on t(e pleadings* o ALJA>+ %ull =udgment on t(e pleadings* 5i%%erentiate wit( summary =udgment w(ic( can )e partial* As a plainti%%- you %ile A/"?R t(e answer* o >ou can %ile it during pre0trial $Rule !@- +ec 2g'- )ut )etter to do it earlier* As a de%endant $on a counterclaim'- you can %ile anytime* It,s important to compare 36P wit( summary =udgment $)elow'*

RULE 28 SUMMARH JUDGMENTS Sect !" 1# Su11',. 5u+31e"t $!, cl' 1'"t# A -',t. &ee) "3 t! ,ec!0e, u-!" ' cl' 1, c!u"te,cl' 1, !, c,!&&-cl' 1 !, t! !(t' " ' +ecl','t!,. ,el e$ 1'., 't '". t 1e '$te, t%e -le'+ "3 " '"&*e, t%e,et! %'& (ee" &e,0e+, 1!0e * t% &u--!,t "3 '$$ +'0 t&, +e-!& t !"& !, '+1 && !"& $!, ' &u11',. 5u+31e"t " % & $'0!, u-!" 'll !, '". -',t t%e,e!$# Sec# 2# Su11',. 5u+31e"t $!, +e$e"+ "3 -',t.# A -',t. '3' "&t *%!1 ' cl' 1, c!u"te,cl' 1, !, c,!&&-cl' 1 & '&&e,te+ !, ' +ecl','t!,. ,el e$ & &!u3%t 1'., 't '". t 1e, 1!0e * t% &u--!,t "3 '$$ +'0 t&, +e-!& t !"& !, '+1 && !"& $!, ' &u11',. 5u+31e"t " % & $'0!, '& t! 'll !, '". -',t t%e,e!$#

+ummary =udgment is availed o% w(en: o "(ere is no genuine issue as to a material %act* It,s availa)le )ot( to t(e claimant and t(e de%endant* o Claimant: a%ter answer (as )een served o 5e%endant: any time &R: +ummary =udgment can )e used in A1> action* o ?AC?P": actions %or annulment o% marriage or declaration o% its nullity or %or legal separation $?0Land P(il v &arcia' 1ote: same as 36P Ito na2 I"6 1A2 J(at,s t(e di%%erence )etween 36P and +3F $Jood "ec(nology v ?#uita)le- 2 < w(ic( was a +3'<G o In 36P- t(ere is no issue at all )ecause t(e answer does not tender an issue or it admits t(e material allegations on t(e claim* "(ere,s no dispute at all* o In +3- t(ere is an issue- )ut it,s %ictitious- it,s ostensi)le- it,s 0 gasp K a s(am2 Issue apparently e9ist $%acts are asserted in t(e complaint- t(ere are denials'- )ut t(e issues are s(am and not genuine as s(own )y a%%idavits- depositios- or admissions* In +3- t(e court goes )eyond t(e pleadings- as it relies on documents- papersa%%idavits- and depositions* Important: J(en- (owever- t(ere are genuine issues $)ecause o% 54L> disputed and contested %acts'- no summary =udgments can take place* $?land P(il v &arcia- 2 ! ' o 1o P63 eit(er* +o it,ll go to trial* ?9amples w(en +3 can )e (ad: o 5eclaratory relie% o Li#uidated sum o% money or action to recover a de)t

Sec# 2# M!t !" '"+ -,!cee+ "3& t%e,e!"# T%e 1!t !" &%'ll (e &e,0e+ 't le'&t te" (10) +'.& (e$!,e t%e t 1e &-ec $ e+ $!, t%e %e', "3# T%e '+0e,&e -',t. 1'. &e,0e !--!& "3 '$$ +'0 t&, +e-!& t !"&, !, '+1 && !"& 't le'&t t%,ee (2) +'.& (e$!,e t%e %e', "3# A$te, t%e %e', "3, t%e 5u+31e"t &!u3%t &%'ll (e ,e"+e,e+ $!,t%* t% $ t%e -le'+ "3&, &u--!,t "3 '$$ +'0 t&, +e-!& t !"&, '"+ '+1 && !"& !" $ le, &%!* t%'t, e/ce-t '& t! t%e '1!u"t !$ +'1'3e&, t%e,e & "! 3e"u "e &&ue '& t! '". 1'te, 'l $'ct '"+ t%'t t%e 1!0 "3 -',t. & e"t tle+ t! '
/3

'n t$is case, t$ere %as a P> %it$out a due date. T$e !laintiff said it %as due. T$e defendant said it %asnDt due. So t$ere %as an issue raised, so "ou canDt $a(e a @2P. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals 5u+31e"t '& ' 1'tte, !$ l'*#

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"ake note: normally- a motion $like one %or 36P' must )e served to t(e adverse party at least G days )e%ore t(e (earing* o ;ut wit( motions %or summary =udgment- t(e motion must )e served at least ! days )e%ore t(e (earing* It is t(e adverse party w(o must serve at least G days )e%ore t(e (earing*

Sec# 6# C'&e "!t $ull. '+5u+ c'te+ !" 1!t !"# I$ !" 1!t !" u"+e, t% & Rule, 5u+31e"t & "!t ,e"+e,e+ u-!" t%e *%!le c'&e !, $!, 'll t%e ,el e$& &!u3%t '"+ ' t, 'l & "ece&&',., t%e c!u,t 't t%e %e', "3 !$ t%e 1!t !", (. e/'1 " "3 t%e -le'+ "3& '"+ t%e e0 +e"ce (e$!,e t '"+ (. "te,,!3't "3 c!u"&el &%'ll '&ce,t' " *%'t 1'te, 'l $'ct& e/ &t * t%!ut &u(&t'"t 'l c!"t,!0e,&. '"+ *%'t ',e 'ctu'll. '"+ " 3!!+ $' t% c!"t,!0e,te+# It &%'ll t%e,eu-!" 1')e '" !,+e, &-ec $. "3 t%e $'ct& t%'t '--e', * t%!ut &u(&t'"t 'l c!"t,!0e,&., "clu+ "3 t%e e/te"t t! *% c% t%e '1!u"t !$ +'1'3e& !, !t%e, ,el e$ & "!t " c!"t,!0e,&., '"+ + ,ect "3 &uc% $u,t%e, -,!cee+ "3& " t%e 'ct !" '& ',e 5u&t# T%e $'ct& &! &-ec $ e+ &%'ll (e +ee1e+ e&t'(l &%e+, '"+ t%e t, 'l &%'ll (e c!"+ucte+ !" t%e c!"t,!0e,te+ $'ct& 'cc!,+ "3l.#

Anot(er di%%erence )etween P63 and +3: o P63: always %ull =udgment o +3: partial =udgment is allowed

Sec# 8# F!,1 !$ '$$ +'0 t& '"+ &u--!,t "3 -'-e,&# Su--!,t "3 '"+ !--!& "3 '$$ +'0 t& &%'ll (e 1'+e !" -e,&!"'l )"!*le+3e, &%'ll &et $!,t% &uc% $'ct& '& *!ul+ (e '+1 && (le " e0 +e"ce, '"+ &%'ll &%!* '$$ ,1't 0el. t%'t t%e '$$ '"t & c!1-ete"t t! te&t $. t! t%e 1'tte,& &t'te+ t%e,e "# Ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!- e& !$ 'll -'-e,& !, -',t& t%e,e!$ ,e$e,,e+ t! " t%e '$$ +'0 t &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+ t%e,et! !, &e,0e+ t%e,e* t%# Sec# 9# A$$ +'0 t& " ('+ $' t%# S%!ul+ t '--e', t! t& &'t &$'ct !" 't '". t 1e t%'t '". !$ t%e '$$ +'0 t& -,e&e"te+ -u,&u'"t t! t% & Rule ',e -,e&e"te+ " ('+ $' t%, !, &!lel. $!, t%e -u,-!&e !$ +el'., t%e c!u,t &%'ll $!,t%* t% !,+e, t%e !$$e"+ "3 -',t. !, c!u"&el t! -'. t! t%e !t%e, -',t. t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e ,e'&!"'(le e/-e"&e& *% c% t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e '$$ +'0 t& c'u&e+ % 1 t! "cu,, "clu+ "3 'tt!,"e.G& $ee&# It 1'., '$te, %e', "3, $u,t%e, '+5u+3e t%e !$$e"+ "3 -',t. !, c!u"&el 3u lt. !$ c!"te1-t# RULE 29 JUDGMENTS, FINAL ORDERS AND ENTRH T@EREOF Sect !" 1# Re"+ t !" !$ 5u+31e"t& '"+ $ "'l !,+e,&# A 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, +ete,1 " "3 t%e 1e, t& !$ t%e c'&e &%'ll (e " *, t "3 -e,&!"'ll. '"+ + ,ectl. -,e-',e+ (. t%e 5u+3e, &t't "3 cle',l. '"+ + &t "ctl. t%e $'ct& '"+ t%e l'* !" *% c% t & ('&e+, & 3"e+ (. % 1, '"+ $ le+ * t% t%e cle,) !$ t%e c!u,t#

&R: 3udgments are immuta)le- t(ey cannot )e modi%ied once %inal and e9ecutory* $Deirs o% :alde. v CA- 2 @- w(ere two con%licting resolutions were released in t(e same day' o ?AC?P": 1unc pro tunc $=udgment does not speak t(e trut(' Clerical or typo errors :oid =udgments "(ose t(at transpire a%ter t(e %inality w(ic( make t(e en%orcement un=ust or ine#uita)le 3udgments w(ic( do not o)tain %inality K like support "(e =udgment or %inal order must contain t(e %acts and t(e legal )asis* $Consing v CA- 2 4w(ere t(e =udge did not indicate t(e legal )asis o% t(e decision' A =udgment or %inal can only )e made )y a =udge w(o (as aut(ority or is currently sitting in t(e court* o Dence- once a =udge resigns or steps down- (e can no longer render =udgment* Is it re#uired t(at t(e =udge w(o (ead t(e case )e t(e same one w(o renders t(e decisionF o 1o* ;ut t(e =udge must personally review it*

Sec# 2# E"t,. !$ 5u+31e"t& '"+ $ "'l !,+e,&# I$ "! '--e'l !, 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" & $ le+ * t% " t%e t 1e -,!0 +e+ " t%e&e Rule&, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, &%'ll $!,t%* t% (e e"te,e+ (. t%e cle,) " t%e (!!) !$ e"t, e& !$ 5u+31e"t&# T%e +'te !$ $ "'l t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, &%'ll (e +ee1e+ t! (e t%e +'te !$ t& e"t,.# T%e Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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,ec!,+ &%'ll c!"t' " t%e + &-!& t 0e -',t !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '"+ &%'ll (e & 3"e+ (. t%e cle,), * t% ' ce,t $ c'te t%'t &uc% 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, %'& (ec!1e $ "'l '"+ e/ecut!,.#

L/inal and e9ecutoryM L/inalM =udgment )ecomes L%inal and e9ecutoryM upon e9piration o% t(e period to appeal $and no appeal per%ected'- or w(en an appeal is per%ected- =udgment )y t(e appellate court is rendered and )ecomes %inal ?9ecution is discretionary $e9ecution ?9ecution %ollows as a matter o% rig(t pending appeal' $Intramuros "ennis v P"A- 2 ' 6nce %inal and e9ecutory- t(e =udgment will )e entered )y t(e clerk in t(e )ook o% entries* o 5ate o% %inality s(all )e deemed to )e t(e date o% its entry* +o- t(e date w(en t(e period e9pires $and no appeal taken' is considered Lentry o% =udgmentM* ?ntry o% =udgment is important )ecause a petition %or relie% %rom =udgment $Rule G@' can only )e availed o% once entry o% =udgment is made

L/inalM =udgment 6ne t(at %inally disposes o% a case- leaving not(ing more %or a court to do in respect t(ereto

Sec# 2# Ju+31e"t $!, !, '3' "&t !"e !, 1!,e !$ &e0e,'l -',t e&# Ju+31e"t 1'. (e 3 0e" $!, !, '3' "&t !"e !, 1!,e !$ &e0e,'l -l' "t $$&, '"+ $!, !, '3' "&t !"e !, 1!,e !$ &e0e,'l +e$e"+'"t&# <%e" 5u&t ce &! +e1'"+&, t%e c!u,t 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e -',t e& !" e'c% & +e t! $ le '+0e,&',. -le'+ "3& '& (et*ee" t%e1&el0e& '"+ +ete,1 "e t%e , ult 1'te , 3%t& '"+ !(l 3't !"&# Sec# 6# Se0e,'l 5u+31e"t&# I" '" 'ct !" '3' "&t &e0e,'l +e$e"+'"t&, t%e c!u,t 1'., *%e" ' &e0e,'l 5u+31e"t & -,!-e,, ,e"+e, 5u+31e"t '3' "&t !"e !, 1!,e !$ t%e1, le'0 "3 t%e 'ct !" t! -,!cee+ '3' "&t t%e !t%e,&# Sec# 8# Se-','te 5u+31e"t&# <%e" 1!,e t%'" !"e cl' 1 $!, ,el e$ & -,e&e"te+ " '" 'ct !", t%e c!u,t, 't '". &t'3e, u-!" ' +ete,1 "'t !" !$ t%e &&ue& 1'te, 'l t! ' -',t cul', cl' 1 '"+ 'll c!u"te,cl' 1& ', & "3 !ut !$ t%e t,'"&'ct !" !, !ccu,,e"ce *% c% & t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, !$ t%e cl' 1, 1'. ,e"+e, ' &e-','te 5u+31e"t + &-!& "3 !$ &uc% cl' 1# T%e 5u+31e"t &%'ll te,1 "'te t%e 'ct !" * t% ,e&-ect t! t%e cl' 1 &! + &-!&e+ !$ '"+ t%e 'ct !" &%'ll -,!cee+ '& t! t%e ,e1' " "3 cl' 1&# I" c'&e ' &e-','te 5u+31e"t & ,e"+e,e+, t%e c!u,t (. !,+e, 1'. &t'. t& e"$!,ce1e"t u"t l t%e ,e"+ t !" !$ ' &u(&eAue"t 5u+31e"t !, 5u+31e"t& '"+ 1'. -,e&c, (e &uc% c!"+ t !"& '& 1'. (e "ece&&',. t! &ecu,e t%e (e"e$ t t%e,e!$ t! t%e -',t. " *%!&e $'0!, t%e 5u+31e"t & ,e"+e,e+#

+everal =udgment: re%ers to =udgments w(en t(ere are many parties o Court can render =udgment to one party- and go on wit( trial wit( anot(er +eparate =udgment: i% t(ere are many claims- t(e court can render =udgment on one- and t(e action proceeds wit( t(e ot(er claims* o Classic e9ample: e9propriation $aut(ority to e9propriate and =ust compensation' Also in summary =udgment $=udgment over one claim w(ic( (as no genuine issueot(er parts will )e t(res(ed out in trial'

Sec# 9# Ju+31e"t '3' "&t e"t t. * t%!ut 5u, + c'l -e,&!"'l t.# <%e" 5u+31e"t & ,e"+e,e+ '3' "&t t*! !, 1!,e -e,&!"& &ue+ '& '" e"t t. * t%!ut 5u, + c'l -e,&!"'l t., t%e 5u+31e"t &%'ll &et !ut t%e , "+ 0 +u'l !, -,!-e, "'1e&, $ )"!*"#

I% =udgment rendered against an entity wit(out =uridical entity- it will )e against t(e mem)ers- not t(e entity itsel%*

RULE 27 NE< TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION Sect !" 1# G,!u"+& !$ '"+ -e, !+ $!, $ l "3 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !"# < t% " t%e -e, !+ $!, t') "3 '" '--e'l, t%e '33, e0e+ -',t. 1'. 1!0e t%e t, 'l c!u,t t! &et '& +e t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '"+ 3,'"t ' "e* t, 'l $!, !"e !, 1!,e !$ t%e $!ll!* "3 c'u&e& 1'te, 'll. '$$ect "3 t%e &u(&t'"t 'l , 3%t& !$ &' + -',t.; (') F,'u+, 'cc +e"t, 1 &t')e !, e/cu&'(le "e3l 3e"ce *% c% !,+ "',. -,u+e"ce c!ul+ "!t %'0e 3u',+e+ '3' "&t '"+ (. ,e'&!" !$ *% c% &uc% '33, e0e+ -',t. %'& -,!('(l. (ee" 1-' ,e+ " % & , 3%t&: !, (() Ne*l. + &c!0e,e+ e0 +e"ce, *% c% %e c!ul+ "!t, * t% ,e'&!"'(le + l 3e"ce, %'0e + &c!0e,e+ '"+ -,!+uce+ 't t%e t, 'l, '"+ *% c% $ -,e&e"te+ *!ul+ -,!('(l. 'lte, t%e ,e&ult# < t% " t%e &'1e -e, !+, t%e '33, e0e+ -',t. 1'. 'l&! 1!0e $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" u-!" t%e 3,!u"+& t%'t t%e +'1'3e& '*',+e+ ',e e/ce&& 0e, t%'t t%e e0 +e"ce & "&u$$ c e"t t! 5u&t $. t%e +ec & !" !, $ "'l Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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!,+e,, !, t%'t t%e +ec & !" !, $ "'l !,+e, & c!"t,',. t! l'*#

MRIM1" period to %ile: !< days $period %or taking an appeal' o Cannot )e e9tended A" ALL* +ee /ernande. v CA- w(ere +C said t(at it is only in t(e +C t(at you can %iled a motion %or e9tension o% time to %ile a M1"IMR* $;ut Atty* "ran#uil said t(at you s(ouldn,t use t(is in practice )ecause %iling a motion %or e9tension o% time does 16" interrupt t(e running o% t(e period*' Can t(ere )e partial MRIM1"F o >es* J(en t(e court %inds t(at t(e MRIM1" a%%ects only a part o% t(e =udgment* $+ec E' Motion %or 1ew "rial &rounds $/AM?- w(ic( ordinary prudence could not (ave guarded against and )y reason o% w(ic( t(e party was pro)a)ly impaired (is rig(ts- and 1ewly 5iscovered ?vidence': o /raud ?9trinsic %raud dapat2 o Accident o Mistake Mistake o% %act in good %aigt( 1ot mistake o% law* I% mistake o% law- %ile MR o ?9cusa)le negligence o 1ewly discovered evidence Could not (ave )een discovered and produced at t(e trial wit( reasona)le negligence- and I% presented- would pro)a)ly alter t(e result Motion %or Reconsideration o 5amages awarded are e9cessive o ?vidence insu%%icient to =usti%y t(e decision or %inal order o 5ecision or %inal order is contrary to law A de%ective MR $suc( as a pro %orma one: one t(at- %or e9ample- does not (ave a notice o% (earing' does 16" toll t(e appeal period* It keeps running* o An MRIM1" is a motion $du(' so know t(e re#uirements %or a valid motion* $+ee rules on motions' o +ee Repu)lic v Peralta- and "an v CA !88@ $w(ere entry o% =udgment was made )ecause t(e MR was de%ective and t(e time to appeal kept ticking*' I% a movant (ad already %iled in t(e +C a petition %or review on certiorari- t(e MR previously %iled in t(e CA is deemed a)andoned* $People v 6dilao- 2 4- w(ere t(e 6+& and t(e private complainant %iled di%%erent petitions wit(out t(e knowledge o% t(e ot(er' /res( period rule $important2': A%ter t(e denial o% an MR- t(e party is given a %res( period o% !< days to appeal* $1eypes v CA- 2 <'<4 o "(e denial o% an MR is a %inal order- so reglementary period s(ould start t(en* o /res( period rule only applies i% you %ile %or an MR $M1"F' and t(en it,s denied* J(ere does t(e 1eypes rule applyF o ;asically- =ust to Rule 4 and 4! $alt(oug( t(e case =ust mentioned Rule 4 '* "(ese are ordinary appeals* o Rule 42 $Pet %or Review'- 4G $Pet %or Review %rom B3A'- and 4< $Pet %or Review on Certiorari'- do not need t(e 1eypes ruling )ecause t(e %res( period rule is already in(erent in t(e said rules* Can t(ere )e M1" in t(e appellate courtF o >es- )ut wit( di%%erent rules and applica)le only to t(e Court o% Appeals* o C(eck Rule <G* /or t(e CA- t(e only ground is newly discovered evidence* << Also di%%erent periods: In trial courts: !< days In CA: as long as t(e case is active $no need to wait %or a =udgment in t(e

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.oes t$e fres$ !eriod rule a!!l" to denial of 1>TN RC8, /3 >,J TR':8 Section 1. Period for filing6 ground. :t an" ti e after t$e a!!eal fro t$e lo%er court $as #een !erfected and #efore t$e Court of :!!eals loses )urisdiction o(er t$e case, a !art" a" file a otion for a ne% trial on t$e ground of ne%l" disco(ered e(idence %$ic$ could not $a(e #een disco(ered !rior to t$e trial in t$e court #elo% #" t$e e-ercise of due diligence and %$ic$ is of suc$ a c$aracter as %ould !ro#a#l" c$ange t$e result. T$e otion s$all #e acco !anied #" affida(its s$o%ing t$e facts constituting t$e grounds t$erefor and t$e ne%l" disco(ered e(idence. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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CA' Is t(ere M1" in t(e +CF o 4nder Rule <C- generally no* ;ut t(e +C can entertain suc( i% it %eels it will serve t(e interests o% madame =ustice* J(at is a "M1"F o A "eenage Mutant 1in=a "urtle* "(ey are (eroes in a (al%0s(ell* <C

Sec# 2# C!"te"t& !$ 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" '"+ "!t ce t%e,e!$# T%e 1!t !" &%'ll (e 1'+e " *, t "3 &t't "3 t%e 3,!u"+ !, 3,!u"+& t%e,e$!,, ' *, tte" "!t ce !$ *% c% &%'ll (e &e,0e+ (. t%e 1!0'"t !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t.# A 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l &%'ll (e -,!0e+ " t%e 1'""e, -,!0 +e+ $!, -,!!$ !$ 1!t !"&# A 1!t !" $!, t%e c'u&e 1e"t !"e+ " -','3,'-% (') !$ t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !" &%'ll (e &u--!,te+ (. '$$ +'0 t& !$ 1e, t& *% c% 1'. (e ,e(utte+ (. '$$ +'0 t&# A 1!t !" $!, t%e c'u&e 1e"t !"e+ " -','3,'-% (() &%'ll (e &u--!,te+ (. '$$ +'0 t& !$ t%e * t"e&&e& (. *%!1 &uc% e0 +e"ce & e/-ecte+ t! (e 3 0e", !, (. +ul. 'ut%e"t c'te+ +!cu1e"t& *% c% ',e -,!-!&e+ t! (e "t,!+uce+ " e0 +e"ce# A 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" &%'ll -! "t !ut &-ec $ c'll. t%e $ "+ "3& !, c!"clu& !"& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, *% c% ',e "!t &u--!,te+ (. t%e e0 +e"ce !, *% c% ',e c!"t,',. t! l'*, 1') "3 e/-,e&& ,e$e,e"ce t! t%e te&t 1!" 'l !, +!cu1e"t',. e0 +e"ce !, t! t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ l'* 'lle3e+ t! (e c!"t,',. t! &uc% $ "+ "3& !, c!"clu& !"&# A -,! $!,1' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" &%'ll "!t t!ll t%e ,e3le1e"t',. -e, !+ !$ '--e'l#

A M1" )ased on /AM? must )e accompanied )y an A//I5A:I" o% M?RI"*

Sec# 2# Act !" u-!" 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !"# T%e t, 'l c!u,t 1'. &et '& +e t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '"+ 3,'"t ' "e* t, 'l, u-!" &uc% te,1& '& 1'. (e 5u&t, !, 1'. +e". t%e 1!t !"# I$ t%e c!u,t $ "+& t%'t e/ce&& 0e +'1'3e& %'0e (ee" '*',+e+ !, t%'t t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & c!"t,',. t! t%e e0 +e"ce !, l'*, t 1'. '1e"+ &uc% 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, 'cc!,+ "3l.# Sec# 6# Re&!lut !" !$ 1!t !"# A 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" &%'ll (e ,e&!l0e+ * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& $,!1 t%e t 1e t & &u(1 tte+ $!, ,e&!lut !"#

Court (as G days %rom su)mission to resolve t(e MRIM1"* Court can grant a new trial or deny it* $M1"' o I% it grants a M1"- a trial de novo will proceed* ?vidence presented may )e used in t(e new trial wit(out retaking* $+ec C' It can also amend t(e =udgment* $MR'

Sec# 8# Sec!"+ 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l# A 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l &%'ll "clu+e 'll 3,!u"+& t%e" '0' l'(le '"+ t%!&e "!t &! "clu+e+ &%'ll (e +ee1e+ *' 0e+# A &ec!"+ 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l, ('&e+ !" ' 3,!u"+ "!t e/ &t "3 "!, '0' l'(le *%e" t%e $ ,&t 1!t !" *'& 1'+e, 1'. (e $ le+ * t% " t%e t 1e %e,e " -,!0 +e+ e/clu+ "3 t%e t 1e +u, "3 *% c% t%e $ ,&t 1!t !" %'+ (ee" -e"+ "3# N! -',t. &%'ll (e 'll!*e+ ' &ec!"+ 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e,#

A second M1" is allowed- )ut only %or grounds not e9isting nor availa)le w(en t(e %irst motion was made* o It must )e %iled wit(in t(e time provided e9cluding t(e time during w(ic( t(e %irst motion (ad )een pending* $F' A second MR is 16" allowed* o 7now t(is di%%erence: 2nd M1" allowedQ 2nd MR not allowed*

Sec# 9# E$$ect !$ 3,'"t "3 !$ 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l# I$ ' "e* t, 'l & 3,'"te+ " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ t% & Rule, t%e !, 3 "'l 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, &%'ll (e 0'c'te+, '"+ t%e 'ct !" &%'ll &t'"+ $!, t, 'l +e "!0!: (ut t%e ,ec!,+e+ e0 +e"ce t')e" u-!" t%e $!,1e, t, 'l, " &! $', '& t%e &'1e & 1'te, 'l '"+ c!1-ete"t t! e&t'(l &% t%e &&ue&, &%'ll (e u&e+ 't t%e "e* t, 'l * t%!ut ,et') "3 t%e &'1e# Sec#7# =',t 'l "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !"# I$ t%e 3,!u"+& $!, ' 1!t !" u"+e, t% & Rule '--e', t! t%e c!u,t t! '$$ect t%e &&ue& '& t! !"l. ' -',t, !,
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Turtle Po%erL

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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le&& t%'" 'll !$ t%e 1'tte, " c!"t,!0e,&., !, !"l. !"e, !, le&& t%'" 'll, !$ t%e -',t e& t! t, t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, ' "e* t, 'l !, 3,'"t ,ec!"& +e,'t !" '& t! &uc% &&ue& $ &e0e,'(le * t%!ut "te,$e, "3 * t% t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, u-!" t%e ,e&t# Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ !,+e, $!, -',t 'l "e* t, 'l# <%e" le&& t%'" 'll !$ t%e &&ue& ',e !,+e,e+ ,et, e+, t%e c!u,t 1'. e t%e, e"te, ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '& t! t%e ,e&t, !, &t'. t%e e"$!,ce1e"t !$ &uc% 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, u"t l '$te, t%e "e* t, 'l# Sec# B# Re1e+. '3' "&t !,+e, +e". "3 ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !"# A" !,+e, +e". "3 ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" & "!t '--e'l'(le, t%e ,e1e+. (e "3 '" '--e'l $,!1 t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e,# RULE 28 RELIEF FROM JUDGMENTS, ORDERS, OR OT@ER =ROCEEDINGS Sect !" 1# =et t !" $!, ,el e$ $,!1 5u+31e"t, !,+e,, !, !t%e, -,!cee+ "3&# <%e" ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & e"te,e+, !, '". !t%e, -,!cee+ "3 & t%e,e'$te, t')e" '3' "&t ' -',t. " '". c!u,t t%,!u3% $,'u+, 'cc +e"t, 1 &t')e, !, e/cu&'(le "e3l 3e"ce, %e 1'. $ le ' -et t !" " &uc% c!u,t '"+ " t%e &'1e c'&e -,'. "3 t%'t t%e 5u+31e"t, !,+e, !, -,!cee+ "3 (e &et '& +e# Sec# 2# =et t !" $!, ,el e$ $,!1 +e" 'l !$ '--e'l# <%e" ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & ,e"+e,e+ (. '". c!u,t " ' c'&e, '"+ ' -',t. t%e,et!, (. $,'u+, 'cc +e"t, 1 &t')e, !, e/cu&'(le "e3l 3e"ce, %'& (ee" -,e0e"te+ $,!1 t') "3 '" '--e'l, %e 1'. $ le ' -et t !" " &uc% c!u,t '"+ " t%e &'1e c'&e -,'. "3 t%'t t%e '--e'l (e 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e#

"(ere are two kinds o% petition %or relie% o /rom =udgment- order- or ot(er proceedings o /rom denial o% appeal >ou %ile a petition %or relie% %rom =udgment )e%ore t(e court t(at rendered =udgment- not )e%ore t(e appellate court o 5istinguis( %rom Rule 4E- Rule C< w(ere you %ile wit( t(e (ig(er court 1ot sure w(ere you %ile t(e petition %or relie% %rom denial o% appeal )ut it seems like you %ile it wit( t(e court t(at rendered =udgment J(at are t(e groundsF o /or )ot(- it,s /AM?*<E /or denial o% appeal- )ecause o% /AM?- (e was prevented %rom taking an appeal I% lawyer %orgot to %ile an appeal- %iled late- and t(us was denied* J(at,s (is remedyF o 1ot petition %or relie% %rom denial o% appeal )ecause (e was a)le to %ile an appeal* De was not prevented %rom %iling* o De s(ould =ust %ile an MR* J(o can %ile a petition %or relie%F $also applies to MR- M1"' o 6nly t(e parties in t(e proceedings* $Ala)an v CA' ;ut take note t(at in an action in rem- t(e w(ole world )ecomes a party )y reason o% pu)lication* Dence- anyone wit( legal interest can %ile a petition %or relie%* $Ala)an v CA- 2 <- w(ic( involved a pro)ate case* +C said a pro)ate case is a proceeding in rem- (ence t(e petitioners w(o were not mentioned in t(e petition %or pro)ate and were e9cluded %rom t(e proceeding were deemed parties w(o could (ave %iled a petition %or relie% o% =udgment* "(ey actually %iled a petition %or annulment wit( t(e CA- )ut t(is was denied )ecause t(ey were negligent in not %iling a MR- M1"- or petition %or relie% %irst' Can you %ile a petition %or relie% %rom =udgment w(en t(ere is still availa)le remedy $like MR- M1" or appeal'F o 162 As long as t(ere are still availa)le relie%s- you cannot resort to petition %or relie% %rom =udgment* o Important: petition %or relie% is only availa)le once t(ere is entry o% =udgment* A%ter %iling an MRIM1"- can you %ile a petition %or relie% a%ter t(e MRIM1" is deniedF o 1o* "(e remedies are e9clusive o% eac( ot(er* o Appeal na lang %rom t(e =udgment #uestioned*

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7:1, also a!!lies in 1>T, !etition for relief, otion to lift order of default, and 1R of order of court in !re3trial declaring t$at !laintiff can !resent e(idence e- !arte due to failure of t$e defendant to a!!ear in !re3trial Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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Sec# 2# T 1e $!, $ l "3 -et t !": c!"te"t& '"+ 0e, $ c't !"# A -et t !" -,!0 +e+ $!, " e t%e, !$ t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !"& !$ t% & Rule 1u&t (e 0e, $ e+, $ le+ * t% " & /t. (90) +'.& '$te, t%e -et t !"e, le',"& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t, $ "'l !,+e,, !, !t%e, -,!cee+ "3 t! (e &et '& +e, '"+ "!t 1!,e t%'" & / (9) 1!"t%& '$te, &uc% 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, *'& e"te,e+, !, &uc% -,!cee+ "3 *'& t')e": '"+ 1u&t (e 'cc!1-'" e+ * t% '$$ +'0 t& &%!* "3 t%e $,'u+, 'cc +e"t, 1 &t')e, !, e/cu&'(le "e3l 3e"ce ,el e+ u-!", '"+ t%e $'ct& c!"&t tut "3 t%e -et t !"e,D& 3!!+ '"+ &u(&t'"t 'l c'u&e !$ 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e, '& t%e c'&e 1'. (e#

A petition %or relie% %rom =udgment must )e :?RI/I?5- and o Accompanied )y an A//I5A:I" o% M?RI"* J(en is t(e time period %or %iling a petition %or relie%F o Jit(in C days %rom knowledge o% =udgment $count %rom knowledge' o ;4" not more t(an C mont(s a%ter entry o% =udgmentIorder $count %rom entry' ;ot( periods must apply "(e C day period must move around t(e C mont(s* o 5ate o% entry: 3une ! o ?nd o% C mont(s: 5ec ! $assuming G daysImont(' I% you learned o% t(e =udgment Aug !- your last day to %ile is 6ct !* $C days' I% you learned o% t(e =udgment 1ov G - your last day to %ile is 5ec !* In a case w(ere t(e R"C a%%irmed t(e M"C decision- and w(at was assailed was t(e R"C decisioncounting s(ould start %rom t(e R"C decision- and not t(e M"C decision $+amartino v Raon- 2 2'

Sec# 6# O,+e, t! $ le '" '"&*e,# I$ t%e -et t !" & &u$$ c e"t " $!,1 '"+ &u(&t'"ce t! 5u&t $. ,el e$, t%e c!u,t " *% c% t & $ le+, &%'ll &&ue '" !,+e, ,eAu , "3 t%e '+0e,&e -',t e& t! '"&*e, t%e &'1e * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 t%e ,ece -t t%e,e!$# T%e !,+e, &%'ll (e &e,0e+ " &uc% 1'""e, '& t%e c!u,t 1'. + ,ect, t!3et%e, * t% c!- e& !$ t%e -et t !" '"+ t%e 'cc!1-'". "3 '$$ +'0 t&#

Answer to a petition %or relie%: !< days %rom receipt

Sec# 8# =,el 1 "',. "5u"ct !" -e"+ "3 -,!cee+ "3&# T%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e -et t !" & $ le+, 1'. 3,'"t &uc% -,el 1 "',. "5u"ct !" '& 1'. (e "ece&&',. $!, t%e -,e&e,0't !" !$ t%e , 3%t& !$ t%e -',t e&, u-!" t%e $ l "3 (. t%e -et t !"e, !$ ' (!"+ " $'0!, !$ t%e '+0e,&e -',t. 'll +'1'3e& '"+ c!&t& t%'t 1'. (e '*',+e+ t! % 1 (. ,e'&!" !$ &&u'"ce !$ &uc% "5u"ct !" !, t%e !t%e, -,!cee+ "3& $!ll!* "3 t%e -et t !": (ut &uc% "5u"ct !" &%'ll "!t !-e,'te t! + &c%',3e !, e/t "3u &% '". l e" *% c% t%e '+0e,&e -',t. 1'. %'0e 'cAu ,e+ u-!" t%e -,!-e,t. !$ t%e -et t !"e,#

Can t(e court grant a preliminary in=unction during t(e petition %or relie%F o >es* ;ut petitioner must %ile a )ond*

Sec# 9# =,!cee+ "3& '$te, '"&*e, & $ le+# A$te, t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e '"&*e, !, t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ t%e,e$!,, t%e c!u,t &%'ll %e', t%e -et t !" '"+ $ '$te, &uc% %e', "3, t $ "+& t%'t t%e 'lle3't !"& t%e,e!$ ',e "!t t,ue, t%e -et t !" &%'ll (e + &1 &&e+: (ut $ t $ "+& &' + 'lle3't !"& t! (e t,ue, t &%'ll &et '& +e t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, !t%e, -,!cee+ "3& c!1-l' "e+ !$ u-!" &uc% te,1& '& 1'. (e 5u&t# T%e,e'$te, t%e c'&e &%'ll &t'"+ '& $ &uc% 5u+31e"t, $ "'l !,+e, !, !t%e, -,!cee+ "3 %'+ "e0e, (ee" ,e"+e,e+, &&ue+ !, t')e"# T%e c!u,t &%'ll t%e" -,!cee+ t! %e', '"+ +ete,1 "e t%e c'&e '& $ ' t 1el. 1!t !" $!, ' "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" %'+ (ee" 3,'"te+ (. t# Sec# 7# =,!ce+u,e *%e,e t%e +e" 'l !$ '" '--e'l & &et '& +e# <%e,e t%e +e" 'l !$ '" '--e'l & &et '& +e, t%e l!*e, c!u,t &%'ll (e ,eAu ,e+ t! 3 0e +ue c!u,&e t! t%e '--e'l '"+ t! ele0'te t%e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e '--e'le+ c'&e '& $ ' t 1el. '"+ -,!-e, '--e'l %'+ (ee" 1'+e#

J(at (appens upon resolutionF o I% petition %or relie% %rom =udgment &ranted: =udgment- %inal order or ot(er proceeding s(all )e deemed as never (ad )een rendered- issued- or taken* Court will proceed to try t(e case as i% a timely M1" or MR (ad )een granted* Compare to annulment o% =udgment $Rule 4E'- w(ere court simply annuls t(e =udgment* Can,t su)stitute or rule on t(e merits* 5enied: o( di denied* o I% petition %or denial o% an appeal

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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&ranted: lower court s(all )e re#uired to give due course to t(e appeal and to elevate t(e record o% t(e appeal case as i% a timely appeal was made

RULE 2B EIECUTION, SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS Sect !" 1# E/ecut !" u-!" 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,&# E/ecut !" &%'ll &&ue '& ' 1'tte, !$ , 3%t, !" 1!t !", u-!" ' 5u+31e"t !, !,+e, t%'t + &-!&e& !$ t%e 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3 u-!" t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ t! '--e'l t%e,e$,!1 $ "! '--e'l %'& (ee" +ul. -e,$ecte+# I$ t%e '--e'l %'& (ee" +ul. -e,$ecte+ '"+ $ "'ll. ,e&!l0e+, t%e e/ecut !" 1'. $!,t%* t% (e '--l e+ $!, " t%e c!u,t !$ !, 3 ", !" 1!t !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, &u(1 tt "3 t%e,e* t% ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!- e& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e, !, !,+e,& &!u3%t t! (e e"$!,ce+ '"+ !$ t%e e"t,. t%e,e!$, * t% "!t ce t! t%e '+0e,&e -',t.# T%e '--ell'te c!u,t 1'., !" 1!t !" " t%e &'1e c'&e, *%e" t%e "te,e&t !$ 5u&t ce &! ,eAu ,e&, + ,ect t%e c!u,t !$ !, 3 " t! &&ue t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !"#

+ection ! talks o% e9ecution as a matter o% rig(t ?9ecution as a matter o% rig(t (appens w(en t(e =udgment or %inal order is %inal and e9ecutory o Meaning- period to appeal (as already lapsed J(ere do you apply %or t(e writ o% e9ecutionF o In t(e court t(at originally rendered =udgment* o It is t(e court o% origin t(at issues t(e writ* I% t(e case went up on appeal and t(e appellate court rendered a %inal and e9ecutory =udgment- w(ere do you applyF +till in t(e case t(at originally rendered =udgment* >ou (ave to give t(e certi%ied copy o% t(e =udgment to t(e court and to t(e adverse party* o Can you apply %or t(e writ in t(e appellate courtF >es- )ut only w(en t(e interest o% =ustice so re#uires* "(e appellate court will 16" issue t(e writ- )ut it will direct t(e court o% origin to issue it* o +o- w(en can t(e appellate court issue t(e writ itsel%F J(en it e9ercises original =urisdiction* Court can 16" issue e9ecution in interlocutory orders* o ?AC?P": J(en a party claims t(at (e is an indigent- and (e is discovered not to )e one K e9ecution can )e (ad to en%orce t(e %ees (e was supposed to pay +upport pendente lite $Rule C!- +ec <'<@ J(et(er it )e a matter o% rig(t or discretion- a writ o% e9ecution can only )e issued 4P61 M6"I61 o% t(e winning party* $see +ec <'* o ?AC?P" in la)or cases w(ere t(e decision o% t(e LA is immediately e9ecutory- no need %or writ or motion $&arcia v PAL' J(et(er it )e a matter o% rig(t or discretion- t(e writ must con%orm to t(e dispositive portion o% t(e =udgment*

Sec# 2# D &c,et !"',. e/ecut !"# (') E/ecut !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, -e"+ "3 '--e'l#E O" 1!t !" !$ t%e -,e0' l "3 -',t. * ll "!t ce t! t%e '+0e,&e -',t. $ le+ " t%e t, 'l c!u,t *% le t %'& 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e c'&e '"+ & " -!&&e&& !" !$ e t%e, t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, '& t%e c'&e 1'. (e, 't t%e t 1e !$ t%e $ l "3 !$ &uc% 1!t !", &' + c!u,t 1'., " t& + &c,et !", !,+e, e/ecut !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, e0e" (e$!,e t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ t! '--e'l# A$te, t%e t, 'l c!u,t %'& l!&t 5u, &+ ct !", t%e 1!t !" $!, e/ecut !" -e"+ "3 '--e'l 1'. (e $ le+ " t%e '--ell'te c!u,t# D &c,et !"',. e/ecut !" 1'. !"l. &&ue u-!" 3!!+ ,e'&!"& t! (e &t'te+ " ' &-ec 'l !,+e, '$te, +ue %e', "3# (() E/ecut !" !$ &e0e,'l, &e-','te !, -',t 'l 5u+31e"t&#E A &e0e,'l &e-','te !, -',t 'l 5u+31e"t 1'. (e e/ecute+ u"+e, t%e &'1e te,1& '"+ c!"+ t !"& '& e/ecut !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, -e"+ "3 '--e'l#

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+ec 2 talks o% e9ecution as a matter o% discretion

Sec. /. ,nforce ent of order. 'f t$e ad(erse !art" fails to co !l" %it$ an order granting su!!ort !endente lite, t$e court s$all, otu !ro!rio or u!on otion, issue an order of e-ecution against $i , %it$out !re)udice to $is lia#ilit" for conte !t. J$en t$e !erson ordered to gi(e su!!ort !endente lite refuses or fails to do so, an" t$ird !erson %$o furnis$ed t$at su!!ort to t$e a!!licant a", after due notice and $earing in t$e sa e case, o#tain a %rit of e-ecution to enforce $is rig$t of rei #urse ent against t$e !erson ordered to !ro(ide suc$ su!!ort. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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J(en is e9ecution a matter o% discretionF o J(en t(e =udgment is %inal- meaning it is eit(er: pending appeal or a severalIpartial =udgment $w(ile t(e ot(er issues o% t(e case are still )eing tried' o "(e distinction )etween a %inal =udgment and one t(at is %inal and e9ecutory is essentialso see t(e ta)le w(ic( discussed t(e Intramuros case* $Rule GC- +ec 2' o A %inal =udgment or order is one t(at %inally disposes o% a case* Re#uisites %or an e9ecution pending appealIseveralIseparateIpartial =udgments: o "C must still (ave =urisdiction over t(e case o Must )e wit(in t(e appeal period o Records or record on appeal are still wit( t(e trial court<8 o Must )e %or good reasons o "(e good reasons must )e stated in a special order a%ter due (earing All o% t(e re#uisites must concur2 And t(e presence o% t(e records wit( t(e trial court is very important* It is possi)le t(at t(e appeal (as )een per%ected $meaning a notice o% appeal (as )een %iled' )ut i% t(e records are still wit( t(e trial court- e9ecution pending appeal wit( t(e trial court can still )e availed o%* $Atty* "ran#uil' +een in Capa v CA $2 C' 6n t(e re#uirement o% good reasons o ?9amples o% good reasons Peris(a)le goods to )e e9ecuted upon o ?9amples o% 16" good reasons "(e mere %iling o% a )ond $I+M v CA- !888- since t(e %iling o% a )ond is not re#uired to apply %or discretionary e9ecution' "(e conclusion o% t(e trial court t(at t(e appeal is dilatory $since it is t(e appellate court w(ic( determines w(en an appeal is dilatory' Admission o% lia)ility $Manacop v ?#uita)le ;ank- 2 <- since t(e admission and willingness to deliver t(e proceeds to t(e proper party militate against e9ecution pending appeal )ecause t(ere is little or no danger t(at t(e =udgment will )ecome illusory' Is discretionary e9ecution availa)le in election casesF o >es* ;ut +ec G $staying t(e discretionary e9ecution' is 16" availa)le* $1avarro v C6M?L?C- 2 G' Is discretionary e9ecution availa)le in %inal =udgments against t(e government $like e9propriation'F o 1o- )ecause dis)ursements o% pu)lic %unds must )e covered )y t(e corresponding appropriation as re#uired )y law* $Curata v PPA- 2 8- w(ere t(e private person wanted discretionary e9ecution %or =ust compensation in e9propriation' &ive t(e rule on e9ecution on la)or cases $&arcia v PAL- 2 8- w(ic( was an illegal dismissal case w(erein t(e LA order reinstatement'* o 4pon decision o% t(e LA- it,s immediately e9ecutory $even i% appealed to t(e 1LRC'* 1o need %or writ* Incum)ent on t(e employer to comply wit( t(e LA decision in ! days* o I% 1LRC or (ig(er courts reverse t(e decision o% t(e LA- t(e wages o% t(e employee can not )e taken )ack* $un%airF >es*' Is a %ull )lown trial neededF o 1o- codal says merely a (earing* J(at is t(e remedy %or an order o% e9ecution pending appeal $eit(er grantIdenial'F o Rule C<- Certiorari* It,s interlocutory* Can you %ile t(is even w(ile t(e original case is on appealF >es* >ou are attacking t(e order o% e9ecution- not t(e main case* +o it,s not %orum s(opping*

Sec# 2# St'. !$ + &c,et !"',. e/ecut !"#


/<

Read t$is rule %it$ Rule 41, Sec <

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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D &c,et !"',. e/ecut !" &&ue+ u"+e, t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !" 1'. (e &t'.e+ u-!" '--,!0'l (. t%e -,!-e, c!u,t !$ ' &u$$ c e"t &u-e,&e+e '& (!"+ $ le+ (. t%e -',t. '3' "&t *%!1 t & + ,ecte+, c!"+ t !"e+ u-!" t%e -e,$!,1'"ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, !,+e, 'll!*e+ t! (e e/ecute+ " c'&e t &%'ll (e $ "'ll. &u&t' "e+ " *%!le !, " -',t# T%e (!"+ t%u& 3 0e" 1'. (e -,!cee+e+ '3' "&t !" 1!t !" * t% "!t ce t! t%e &u,et.#

Dow do you stay e9ecutionF o I% it,s e9ecution as a matter o% rig(t- you can,t- even wit( a )ond* 4nless you can get an in=unction or "R6- claiming &A5L?3* o I% discretionary e9ecution- )y %iling a supersedeas )ond* "ake note: no need %or )ond to apply %or e9ecution- )ut need %or staying one* +tay o% discretionary e9ecution only applies in ordinary civil actions w(ere t(e =udgments and orders are capa)le o% pecuniary estimation* o Dence- it doesn,t apply to election cases since t(e underlying pu)lic interest renders a supersedeas )ond insu%%icient* $1avarro v C6M?L?C'

Sec# 6# Ju+31e"t& "!t &t'.e+ (. '--e'l# Ju+31e"t& " 'ct !"& $!, "5u"ct !", ,ece 0e,&% -, 'cc!u"t "3 '"+ &u--!,t, '"+ &uc% !t%e, 5u+31e"t& '& ',e "!* !, 1'. %e,e'$te, (e +ecl',e+ t! (e 11e+ 'tel. e/ecut!,., &%'ll (e e"$!,ce'(le '$te, t%e , ,e"+ t !" '"+ &%'ll "!t (e &t'.e+ (. '" '--e'l t')e" t%e,e$,!1, u"le&& !t%e,* &e !,+e,e+ (. t%e t, 'l c!u,t# O" '--e'l t%e,e$,!1, t%e '--ell'te c!u,t " t& + &c,et !" 1'. 1')e '" !,+e, &u&-e"+ "3, 1!+ $. "3, ,e&t!, "3 !, 3,'"t "3 t%e "5u"ct !", ,ece 0e,&% -, 'cc!u"t "3, !, '*',+ !$ &u--!,t# T%e &t'. !$ e/ecut !" &%'ll (e u-!" &uc% te,1& '& t! (!"+ !, !t%e,* &e '& 1'. (e c!"& +e,e+ -,!-e, $!, t%e &ecu, t. !, -,!tect !" !$ t%e , 3%t& !$ t%e '+0e,&e -',t.#

"(e %ollowing =udgments are not stayed )y appeal: o in=unction o receivers(ip o accounting and support o ot(er =udgments declared as immediately e9ecutory o la)or cases $&arcia v PAL' ;ut on appeal- t(e appellate court may suspend- modi%y- restore or grant suc( in its discretion

Sec# 8# E$$ect !$ ,e0e,&'l !$ e/ecute+ 5u+31e"t# <%e,e t%e e/ecute+ 5u+31e"t & ,e0e,&e+ t!t'll. !, -',t 'll., !, '""ulle+, !" '--e'l !, !t%e,* &e, t%e t, 'l c!u,t 1'., !" 1!t !", &&ue &uc% !,+e,& !$ ,e&t tut !" !, ,e-','t !" !$ +'1'3e& '& eAu t. '"+ 5u&t ce 1'. *',,'"t u"+e, t%e c ,cu1&t'"ce&# Sec# 9# E/ecut !" (. 1!t !" !, (. "+e-e"+e"t 'ct !"# A $ "'l '"+ e/ecut!,. 5u+31e"t !, !,+e, 1'. (e e/ecute+ !" 1!t !" * t% " $ 0e (8) .e',& $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t& e"t,.# A$te, t%e l'-&e !$ &uc% t 1e, '"+ (e$!,e t & (',,e+ (. t%e &t'tute !$ l 1 t't !"&, ' 5u+31e"t 1'. (e e"$!,ce+ (. 'ct !"# T%e ,e0 0e+ 5u+31e"t 1'. 'l&! (e e"$!,ce+ (. 1!t !" * t% " $ 0e (8) .e',& $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t& e"t,. '"+ t%e,e'$te, (. 'ct !" (e$!,e t & (',,e+ (. t%e &t'tute !$ l 1 t't !"&#

&R: Motion %or e9ecution is I15I+P?1+A;L? )e%ore t(e court can order e9ecution K applies even to t(ose immediately e9ecutory in nature* o ?AC?P": orders o% reinstatement in la)or cases Dence- court can 16" motu proprio issue a writ o% e9ecution wit(out motion o% a party* J(en can you %ile a motion %or e9ecutionF o Jit(in < years %rom entry o% =udgment- and o ;e%ore it is )arred )y statute o% limitations $! years'* I% you go past t(e < years- you will need to %ile an independent action to e9ecute* $revival o% =udgment' o ;ut take note t(at suc( revival o% =udgment still (as to )e wit(in t(e prescriptive period* Modes to en%orce =udgment: o Jit(in < years: mere motion o A%ter < years: need to %ile an independent action 6n revival o% =udgment o Revival o% =udgment can 16" alter t(e original =udgment $Arcenas v CA- 2 <' o "(e nature o% t(e original action to )e revived dictates w(ere to %ile t(e revival o%

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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=udgment* $In%ante v Aran ;uilders- 2 E- w(ere a new court was esta)lis(ed in t(e period )etween t(e time t(e original action TMakatiU and t(e revival o% =udgment TMuntinlupaU* +C (eld: %ile in new court since it now (ad =d over t(e real property' I% it was a real action- t(en in t(e place w(ere t(e property is situated* I% personal action- option o% t(e plainti%%*
Sec# 7# E/ecut !" " c'&e !$ +e't% !$ -',t.# I" c'&e !$ t%e +e't% !$ -',t., e/ecut !" 1'. &&ue !, (e e"$!,ce+ " t%e $!ll!* "3 1'""e,; (') I" c'&e !$ t%e +e't% !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, u-!" t%e '--l c't !" !$ % & e/ecut!, !, '+1 " &t,'t!,, !, &ucce&&!, " "te,e&t: (() I" c'&e !$ t%e +e't% !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, '3' "&t % & e/ecut!, !, '+1 " &t,'t!, !, &ucce&&!, " "te,e&t, $ t%e 5u+31e"t (e $!, t%e ,ec!0e,. !$ ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., !, t%e e"$!,ce1e"t !$ t%e l e" t%e,e!": (c) I" c'&e !$ t%e +e't% !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, '$te, e/ecut !" & 'ctu'll. le0 e+ u-!" '". !$ % & -,!-e,t., t%e &'1e 1'. (e &!l+ $!, t%e &'t &$'ct !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3't !", '"+ t%e !$$ ce, 1') "3 t%e &'le &%'ll 'cc!u"t t! t%e c!,,&-!"+ "3 e/ecut!, !, '+1 " &t,'t!, $!, '". &u,-lu& " % & %'"+&#

?9ecution in case o% deat(: o 6)ligee dies: e9ecutorIadminIsuccessor in interest applies o 6)ligor dies: e9ecution against e9ecutorIadminIsuccessor0interest- i% =udgment is recovery o% real or personal property- or en%orcement o% lien o 6)ligor dies a%ter leavy e%%ected: same sold %or satis%action o% =udgment o)ligation

Sec# 8# I&&u'"ce, $!,1 '"+ c!"te"t& !$ ' *, t !$ e/ecut !"# T%e *, t !$ e/ecut !" &%'ll; (1) &&ue " t%e "'1e !$ t%e Re-u(l c !$ t%e =% l -- "e& $,!1 t%e c!u,t *% c% 3,'"te+ t%e 1!t !": (2) &t'te t%e "'1e !$ t%e c!u,t, t%e c'&e "u1(e, '"+ t tle, t%e + &-!& t 0e -',t !$ t%e &u(5ect 5u+31e"t !, !,+e,: '"+ (2) ,eAu ,e t%e &%e, $$ !, !t%e, -,!-e, !$$ ce, t! *%!1 t & + ,ecte+ t! e"$!,ce t%e *, t 'cc!,+ "3 t! t& te,1&, " t%e 1'""e, %e,e " '$te, -,!0 +e+; (') I$ t%e e/ecut !" (e '3' "&t t%e -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, t! &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t, * t% "te,e&t, !ut !$ t%e ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. !$ &uc% 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,: (() I$ t (e '3' "&t ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. " t%e %'"+& !$ -e,&!"'l ,e-,e&e"t't 0e&, %e ,&, +e0 &ee&, le3'tee&, te"'"t&, !, t,u&tee& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, t! &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t, * t% "te,e&t, !ut !$ &uc% -,!-e,t e&: (c) I$ t (e $!, t%e &'le !$ ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., t! &ell &uc% -,!-e,t., +e&c, ( "3 t, '"+ '--l. t%e -,!cee+& " c!"$!,1 t. * t% t%e 5u+31e"t, t%e 1'te, 'l -',t& !$ *% c% &%'ll (e ,ec te+ " t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !": (+) I$ t (e $!, t%e +el 0e,. !$ t%e -!&&e&& !" !$ ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., t! +el 0e, t%e -!&&e&& !" !$ t%e &'1e, +e&c, ( "3 t, t! t%e -',t. e"t tle+ t%e,et!, '"+ t! &'t &$. '". c!&t&, +'1'3e&, ,e"t&, !, -,!$ t& c!0e,e+ (. t%e 5u+31e"t !ut !$ t%e -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. !$ t%e -e,&!" '3' "&t *%!1 t *'& ,e"+e,e+, '"+ $ &u$$ c e"t -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. c'""!t (e $!u"+, t%e" !ut !$ t%e ,e'l -,!-e,t.: '"+ (e) I" 'll c'&e&, t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !" &%'ll &-ec $ c'll. &t'te t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e "te,e&t, c!&t&, +'1'3e&, ,e"t&, !, -,!$ t& +ue '& !$ t%e +'te !$ t%e &&u'"ce !$ t%e *, t, '& +e $,!1 t%e -, "c -'l !(l 3't !" u"+e, t%e 5u+31e"t# F!, t% & -u,-!&e, t%e 1!t !" $!, e/ecut !" &%'ll &-ec $. t%e '1!u"t& !$ t%e $!,e3! "3 ,el e$& &!u3%t (. t%e 1!0'"t# Sec# B# E/ecut !" !$ 5u+31e"t& $!, 1!"e., %!* e"$!,ce+# (') I11e+ 'te -'.1e"t !" +e1'"+# - T%e !$$ ce, &%'ll e"$!,ce '" e/ecut !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t $!, 1!"e. (. +e1'"+ "3 $,!1 t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, t%e 11e+ 'te -'.1e"t !$ t%e $ull '1!u"t &t'te+ " t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !" '"+ 'll l'*$ul $ee&# T%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, &%'ll -'. " c'&%, ce,t $ e+ ('") c%ec) -'.'(le t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !, % & 'ut%!, 7e+ ,e-,e&e"t't 0e $ -,e&e"t 't t%e t 1e !$ -'.1e"t# T%e l'*$ul $ee& &%'ll (e %'"+e+ u"+e, -,!-e, ,ece -t t! t%e e/ecut "3 &%e, $$ *%! &%'ll tu," !0e, t%e &' + '1!u"t * t% " t%e &'1e +'. t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e c!u,t t%'t &&ue+ t%e *, t# I$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !, % & 'ut%!, 7e+ ,e-,e&e"t't 0e & "!t -,e&e"t t! ,ece 0e -'.1e"t, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, &%'ll +el 0e, t%e '$!,e&' + -'.1e"t t! t%e e/ecut "3 &%e, $$# T%e l'tte, &%'ll tu," !0e, 'll t%e '1!u"t& c!1 "3 "t! % & -!&&e&&& !" * t% " t%e &'1e +'. t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e c!u,t t%'t &&ue+ t%e *, t, !, $ t%e &'1e & "!t -,'ct c'(le, +e-!& t &' + '1!u"t t! ' $ +uc ',. 'cc!u"t " t%e "e',e&t 3!0e,"1e"t +e-!& t!,. ('") !$ t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t !$ t%e l!c'l t.# T%e cle,) !$ c!u,t &%'ll t%e,e'$te, ',,'"3e $!, t%e ,e1 tt'"ce !$ t%e +e-!& t t! t%e 'cc!u"t !$ t%e c!u,t t%'t &&ue+ t%e *, t *%!&e cle,) !$ c!u,t &%'ll t%e" +el 0e, &' + -'.1e"t t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee " &'t &$'ct !"" !$ t%e 5u+31e"# T%e e/ce&&, $ '"., &%'ll (e +el 0e,e+ t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, *% le t%e l'*$ul $ee& &%'ll (e ,et' "e+ (. t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t $!, + &-!& t !" '& -,!0 +e+ (. l'*# I" "! c'&e &%'ll t%e e/ecut "3 &%e, $$ +e1'"+ t%'t '". -'.1e"t (. c%ec) (e 1'+e -'.'(le t! % 1# (() S't &$'ct !" (. le0.# - I$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, c'""!t -'. 'll !, -',t !$ t%e !(l 3't !" " c'&%, Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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ce,t $ e+ ('") c%ec) !, !t%e, 1!+e !$ -'.1e"t 'cce-t'(le t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll le0. u-!" t%e -,!-e,t e& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, !$ e0e,. ) "+ '"+ "'tu,e *%'t&!e0e, *% c% 1'. (e + &-!&e+ !$ $!, 0'lue '"+ "!t !t%e,* &e e/e1-t $,!1 e/ecut !" 3 0 "3 t%e l'tte, t%e !-t !" t! 11e+ 'tel. c%!!&e *% c% -,!-e,t. !, -',t t%e,e!$ 1'. (e le0 e+ u-!", &u$$ c e"t t! &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t# I$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, +!e& "!t e/e,c &e t%e !-t !", t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll $ ,&t le0. !" t%e -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t e&, $ '"., '" t%e" !" t%e ,e'l -,!-e,t e& $ t%e -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t e& ',e "&u$$ c e"t t! '"&*e, $!, t%e 5u+31e"t# T%e &%e, $$ &%'ll &ell !"l. ' &u$$ c e"t -!,t !" !$ t%e -e,&!"'l !, ,e'l -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, *% c% %'& (ee" le0 e+ u-!"# <%e" t%e,e & 1!,e -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, t%'" & &u$$ c e"t t! &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t '"+ l'*$ul $ee&, %e 1u&t &ell !"l. &! 1uc% !$ t%e -e,&!"'l !, ,e'l -,!-e,t. '& & &u$$ c e"t t! &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t '"+ l'*$ul $ee&# Re'l -,!-e,t., &t!c)&, &%',e&, +e(t&, c,e+ t&, '"+ !t%e, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., !, '". "te,e&t " e t%e, ,e'l !, -e,&!'"l -,!-e,t., 1'. (e le0 e+ u-!" " l )e 1'""e, '"+ * t% l )e e$$ect '& u"+e, ' *, t !$ 'tt'c%1e"t# (c) G'," &%1e"t !$ +e(t& '"+ c,e+ t&# - T%e !$$ ce, 1'. le0. !" +e(t& +ue t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, '"+ !t%e, c,e+ t&, "clu+ "3 ('") +e-!& t&, $ "'"c 'l "te,e&t&, ,!.'lt e&, c!11 && !"& '"+ !t%e, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. "!t c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,. " t%e -!&&&e&& !" !, c!"t,!l !$ t% ,+ -',t e&# Le0. &%'ll (e 1'+e (. &e,0 "3 "!t ce u-!" t%e -e,&!" !* "3 &uc% +e(t& !, %'0 "3 " % & -!&&e&& !" !, c!"t,!l &uc% c,e+ t& t! *% c% t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, & e"t tle+# T%e 3'," &%1e"t &%'ll c!0e, !"l. &uc% '1!u"t '& * ll &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t '"+ 'll l'*$ul $ee&# T%e 3'," &%ee &%'ll 1')e ' *, tte" ,e-!,t t! t%e c!u,t * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& $,!1 &e,0 ce !$ t%e "!t ce !$ 3'," &%1e"t &t't "3 *%et%e, !, "!t t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, %'& &u$$ c e"t $u"+& !, c,e+ t& t! &'t &$. t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e 5u+31e"t# I$ "!t, t%e ,e-!,t &%'ll &t'te %!* 1uc% $u"+& !, c,e+ t& t%e 3'," &%ee %!l+& $!, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,# T%e 3'," &%e+ '1!u"t " c'&%, !, ce,t $ e+ ('") c%ec) &&ue+ " t%e "'1e !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, &%'ll (e +el 0e,e+ + ,ectl. t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee * t% " te" (10) *!,) "3 +'.& $,!1 &e,0 ce !$ "!t ce !" &' + 3'," &% "3 ,eAu , "3 &uc% +el 0e,., e/ce-t t%e l'*$ul $ee& *% c% &%'ll (e -' + + ,ectl. t! t%e c!u,t# I" t%e e0e"t t%e,e ',e t*! !, 1!,e 3'," &%ee& %!l+ "3 +e-!& t& !, c,e+ t& &u$$ c e"t t! &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, $ '0' l'(le, &%'ll %'0e t%e , 3%t t! "+ c'te t%e 3'," &%ee !, 3'," &%ee& *%! &%'ll (e ,eAu ,e+ t! +el 0e, t%e '1!u"t +ue: !t%e,* &e, t%e c%! ce &%'ll (e 1'+e (. t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee# T%e e/ecut "3 &%e, $$ &%'ll !(&e,0e t%e &'1e -,!ce+u,e u"+e, -','3,'-% (') * t% ,e&-ect t! +el 0e,. !$ -'.1e"t t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee#

?9ecution o% =udgments are en%orced )y t(e s(eri%%* ;ut )e%ore (e does so- (e must o)serve t(e %ollowing: o Prepare an estimate o% e9penses to )e incurred in e9ecuting t(e writ $must )e court approved' o Render an accounting o Issue an 6R %or t(e total amount (e received %rom t(e =udgment o)ligor $Samora v :illanueva- 2 @- t(is is not corruption2' Dow do you en%orce money =udgmentsF o Pay wit( cas( $or certi%ied )ank c(eck- or %orm o% payment accepta)le to t(e o)ligee' "o t(e =udgment o)ligee- or i% (e,s not availa)le- to (is representative* I% )ot( not availa)le- pay to t(e s(eri%%- w(o will give to t(e clerk or- i% not availa)le to a government )ank I% certi%ied )ank c(eck- it s(ould not )e made paya)le to t(e s(eri%%* +(eri%% can 16" give it to t(e )rot(er o% t(e representative* $;enite. v Acosta2 !' o I% no cas(- levy will )e made Levy is t(e act o% an o%%icer o% setting apart t(e property o% a =udgment property %or t(e purpose o% selling it later* C(oice o% t(e =udgment o)ligor w(at property will )e levied upon I% (e doesn,t make a c(oice- s(eri%% will c(oose )ut personal property will )e prioriti.ed over real property It is incum)ent on t(e +(eri%% to give a 1otice o% Levy or receipt to t(e person to w(om t(e personal properties were taken* $Ca=a v 1an#uil2 4' o I% no one,s t(ere- (e s(ould leave t(e notice o% levy in t(e place w(ere t(e property was levied* o I% still not(ing- t(en garnis(ment will %ollow +(eri%% may levy on de)ts due t(e o)ligor and ot(er credits like )ank deposits and personal property not capa)le o% manual delivery in t(e possession o% G rd persons Levy is made )y serving notice upon t(e person in possession o% suc( de)ts or credits

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"(en- garnis(ee s(all make a report wit(in < days i% t(e =udgment o)ligor (as enoug( credits wit( t(e garnis(ee I% t(ere is enoug( credits- court will order re#uiring t(e trans%er o% %unds "(ere can )e no garnis(ment wit(out period order o% payment

Sec# 10# E/ecut !" !$ 5u+31e"t& $!, &-ec $ c 'ct# (') C!"0e.'"ce, +el 0e,. !$ +ee+&, !, !t%e, &-ec $ c 'ct&: 0e&t "3 t tle# - I$ ' 5u+31e"t + ,ect& ' -',t. *%! e/ecute ' c!"0e.'"ce !$ l'"+ !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., !, t! +el 0e, +ee+& !, !t%e, +!cu1e"t&, !, t! -e,$!,1 '". !t%e, &-ec $ c 'ct " c!""ect !" t%e,e* t%, '"+ t%e -',t. $' l& t! c!1-l. * t% " t%e t 1e &-ec $ e+, t%e c!u,t 1'. + ,ect t%e 'ct t! (e +!"e 't t%e c!&t !$ t%e + &!(e+ e"t -',t. (. &!1e !t%e, -e,&!" '--! "te+ (. t%e c!u,t '"+ t%e 'ct *%e" &! +!"e &%'ll %'0e l )e e$$ect '& $ +!"e (. t%e -',t.# I$ ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. & & tu'te+ * t% " t%e =% l -- "e&, t%e c!u,t " l eu !$ + ,ect "3 ' c!"0e.'"ce t%e,e!$ 1'. (e '" !,+e, + 0e&t t%e t tle !$ '". -',t. '"+ 0e&t t " !t%e,&, *% c% &%'ll %'0e t%e $!,ce '"+ e$$ect !$ ' c!"0e.'"ce e/ecute+ " +ue $!,1 !$ l'*# (() S'le !$ ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t.#E I$ t%e 5u+31e"t (e $!, t%e &'le !$ ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., t! &ell &uc% -,!-e,t., +e&c, ( "3 t, '"+ '--l. t%e -,!cee+& " c!"$!,1 t. * t% t%e 5u+31e"t# (c) Del 0e,. !, ,e&t tut !" !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t.#- T%e !$$ ce, &%'ll +e1'"+ !$ t%e -e,&!" '3' "&t *%!1 t%e 5u+31e"t $!, t%e +el 0e,. !, ,e&t tut !" !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t. & ,e"+e,e+ '"+ 'll -e,&!" cl' 1 "3 , 3%t& u"+e, % 1 t! -e'ce'(l. 0'c'te t%e -,!-e,t. * t% " t%,ee (2) *!,) "3 +'.&, '"+ ,e&t!,e -!&&e&& !" t%e,e!$ t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee: !t%e,* &e, t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll !u&t '"+ &uc% -e,&!"& t%e,e$,!1 * t% t%e '&& &t'"ce, $ "ece&&',. !$ '--,!-, 'te -e'ce !$$ ce,&, '"+ e1-l!. "3 &uc% 1e'"& '& 1'. (e ,e'&!"'(l. "ece&&',. t! ,et')e -!&&e&& !", '"+ -l'ce t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee " -!&&e&& !" !$ &uc% -,!-e,t.# A". c!&t&, +'1'3e&, ,e"t& !, -,!$ t& '*',+e+ (. t%e 5u+31e"t &%'ll (e &'t &$ e+ " t%e &'1e 1'""e, '& ' 5u+31e"t $!, 1!"e.# (+) Re1!0'l !$ 1-,!0e1e"t& !" -,!-e,t. &u(5ect !$ e/ecut !"#- <%e" t%e -,!-e,t. &u(5ect !$ t%e e/ecut !" c!"t' "& 1-,!0e1e"t& c!"&t,ucte+ !, -l'"te+ (. t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, !, % & '3e"t, t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll "!t +e&t,!., +e1!l &% !, ,e1!0e &' + 1-,!0e1e"t& e/ce-t u-!" &-ec 'l !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t &&ue+ u-!" 1!t !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee '$te, +ue %e', "3 '"+ '$te, t%e $!,1e, %'& $' le+ t! ,e1!0e t%e &'1e * t% " ' ,e'&!"'(le t 1e $ /e+ (. t%e c!u,t# (e) Del 0e,. !$ -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t.#- I" 5u+31e"t& $!, t%e +el 0e,. !$ -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll t')e -!&&e&& !" !$ t%e &'1e '"+ $!,t%* t% +el 0e, t t! t%e -',t. e"t tle+ t%e,et! '"+ &'t &$. '". 5u+31e"t $!, 1!"e. '& t%e,e " -,!0 +e+#

I% t(e court re#uires t(e =udgment o)ligor to do somet(ing- )ut (e re%uses- t(e court may direct it to )e done )y some ot(er person- at t(e e9pense o% t(e =udgment o)ligor* o "(e court itsel% may do t(e speci%ic act* $/eria' o I% t(e ot(er person does not comply- t(e court may consider t(at it (as )een deemed complied wit(* $part o% &" notes- not sure o% t(e legal )asis' I% =udgment is %or t(e sale o% property- court can sell suc( and apply t(e proceeds to t(e =udgment* I% =udgment involves t(e delivery or restitution o% real property- t(e persons in said property (ave G days to vacate* I% not- peace o%%icers can come and make t(em vacate* I% =udgment involves demolition- demolition can not )e done unless wit( a special order o% t(e court- issued upon motion o% t(e winning party a%ter due (earing and a%ter t(e =udgment o)ligor %ails to remove t(e same* I% =udgment involves delivery o% personal property- t(e o%%icer s(all get t(e property and deliver it to t(e party entitled to it*

Sec# 11# E/ecut !" !$ &-ec 'l 5u+31e"t&# <%e" ' 5u+31e"t ,eAu ,e& t%e -e,$!,1'"ce !$ '". 'ct !t%e, t%'" t%!&e 1e"t !"e+ " t%e t*! -,ece+ "3 &ect !"&, ' ce,t $ e+ c!-. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !" '"+ &%'ll (e &e,0e+ (. t%e !$$ ce, u-!" t%e -',t. '3' "&t *%!1 t%e &'1e & ,e"+e,e+, !, u-!" '". !t%e, -e,&!" ,eAu ,e+ t%e,e(., !, (. l'*, t! !(e. t%e &'1e, '"+ &uc% -',t. !, -e,&!" 1'. (e -u" &%e+ $!, c!"te1-t $ %e + &!(e.& &uc% 5u+31e"t#

Contempt only applies %or re%usal to comply wit( a special =udgment* o It doesn,t apply to =udgments under +ec ! *

Sec# 12# E$$ect !$ le0. !" e/ecut !" '& t! t% ,+ -e,&!"&# T%e le0. !" e/ecut !" &%'ll c,e'te ' l e" " $'0!, !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !0e, t%e , 3%t, t tle '"+ Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

104

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals "te,e&t !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, e"cu1(,'"ce& t%e" e/ &t "3#

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" &uc% -,!-e,t. 't t%e t 1e !$ t%e le0., &u(5ect t! l e"& '"+

Sec# 12# =,!-e,t. e/e1-t $,!1 e/ecut !"# E/ce-t '& !t%e,* &e e/-,e&&l. -,!0 +e+ (. l'*, t%e $!ll!* "3 -,!-e,t., '"+ "! !t%e,, &%'ll (e e/e1-t $,!1 e/ecut !"; (') T%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,D& $'1 l. %!1e '& -,!0 +e+ (. l'*, !, t%e %!1e&te'+ " *% c% %e ,e& +e&, '"+ l'"+ "ece&&', l. u&e+ " c!""ect !" t%e,e* t%: (() O,+ "',. t!!l& '"+ 1-le1e"t& -e,&!"'ll. u&e+ (. % 1 " % & t,'+e, e1-l!.1e"t, !, l 0el %!!+: (c) T%,ee %!,&e&, !, t%,ee c!*&, !, t%,ee c','('!&, !, !t%e, (e'&t& !$ (u,+e" &uc% '& t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, 1'. &elect "ece&&', l. u&e+ (. % 1 " % & !,+ "',. !ccu-'t !": (+) @ & "ece&&',. cl!t% "3 '"+ ',t cle& $!, !,+ "',. -e,&!"'l u&e, e/clu+ "3 5e*el,.: (e) @!u&e%!l+ $u," tu,e '"+ ute"& l& "ece&&',. $!, %!u&e)ee- "3, '"+ u&e+ $!, t%'t -u,-!&e (. t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, '"+ % & $'1 l., &uc% '& t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, 1'. &elect, !$ ' 0'lue "!t e/cee+ "3 !"e %u"+,e+ t%!u&'"+ -e&!&: ($) =,!0 & !"& $!, "+ 0 +u'l !, $'1 l. u&e &u$$ c e"t $!, $!u, 1!"t%&: (3) T%e -,!$e&& !"'l l (,', e& '"+ eAu -1e"t !$ 5u+3e&, l'*.e,&, -%.& c '"&, -%',1'c &t&, +e"t &t&, e"3 "ee,&, &u,0e.!,&, cle,3.1e", te'c%e,&, '"+ !t%e, -,!$e&& !"'l&, "!t e/cee+ "3 t%,ee %u"+,e+ t%!u&'"+ -e&!& " 0'lue: (%) O"e $ &% "3 (!'t '"+ 'cce&&!, e& "!t e/cee+ "3 t%e t!t'l 0'lue !$ !"e %u"+,e+ t%!u&'"+ -e&!& !*"e+ (. ' $ &%e,1'" '"+ (. t%e l'*$ul u&e !$ *% c% %e e',"& % & l 0el %!!+: ( ) S! 1uc% !$ t%e &'l', e&, *'3e&, !, e'," "3& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, !$ % & -e,&!"'l &e,0 ce& * t% " t%e $!u, 1!"t%& -,ece+ "3 t%e le0. '& ',e "ece&&',. $!, t%e &u--!,t !$ % & $'1 l.: (5) Lette,e+ 3,'0e&t!"e&: ()) M!" e& (e"e$ t&, -, 0 le3e&, !, '""u t e& 'cc,u "3 !, " '". 1'""e, 3,!* "3 !ut !$ '". l $e "&u,'"ce: (l) T%e , 3%t t! ,ece 0e le3'l &u--!,t, !, 1!"e. !, -,!-e,t. !(t' "e+ '& &uc% &u--!,t, !, '". -e"& !" !, 3,'tu t. $,!1 t%e G!0e,"1e"t: (1) =,!-e,t e& &-ec 'll. e/e1-t (. l'*# 4ut "! ',t cle !, &-ec e& !$ -,!-e,t. 1e"t !"e+ " % & &ect !" &%'ll (e e/e1-t $,!1 e/ecut !" &&ue+ u-!" ' 5u+31e"t ,ec!0e,e+ $!, t& -, ce !, u-!" ' 5u+31e"t !$ $!,ecl!&u,e !$ ' 1!,t3'3e t%e,e!"#

Important: e9emptions under t(is rule are con%ined only to natural persons and not to =uridical entities $5,Armoured +ecurity v 6rpia- 2 <' "ake note t(at o i% you mortgaged your %amily (ome- it will no longer )e e9empt %rom e9ecution $see last paragrap(' o Li)raries o% pro%essionals s(ould not go )eyond G k $e9cess will )e e9ecuted on' o /urniture o% %amily s(ould not go )eyond ! k o Provisions only up to 4 mont(s o 3ewelry is 16" e9empt o "om)stones are e9empt- )ut mausoleums aren,t*

Sec# 16# Retu," !$ *, t !$ e/ecut !"# T%e *, t !$ e/ecut !" &%'ll (e ,etu,"'(le t! t%e c!u,t &&u "3 t 11e+ 'tel. '$te, t%e 5u+31e"t %'& (ee" &'t &$ e+ " -',t !, " $ull# I$ t%e 5u+31e"t c'""!t (e &'t &$ e+ " $ull * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& '$te, % & ,ece -t !$ t%e *, t, t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll ,e-!,t t! t%e c!u,t '"+ &t'te t%e ,e'&!" t%e,e$!,# Suc% *, t &%'ll c!"t "ue " e$$ect +u, "3 t%e -e, !+ * t% " *% c% t%e 5u+31e"t 1'. (e e"$!,ce+ (. 1!t !"# T%e !$$ ce, &%'ll 1')e ' ,e-!,t t! t%e c!u,t e0e,. t% ,t. (20) +'.& !" t%e -,!cee+ "3& t')e" t%e,e!" u"t l t%e 5u+31e"t & &'t &$ e+ " $ull, !, t& e$$ect 0 t. e/- ,e&# T%e ,etu,"& !, -e, !+ c ,e-!,t& &%'ll &et $!,t% t%e *%!le !$ t%e -,!cee+ "3& t')e", '"+ &%'ll (e $ le+ * t% t%e c!u,t '"+ c!- e& t%e,e!$ -,!1-tl. $u," &%e+ t%e -',t e&#

A writ (as a li%e o% < years %rom t(e entry o% =udgment* o "(e s(eri%% (as to make reports every G days* "(e s(eri%% must make a return and su)mit it to t(e court immediately upon satis%ication in part or in %ull o% t(e =udgment* o I% not in %ull- (e (as to make a report every G days* o /ailure to make a return will make t(e s(eri%% administratively lia)le*

Sec# 18# N!t ce !$ &'le !$ -,!-e,t. !" e/ecut !"# 4e$!,e t%e &'le !$ -,!-e,t. !" e/ecut !", "!t ce t%e,e!$ 1u&t (e 3 0e" '& $!ll!*&; Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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(') I" c'&e !$ -e, &%'(le -,!-e,t., (. -!&t "3 *, tte" "!t ce !$ t%e t 1e '"+ -l'ce !$ t%e &'le " t%,ee (2) -u(l c -l'ce&, -,e$e,'(l. " c!"&- cu!u& ',e'& !$ t%e 1u" c -'l !, c t. %'ll, -!&t !$$ ce '"+ -u(l c 1',)et " t%e 1u" c -'l t. !, c t. *%e,e t%e &'le & t! t')e -l'ce, $!, &uc% t 1e '& 1'. (e ,e'&!"'(le, c!"& +e, "3 t%e c%','cte, '"+ c!"+ t !" !$ t%e -,!-e,t.: (() I" c'&e !$ !t%e, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., (. -!&t "3 ' & 1 l', "!t ce " t%e t%,ee (2) -u(l c -l'ce& '(!0e1e"t !"e+ $!, "!t le&& t%'" $ 0e (8) +'.&: (c) I" c'&e !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t., (. -!&t "3 $!, t*e"t. (20) +'.& " t%e t%,ee (2) -u(l c -l'ce& '(!0e1e"t !"e+ ' & 1 l', "!t ce -',t cul',l. +e&c, ( "3 t%e -,!-e,t. '"+ &t't "3 *%e,e t%e -,!-e,t. & t! (e &!l+, '"+ $ t%e '&&e&&e+ 0'lue !$ t%e -,!-e,t. e/cee+& $ $t. t%!u&'"+ (=80,000#00) -e&!&, (. -u(l &% "3 ' c!-. !$ t%e "!t ce !"ce ' *ee) $!, t*! (2) c!"&ecut 0e *ee)& " !"e "e*&-'-e, &electe+ (. ,'$$le, *%et%e, " E"3l &%, F l - "!, !, '". 1'5!, ,e3 !"'l l'"3u'3e -u(l &%e+, e+ te+ '"+ c ,cul'te+ !,, " t%e '(&e"ce t%e,e!$, %'0 "3 3e"e,'l c ,cul't !" " t%e -,!0 "ce !, c t.: (+) I" 'll c'&e&, *, tte" "!t ce !$ t%e &'le &%'ll (e 3 0e" t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, 't le'&t t%,ee (2) +'.& (e$!,e t%e &'le, e/ce-t '& -,!0 +e+ " -','3,'-% (') %e,e!$ *%e,e "!t ce &%'ll (e 3 0e" 't '". t 1e (e$!,e t%e &'le, " t%e &'1e 1'""e, '& -e,&!"'l &e,0 ce !$ -le'+ "3& '"+ !t%e, -'-e,& '& -,!0 +e+ (. Sect !" 9 !$ Rule 12# T%e "!t ce &%'ll &-ec $. t%e -l'ce, +'te '"+ e/'ct t 1e !$ t%e &'le *% c% &%!ul+ "!t (e e',l e, t%'" " "e !Gcl!c) " t%e 1!," "3 '"+ "!t l'te, t%'" t*! !Gcl!c) " t%e '$te,"!!"# T%e -l'ce !$ t%e &'le 1'. (e '3,ee+ u-!" (. t%e -',t e&# I" t%e '(&e"ce !$ &uc% '3,ee1e"t, t%e &'le !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t. !, -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. "!t c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,. &%'ll (e %el+ " t%e !$$ ce !$ t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t !, t%e Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t *% c% &&ue+ t%e *, t !, *% c% *'& +e& 3"'te+ (. t%e '--ell'te c!u,t# I" t%e c'&e !$ -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,., t%e &'le &%'ll (e %el+ " t%e -l'ce *%e,e t%e -,!-e,t. & l!c'te+#

1otice o% sale $to t(e pu)lic' Posting "ime Peris(a)le goods G pu)lic places Reasona)le time Personal property G pu)lic places 1ot less t(an < days Real property $P< G pu)lic places 2 days and )elow' Real property $e9ceeds 1o posting)ut )y /or 2 consecutive weeks P< ' pu)lication In all cases- notice to t(e =udgment o)ligor must )e made at least G days )e%ore t(e sale o ?AC?P" in case o% peris(a)le goods- notice at any time )e%ore t(e sale* "ime o% sale: 8 am K 2 pm J(ere: 6%%ice o% t(e clerk o% court $%or real and personal property w(ic( can,t )e manually delivered'* o ;ut i% personal property capa)le o% manual delivery- w(ere t(e property is located*

Sec# 19# =,!cee+ "3& *%e,e -,!-e,t. cl' 1e+ (. t% ,+ -e,&!"# I$ t%e -,!-e,t. le0 e+ !" & cl' 1e+ (. '". -e,&!" !t%e, t%'" t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, !, % & '3e"t, '"+ &uc% -e,&!" 1')e& '" '$$ +'0 t !$ % & t tle t%e,et! !, , 3%t t! t%e -!&&e&& !" t%e,e!$, &t't "3 t%e 3,!u"+& !$ &uc% , 3%t !, t tle, '"+ &e,0e& t%e &'1e u-!" t%e !$$ ce, 1') "3 t%e le0. '"+ ' c!-. t%e,e!$ u-!" t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, t%e !$$ ce, &%'ll "!t (e (!u"+ t! )ee- t%e -,!-e,t., u"le&& &uc% 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, !" +e1'"+ !$ t%e !$$ ce,, $ le& ' (!"+ '--,!0e+ (. t%e c!u,t t! "+e1" $. t%e t% ,+--',t. cl' 1'"t " ' &u1 "!t le&& t%'" t%e 0'lue !$ t%e -,!-e,t. le0 e+ !"# I" c'&e !$ + &'3,ee1e"t '& t! &uc% 0'lue, t%e &'1e &%'ll (e +ete,1 "e+ (. t%e c!u,t &&u "3 t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !"# N! cl' 1 $!, +'1'3e& $!, t%e t') "3 !, )ee- "3 !$ t%e -,!-e,t. 1'. (e e"$!,ce+ '3' "&t t%e (!"+ u"le&& t%e 'ct !" t%e,e$!, & $ le+ * t% " !"e %u"+,e+ t*e"t. (120) +'.& $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e (!"+# T%e !$$ ce, &%'ll "!t (e l '(le $!, +'1'3e& $!, t%e t') "3 !, )ee- "3 !$ t%e -,!-e,t., t! '". t% ,+--',t. cl' 1'"t $ &uc% (!"+ & $ le+# N!t% "3 %e,e " c!"t' "e+ &%'ll -,e0e"t &uc% cl' 1'"t !, '". t% ,+ -e,&!" $,!1 0 "+ c't "3 % & cl' 1 t! t%e -,!-e,t. " ' &e-','te 'ct !", !, -,e0e"t t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee $,!1 cl' 1 "3 +'1'3e& " t%e &'1e !, ' &e-','te 'ct !" '3' "&t ' t% ,+--',t. cl' 1'"t *%! $ le+ ' $, 0!l!u& !, -l' "l. &-u, !u& cl' 1# <%e" t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !" & &&ue+ " $'0!, !$ t%e Re-u(l c !$ t%e =% l -- "e&, !, '". !$$ ce, +ul. ,e-,e&e"t "3 t, t%e $ l "3 !$ &uc% (!"+ &%'ll "!t (e ,eAu ,e+, '"+ " c'&e t%e &%e, $$ !, le0. "3 !$$ ce, & &ue+ $!, +'1'3e& '& ' ,e&ult !$ t%e le0., %e &%'ll (e ,e-,e&e"te+ (. t%e S!l c t!, Ge"e,'l '"+ $ %el+ l '(le t%e,e$!,, t%e 'ctu'l +'1'3e& '+5u+3e+ (. t%e c!u,t &%'ll (e -' + (. t%e N't !"'l T,e'&u,e, !ut !$ &uc% $u"+& '& 1'. (e '--,!-, 'te+ $!, t%e -u,-!&e#

I% t(ere is a G rd party claim to t(e property levied- t(e =udgment o)ligee must %ile a )ond to indemni%y t(e Grd party claimant* o "(e )ond must not )e less t(an t(e value o% t(e property levied upon* It is wit(in t(e discretion o% t(e s(eri%% to dispense wit( t(e indemnity )ond i% (e sees t(at t(e Grd party claim is )aseless*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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"(e s(eri%% is not lia)le %or damages %or t(e taking or keeping o% t(e property i% t(e)ond is %iled* "(e =udgment o)lige may claim damages against a G rd party claimant in t(e same or a separate action* "(e Grd person may vindicate (is claim in a separate action since intervention is no loger allowed as =udgment (as already )een rendered*

Sec# 17# =e"'lt. $!, &ell "3 * t%!ut "!t ce, !, ,e1!0 "3 !, +e$'c "3 "!t ce# A" !$$ ce, &ell "3 * t%!ut t%e "!t ce -,e&c, (e+ (. &ect !" 18 !$ t% & Rule &%'ll (e l '(le t! -'. -u" t 0e +'1'3e& " t%e '1!u"t !$ $ 0e t%!u&'"+ (=8,000#00) -e&!& t! '". -e,&!" "5u,e+ t%e,e(., " '++ t !" t! % & 'ctu'l +'1'3e&, (!t% t! (e ,ec!0e,e+ (. 1!t !" " t%e &'1e 'ct !": '"+ ' -e,&!" * ll$ull. ,e1!0 "3 !, +e$'c "3 t%e "!t ce -!&te+, $ +!"e (e$!,e t%e &'le, !, (e$!,e t%e &'t &$'ct !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t $ t (e &'t &$ e+ (e$!,e t%e &'le, &%'ll (e l '(le t! -'. $ 0e t%!u&'"+ (=8,000#000) -e&!& t! '". -e,&!" "5u,e+ (. ,e'&!" t%e,e!$, " '++ t !" t! % & 'ctu'l +'1'3e&, t! (e ,ec!0e,e+ (. 1!t !" " t%e &'1e 'ct !"# Sec# 18# N! &'le $ 5u+31e"t '"+ c!&t& -' +# At '". t 1e (e$!,e t%e &'le !$ -,!-e,t. !" e/ecut !", t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, 1'. -,e0e"t t%e &'le (. -'. "3 t%e '1!u"t ,eAu ,e+ (. t%e e/ecut !" '"+ t%e c!&t& t%'t %'0e (ee" "cu,,e+ t%e,e "# Sec# 1B# @!* -,!-e,t. &!l+ !" e/ecut !": *%! 1'. + ,ect 1'""e, '"+ !,+e, !$ &'le# All &'le& !$ -,!-e,t. u"+e, e/ecut !" 1u&t (e 1'+e 't -u(l c 'uct !", t! t%e % 3%e&t ( ++e,, t! &t',t 't t%e e/'ct t 1e $ /e+ " t%e "!t ce# A$te, &u$$ c e"t -,!-e,t. %'& (ee" &!l+ t! &'t &$. t%e e/ecut !", "! 1!,e &%'ll (e &!l+ '"+ '". e/ce&& -,!-e,t. !, -,!cee+& !$ t%e &'le &%'ll (e -,!1-tl. +el 0e,e+ t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, !, % & 'ut%!, 7e+ ,e-,e&e"t't 0e, u"le&& !t%e,* &e + ,ecte+ (. t%e 5u+31e"t !, !,+e, !$ t%e c!u,t# <%e" t%e &'le & !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t., c!"& &t "3 !$ &e0e,'l )"!*" l!t&, t%e. 1u&t (e &!l+ &e-','tel.: !,, *%e" ' -!,t !" !$ &uc% ,e'l -,!-e,t. & cl' 1e+ (. ' t% ,+ -e,&!", %e 1'. ,eAu ,e t t! (e &!l+ &e-','tel.# <%e" t%e &'le & !$ -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,., t 1u&t (e &!l+ * t% " 0 e* !$ t%!&e 'tte"+ "3 t%e &'1e '"+ " &uc% -',cel& '& ',e l )el. t! (, "3 t%e % 3%e&t -, ce# T%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, $ -,e&e"t 't t%e &'le, 1'. + ,ect t%e !,+e, " *% c% -,!-e,t., ,e'l !, -e,&!"'l, &%'ll (e &!l+, *%e" &uc% -,!-e,t. c!"& &t& !$ &e0e,'l )"!*" l!t& !, -',cel& *% c% c'" (e &!l+ t! '+0'"t'3e &e-','tel.# Ne t%e, t%e !$$ ce, c!"+uct "3 t%e e/ecut !" &'le, "!, % & +e-ut e&, c'" (ec!1e ' -u,c%'&e,, "!, (e "te,e&te+ + ,ectl. !, "+ ,ectl. " '". -u,c%'&e 't &uc% &'le#

Manner o% sale: pu)lic auction- to t(e (ig(est )idder* o Real property consisting o% several known lots: sell separately o Personal property consisting o% manual delivery: sold wit(in view o% t(ose attending t(e same and in suc( parcels w(ic( will )ring t(e (ig(est price I% =udgment o)ligor is present- (e may direct t(e order in w(ic( t(e property s(all )e sold "(e o%%icer conducting t(e sale can not purc(ase or )e interested in it

Sec# 20# Re$u&'l !$ -u,c%'&e, t! -'.# I$ ' -u,c%'&e, ,e$u&e& t! -'. t%e '1!u"t ( + (. % 1 $!, -,!-e,t. &t,uc) !$$ t! % 1 't ' &'le u"+e, e/ecut !", t%e !$$ ce, 1'. '3' " &ell t%e -,!-e,t. t! t%e % 3%e&t ( ++e, '"+ &%'ll "!t (e ,e&-!"& (le $!, '". l!&& !cc'& !"e+ t%e,e(.: (ut t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, t%e ,e$u& "3 -u,c%'&e, t! -'. "t! t%e c!u,t t%e '1!u"t !$ &uc% l!&&, * t% c!&t&, '"+ 1'. -u" &% % 1 $!, c!"te1-t $ %e + &!(e.& t%e !,+e,# T%e '1!u"t !$ &uc% -'.1e"t &%'ll (e $!, t%e (e"e$ t !$ t%e -e,&!" e"t tle+ t! t%e -,!cee+& !$ t%e e/ecut !", u"le&& t%e e/ecut !" %'& (ee" $ull. &'t &$ e+, " *% c% e0e"t &uc% -,!cee+& &%'ll (e $!, t%e (e"e$ t !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,# T%e !$$ ce, 1'. t%e,e'$te, ,e5ect '". &u(&eAue"t ( + !$ &uc% -u,c%'&e, *%! ,e$u&e& t! -'.#

I% a purc(aser re%uses to pay- (e may )e cited %or contempt

Sec# 21# Ju+31e"t !(l 3ee '& -u,c%'&e,# <%e" t%e -u,c%'&e, & t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, '"+ "! t% ,+--',t. cl' 1 %'& (ee" $ le+, %e "ee+ "!t -'. t%e '1!u"t !$ t%e ( + $ t +!e& "!t e/cee+ t%e '1!u"t !$ % & 5u+31e"t# I$ t +!e&, %e &%'ll -'. !"l. t%e e/ce&&# Sec# 22# A+5!u,"1e"t !$ &'le# 4. *, tte" c!"&e"t !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, '"+ !(l 3ee, !, t%e , +ul. 'ut%!, 7e+ ,e-,e&e"t't 0e&, t%e !$$ ce, 1'. '+5!u," t%e &'le t! '". +'te '"+ t 1e '3,ee+ u-!" (. t%e1# < t%!ut &uc% '3,ee1e"t, %e 1'. '+5!u," t%e &'le $,!1 +'. t! +'. $ t (ec!1e& "ece&&',. t! +! &! $!, l'c) !$ t 1e t! c!1-lete t%e &'le !" t%e +'. $ /e+ " t%e "!t ce !, t%e +'. t! *% c% t *'& '+5!u,"e+#

+(eri%% can 16" ad=ourn sale wit(out t(e consent o% t(e parties* $Samora v :illanueva- 2

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Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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Sec# 22# C!"0e.'"ce t! -u,c%'&e, !$ -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,.# <%e" t%e -u,c%'&e, !$ '". -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,., -'.& t%e -u,c%'&e -, ce, t%e !$$ ce, 1') "3 t%e &'le 1u&t +el 0e, t%e -,!-e,t. t! t%e -u,c%'&e, '"+, $ +e& ,e+, e/ecute '"+ +el 0e, t! % 1 ' ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le# T%e &'le c!"0e.& t! t%e -u,c%'&e, 'll t%e , 3%t& *% c% t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, %'+ " &uc% -,!-e,t. '& !$ t%e +'te !$ t%e le0. !" e/ecut !" !, -,el 1 "',. 'tt'c%1e"t# Sec# 26# C!"0e.'"ce t! -u,c%'&e, !$ -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t. "!t c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,.# <%e" t%e -u,c%'&e, !$ '". -e,&!"'l -,!-e,t., "!t c'-'(le !$ 1'"u'l +el 0e,., -'.& t%e -u,c%'&e -, ce, t%e !$$ ce, 1') "3 t%e &'le 1u&t e/ecute '"+ +el 0e, t! t%e -u,c%'&e, ' ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le# Suc% ce,t $ c'te c!"0e.& t! t%e -u,c%'&e, 'll t%e , 3%t& *% c% t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, %'+ " &uc% -,!-e,t. '& !$ t%e +'te !$ t%e le0. !" e/ecut !" !, -,el 1 "',. 'tt'c%1e"t# Sec# 28# C!"0e.'"ce !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t.: ce,t $ c'te t%e,e!$ 3 0e" t! -u,c%'&e, '"+ $ le+ * t% ,e3 &t,. !$ +ee+&# U-!" ' &'le !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t., t%e !$$ ce, 1u&t 3 0e t! t%e -u,c%'&e, ' ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le c!"t' " "3; (') A -',t cul', +e&c, -t !" !$ t%e ,e'l -,!-e,t. &!l+: (() T%e -, ce -' + $!, e'c% + &t "ct l!t !, -',cel: (c) T%e *%!le -, ce -' + (. % 1: (+) A &t'te1e"t t%'t t%e , 3%t !$ ,e+e1-t !" e/- ,e& !"e (1) .e', $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t%e ,e3 &t,'t !" !$ t%e ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le# Suc% ce,t $ c'te 1u&t (e ,e3 &te,e+ " t%e ,e3 &t,. !$ +ee+& !$ t%e -l'ce *%e,e t%e -,!-e,t. & & tu'te+# Sec# 29# Ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le *%e,e -,!-e,t. cl' 1e+ (. t% ,+ -e,&!"# <%e" ' -,!-e,t. &!l+ (. 0 ,tue !$ ' *, t !$ e/ecut !" %'& (ee" cl' 1e+ (. ' t% ,+ -e,&!", t%e ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le t! (e &&ue+ (. t%e &%e, $$ -u,&u'"t t! &ect !"& 22, 26 '"+ 28 !$ t% & Rule &%'ll 1')e e/-,e&& 1e"t !" !$ t%e e/ &te"ce !$ &uc% t% ,+--',t. cl' 1#

Certi%icate o% sale is mandatory* o ?AC?P": w(en t(e personal property is capa)le o% manual delivery I% t(ere is a Grd party claim- it must )e e9pressly mentioned in t(e certi%icate o% sale*

Sec# 27# <%! 1'. ,e+ee1 ,e'l -,!-e,t. &! &!l+# Re'l -,!-e,t. &!l+ '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e l'&t -,ece+ "3 &ect !", !, '". -',t t%e,e!$ &!l+ &e-','tel., 1'. (e ,e+ee1e+ " t%e 1'""e, %e,e "'$te, -,!0 +e+, (. t%e $!ll!* "3 -e,&!"&; (') T%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, !, % & &ucce&&!, " "te,e&t " t%e *%!le !, '". -',t !$ t%e -,!-e,t.: (() A c,e+ t!, %'0 "3 ' l e" (. 0 ,tue !$ '" 'tt'c%1e"t, 5u+31e"t !, 1!,t3'3e !" t%e -,!-e,t. &!l+, !, !" &!1e -',t t%e,e!$, &u(&eAue"t t! t%e l e" u"+e, *% c% t%e -,!-e,t. *'& &!l+# Suc% ,e+ee1 "3 c,e+ t!, & te,1e+ ' ,e+e1-t !"e,#

Personal properties can 16" )e redeemed* Redemption only applies to real properties* J(o can redeemF o 3udgment o)ligor- or o "(ose w(o (ave interest on t(e property- eit(er )y credit or encum)rance $redemptioners'

Sec# 28# T 1e '"+ 1'""e, !$, '"+ '1!u"t& -'.'(le !", &ucce&& 0e ,e+e1-t !"&: "!t ce t! (e 3 0e" '"+ $ le+# T%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, !, ,e+e1-t !"e,, 1'. ,e+ee1 t%e -,!-e,t. $,!1 t%e -u,c%'&e,, 't '". t 1e * t% " !"e (1) .e', $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t%e ,e3 &t,'t !" !$ t%e ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le, (. -'. "3 t%e -u,c%'&e, t%e '1!u"t !$ % & -u,c%'&e, * t% !"e -e, ce"tu1 -e, 1!"t% "te,e&t t%e,e!" " '++ t !", u- t! t%e t 1e !$ ,e+e1-t !", t!3et%e, * t% t%e '1!u"t !$ '". '&&e&&1e"t& !, t'/e& *% c% t%e -u,c%'&e, 1'. %'0e -' + t%e,e!" '$te, -u,c%'&e, '"+ "te,e&t !" &uc% l'&t "'1e+ '1!u"t 't t%e &'1e ,'te: '"+ $ t%e -u,c%'&e, (e 'l&! ' c,e+ t!, %'0 "3 ' -, !, l e" t! t%'t !$ t%e ,e+e1-t !"e,, !t%e, t%'" t%e 5u+31e"t u"+e, *% c% &uc% -u,c%'&e *'& 1'+e, t%e '1!u"t !$ &uc% !t%e, l e", * t% "te,e&t# =,!-e,t. &! ,e+ee1e+ 1'. '3' " (e ,e+ee1e+ * t% " & /t. (90) +'.& '$te, t%e l'&t ,e+e1-t !" u-!" -'.1e"t !$ t%e &u1 -' + !" t%e l'&t ,e+e1-t !", * t% t*! -e, ce"tu1 t%e,e!" " '++ t !", '"+ t%e '1!u"t !$ '". '&&e&&1e"t& !, t'/e& *% c% t%e l'&t ,e+e1-t !"e, 1'. %'0e -' + t%e,e!" '$te, ,e+e1-t !" (. % 1, * t% "te,e&t !" &uc% l'&t-"'1e+ '1!u"t, '"+ " '++ t !", t%e '1!u"t !$ '". l e"& %el+ (. &' + l'&t ,e+e1-t !"e, -, !, t! % & !*", * t% "te,e&t# T%e -,!-e,t. 1'. (e '3' ", '"+ '& !$te" '& ' ,e+e1-t !"e, & &! + &-!&e+, ,e+ee1e+ $,!1 '". -,e0 !u& ,e+e1-t !"e, * t% " & /t. (90) +'.& '$te, t%e l'&t ,e+e1-t !", !" -'. "3 t%e &u1 -' + !" t%e l'&t -,e0 !u& ,e+e1-t !", * t% t*! -e, ce"tu1 t%e,e!" " '++ t !", '"+ t%e '1!u"t& !$ '". '&&e&&1e"t& !, t'/e& *% c% t%e l'&t -,e0 !u& ,e+e1-t !"e, -' + '$te, t%e ,e+e1-t !" t%e,e!", * t% "te,e&t t%e,e!", '"+ t%e '1!u"t !$ '". l e"& %el+ (. t%e l'&t ,e+e1-t !"e, -, !, t! % & !*", * t% "te,e&t# <, tte" "!t ce !$ '". ,e+e1-t !" 1u&t (e 3 0e" t! t%e !$$ ce, *%! 1'+e t%e &'le '"+ ' +u-l c'te $ le+ Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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* t% t%e ,e3 &t,. !$ +ee+& !$ t%e -l'ce, '"+ $ '". '&&e&&1e"t& !, t'/e& ',e -' + (. t%e ,e+e1-t !"e, !, $ %e %'& !, 'cAu ,e& '". l e" !t%e, t%'" t%'t u-!" *% c% t%e ,e+e1-t !" *'& 1'+e, "!t ce t%e,e!$ 1u&t " l )e 1'""e, (e 3 0e" t! t%e !$$ ce, '"+ $ le+ * t% t%e ,e3 &t,. !$ +ee+&: $ &uc% "!t ce (e "!t $ le+, t%e -,!-e,t. 1'. (e ,e+ee1e+ * t%!ut -'. "3 &uc% '&&e&&1e"t&, t'/e&, !, l e"&#

Period o% redemption: o /or =udgment o)ligor ! year %rom t(e registration o% t(e certi%icate o% sale De may redeem eit(er %rom t(e purc(aser or a redemptioner 6nce (e redeems- no %urt(er redemption is allowed* o /or redemptioner ! year %rom t(e date o% registration o% t(e certi%icate o% sale +econd redemptioner (as C days a%ter t(e %irst redemption- t(e G rd (as C days a%ter t(e second- and so on- even a%ter t(e lapse ! year %rom t(e date o% registration* o As long as eac( redemption is made wit(in C days a%ter t(e last* o ;eyond t(e redemption periods- t(e =udgment o)ligor can still redeem- )ut t(is will )e )ased on contract- not on t(e rules* "(e period to redeem is 16" suspended )y an action to annul t(e sale* $Landrito v CA- 2 <' Redemption must made wit( willingness and intention coupled wit( tender o% payment* o It must )e %ull payment- can,t redeem in installments* +ee codal na lang %or (ow muc( eac( (as to pay*

Sec# 2B# E$$ect !$ ,e+e1-t !" (. 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, '"+ ' ce,t $ c'te t! (e +el 0e,e+ '"+ ,ec!,+e+ t%e,eu-!": t! *%!1 -'.1e"t& !" ,e+e1-t !" 1'+e# I$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, ,e+ee1&, %e 1u&t 1')e t%e &'1e -'.1e"t& '& ',e ,eAu ,e+ t! e$$ect ' ,e+e1-t !" (. ' ,e+e1-t !"e,, *%e,eu-!", "! $u,t%e, ,e+e1-t !" &%'ll (e 'll!*e+ '"+ %e & ,e&t!,e+ t! % & e&t'te# T%e -e,&!" t! *%!1 t%e ,e+e1-t !" -'.1e"t & 1'+e 1u&t e/ecute '"+ +el 0e, t! % 1 ' ce,t $ c'te !$ ,e+e1-t !" 'c)"!*le+3e+ (e$!,e ' "!t',. -u(l c !, !t%e, !$$ ce, 'ut%!, 7e+ t! t')e 'c)"!*le+31e"t& !$ c!"0e.'"ce& !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t.# Suc% ce,t $ c'te 1u&t (e $ le+ '"+ ,ec!,+e+ " t%e ,e3 &t,. !$ +ee+& !$ t%e -l'ce " *% c% t%e -,!-e,t. & & tu'te+, '"+ t%e ,e3 &t,', !$ +ee+& 1u&t "!te t%e ,ec!,+ t%e,e!$ !" t%e 1',3 " !$ t%e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le# T%e -'.1e"t& 1e"t !"e+ " t% & '"+ t%e l'&t -,ece+ "3 &ect !"& 1'. (e 1'+e t! t%e -u,c%'&e, !, ,e+e1-t !"e,, !, $!, % 1 t! t%e !$$ ce, *%! 1'+e t%e &'le# Sec# 20# =,!!$ ,eAu ,e+ !$ ,e+e1-t !"e,# A ,e+e1-t !"e, 1u&t -,!+uce t! t%e !$$ ce,, !, -e,&!" $,!1 *%!1 %e &ee)& t! ,e+ee1, '"+ &e,0e * t% % & "!t ce t! t%e !$$ ce, ' c!-. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, u"+e, *% c% %e cl' 1& t%e , 3%t t! ,e+ee1, ce,t $ e+ (. t%e cle,) !$ t%e c!u,t *%e,e " t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & e"te,e+: !,, $ %e ,e+ee1& u-!" ' 1!,t3'3e !, !t%e, l e", ' 1e1!,'"+u1 !$ t%e ,ec!,+ t%e,e!$, ce,t $ e+ (. t%e ,e3 &t,', !$ +ee+&: !, '" !, 3 "'l !, ce,t $ e+ c!-. !$ '". '&& 3"1e"t "ece&&',. t! e&t'(l &% % & cl' 1: '"+ '" '$$ +'0 t e/ecute+ (. % 1 !, % & '3e"t, &%!* "3 t%e '1!u"t t%e" 'ctu'll. +ue !" t%e l e"#

3udgment o)ligor not re#uired to present proo% o% (is rig(t o% redemption- )ut redemptioner needs proo%*

Sec# 21# M'""e, !$ u& "3 -,e1 &e& -e"+ "3 ,e+e1-t !": *'&te ,e&t,' "e+# U"t l t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e t 1e 'll!*e+ $!, ,e+e1-t !", t%e c!u,t 1'., '& " !t%e, -,!-e, c'&e&, ,e&t,' " t%e c!11 && !" !$ *'&te !" t%e -,!-e,t. (. "5u"ct !", !" t%e '--l c't !" !$ t%e -u,c%'&e, !, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, * t% !, * t%!ut "!t ce: (ut t & "!t *'&te $!, ' -e,&!" " -!&&e&& !" !$ t%e -,!-e,t. 't t%e t 1e !$ t%e &'le, !, e"t tle+ t! -!&&e&& !" '$te,*',+&, +u, "3 t%e -e, !+ 'll!*e+ $!, ,e+e1-t !", t! c!"t "ue t! u&e t " t%e &'1e 1'""e, " *% c% t *'& -,e0 !u&l. u&e+: !, t! u&e t " t%e !,+ "',. c!u,&e !$ %u&('"+,.: !, t! 1')e t%e "ece&&',. ,e-' ,& t! (u l+ "3& t%e,e!" *% le %e !ccu- e& t%e -,!-e,t.# Sec# 22# Re"t&, e'," "3& '"+ "c!1e !$ -,!-e,t. -e"+ "3 ,e+e1-t !"# T%e -u,c%'&e, !, ' ,e+e1-t !"e, &%'ll "!t (e e"t tle+ t! ,ece 0e t%e ,e"t&, e'," "3& '"+ "c!1e !$ t%e -,!-e,t. &!l+ !" e/ecut !", !, t%e 0'lue !$ t%e u&e '"+ !ccu-'t !" t%e,e!$ *%e" &uc% -,!-e,t. & " t%e -!&&e&& !" !$ ' te"'"t# All ,e"t&, e'," "3& '"+ "c!1e +e, 0e+ $,!1 t%e -,!-e,t. -e"+ "3 ,e+e1-t !" &%'ll (el!"3 t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, u"t l t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ % & -e, !+ !$ ,e+e1-t !"#

J(o (as possession during t(e redemption periodF o "(e o)ligor*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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J(o is entitled to %ruits and pro%itsF o "(e o)ligor as well* ;ut t(e o)ligor can 16" c(ange or modi%y t(e nature o% t(e property during t(e period*

Sec# 22# Dee+ '"+ -!&&e&& !" t! (e 3 0e" 't e/- ,'t !" !$ ,e+e1-t !" -e, !+: (. *%!1 e/ecute+ !, 3 0e"# I$ "! ,e+e1-t !" (e 1'+e * t% " !"e (1) .e', $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t%e ,e3 &t,'t !" !$ t%e ce,t $ c'te !$ &'le, t%e -u,c%'&e, & e"t tle+ t! ' c!"0e.'"ce '"+ -!&&e&& !" !$ t%e -,!-e,t.: !,, $ &! ,e+ee1e+ *%e"e0e, & /t. (90) +'.& %'0e el'-&e+ '"+ "! !t%e, ,e+e1-t !" %'& (ee" 1'+e, '"+ "!t ce t%e,e!$ 3 0e", '"+ t%e t 1e $!, ,e+e1-t !" %'& e/- ,e+, t%e l'&t ,e+e1-t !"e, & e"t tle+ t! t%e c!"0e.'"ce '"+ -!&&e&& !": (ut " 'll c'&e& t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, &%'ll %'0e t%e e"t ,e -e, !+ !$ !"e (1) .e', $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t%e ,e3 &t,'t !" !$ t%e &'le t! ,e+ee1 t%e -,!-e,t.# T%e +ee+ &%'ll (e e/ecute+ (. t%e !$$ ce, 1') "3 t%e &'le !, (. % & &ucce&&!, " !$$ ce, '"+ " t%e l'tte, c'&e &%'ll %'0e t%e &'1e 0'l + t. '& t%!u3% t%e !$$ ce, 1') "3 t%e &'le %'+ c!"t "ue+ " !$$ ce '"+ e/ecute+ t# U-!" t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e , 3%t !$ ,e+e1-t !", t%e -u,c%'&e, !, ,e+e1-t !"e, &%'ll (e &u(&t tute+ t! '"+ 'cAu ,e 'll t%e , 3%t&, t tle, "te,e&t '"+ cl' 1 !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, t! t%e -,!-e,t. '& !$ t%e t 1e !$ t%e le0.# T%e -!&&e&& !" !$ t%e -,!-e,t. &%'ll (e 3 0e" t! t%e -u,c%'&e, !, l'&t ,e+e1-t !"e, (. t%e &'1e !$$ ce, u"le&& ' t% ,+ -',t. & 'ctu'll. %!l+ "3 t%e -,!-e,t. '+0e,&el. t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,#

All t(e rig(ts and title o% t(e =udgment o)ligor is trans%erred upon t(e e9piration o% t(e rig(t o% redemption* o "(e purc(aser or last redemptioner is entitled to a writ o% possession upon t(e e9piration o% t(e redemption period* Possession will )e given to t(e purc(aser or last redemptionero 41L?++ a t(ird party is actually (olding t(e property adversely*

Sec# 26# Rec!0e,. !$ -, ce $ &'le "!t e$$ect 0e: ,e0 0'l !$ 5u+31e"t# I$ t%e -u,c%'&e, !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t. &!l+ !" e/ecut !", !, % & &ucce&&!, " "te,e&t, $' l& t! ,ec!0e, t%e -!&&e&& !" t%e,e!$, !, & e0 cte+ t%e,e$,!1, " c!"&eAue"ce !$ ,,e3ul', t e& " t%e -,!cee+ "3& c!"ce," "3 t%e &'le, !, (ec'u&e t%e 5u+31e"t %'& (ee" ,e0e,&e+ !, &et '& +e, !, (ec'u&e t%e -,!-e,t. &!l+ *'& e/e1-t $,!1 e/ecut !", !, (ec'u&e ' t% ,+ -e,&!" %'& 0 "+ c'te+ % & cl' 1 t! t%e -,!-e,t., %e 1'. !" 1!t !" " t%e &'1e 'ct !" !, " ' &e-','te 'ct !" ,ec!0e, $,!1 t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee t%e -, ce -' +, * t% "te,e&t, !, &! 1uc% t%e,e!$ '& %'& "!t (ee" +el 0e,e+ t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,: !, %e 1'., !" 1!t !", %'0e t%e !, 3 "'l 5u+31e"t ,e0 0e+ " % & "'1e $!, t%e *%!le -, ce * t% "te,e&t, !, &! 1uc% t%e,e!$ '& %'& (ee" +el 0e,e+ t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,# T%e 5u+31e"t &! ,e0 0e+ &%'ll %'0e t%e &'1e $!,ce '"+ e$$ect '& '" !, 3 "'l 5u+31e"t *!ul+ %'0e '& !$ t%e +'te !$ t%e ,e0 0'l '"+ "! 1!,e#

I% t(e sale is no e%%ective %or t(e reasons in t(e codal- t(e purc(aser (as t(e option eit(er: o to recover in a separate action %rom t(e =udgment o)lige t(e price paid to (im wit( interest- or o to %ile a motion in t(e same case to revive t(e =udgment in (is name against t(e =udgment o)ligor %or said amount* In t(is case- (e can e9ecture- =ust like any ot(er =udgment o)lige*

Sec# 28# R 3%t t! c!"t, (ut !" !, ,e 1(u,&e1e"t# <%e" -,!-e,t. l '(le t! '" e/ecut !" '3' "&t &e0e,'l -e,&!"& & &!l+ t%e,e!", '"+ 1!,e t%'" ' +ue -,!-!,t !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t & &'t &$ e+ !ut !$ t%e -,!cee+& !$ t%e &'le !$ t%e -,!-e,t. !$ !"e !$ t%e1, !, !"e !$ t%e1 -'.&, * t%!ut ' &'le, 1!,e t%'" % & -,!-!,t !", %e 1'. c!1-el ' c!"t, (ut !" $,!1 t%e !t%e,&: '"+ *%e" ' 5u+31e"t & u-!" '" !(l 3't !" !$ !"e !$ t%e1, '& &ecu, t. $!, '"!t%e,, '"+ t%e &u,et. -'.& t%e '1!u"t, !, '". -',t t%e,e!$, e t%e, (. &'le !$ % & -,!-e,t. !, (e$!,e &'le, %e 1'. c!1-el ,e-'.1e"t $,!1 t%e -, "c -'l# Sec# 29# E/'1 "'t !" !$ 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, *%e" 5u+31e"t u"&'t &$ e+# <%e" t%e ,etu," !$ ' *, t !$ e/ecut !" &&ue+ '3' "&t -,!-e,t. !$ ' 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, !, '". !"e !$ &e0e,'l !(l 3!,& " t%e &'1e 5u+31e"t, &%!*& t%'t t%e 5u+31e"t ,e1' "& u"&'t &$ e+, " *%!le !, " -',t, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee, 't '". t 1e '$te, &uc% ,etu," & 1'+e, &%'ll (e e"t tle+ t! '" !,+e, $,!1 t%e c!u,t *% c% ,e"+e,e+ t%e &' + 5u+31e"t, ,eAu , "3 &uc% 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, t! '--e', '"+ (e e/'1 "e+ c!"ce," "3 % & -,!-e,t. '"+ "c!1e (e$!,e &uc% c!u,t !, (e$!,e ' c!11 && !"e, '--! "te+ (. t, 't ' &-ec $ e+ t 1e '"+ -l'ce: '"+ -,!cee+ "3& 1'. t%e,eu-!" (e %'+ $!, t%e '--l c't !" !$ t%e -,!-e,t. '"+ "c!1e !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, t!*',+& t%e &'t &$'ct !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t# 4ut "! 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, &%'ll (e &! ,eAu ,e+ t! '--e', (e$!,e ' c!u,t !, c!11 && !"e, !ut& +e t%e -,!0 "ce !, c t. " *% c% &uc% !(l 3!, ,e& +e& !, & $!u"+# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 27# E/'1 "'t !" !$ !(l 3!, !$ 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,# <%e" t%e ,etu," !$ ' *, t !$ e/ecut !" '3' "&t t%e -,!-e,t. !$ ' 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, &%!*& t%'t t%e 5u+31e"t ,e1' "& u"&'t &$ e+, " *%!le !, " -',t, '"+ u-!" -,!!$ t! t%e &'t &$'ct !" !$ t%e c!u,t *% c% &&ue+ t%e *, t, t%'t ' -e,&!", c!,-!,'t !", !, !t%e, 5u, + c'l e"t t. %'& -,!-e,t. !$ &uc% 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, !, & "+e(te+ t! % 1, t%e c!u,t 1'., (. '" !,+e,, ,eAu ,e &uc% -e,&!", c!,-!,'t !", !, !t%e, 5u, + c'l e"t t., !, '". !$$ ce, !, 1e1(e, t%e,e!$, t! '--e', (e$!,e t%e c!u,t !, ' c!11 && !"e, '--! "te+ (. t, 't ' t 1e '"+ -l'ce * t% " t%e -,!0 "ce !, c t. *%e,e &uc% +e(t!, ,e& +e& !, & $!u"+, '"+ (e e/'1 "e+ c!"ce," "3 t%e &'1e# T%e &e,0 ce !$ t%e !,+e, &%'ll ( "+ 'll c,e+ t& +ue t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, '"+ 'll 1!"e. '"+ -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, " t%e -!&&e&& !" !, " t%e c!"t,!l !$ &uc% -e,&!", c!,-!,'t !", !, 5u, + c'l e"t t. $,!1 t%e t 1e !$ &e,0 ce: '"+ t%e c!u,t 1'. 'l&! ,eAu ,e "!t ce !$ &uc% -,!cee+ "3& t! (e 3 0e" t! '". -',t. t! t%e 'ct !" " &uc% 1'""e, '& t 1'. +ee1 -,!-e,# Sec# 28# E"$!,ce1e"t !$ 'tte"+'"ce '"+ c!"+uct !$ e/'1 "'t !"# A -',t. !, !t%e, -e,&!" 1'. (e c!1-elle+, (. '" !,+e, !, &u(-!e"', t! 'tte"+ (e$!,e t%e c!u,t !, c!11 && !"e, t! te&t $. '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e t*! -,ece+ "3 &ect !"&, '"+ u-!" $' lu,e t! !(e. &uc% !,+e, !, &u(-!e"' !, t! (e &*!,", !, t! '"&*e, '& ' * t"e&& !, t! &u(&c, (e % & +e-!& t !", 1'. (e -u" &%e+ $!, c!"te1-t '& " !t%e, c'&e&# E/'1 "'t !"& &%'ll "!t (e u"+ul. -,!l!"3e+, (ut t%e -,!cee+ "3& 1'. (e '+5!u,"e+ $,!1 t 1e t! t 1e, u"t l t%e. ',e c!1-lete+# I$ t%e e/'1 "'t !" & (e$!,e ' c!11 && !"e,, %e 1u&t t')e t " *, t "3 '"+ ce,t $. t t! t%e c!u,t# All e/'1 "'t !"& '"+ '"&*e,& (e$!,e ' c!u,t !, c!11 && !"e, 1u&t (e u"+e, !'t%, '"+ *%e" ' c!,-!,'t !" !, !t%e, 5u, + c'l e"t t. '"&*e,&, t 1u&t (e !" t%e !'t% !$ '" 'ut%!, 7e+ !$$ ce, !, '3e"t t%e,e!$# Sec# 2B# O(l 3!, 1'. -'. e/ecut !" '3' "&t !(l 3ee# A$te, ' *, t !$ e/ecut !" '3' "&t -,!-e,t. %'& (ee" &&ue+, ' -e,&!" "+e(te+ t! t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, 1'. -'. t! t%e &%e, $$ %!l+ "3 t%e *, t !$ e/ecut !" t%e '1!u"t !$ % & +e(t !, &! 1uc% t%e,e!$ '& 1'. (e "ece&&',. t! &'t &$. t%e 5u+31e"t, " t%e 1'""e, -,e&c, (e+ " &ect !" B !$ t% & Rule, '"+ t%e &%e, $$G& ,ece -t &%'ll (e ' &u$$ c e"t + &c%',3e $!, t%e '1!u"t &! -' + !, + ,ecte+ t! (e c,e+ te+ (. t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !" t%e e/ecut !"# Sec# 60# O,+e, $!, '--l c't !" !$ -,!-e,t. '"+ "c!1e t! &'t &$'ct !" !$ 5u+31e"t# T%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, '". -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, !, 1!"e. +ue % 1, "!t e/e1-t $,!1 e/ecut !", " t%e %'"+& !$ e t%e, % 1&el$ !, '"!t%e, -e,&!", !, !$ ' c!,-!,'t !" !, !t%e, 5u, + c'l e"t t., t! (e '--l e+ t! t%e &'t &$'ct !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t, &u(5ect t! '". -, !, , 3%t& !0e, &uc% -,!-e,t.# I$, u-!" "0e&t 3't !" !$ % & cu,,e"t "c!1e '"+ e/-e"&e&, t '--e',& t%'t t%e e'," "3& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, $!, % & -e,&!"'l &e,0 ce& ',e 1!,e t%'" "ece&&',. $!, t%e &u--!,t !$ % & $'1 l., t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, t%'t %e -'. t%e 5u+31e"t " $ /e+ 1!"t%l. "&t'll1e"t&, '"+ u-!" % & $' lu,e t! -'. '". &uc% "&t'll1e"t *%e" +ue * t%!ut 3!!+ e/cu&e, 1'. -u" &% % 1 $!, "+ ,ect c!"te1-t# Sec# 61# A--! "t1e"t !$ ,ece 0e,# T%e c!u,t 1'. '--! "t ' ,ece 0e, !$ t%e -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,: '"+ t 1'. 'l&! $!,( + ' t,'"&$e, !, !t%e, + &-!& t !" !$, !, '". "te,$e,e"ce * t%, t%e -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, "!t e/e1-t $,!1 e/ecut !"# Sec# 62# S'le !$ '&ce,t' "'(le "te,e&t !$ 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, " ,e'l e&t'te# I$ t '--e',& t%'t t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, %'& '" "te,e&t " ,e'l e&t'te " t%e -l'ce " *% c% -,!cee+ "3& ',e %'+, '& 1!,t3'3!, !, 1!,t3'3ee !, !t%e,* &e, '"+ % & "te,e&t t%e,e " c'" (e '&ce,t' "e+ * t%!ut c!"t,!0e,&., t%e ,ece 0e, 1'. (e !,+e,e+ t! &ell '"+ c!"0e. &uc% ,e'l e&t'te !, t%e "te,e&t !$ t%e !(l 3!, t%e,e ": '"+ &uc% &'le &%'ll (e c!"+ucte+ " 'll ,e&-ect& " t%e &'1e 1'""e, '& & -,!0 +e+ $!, t%e &'le !$ ,e'l e&t'te u-!" e/ecut !", '"+ t%e -,!cee+ "3& t%e,e!" &%'ll (e '--,!0e+ (. t%e c!u,t (e$!,e t%e e/ecut !" !$ t%e +ee+# Sec# 62# =,!cee+ "3& *%e" "+e(te+"e&& +e" e+ !, '"!t%e, -e,&!" cl' 1& t%e -,!-e,t.# I$ t '--e',& t%'t ' -e,&!" !, c!,-!,'t !", 'lle3e+ t! %'0e -,!-e,t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!, !, t! (e "+e(te+ t! % 1, cl' 1& '" "te,e&t " t%e -,!-e,t. '+0e,&e t! % 1 !, +e" e& t%e +e(t, t%e c!u,t 1'. 'ut%!, 7e, (. '" !,+e, 1'+e t! t%'t e$$ect, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee t! "&t tute '" 'ct !" '3' "&t &uc% -e,&!" !, c!,-!,'t !" $!, t%e ,ec!0e,. !$ &uc% "te,e&t !, +e(t, $!,( + ' t,'"&$e, !, !t%e, + &-!& t !" !$ &uc% "te,e&t !, +e(t * t% " !"e %u"+,e+ t*e"t. (120) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e !,+e,, '"+ 1'. -u" &% + &!(e+ e"ce !$ &uc% !,+e, '& $!, c!"te1-t# Suc% !,+e, 1'. (e 1!+ $ e+ !, 0'c'te+ 't '". t 1e (. t%e c!u,t *% c% &&ue+ t, !, (. t%e c!u,t " *% c% t%e 'ct !" & (,!u3%t, u-!" &uc% te,1& '& 1'. (e 5u&t#

+ections GC04G are proceedings supplementary to e9ecution* >ou avail o% t(ese i% ever property (as already )een sold )ut t(e proceeds still do not +A"I+/> t(e =udgment* o +o ot(er property is in mind %or t(ese* Dence- t(e =udgment o)ligee,s remedies are:

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Dave t(e =udgment o)ligor e9amined )y an order $+ec GC' Dave t(e o)ligor o% a =udgment o)ligor e9amined )y an order $+ec GE' 6)ligor may pay (is de)t to t(e s(eri%% $+ec G8' o Dave anyone else appear to )e e9amined )y order or su)poena $+ec G@' 4nder pain o% contempt $no mention o% contempt in GC and GE' "(e court can t(en order an application %or property and income o% t(e =udgment o)ligor %or t(e satis%action o% t(e =udgment* $+ec 4 ' o ;ut garnis(ment o% t(e entire salary is not allowed w(en said is not su%%icient %or t(e e9penses o% t(e =udgment o)ligor and (is %amily* Court can also appoint a receiver* $+ec 4!' o "(is is t(e only prov rem t(at can )e given )y t(e court a%ter =udgment* o "(e receiver can- upon order o% t(e court- sell and convey suc( real estate or t(e interest o% t(e o)ligor t(erein* $+ec 42' Court can also allow t(e =udgment o)ligee to institute an action against a person w(o denies t(e de)t or claims t(e property as (is $+ec 4G' o Court can also %or)id a trans%er or disposition o% said property or de)t wit(in !2 days %rom notice o% order 5iso)edience is under pain o% contempt o o

Sec# 66# E"t,. !$ &'t &$'ct !" !$ 5u+31e"t (. cle,) !$ c!u,t# S't &$'ct !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t &%'ll (e e"te,e+ (. t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t " t%e c!u,t +!c)et, '"+ " t%e e/ecut !" (!!), u-!" t%e ,etu," !$ ' *, t !$ e/ecut !" &%!* "3 t%e $ull &'t &$'ct !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t, !, u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ '" '+1 && !" t! t%e &'t &$'ct !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t e/ecute+ '"+ 'c)"!*le+3e+ " t%e &'1e 1'""e, '& ' c!"0e.'"ce !$ ,e'l -,!-e,t. (. t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !, (. % & c!u"&el u"le&& ' ,e0!c't !" !$ % & 'ut%!, t. & $ le+, !, u-!" t%e e"+!,&e1e"t !$ &uc% '+1 && !" (. t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !, % & c!u"&el !" t%e $'ce !$ t%e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e 5u+31e"t# Sec# 68# E"t,. !$ &'t &$'ct !" * t% !, * t%!ut '+1 && !"# <%e"e0e, ' 5u+31e"t & &'t &$ e+ " $'ct, !, !t%e,* &e t%'" u-!" '" e/ecut !", !" +e1'"+ !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3!,, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !, % & c!u"&el 1u&t e/ecute '"+ 'c)"!*le+3e, !, "+!,&e, '" '+1 && !" !$ t%e &'t &$'ct !" '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e l'&t -,ece+ "3 &ect !", '"+ '$te, "!t ce '"+ u-!" 1!t !" t%e c!u,t 1'. !,+e, e t%e, t%e 5u+31e"t !(l 3ee !, % & c!u"&el t! +! &!, !, 1'. !,+e, t%e e"t,. !$ &'t &$'ct !" t! (e 1'+e * t%!ut &uc% '+1 && !"#

A%ter all o% t(at di..ying crap- (ow do we know i% =udgment (as already )een truly satis%iedF o ;y entry o% satis%action o% =udgment )y t(e clerk o% court- w(ic( is made upon: Jrit o% e9ecution is returned %ully satis%ied Jritten acknowledgment o% t(e =udgment o)lige or (is counsel Indorsement o% suc( admission on t(e %ace o% t(e record o% t(e =udgment 6rder o% t(e court a%ter notice and motion- w(enever a =udgment is satis%ied in %act ot(er t(an upon e9ecution

Sec# 69# <%e" -, "c -'l (!u"+ (. 5u+31e"t '3' "&t &u,et.# <%e" ' 5u+31e"t & ,e"+e,e+ '3' "&t ' -',t. *%! &t'"+& '& &u,et. $!, '"!t%e,, t%e l'tte, & 'l&! (!u"+ $,!1 t%e t 1e t%'t %e %'& "!t ce !$ t%e 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3, '"+ '" !--!,tu" t. 't t%e &u,et.G& ,eAue&t t! 5! " " t%e +e$e"&e# Sec# 67# E$$ect !$ 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,&# T%e e$$ect !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, ,e"+e,e+ (. ' c!u,t !$ t%e =% l -- "e&, %'0 "3 5u, &+ ct !" t! -,!"!u"ce t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e,, 1'. (e '& $!ll!*&; (') I" c'&e !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '3' "&t ' &-ec $ c t% "3, !, " ,e&-ect t! t%e -,!('te !$ ' * ll, !, t%e '+1 " &t,'t !" !$ t%e e&t'te !$ ' +ece'&e+ -e,&!", !, " ,e&-ect t! t%e -e,&!"'l, -!l t c'l, !, le3'l c!"+ t !" !, &t'tu& !$ ' -',t cul', -e,&!" !, % & ,el't !"&% - t! '"!t%e,, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & c!"clu& 0e u-!" t%e t tle t! t%e t% "3, t%e * ll !, '+1 " &t,'t !", !, t%e c!"+ t !", &t'tu& !, ,el't !"&% !$ t%e -e,&!": %!*e0e,, t%e -,!('te !$ ' * ll !, 3,'"t "3 !$ lette,& !$ '+1 " &t,'t !" &%'ll !"l. (e -, 1' $'c e e0 +e"ce !$ t%e +e't% !$ t%e te&t't!, !, "te&t'te: (() I" !t%e, c'&e&, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, &, * t% ,e&-ect t! t%e 1'tte, + ,ectl. '+5u+3e+ !, '& t! '". !t%e, 1'tte, t%'t c!ul+ %'0e (ee" ,' &e+ " ,el't !" t%e,et!, c!"clu& 0e (et*ee" t%e -',t e& '"+ t%e , &ucce&&!,& " "te,e&t (. t tle &u(&eAue"t t! t%e c!11e"ce1e"t !$ t%e 'ct !" !, &-ec 'l -,!cee+ "3, l t 3't "3 $!, t%e &'1e t% "3 '"+ u"+e, t%e &'1e t tle '"+ " t%e &'1e c'-'c t.: '"+ (c) I" '". !t%e, l t 3't !" (et*ee" t%e &'1e -',t e& !, t%e , &ucce&&!,& " "te,e&t, t%'t !"l. & +ee1e+ Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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t! %'0e (ee" '+5u+3e+ " ' $!,1e, 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, *% c% '--e',& u-!" t& $'ce t! %'0e (ee" &! '+5u+3e+, !, *% c% *'& 'ctu'll. '"+ "ece&&', l. "clu+e+ t%e,e " !, "ece&&',. t%e,et!#

J(at are t(e e%%ects o% domestic =udgments or %inal ordersF o As against a speci%ic t(ing- conditionIstatusIrelations(ip o% a person $in rem': C61CL4+I:? upon it ;ut in matters o% pro)ate- t(e deat( o% t(e party is only presumed o In ot(er cases- wit( respect to t(e matter directly ad=udged or to any ot(er matter related t(ereto $in personam': R?+ 345ICA"A ;ars prosecution o% t(e same claim- demand- or C6A Precludes t(e re0litigation o% a particular %act or issue in anot(er action )etween t(e same parties o In any ot(er litigation )etween t(e same parties or t(eir successors0in0interest $in personam': conclusiveness o% =udgment only to t(at w(ic( was ad=udged- or t(ose w(ic( are actually and necessarily included t(erein ;asically- in in personam cases- t(e =udgments rendered are en%orcea)le only )etween t(e parties and t(eir successors0in0interest- )ut not against strangers t(ereto

Sec# 68# E$$ect !$ $!,e 3" 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,&# T%e e$$ect !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !$ ' t, (u"'l !$ ' $!,e 3" c!u"t,., %'0 "3 5u, &+ ct !" t! ,e"+e, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & '& $!ll!*&; (') I" c'&e !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, u-!" ' &-ec $ c t% "3, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & c!"clu& 0e u-!" t%e t tle t! t%e t% "3: '"+ (() I" c'&e !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '3' "&t ' -e,&!", t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, & -,e&u1-t 0e e0 +e"ce !$ ' , 3%t '& (et*ee" t%e -',t e& '"+ t%e , &ucce&&!,& " "te,e&t (. ' &u(&eAue"t t tle# I" e t%e, c'&e, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, 1'. (e ,e-elle+ (. e0 +e"ce !$ ' *'"t !$ 5u, &+ ct !", *'"t !$ "!t ce t! t%e -',t., c!llu& !", $,'u+, !, cle', 1 &t')e !$ l'* !, $'ct#

J(at are t(e e%%ects o% %oreign =udgmentsF o 4pon a speci%ic t(ing: it,s conclusive o 4pon a person- or rig(ts )etween parties: presumptive only Dow do you en%orce %oreign =udgmentsF o /ile a veri%ied petition in t(e R"C- averring t(at t(e court w(o ruled over it (ad 35 over t(e parties and t(e su)=ect matter +een in +t* Aviation v &rand International- 2 C- w(ere proper service o% summons was deemed made )ecause in procedural manners- le9 %ori will govern $and according to +ingapore law- t(e service was valid*' o Prove t(e law o% t(at %oreign court /or ar)itral awards- you %ile an action %or recognition- since it,s not a %oreign =udgment* Dow do you impugn t(at %oreign =udgmentF o Jant o% =urisdictionInotice to party o Collusion o /raud o Clear mistake o% law or %act $lutong macau doctrine o% Atty* Ro)les'

4, e$ !0e,0 e* !$ ,e1e+ e&

J(en you get an adverse =udgment- %igure out t(e remedies t(at you can use: o 5uring t(e reglementary period $!< days' MR $remem)er- no 2nd MR allowed' M1" Appeal 6rdinary appeal $Rules 4 and 4!' Petition %or review $Rules 42 and 4G' o 42: i% originally %rom M"C t(en went up to R"C- and appealed to t(e CA o 4G: i% %rom #uasi0=udicial agencies Petition %or review on certiorari $Rules 4<' o "o t(e +C o A%ter entry o% =udgment $C day0C mont( rule'

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Petition %or relie% %rom =udgment $Rule G@' A%ter period to %ile PR3 $4 yearsIe#uity' Petition %or annulment o% =udgment $Rule 4E'

A==EALS

;e%ore o o o

proceeding- let us look at t(e t(ree modes o% appeal: 6rdinary appeal $Rules 4 and 4!' Petition %or review $Rules 42 and 4G' Petition %or review on certiorari $Rules 4<'

RULE 60 A==EAL FROM MUNICI=AL TRIAL COURTS TO T@E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS Sect !" 1# <%e,e t! '--e'l# A" '--e'l $,!1 ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !$ ' Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t 1'. (e t')e" t! t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t e/e,c & "3 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e ',e' t! *% c% t%e $!,1e, -e,t' "&# T%e t tle !$ t%e c'&e &%'ll ,e1' " '& t *'& " t%e c!u,t !$ !, 3 ", (ut t%e -',t. '--e'l "3 t%e c'&e &%'ll (e $u,t%e, ,e$e,,e+ t! '& t%e '--ell'"t '"+ t%e '+0e,&e -',t. '& t%e '--ellee# Sec# 2# <%e" t! '--e'l# A" '--e'l 1'. (e t')e" * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& '$te, "!t ce t! t%e '--ell'"t !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1# <%e,e ' ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l & ,eAu ,e+, t%e '--ell'"t &%'ll $ le ' "!t ce !$ '--e'l '"+ ' ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& '$te, "!t ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e,# T%e -e, !+ !$ '--e'l &%'ll (e "te,,u-te+ (. ' t 1el. 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !"# N! 1!t !" $!, e/te"& !" !$ t 1e t! $ le ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" &%'ll (e 'll!*e+# Sec# 2# @!* t! '--e'l# T%e '--e'l & t')e" (. $ l "3 ' "!t ce !$ '--e'l * t% t%e c!u,t t%'t ,e"+e,e+ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1# T%e "!t ce !$ '--e'l &%'ll "+ c'te t%e -',t e& t! t%e '--e'l, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, -',t t%e,e!$ '--e'le+ $,!1, '"+ &t'te t%e 1'te, 'l +'te& &%!* "3 t%e t 1el "e&& !$ t%e '--e'l# A ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l &%'ll (e ,eAu ,e+ !"l. " &-ec 'l -,!cee+ "3& '"+ " !t%e, c'&e& !$ 1ult -le !, &e-','te '--e'l&# T%e $!,1 '"+ c!"te"t& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l &%'ll (e '& -,!0 +e+ " &ect !" 9, Rule 61# C!- e& !$ t%e "!t ce !$ '--e'l, '"+ t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l *%e,e ,eAu ,e+, &%'ll (e &e,0e+ !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t.# Sec# 6# =e,$ect !" !$ '--e'l: e$$ect t%e,e!$# T%e -e,$ect !" !$ t%e '--e'l '"+ t%e e$$ect t%e,e!$ &%'ll (e 3!0e,"e+ (. t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ &ect !" B, Rule 61# Sec# 8# A--ell'te c!u,t +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&# < t% " t%e -e, !+ $!, t') "3 '" '--e'l, t%e '--ell'"t &%'ll -'. t! t%e cle,) !$ t%e c!u,t *% c% ,e"+e,e+ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1 t%e $ull '1!u"t !$ t%e '--ell'te c!u,t +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&# =,!!$ !$ -'.1e"t t%e,e!$ &%'ll (e t,'"&1 tte+ t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t t!3et%e, * t% t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, '& t%e c'&e 1'. (e# Sec# 9# Dut. !$ t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t# < t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 t%e -e,$ect !" !$ t%e '--e'l, t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !, t%e (,'"c% cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e l!*e, c!u,t &%'ll t,'"&1 t t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, t!3et%e, * t% t%e t,'"&c, -t& '"+ e/% ( t&, *% c% %e &%'ll ce,t $. '& c!1-lete, t! t%e -,!-e, Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t# A c!-. !$ % & lette, !$ t,'"&1 tt'l !$ t%e ,ec!,+& t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t &%'ll (e $u," &%e+ t%e -',t e&# Sec# 7# =,!ce+u,e " t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t# (') U-!" ,ece -t !$ t%e c!1-lete ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t &%'ll "!t $. t%e -',t e& !$ &uc% $'ct# (() < t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 &uc% "!t ce, t &%'ll (e t%e +ut. !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! &u(1 t ' 1e1!,'"+u1 *% c% &%'ll (, e$l. + &cu&& t%e e,,!,& 1-ute+ t! t%e l!*e, c!u,t, ' c!-. !$ *% c% &%'ll (e $u," &%e+ (. % 1 t! t%e '+0e,&e -',t.# < t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t !$ t%e '--ell'"tG& 1e1!,'"+u1, t%e '--ellee 1'. $ le % & 1e1!,'"+u1# F' lu,e !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! $ le 1e1!,'"+u1 &%'ll (e ' 3,!u"+ $!, + &1 &&'l !$ t%e '--e'l# (c) U-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e 1e1!,'"+u1 !$ t%e '--ellee, !, t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ t! +! &!, t%e c'&e &%'ll (e c!"& +e,e+ &u(1 tte+ $!, +ec & !"# T%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t &%'ll +ec +e t%e c'&e !" t%e ('& & !$ t%e e"t ,e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e -,!cee+ "3& %'+ " t%e c!u,t !$ !, 3 " '"+ &uc% 1e1!,'"+' '& ',e $ le+#

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 8# A--e'l $,!1 !,+e,& + &1 && "3 c'&e * t%!ut t, 'l: l'c) !$ 5u, &+ ct !"# I$ '" '--e'l & t')e" $,!1 '" !,+e, !$ t%e l!*e, c!u,t + &1 && "3 t%e c'&e * t%!ut ' t, 'l !" t%e 1e, t&, t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t 1'. '$$ ,1 !, ,e0e,&e t, '& t%e c'&e 1'. (e# I" c'&e !$ '$$ ,1'"ce '"+ t%e 3,!u"+ !$ + &1 &&'l & l'c) !$ 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e &u(5ect 1'tte,, t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t, $ t %'& 5u, &+ ct !" t%e,e!0e,, &%'ll t,. t%e c'&e !" t%e 1e, t& '& $ t%e c'&e *'& !, 3 "'ll. $ le+ * t% t# I" c'&e !$ ,e0e,&'l, t%e c'&e &%'ll (e ,e1'"+e+ $!, $u,t%e, -,!cee+ "3&# I$ t%e c'&e *'& t, e+ !" t%e 1e, t& (. t%e l!*e, c!u,t * t%!ut 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e &u(5ect 1'tte,, t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t !" '--e'l &%'ll "!t + &1 && t%e c'&e $ t %'& !, 3 "'l 5u, &+ ct !" t%e,e!$, (ut &%'ll +ec +e t%e c'&e " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !", * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! t%e '+1 && !" !$ '1e"+e+ -le'+ "3& '"+ '++ t !"'l e0 +e"ce " t%e "te,e&t !$ 5u&t ce# Sec# B# A--l c'( l t. !$ Rule 61# T%e !t%e, -,!0 & !"& !$ Rule 61 &%'ll '--l. t! '--e'l& -,!0 +e+ $!, %e,e " "&!$', '& t%e. ',e "!t "c!"& &te"t * t% !, 1'. &e,0e t! &u--le1e"t t%e -,!0 & !"& !$ t% & Rule#

Rule 4 is used w(en one appeals %rom t(e decision o% t(e M"C to t(e R"C* o As t(e R"C will )e acting as an appellate court- it will not ree9amine t(e evidence or t(e witnesses* "(e parties will (ave to %ile t(eir respective memoranda* /ailure o% t(e appellant to %ile memorandum s(all )e a ground %or dismissal o% t(e appeal* $+ec E' o I% t(e M"C granted a M"5 on a ground 6"D?R t(an lack o% =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matter- t(e R"C can a%%irm or reverse t(e order o% dismissal* In case o% reversal- t(e case s(all )e remanded* o I% t(e M"C granted a M"5 )ased on lack o% =urisdiction- t(e R"C on appeal (as t(e duty to try t(e case on t(e merits i% it (as original =urisdiction t(ereo%* o I% t(e M"C tried t(e case wit(out =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matter- t(e R"C may no longer dismisses t(e case i% it (as original =urisdiction t(ereo%* "(e R"C s(all also no longer try t(e case on t(e merits- )ut s(all decide it on t(e )asis o% t(e evidence presented in t(e lower court- wit(out pre=udice to t(e admission o% amended pleadings and additional evidence in t(e interest o% =ustice* $+ec @' Rule 4 and Rule 4! are )asically t(e same w(en it comes to t(e periods and stu%%- so read t(e comments )elow*

RULE 61 A==EAL FROM T@E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS Sect !" 1# Su(5ect !$ '--e'l# A" '--e'l 1'. (e t')e" $,!1 ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, t%'t c!1-letel. + &-!&e& !$ t%e c'&e, !, !$ ' -',t cul', 1'tte, t%e,e " *%e" +ecl',e+ (. t%e&e Rule& t! (e '--e'l'(le# N! '--e'l 1'. (e t')e" $,!1; 1# A" !,+e, +e". "3 ' -et t !" $!, ,el e$ !, '". & 1 l', 1!t !" &ee) "3 ,el e$ $,!1 5u+31e"t: 2# A" "te,l!cut!,. !,+e,: 2# A" !,+e, + &'ll!* "3 !, + &1 && "3 '" '--e'l: 6# A" !,+e, +e". "3 ' 1!t !" t! &et '& +e ' 5u+31e"t (. c!"&e"t, c!"$e&& !" !, c!1-,!1 &e !" t%e 3,!u"+ !$ $,'u+, 1 &t')e !, +u,e&&, !, '". !t%e, 3,!u"+ 0 t 't "3 c!"&e"t: 8# A" !,+e, !$ e/ecut !": 9# A 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, $!, !, '3' "&t !"e !, 1!,e !$ &e0e,'l -',t e& !, " &e-','te cl' 1&, c!u"te,cl' 1&, c,!&&-cl' 1& '"+ t% ,+--',t. c!1-l' "t&, *% le t%e 1' " c'&e & -e"+ "3, u"le&& t%e c!u,t 'll!*& '" '--e'l t%e,e$,!1: '"+ 7# A" !,+e, + &1 && "3 '" 'ct !" * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce# I" '". !$ t%e $!,e3! "3 c ,cu1&t'"ce&, t%e '33, e0e+ -',t. 1'. $ le '" '--,!-, 'te &-ec 'l c 0 l 'ct !" '& -,!0 +e+ " Rule 98# ('1e"+e+ " 2007)

Appeals can only )e taken %rom =udgments or %inal orders t(at complete dispose o% a case- or a matter declared to )e appeala)le )y t(e Rules* "(e enumeration in t(e codal are interlocutory orders- you can,t appeal %rom t(em- )ut you can use Rule C<* o "ake note t(at i% t(ere is an order dismissing t(e action wit(out pre=udice- you can,t appeal* 3ust go %or rule C< or =ust re0%ile*

Sec# 2# M!+e& !$ '--e'l# (') O,+ "',. '--e'l#- T%e '--e'l t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& " c'&e& +ec +e+ (. t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t " t%e e/e,c &e !$ t& !, 3 "'l 5u, &+ ct !" &%'ll (e t')e" (. $ l "3 ' "!t ce !$ '--e'l * t% t%e c!u,t *% c% ,e"+e,e+ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1 '"+ &e,0 "3 ' c!-. t%e,e!$ u-!" t%e '+0e,&e -',t.# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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N! ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l &%'ll (e ,eAu ,e+ e/ce-t " &-ec 'l -,!cee+ "3& '"+ !t%e, c'&e& !$ 1ult -le !, &e-','te '--e'l& *%e,e t%e l'* !, t%e&e Rule& &! ,eAu ,e# I" &uc% c'&e&, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l &%'ll (e $ le+ '"+ &e,0e+ " l )e 1'""e,# (() =et t !" $!, ,e0 e*#- T%e '--e'l t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& " c'&e& +ec +e+ (. t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t " t%e e/e,c &e !$ t& '--ell'te 5u, &+ ct !" &%'ll (e (. -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% Rule 62# (c) A--e'l (. ce,t !,', #- I" 'll c'&e& *%e,e !"l. Aue&t !"& !$ l'* ',e ,' &e+ !, "0!l0e+, t%e '--e'l &%'ll (e t! t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t (. -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* !" ce,t !,', " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% Rule 68# Sec# 2# =e, !+ !$ !,+ "',. '--e'l# T%e '--e'l &%'ll (e t')e" * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1# <%e,e ' ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l & ,eAu ,e+, t%e '--ell'"t &%'ll $ le ' "!t ce !$ '--e'l '"+ ' ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e,# @!*e0e,, !" '--e'l " habeas corpus c'&e& &%'ll (e t')e" * t% " 68 %!u,& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1# T%e -e, !+ !$ '--e'l &%'ll (e "te,,u-te+ (. ' t 1el. 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !"# N! 1!t !" $!, e/te"& !" !$ t 1e t! $ le ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" &%'ll (e 'll!*e+#

"ake note t(at Rule 4! talks o% appeals /R6M t(e R"C- and not appeals "6 t(e CA* +o it enumerates t(ree modes o% appeal: o 6rdinary appeal K w(en t(e R"C acts in its original =urisdiction o Petition %or review K w(en t(e R"C acts in its appellate =d $Rule 42' o Petition %or review on certiorari K in all cases w(ere only #uestions o% law are raised $Rule 4<' 6rdinary appeal in Rule 4! s(ould 16" raise only #uestions o% law since issues purely o% law is not reviewa)le )y t(e CA* o It will )e dismissed outrig(t*C Dence- Rule 4! s(ould raise #uestions o% %act or mi9ed law and %act* 6rdinary appeal can )e done in two ways $applies to Rule 4 and 4!': 1otice o% Appeal Record on Appeal J(en 1eeded w(en t(ere are multiple needed: or separate appeals- or In special proceedings Period: !< days G days 1o e9tension $)ut 1o e9tension ?AC?P" w(en t(ere remem)er 1eypes2' is an aut(ori.ed alteration or modi%ication o% t(e record $remem)er also 1eypes' Per%ected: 4pon %iling o% notice in 4pon APPR6:AL o% t(e record o% $+ec 8' due time appeal %iled in due time +pecial period rule %or (a)eas corpus cases: 4@ (ours Important: >ou start counting %rom t(e time t(e last party in t(e case gets t(e decision o Plainti%% received it /e) !* 5e%endant /e) G* Last day to appeal is /e) !@* "(e late %iling can sometimes )e allowed in t(e interest o% =ustice* $Aguilar v C6M?L?C- 2 8' J(ere do you %ile t(e notice o% appeal or record on appeal $applies to Rule 4 and 4!'F o In t(e court t(at issued t(e =udgment* &ive e9amples o% cases w(ere a record o% appeal is re#uired $multiple or separate appeals': o ?9propriation cases $1AP6C6R v Paderanga- 2 <' o In a case w(ic( (ad two causes o% action K annulment o% deeds o% sale and recovery o% money $/ernando v +antamaria- 2 4- w(ere +C said t(at a record o% appeal was needed %or t(e appeal on t(e issue o% t(e collection o% money' 5istinguis( appeal %rom certiorari under Rule C< $Madrigal v Lapanday- 2 4' Appeal Certiorari
Sec. 2. .is issal of i !ro!er a!!eal to t$e Court of :!!eals.

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:n a!!eal under Rule 41 taken fro t$e Regional Trial Court to t$e Court of :!!eals raising onl" &uestions of la% s$all #e dis issed, issues !urel" of la% not #eing re(ie%a#le #" said court. Si ilarl", an a!!eal #" notice of a!!eal instead of #" !etition for re(ie% fro t$e a!!ellate )udg ent of a Regional Trial Court s$all #e dis issed. :n a!!eal erroneousl" taken to t$e Court of :!!eals s$all not #e transferred to t$e a!!ro!riate court #ut s$all #e dis issed outrig$t. Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Attacks +u)=ect matter Period o% %iling

?rrors o% =udgment Appellate power 3udgements or %inal orders

?rrors o% =urisdiction 6riginal independent action Interlocutory orders

!< days $or G days i% record C days on appeal' MR not re#uired MR generally re#uired Appeal and certiorari are mutually e9clusive* o ;ut don,t )e %ooled or get lito* >ou can %ile Rule C< on an order granting e9ecution pending appeal w(ile t(e main case is on appeal* J(at is t(e mode o% appeal w(en t(e R"C is acting as a +pecial Agrarian CourtF o Petition %or review to t(e CA- according to t(e CARL* $Land)ank v Arlene de Leon- 2 2' Dow a)out i% it acts as a Commercial CourtF Petition %or review to t(e CA- according to 2 < +C Circular*

Sec# 6# A--ell'te c!u,t +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&# < t% " t%e -e, !+ $!, t') "3 '" '--e'l, t%e '--ell'"t &%'ll -'. t! t%e cle,) !$ t%e c!u,t *% c% ,e"+e,e+ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1, t%e $ull '1!u"t !$ t%e '--ell'te c!u,t +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&# =,!!$ !$ -'.1e"t !$ &' + $ee& &%'ll (e t,'"&1 tte+ t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t t!3et%e, * t% t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l# Sec# 8# N!t ce !$ '--e'l# T%e "!t ce !$ '--e'l &%'ll "+ c'te t%e -',t e& t! t%e '--e'l, &-ec $. t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, -',t t%e,e!$ '--e'le+ $,!1, &-ec $. t%e c!u,t t! *% c% t%e '--e'l & (e "3 t')e", '"+ &t'te t%e 1'te, 'l +'te& &%!* "3 t%e t 1el "e&& !$ t%e '--e'l# Sec# 9# Rec!,+ !" '--e'l: $!,1 '"+ c!"te"t& t%e,e!$# T%e $ull "'1e& !$ 'll t%e -',t e& t! t%e -,!cee+ "3& &%'ll (e &t'te+ " t%e c'-t !" !$ t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l '"+ t &%'ll "clu+e t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, $,!1 *% c% t%e '--e'l & t')e" '"+, " c%,!"!l!3 c'l !,+e,, c!- e& !$ !"l. &uc% -le'+ "3&, -et t !"&, 1!t !"& '"+ 'll "te,l!cut!,. !,+e,& '& ',e ,el'te+ t! t%e '--e'le+ 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, $!, t%e -,!-e, u"+e,&t'"+ "3 !$ t%e &&ue "0!l0e+, t!3et%e, * t% &uc% +'t' '& * ll &%!* t%'t t%e '--e'l *'& -e,$ecte+ !" t 1e# I$ '" &&ue !$ $'ct & t! (e ,' &e+ !" '--e'l, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l &%'ll "clu+e (. ,e$e,e"ce 'll t%e e0 +e"ce, te&t 1!" 'l '"+ +!cu1e"t',., t')e" u-!" t%e &&ue "0!l0e+# T%e ,e$e,e"ce &%'ll &-ec $. t%e +!cu1e"t',. e0 +e"ce (. t%e e/% ( t "u1(e,& !, lette,& (. *% c% t *'& +e"t $ e+ *%e" '+1 tte+ !, !$$e,e+ 't t%e %e', "3, '"+ t%e te&t 1!" 'l e0 +e"ce (. t%e "'1e& !$ t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 * t"e&&e&# I$ t%e *%!le te&t 1!" 'l '"+ +!cu1e"t',. e0 +e"ce " t%e c'&e & t! (e "clu+e+, ' &t'te1e"t t! t%'t e$$ect * ll (e &u$$ c e"t * t%!ut 1e"t !" "3 t%e "'1e& !$ t%e * t"e&&e& !, t%e "u1(e,& !, lette,& !$ e/% ( t&# E0e,. ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l e/cee+ "3 t*e"t. (20) -'3e& 1u&t c!"t' " ' &u(5ect "+e/#

A record on appeal is a se#uential compilation o% t(e pleadings- orders- etc o% t(e =udge* o 4nlike a notice o% appeal w(ic( is =ust a statement w(en you received t(e decision- t(at you paid t(e docket %ees- and intend to appeal J(y is a record o% appeal neededF o +ince t(ere are multiple appeals- t(e original record o% t(e case (as to stay wit( trial court so it can rule over t(e ot(er issues o% t(e case*

Sec# 7# A--,!0'l !$ ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l# U-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l $!, '--,!0'l '"+ $ "! !(5ect !" & $ le+ (. t%e '--ellee * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t !$ ' c!-. t%e,e!$, t%e t, 'l c!u,t 1'. '--,!0e t '& -,e&e"te+ !, u-!" t& !*" 1!t !" !, 't t%e "&t'"ce !$ t%e '--ellee, 1'. + ,ect t& '1e"+1e"t (. t%e "clu& !" !$ '". !1 tte+ 1'tte,& *% c% ',e +ee1e+ e&&e"t 'l t! t%e +ete,1 "'t !" !$ t%e &&ue !$ l'* !, $'ct "0!l0e+ " t%e '--e'l# I$ t%e t, 'l c!u,t !,+e,& t%e '1e"+1e"t !$ t%e ,ec!,+, t%e '--ell'"t, * t% " t%e t 1e l 1 te+ " t%e !,+e,, !, &uc% e/te"& !" t%e,e!$ '& 1'. (e 3,'"te+, !, $ "! t 1e & $ /e+ (. t%e !,+e, * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t t%e,e!$, &%'ll ,e+,'$t t%e ,ec!,+ (. "clu+ "3 t%e,e ", " t%e , -,!-e, c%,!"!l!3 c'l &eAue"ce, &uc% '++ t !"'l 1'tte,& '& t%e c!u,t 1'. %'0e + ,ecte+ % 1 t! "c!,-!,'te, '"+ &%'ll t%e,eu-!" &u(1 t t%e ,e+,'$te+ ,ec!,+ $!, '--,!0'l, u-!" "!t ce t! t%e '--ellee, " l )e 1'""e, '& t%e !, 3 "'l +,'$t#

A record on appeal (as to )e approved* o A notice o% appeal does not*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 8# J! "t ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l# <%e,e (!t% -',t e& ',e '--ell'"t&, t%e. 1'. $ le ' 5! "t ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l * t% " t%e t 1e $ /e+ (. &ect !" 2 !$ t% & Rule, !, t%'t $ /e+ (. t%e c!u,t# Sec# B# =e,$ect !" !$ '--e'l: e$$ect t%e,e!$# A -',t.G& '--e'l (. "!t ce !$ '--e'l & +ee1e+ -e,$ecte+ '& t! % 1 u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e "!t ce !$ '--e'l " +ue t 1e# A -',t.G& '--e'l (. ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l & +ee1e+ -e,$ecte+ '& t! % 1 * t% ,e&-ect t! t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, t%e,e!$ u-!" t%e '--,!0'l !$ t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l $ le+ " +ue t 1e# I" '--e'l& (. "!t ce !$ '--e'l, t%e c!u,t l!&e& 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e c'&e u-!" t%e -e,$ect !" !$ t%e '--e'l& $ le+ " +ue t 1e '"+ t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e t 1e t! '--e'l !$ t%e !t%e, -',t e&# I" '--e'l& (. ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, t%e c!u,t l!&e& 5u, &+ ct !" !"l. !0e, t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, t%e,e!$ u-!" t%e '--,!0'l !$ t%e ,ec!,+& !" '--e'l $ le+ " +ue t 1e '"+ t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e t 1e t! '--e'l !$ t%e !t%e, -',t e&# I" e t%e, c'&e, -, !, t! t%e t,'"&1 tt'l !$ t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, t%e c!u,t 1'. &&ue !,+e,& $!, t%e -,!tect !" '"+ -,e&e,0't !" !$ t%e , 3%t& !$ t%e -',t e& *% c% +! "!t "0!l0e '". 1'tte, l t 3'te+ (. t%e '--e'l, '--,!0e c!1-,!1 &e&, -e,1 t '--e'l& !$ "+ 3e"t l t 3'"t&, !,+e, e/ecut !" -e"+ "3 '--e'l " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% &ect !" 2 !$ Rule 2B, '"+ 'll!* * t%+,'*'l !$ t%e '--e'l#

"(is is a really important section )ecause it determines w(en appeal (as )een per%ected- w(ic( (as implications on: o J(et(er a =udgment )ecomes %inal and e9ecutory- w(ic( (as implications on: J(et(er e9ecution will %ollow as a matter o% rig(t or remain discretionary "ake note: t(at even prior to t(e transmittal o% t(e original record or record on appeal- t(e lower court can still issue orders %or t(e protection and preservation o% t(e rig(ts o% t(e parties* J(en does t(e court o% original =urisdiction totally lose =urisdiction during appealF o 4pon per%ection o% t(e appeals %iled in due time- and o "(e e9piration o% t(e time to appeal o% t(e ot(er parties "(e R"C can no longer issue a writ o% e9ecution pending appeal w(en t(e notice o% appeal (as )een %iled- t(e period (ad already elapsed and t(e CA already made an order to t(e R"C to %orward t(e stu%%* $+IDI v 5elta Motors'

Sec# 10# Dut. !$ cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e l!*e, c!u,t u-!" -e,$ect !" !$ '--e'l# < t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& '$te, -e,$ect !" !$ 'll t%e '--e'l& " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !", t &%'ll (e t%e +ut. !$ t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e l!*e, c!u,t; (') T! 0e, $. t%e c!,,ect"e&& !$ t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, '& t%e c'&e 1'. (e, '"+ t! 1')e ' ce,t $ c't !" !$ t& c!,,ect"e&&: (() T! 0e, $. t%e c!1-lete"e&& !$ t%e ,ec!,+& t%'t * ll (e t,'"&1 tte+ t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t: (c) I$ $!u"+ t! (e "c!1-lete, t! t')e &uc% 1e'&u,e& '& 1'. (e ,eAu ,e+ t! c!1-lete t%e ,ec!,+&, '0' l "3 !$ t%e 'ut%!, t. t%'t %e !, t%e c!u,t 1'. e/e,c &e $!, t% & -u,-!&e: '"+ (+) T! t,'"&1 t t%e ,ec!,+& t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t# I$ t%e e$$!,t& t! c!1-lete t%e ,ec!,+& $' l, %e &%'ll "+ c'te " % & lette, !$ t,'"&1 tt'l t%e e/% ( t& !, t,'"&c, -t& "!t "clu+e+ " t%e ,ec!,+& (e "3 t,'"&1 tte+ t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t, t%e ,e'&!"& $!, t%e , "!"-t,'"&1 tt'l, '"+ t%e &te-& t')e" !, t%'t c!ul+ (e t')e" t! %'0e t%e1 '0' l'(le# T%e cle,) !$ c!u,t &%'ll $u," &% t%e -',t e& * t% c!- e& !$ % & lette, !$ t,'"&1 tt'l !$ t%e ,ec!,+& t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t# Sec# 11# T,'"&c, -t# U-!" t%e -e,$ect !" !$ t%e '--e'l, t%e cle,) &%'ll 11e+ 'tel. + ,ect t%e &te"!3,'-%e,& c!"ce,"e+ t! 'tt'c% t! t%e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e c'&e $ 0e (8) c!- e& !$ t%e t,'"&c, -t& !$ t%e te&t 1!" 'l e0 +e"ce ,e$e,,e+ t! " t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l# T%e &te"!3,'-%e,& c!"ce,"e+ &%'ll t,'"&c, (e &uc% te&t 1!" 'l e0 +e"ce '"+ &%'ll -,e-',e '"+ '$$ / t! t%e , t,'"&c, -t& '" "+e/ c!"t' " "3 t%e "'1e& !$ t%e * t"e&&e& '"+ t%e -'3e& *%e,e " t%e , te&t 1!" e& ',e $!u"+, '"+ ' l &t !$ t%e e/% ( t& '"+ t%e -'3e& *%e,e " e'c% !$ t%e1 '--e',& t! %'0e (ee" !$$e,e+ '"+ '+1 tte+ !, ,e5ecte+ (. t%e t, 'l c!u,t# T%e t,'"&c, -t& &%'ll (e t,'"&1 tte+ t! t%e cle,) !$ t%e t, 'l c!u,t *%! &%'ll t%e,eu-!" ',,'"3e t%e &'1e " t%e !,+e, " *% c% t%e * t"e&&e& te&t $ e+ 't t%e t, 'l, '"+ &%'ll c'u&e t%e -'3e& t! (e "u1(e,e+ c!"&ecut 0el.# Sec# 12# T,'"&1 tt'l# T%e cle,) !$ t%e t, 'l c!u,t &%'ll t,'"&1 t t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e '--,!0e+ ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& $,!1 t%e -e,$ect !" !$ t%e '--e'l, t!3et%e, * t% t%e -,!!$ !$ -'.1e"t !$ t%e '--ell'te c!u,t +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, ' ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e 1 "ute& !$ t%e -,!cee+ "3&, t%e !,+e, !$ '--,!0'l, t%e ce,t $ c'te !$ c!,,ect"e&&, t%e !, 3 "'l +!cu1e"t',. e0 +e"ce ,e$e,,e+ t! t%e,e ", '"+ t%e !, 3 "'l '"+ t%,ee (2) c!- e& !$ t%e t,'"&c, -t&# C!- e& !$ t%e t,'"&c, -t& '"+ ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!- e& !$ t%e +!cu1e"t',. e0 +e"ce &%'ll ,e1' " " t%e l!*e, c!u,t $!, t%e Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 12# D &1 &&'l !$ '--e'l# =, !, t! t%e t,'"&1 tt'l !$ t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l t! t%e '--ell'te c!u,t, t%e t, 'l c!u,t 1'., 1!tu -,!- ! !, !" 1!t !", + &1 && t%e '--e'l $!, %'0 "3 (ee" t')e" !ut !$ t 1e !, $!, "!"-'.1e"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& * t% " t%e ,e3le1e"t',. -e, !+#

"(e trial court can dismiss t(e appeal %or: o (aving )een taken out o% time or o %or non0payment o% t(e docket %ees wit(in t(e reglementary period

RULE 66 ORDINARH A==EALED CASES (=ROCEDURE IN CA) Sect !" 1# T tle !$ c'&e&# I" 'll c'&e& '--e'le+ t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& u"+e, Rule 61, t%e t tle !$ t%e c'&e &%'ll ,e1' " '& t *'& " t%e c!u,t !$ !, 3 ", (ut t%e -',t. '--e'l "3 t%e c'&e &%'ll (e $u,t%e, ,e$e,,e+ t! '& t%e '--ell'"t '"+ t%e '+0e,&e -',t. '& t%e '--ellee# Sec# 2# C!u"&el '"+ 3u',+ '"&# T%e c!u"&el '"+ 3u',+ '"& '+ l te1 !$ t%e -',t e& " t%e c!u,t !$ !, 3 " &%'ll (e ,e&-ect 0el. c!"& +e,e+ '& t%e , c!u"&el '"+ 3u',+ '"& '+ l te1 " t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&# <%e" !t%e,& '--e', !, ',e '--! "te+, "!t ce t%e,e!$ &%'ll (e &e,0e+ 11e+ 'tel. !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t. '"+ $ le+ * t% t%e c!u,t# (2', R69) Sec# 2# O,+e, !$ t,'"&1 tt'l !$ ,ec!,+# I$ t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l & "!t t,'"&1 tte+ t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& * t% " t% ,t. (20) +'.& '$te, t%e -e,$ect !" !$ t%e '--e'l, e t%e, -',t. 1'. $ le ' 1!t !" * t% t%e t, 'l c!u,t, * t% "!t ce t! t%e !t%e,, $!, t%e t,'"&1 tt'l !$ &uc% ,ec!,+ !, ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l# Sec# 6# D!c)et "3 !$ c'&e# U-!" ,ece 0 "3 t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l '"+ t%e 'cc!1-'". "3 +!cu1e"t& '"+ e/% ( t& t,'"&1 tte+ (. t%e l!*e, c!u,t, '& *ell '& t%e -,!!$ !$ -'.1e"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll +!c)et t%e c'&e '"+ "!t $. t%e -',t e& t%e,e!$# < t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t !$ &' + "!t ce, t%e '--ell'"t, " '--e'l& (. ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, &%'ll $ le * t% t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t &e0e" (7) cle',l. le3 (le c!- e& !$ t%e '--,!0e+ ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, t!3et%e, * t% t%e -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ t*! (2) c!- e& t%e,e!$ u-!" t%e '--ellee# A". u"'ut%!, 7e+ 'lte,'t !", !1 && !" !, '++ t !" " t%e '--,!0e+ ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l &%'ll (e ' 3,!u"+ $!, + &1 &&'l !$ t%e '--e'l#

"(e procedure %or ordinary appeals in t(e Court o% Appeals is %ound in Rule 44*

Sec# 8# C!1-let !" !$ ,ec!,+# <%e,e t%e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e +!c)ete+ c'&e & "c!1-lete, t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll &! "$!,1 &' + c!u,t '"+ ,ec!11e"+ t! t 1e'&u,e& "ece&&',. t! c!1-lete t%e ,ec!,+# It &%'ll (e t%e +ut. !$ &' + c!u,t t! t')e '--,!-, 'te 'ct !" t!*',+& t%e c!1-let !" !$ t%e ,ec!,+ * t% " t%e &%!,te&t -!&& (le t 1e# Sec# 9# D &-e"& "3 * t% c!1-lete ,ec!,+# <%e,e t%e c!1-let !" !$ t%e ,ec!,+ c!ul+ "!t (e 'cc!1-l &%e+ * t% " ' &u$$ c e"t -e, !+ 'll!tte+ $!, &' + -u,-!&e +ue t! "&u-e,'(le !, e/t,e1el. + $$ cult c'u&e&, t%e c!u,t, !" t& !*" 1!t !" !, !" 1!t !" !$ '". !$ t%e -',t e&, 1'. +ecl',e t%'t t%e ,ec!,+ '"+ t& 'cc!1-'". "3 t,'"&c, -t& '"+ e/% ( t& &! $', '0' l'(le ',e &u$$ c e"t t! +ec +e t%e &&ue& ,' &e+ " t%e '--e'l, '"+ &%'ll &&ue '" !,+e, e/-l' " "3 t%e ,e'&!"& $!, &uc% +ecl','t !"#

"(e complete record is generally needed* o ?AC?P" i% complete record can not )e procured due to insupera)le or e9tremely di%%icult cases

Sec# 7# A--ell'"tG& (, e$# It &%'ll (e t%e +ut. !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! $ le * t% t%e c!u,t, * t% " $!,t.-$ 0e (68) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t !$ t%e "!t ce !$ t%e cle,) t%'t 'll t%e e0 +e"ce, !,'l '"+ +!cu1e"t',., ',e 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e ,ec!,+, &e0e" (7) c!- e& !$ % & le3 (l. t.-e*, tte", 1 1e!3,'-%e+ !, -, "te+ (, e$, * t% -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ t*! (2) c!- e& t%e,e!$ u-!" t%e '--ellee# Sec# 8# A--elleeG& (, e$# < t% " $!,t.-$ 0e (68) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t !$ t%e '--ell'"tG& (, e$, t%e '--ellee &%'ll $ le * t% t%e c!u,t &e0e" (7) c!- e& !$ % & le3 (l. t.-e*, tte", 1 1e!3,'-%e+ !, -, "te+ (, e$, * t% -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ t*! (2) c!- e& t%e,e!$ u-!" t%e '--ell'"t# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# B# A--ell'"tG& ,e-l. (, e$# < t% " t*e"t. (20) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t !$ t%e '--elleeG& (, e$, t%e '--ell'"t 1'. $ le ' ,e-l. (, e$ '"&*e, "3 -! "t& " t%e '--elleeG& (, e$ "!t c!0e,e+ " % & 1' " (, e$#

J(at are t(e periods %or %iling o% )rie%s: o Appellant,s )rie%: 4< days %rom receipt o% notice t(at evidence was attac(ed to record o Apellee,s )rie%: 4< days %rom receipt o% appellant,s o Apellant,s reply $not mandatory': 2 days

Sec# 10# T 1e $!, $ l "3 1e1!,'"+' " &-ec 'l c'&e&# I" ce,t !,', , -,!% ( t !", 1'"+'1u&, Au! *',,'"t! '"+ %'(e'& c!,-u& c'&e&, t%e -',t e& &%'ll $ le, " l eu !$ (, e$&, t%e , ,e&-ect 0e 1e1!,'"+' * t% " ' "!"-e/te"+ (le -e, !+ !$ t% ,t. (20) +'.& $,!1 ,ece -t !$ t%e "!t ce &&ue+ (. t%e cle,) t%'t 'll t%e e0 +e"ce, !,'l '"+ +!cu1e"t',., & 'l,e'+. 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e ,ec!,+# T%e $' lu,e !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! $ le % & 1e1!,'"+u1 * t% " t%e -e, !+ t%e,e$!, 1'. (e ' 3,!u"+ $!, + &1 &&'l !$ t%e '--e'l# Sec# 11# Se0e,'l '--ell'"t& !, '--ellee& !, &e0e,'l c!u"&el $!, e'c% -',t.# <%e,e t%e,e ',e &e0e,'l '--ell'"t& !, '--ellee&, e'c% c!u"&el ,e-,e&e"t "3 !"e !, 1!,e (ut "!t 'll !$ t%e1 &%'ll (e &e,0e+ * t% !"l. !"e c!-. !$ t%e (, e$&# <%e" &e0e,'l c!u"&el ,e-,e&e"t !"e '--ell'"t !, '--ellee, c!- e& !$ t%e (, e$ 1'. (e &e,0e+ u-!" '". !$ t%e1# Sec# 12# E/te"& !" !$ t 1e $!, $ l "3 (, e$&# E/te"& !" !$ t 1e $!, t%e $ l "3 !$ (, e$& * ll "!t (e 'll!*e+, e/ce-t $!, 3!!+ '"+ &u$$ c e"t c'u&e, '"+ !"l. $ t%e 1!t !" $!, e/te"& !" & $ le+ (e$!,e t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e t 1e &!u3%t t! (e e/te"+e+# Sec# 12# C!"te"t& !$ '--ell'"tG& (, e$# T%e '--ell'"tG& (, e$ &%'ll c!"t' ", " t%e !,+e, %e,e " "+ c'te+, t%e $!ll!* "3; (') A &u(5ect "+e/ !$ t%e 1'tte, " t%e (, e$ * t% ' + 3e&t !$ t%e ',3u1e"t& '"+ -'3e ,e$e,e"ce&, '"+ ' t'(le !$ c'&e& 'l-%'(et c'll. ',,'"3e+, te/t(!!)& '"+ &t'tute& c te+ * t% ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e -'3e& *%e,e t%e. ',e c te+: (() A" '&& 3"1e"t !$ e,,!,& "te"+e+ t! (e u,3e+, *% c% e,,!,& &%'ll (e &e-','tel., + &t "ctl. '"+ c!"c &el. &t'te+ * t%!ut ,e-et t !" '"+ "u1(e,e+ c!"&ecut 0el.: (c) U"+e, t%e %e'+ "3 ?St'te1e"t !$ t%e C'&e,? ' cle', '"+ c!"c &e &t'te1e"t !$ t%e "'tu,e !$ t%e 'ct !", ' &u11',. !$ t%e -,!cee+ "3&, t%e '--e'le+ ,ul "3& '"+ !,+e,& !$ t%e c!u,t, t%e "'tu,e !$ t%e 5u+31e"t '"+ '". !t%e, 1'tte,& "ece&&',. t! '" u"+e,&t'"+ "3 !$ t%e "'tu,e !$ t%e c!"t,!0e,&., * t% -'3e ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e ,ec!,+: (+) U"+e, t%e %e'+ "3 ?St'te1e"t !$ F'ct&,? ' cle', '"+ c!"c &e &t'te1e"t " ' "',,'t 0e $!,1 !$ t%e $'ct& '+1 tte+ (. (!t% -',t e& '"+ !$ t%!&e " c!"t,!0e,&., t!3et%e, * t% t%e &u(&t'"ce !$ t%e -,!!$ ,el't "3 t%e,et! " &u$$ c e"t +et' l t! 1')e t cle',l. "tell 3 (le, * t% -'3e ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e ,ec!,+: (e) A cle', '"+ c!"c &e &t'te1e"t !$ t%e &&ue& !$ $'ct !, l'* t! (e &u(1 tte+ t! t%e c!u,t $!, t& 5u+31e"t: ($) U"+e, t%e %e'+ "3 ?A,3u1e"t,? t%e '--ell'"tG& ',3u1e"t& !" e'c% '&& 3"1e"t !$ e,,!, * t% -'3e ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e ,ec!,+# T%e 'ut%!, t e& ,el e+ u-!" &%'ll (e c te+ (. t%e -'3e !$ t%e ,e-!,t 't *% c% t%e c'&e (e3 "& '"+ t%e -'3e !$ t%e ,e-!,t !" *% c% t%e c t't !" & $!u"+: (3) U"+e, t%e %e'+ "3 ?Rel e$,? ' &-ec $ c't !" !$ t%e !,+e, !, 5u+31e"t *% c% t%e '--ell'"t &ee)&: '"+ (%) I" c'&e& "!t (,!u3%t u- (. ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, t%e '--ell'"tG& (, e$ &%'ll c!"t' ", '& '" '--e"+ /, ' c!-. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1# Sec# 16# C!"te"t& !$ '--elleeG& (, e$# T%e '--elleeG& (, e$ &%'ll c!"t' ", " t%e !,+e, %e,e " "+ c'te+, t%e $!ll!* "3; (') A &u(5ect "+e/ !$ t%e 1'tte, " t%e (, e$ * t% ' + 3e&t !$ t%e ',3u1e"t& '"+ -'3e ,e$e,e"ce&, '"+ ' t'(le !$ c'&e& 'l-%'(et c'll. ',,'"3e+, te/t(!!)& '"+ &t'tute& c te+ * t% ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e -'3e& *%e,e t%e. ',e c te+: (() U"+e, t%e %e'+ "3 ?St'te1e"t !$ F'ct&,? t%e '--ellee &%'ll &t'te t%'t %e 'cce-t& t%e &t'te1e"t !$ $'ct& " t%e '--ell'"tG& (, e$, !, u"+e, t%e %e'+ "3 ?C!u"te,-St'te1e"t !$ F'ct&,? %e &%'ll -! "t !ut &uc% "&u$$ c e"c e& !, "'ccu,'c e& '& %e (el e0e& e/ &t " t%e '--ell'"tG& &t'te1e"t !$ $'ct& * t% ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e -'3e& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ " &u--!,t t%e,e!$, (ut * t%!ut ,e-et t !" !$ 1'tte,& " t%e '--ell'"tG& &t'te1e"t !$ $'ct&: '"+ (c) U"+e, t%e %e'+ "3 ?A,3u1e"t,? t%e '--ellee &%'ll &et $!,t% % & ',3u1e"t& " t%e c'&e !" e'c% '&& 3"1e"t !$ e,,!, * t% -'3e ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e ,ec!,+# T%e 'ut%!, t e& ,el e+ !" &%'ll (e c te+ (. t%e -'3e !$ t%e ,e-!,t 't *% c% t%e c'&e (e3 "& '"+ t%e -'3e !$ t%e ,e-!,t !" *% c% t%e c t't !" & $!u"+# Sec# 18# Fue&t !"& t%'t 1'. (e ,' &e+ !" '--e'l# <%et%e, !, "!t t%e '--ell'"t %'& $ le+ ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l " t%e c!u,t (el!*, %e 1'. "clu+e " % & '&& 3"1e"t !$ e,,!,& '". Aue&t !" !$ l'* !, $'ct t%'t %'& (ee" ,' &e+ " t%e c!u,t (el!* '"+ *% c% & * t% " t%e &&ue& $,'1e+ (. t%e -',t e&#

Appellant may include any #uestion o% law or %act t(at (as )een raised in t(e lower court and w(ic( is wit(in t(e issues %ramed )y t(e parties

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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o 5oesn,t matter i% (e %iled a M1" or not ;reak muna po(2


RULE 62 =ETITION FOR RE>IE< FROM T@E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS TO T@E COURT OF A==EALS Sect !" 1# @!* '--e'l t')e": t 1e $!, $ l "3# A -',t. +e& , "3 t! '--e'l $,!1 ' +ec & !" !$ t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t ,e"+e,e+ " t%e e/e,c &e !$ t& '--ell'te 5u, &+ ct !" 1'. $ le ' 0e, $ e+ -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* * t% t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, -'. "3 't t%e &'1e t 1e t! t%e cle,) !$ &' + c!u,t t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, +e-!& t "3 t%e '1!u"t !$ =800#00 $!, c!&t&, '"+ $u," &% "3 t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t '"+ t%e '+0e,&e -',t. * t% ' c!-. !$ t%e -et t !"# T%e -et t !" &%'ll (e $ le+ '"+ &e,0e+ * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e +ec & !" &!u3%t t! (e ,e0 e*e+ !, !$ t%e +e" 'l !$ -et t !"e,G& 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" $ le+ " +ue t 1e '$te, 5u+31e"t# U-!" -,!-e, 1!t !" '"+ t%e -'.1e"t !$ t%e $ull '1!u"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& '"+ t%e +e-!& t $!, c!&t& (e$!,e t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e ,e3le1e"t',. -e, !+, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. 3,'"t '" '++ t !"'l -e, !+ !$ $ $tee" (18) +'.& !"l. * t% " *% c% t! $ le t%e -et t !" $!, ,e0 e*# N! $u,t%e, e/te"& !" &%'ll (e 3,'"te+ e/ce-t $!, t%e 1!&t c!1-ell "3 ,e'&!" '"+ " "! c'&e t! e/cee+ $ $tee" (18) +'.&#

"(ere are actually two kinds o% petition %or review $:?RI/I?5222' o Rule 42 $M"C to R"C to CA' o Rule 4G $#uasi0=udicial agencies' Rule 42 applies w(en a party desires to appeal %rom a decision o% t(e R"C w(o acted in its appellate =urisdiction o Meaning t(e original case came %rom t(e M"C- t(en appealed to t(e R"C Like in summary proceedings* 1ot in small claims )ecause MR and appeal are not allowed %rom small claims cases* 6nly Rule C<* Rule 42 and 4G are similar w(en it comes to periods* o Must )e %iled wit(in !< days* Additional e9tension o% !< days may )e asked wit(in t(e reglementary periodprovided docket %ees already paid* Can you ask %or a second e9tensionF o 1o* 4nless %or t(e most compelling reasons and s(ouldn,t e9ceed anot(er !< days* )ompare !ith ordinary appeals- no e8tension allo!ed" J(at i% you %ile a notice o% appeal instead o% a petition %or reviewF o Immediately dismissed* $Rule < - +ection 2'

Sec# 2# F!,1 '"+ c!"te"t&# T%e -et t !" &%'ll (e $ le+ " &e0e" (7) le3 (le c!- e&, * t% t%e !, 3 "'l c!-. "te"+e+ $!, t%e c!u,t (e "3 "+ c'te+ '& &uc% (. t%e -et t !"e,, '"+ &%'ll (') &t'te t%e $ull "'1e& !$ t%e -',t e& t! t%e c'&e, * t%!ut 1-le'+ "3 t%e l!*e, c!u,t& !, 5u+3e& t%e,e!$ e t%e, '& -et t !"e,& !, ,e&-!"+e"t&: (() "+ c'te t%e &-ec $ c 1'te, 'l +'te& &%!* "3 t%'t t *'& $ le+ !" t 1e: (c) &et $!,t% c!"c &el. ' &t'te1e"t !$ t%e 1'tte,& "0!l0e+, t%e &&ue& ,' &e+, t%e &-ec $ c't !" !$ e,,!,& !$ $'ct !, l'*, !, (!t%, 'lle3e+l. c!11 tte+ (. t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t, '"+ t%e ,e'&!"& !, ',3u1e"t& ,el e+ u-!" $!, t%e 'll!*'"ce !$ t%e '--e'l: (+) (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. cle',l. le3 (le +u-l c'te !, 3 "'l& !, t,ue c!- e& !$ t%e 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,& !$ (!t% l!*e, c!u,t&, ce,t $ e+ c!,,ect (. t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t, t%e ,eAu & te "u1(e, !$ -l' " c!- e& t%e,e!$ '"+ !$ t%e -le'+ "3& '"+ !t%e, 1'te, 'l -!,t !"& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ '& *!ul+ &u--!,t t%e 'lle3't !"& !$ t%e -et t !"# T%e -et t !"e, &%'ll 'l&! &u(1 t t!3et%e, * t% t%e -et t !" ' ce,t $ c't !" u"+e, !'t% t%'t %e %'& "!t t%e,et!$!,e c!11e"ce+ '". !t%e, 'ct !" "0!l0 "3 t%e &'1e &&ue& " t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& !, + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"& t%e,e!$, !, '". !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c.: $ t%e,e & &uc% !t%e, 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3, %e 1u&t &t'te t%e &t'tu& !$ t%e &'1e: '"+ $ %e &%!ul+ t%e,e'$te, le'," t%'t ' & 1 l', 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3 %'& (ee" $ le+ !, & -e"+ "3 (e$!,e t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, !, + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"& t%e,e!$, !, '". !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c., %e u"+e,t')e& t! -,!1-tl. "$!,1 t%e '$!,e&' + c!u,t& '"+ !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c. t%e,e!$ * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& t%e,e$,!1# Sec# 2# E$$ect !$ $' lu,e t! c!1-l. * t% ,eAu ,e1e"t&# T%e $' lu,e !$ t%e -et t !"e, t! c!1-l. * t% '". !$ t%e $!,e3! "3 ,eAu ,e1e"t& ,e3',+ "3 t%e -'.1e"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, t%e +e-!& t $!, c!&t&, -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ t%e -et t !", '"+ t%e c!"te"t& !$ '"+ t%e +!cu1e"t& *% c% &%!ul+ 'cc!1-'". t%e -et t !" &%'ll (e &u$$ c e"t 3,!u"+ $!, t%e Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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J(at do you need %or a petition %or review under Rule 42F o :?RI/I?5 petition o Attac( a copy o% t(e decision or a duplicate original 1o need to )e certi%ied true copies $compare to Rule 4G' o Attac( an a%%idavit o% material dates $date o% receipt o% decision- date o% %iling o% MR- date o% denial o% MR' o Parties- issues- grounds relied upon- errors- e9planation i% service is ot(er t(an personal o Certi%icate o% non0%orum s(oppin( /ailure to comply wit( t(e re#uirements will )e su%%icient grounds %or dismissal*

Sec# 6# Act !" !" t%e -et t !"# T%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e ,e&-!"+e"t t! $ le ' c!11e"t !" t%e -et t !", "!t ' 1!t !" t! + &1 &&, * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce, !, + &1 && t%e -et t !" $ t $ "+& t%e &'1e t! (e -'te"tl. * t%!ut 1e, t, -,!&ecute+ 1'" $e&tl. $!, +el'., !, t%'t t%e Aue&t !"& ,' &e+ t%e,e " ',e t!! u"&u(&t'"t 'l t! ,eAu ,e c!"& +e,'t !"# Sec# 8# C!"te"t& !$ c!11e"t# T%e c!11e"t !$ t%e ,e&-!"+e"t &%'ll (e $ le+ " &e0e" (7) le3 (le c!- e&, 'cc!1-'" e+ (. ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!- e& !$ &uc% 1'te, 'l -!,t !"& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ ,e$e,,e+ t! t%e,e " t!3et%e, * t% !t%e, &u--!,t "3 -'-e,& '"+ &%'ll (') &t'te *%et%e, !, "!t %e 'cce-t& t%e &t'te1e"t !$ 1'tte,& "0!l0e+ " t%e -et t !": (() -! "t !ut &uc% "&u$$ c e"c e& !, "'ccu,'c e& '& %e (el e0e& e/ &t " -et t !"e,G& &t'te1e"t !$ 1'tte,& "0!l0e+ (ut * t%!ut ,e-et t !": '"+ (c) &t'te t%e ,e'&!"& *%. t%e -et t !" &%!ul+ "!t (e 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e# A c!-. t%e,e!$ &%'ll (e &e,0e+ !" t%e -et t !"e,# Sec# 9# Due c!u,&e# I$ u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e c!11e"t !, &uc% !t%e, -le'+ "3& '& t%e c!u,t 1'. 'll!* !, ,eAu ,e, !, '$te, t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ $!, t%e $ l "3 t%e,e!$ * t%!ut &uc% c!11e"t !, -le'+ "3 %'0 "3 (ee" &u(1 tte+, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& $ "+& -, 1' $'c e t%'t t%e l!*e, c!u,t %'& c!11 tte+ '" e,,!, !$ $'ct !, l'* t%'t * ll *',,'"t ' ,e0e,&'l !, 1!+ $ c't !" !$ t%e '--e'le+ +ec & !", t 1'. 'cc!,+ "3l. 3 0e +ue c!u,&e t! t%e -et t !"# Sec# 7# Ele0't !" !$ ,ec!,+# <%e"e0e, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& +ee1& t "ece&&',., t 1'. !,+e, t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t t! ele0'te t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !$ t%e c'&e "clu+ "3 t%e !,'l '"+ +!cu1e"t',. e0 +e"ce * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce#

I% t(e petition is complete- t(e CA can re#uire a comment %rom t(e ot(er party* o Must )e made in ! days* A%ter t(e comment or i% no comment was made- i% t(e CA %inds prima %acie error on t(e lower court $or B3A'- it may accordingly give due course to t(e petition* o It can ask %or t(e elevation o% t(e records* +ame procedure wit( Rule 4G- +ec @0!!*

Sec# 8# =e,$ect !" !$ '--e'l: e$$ect t%e,e!$# (') U-!" t%e t 1el. $ l "3 !$ ' -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* '"+ t%e -'.1e"t !$ t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, t%e '--e'l & +ee1e+ -e,$ecte+ '& t! t%e -et t !"e,# T%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t l!&e& 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e c'&e u-!" t%e -e,$ect !" !$ t%e '--e'l& $ le+ " +ue t 1e '"+ t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e t 1e t! '--e'l !$ t%e !t%e, -',t e&# @!*e0e,, (e$!,e t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 3 0e& +ue c!u,&e t! t%e -et t !", t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t 1'. &&ue !,+e,& $!, t%e -,!tect !" '"+ -,e&e,0't !" !$ t%e , 3%t& !$ t%e -',t e& *% c% +! "!t "0!l0e '". 1'tte, l t 3'te+ (. t%e '--e'l, '--,!0e c!1-,!1 &e&, -e,1 t '--e'l& !$ "+ 3e"t l t 3'"t&, !,+e, e/ecut !" -e"+ "3 '--e'l " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% &ect !" 2 !$ Rule 2B, '"+ 'll!* * t%+,'*'l !$ t%e '--e'l# (() E/ce-t " c 0 l c'&e& +ec +e+ u"+e, t%e Rule !" Su11',. =,!ce+u,e, t%e '--e'l &%'ll &t'. t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, u"le&& t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, t%e l'*, !, t%e&e Rule& &%'ll -,!0 +e !t%e,* &e#

J(en is t(e per%ection o% appeal in petition %or review casesF o 4pon t(e timely %iling o% a petition %or review- and o "(e payment o% corresponding docket and ot(er law%ul %ees ;e%ore t(e CA gives due course to t(e petition- t(e R"C may still issue orders- even order e9ecution pending appeal* It can even allow wit(drawal o% t(e appeal* A petition %or review s(all stay t(e =udgment or %inal order- unless t(e CA- t(e law or t(e rules provide ot(erwise* o ?AC?P":

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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In civil cases decided under t(e Rule on +ummary Procedure $like e=ectment cases w(ic( are immediately e9ecutory'

Sec# B# Su(1 && !" $!, +ec & !"# I$ t%e -et t !" & 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. &et t%e c'&e $!, !,'l ',3u1e"t !, ,eAu ,e t%e -',t e& t! &u(1 t 1e1!,'"+' * t% " ' -e, !+ !$ $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce# T%e c'&e &%'ll (e +ee1e+ &u(1 tte+ $!, +ec & !" u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e l'&t -le'+ "3 !, 1e1!,'"+u1 ,eAu ,e+ (. t%e&e Rule& !, (. t%e c!u,t t&el$#

1o )rie%s are re#uired (ere* "(e petition and t(e comment serve as t(e )rie%s* "(e court- (owever- can re#uire oral arguments or memoranda*

RULE 62 A==EALS FROM T@E COURT OF TAI A==EALS AND FUASI-JUDICIAL AGENCIES TO T@E COURT OF A==EALS Sect !" 1# Sc!-e# T% & Rule &%'ll '--l. t! '--e'l& $,!1 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,& !$ t%e C!u,t !$ T'/ A--e'l& '"+ $,!1 '*',+&, 5u+31e"t&, $ "'l !,+e,& !, ,e&!lut !"& !$ !, 'ut%!, 7e+ (. '". Au'& -5u+ c 'l '3e"c. " t%e e/e,c &e !$ t& Au'& -5u+ c 'l $u"ct !"&# A1!"3 t%e&e '3e"c e& ',e t%e C 0 l Se,0 ce C!11 && !", Ce"t,'l 4!',+ !$ A&&e&&1e"t A--e'l&, Secu, t e& '"+ E/c%'"3e C!11 && !", O$$ ce !$ t%e =,e& +e"t, L'"+ Re3 &t,'t !" Aut%!, t., S!c 'l Secu, t. C!11 && !", C 0 l Ae,!"'ut c& 4!',+, 4u,e'u !$ ='te"t&, T,'+e1',)& '"+ Tec%"!l!3. T,'"&$e,, N't !"'l Elect, $ c't !" A+1 " &t,'t !", E"e,3. Re3ul't!,. 4!',+, N't !"'l Telec!11u" c't !"& C!11 && !", De-',t1e"t !$ A3,', '" Re$!,1 u"+e, Re-u(l c Act N!# 9987, G!0e,"1e"t Se,0 ce I"&u,'"ce S.&te1, E1-l!.ee& C!1-e"&'t !" C!11 && !", A3, cultu,'l I"0e"t !"& 4!',+, I"&u,'"ce C!11 && !", =% l -- "e At!1 c E"e,3. C!11 && !", 4!',+ !$ I"0e&t1e"t&, C!"&t,uct !" I"+u&t,. A,( t,'t !" C!11 && !", '"+ 0!lu"t',. ',( t,'t!,& 'ut%!, 7e+ (. l'*# Sec# 2# C'&e& "!t c!0e,e+# T% & Rule &%'ll "!t '--l. t! 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,& &&ue+ u"+e, t%e L'(!, C!+e !$ t%e =% l -- "e&#

"(e enumeration in Rule 4G o% B3As is 16" e9clusive* o 5etermine i% t(e %ollowing B3A decisions are reviewa)le )y t(e CA: 6%%ice o% t(e President: yes DL4R;: 1o- must go t(roug( t(e 6P %irst )e%ore t(e CA 1LRC: >es- )ut under Rule C<- not Rule 4G $w(ic( does not apply to t(e La)or Code' 5ARA;: >es* I% PARA5- must go t(roug( 5ARA; %irst- or else it will )e dismissed )y t(e CA* $Cardona v Amansec- 2 4' C"A: 1o- it must )e C"A en )anc- t(en +C* R"C acting as a commercial court: >es* R"C acting as a special agrarian court: >es* o It,s imperative t(at you c(eck t(e governing law o% t(e B3A )ecause it may prescri)e a di%%erent mode o% appeal* I% you %ail to %ollow t(e procedure in t(e B3A law- t(en your petition %or review wit( t(e CA may )e dismissed* $Cardona'

Sec# 2# <%e,e t! '--e'l# A" '--e'l u"+e, t% & Rule 1'. (e t')e" t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& * t% " t%e -e, !+ '"+ " t%e 1'""e, %e,e " -,!0 +e+, *%et%e, t%e '--e'l "0!l0e& Aue&t !"& !$ $'ct, !$ l'*, !, 1 /e+ Aue&t !"& !$ $'ct '"+ l'*#

Petition %or review %rom B3As is t(e proper mode o% appeal- regardless o% t(e nature o% t(e #uestion raised*

Sec# 6# =e, !+ !$ '--e'l# T%e '--e'l &%'ll (e t')e" * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e '*',+, 5u+31e"t, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !", !, $,!1 t%e +'te !$ t& l'&t -u(l c't !", $ -u(l c't !" & ,eAu ,e+ (. l'* $!, t& e$$ect 0 t., !, !$ t%e +e" 'l !$ -et t !"e,G& 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" +ul. $ le+ " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e 3!0e," "3 l'* !$ t%e c!u,t !, '3e"c. ' Au!# O"l. !"e (1) 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" &%'ll (e 'll!*e+# U-!" -,!-e, 1!t !" '"+ t%e -'.1e"t !$ t%e $ull '1!u"t !$ t%e +!c)et $ee (e$!,e t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e ,e3le1e"t',. -e, !+, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. 3,'"t '" '++ t !"'l -e, !+ !$ $ $tee" (18) +'.& !"l. * t% " *% c% t! $ le t%e -et t !" $!, ,e0 e*# N! $u,t%e, e/te"& !" &%'ll (e 3,'"te+ e/ce-t $!, t%e 1!&t c!1-ell "3 ,e'&!" '"+ " "! c'&e t! e/cee+ $ $tee" (18) +'.&# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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+ee comments on Rule 42*

Sec# 8# @!* '--e'l t')e"# A--e'l &%'ll (e t')e" (. $ l "3 ' 0e, $ e+ -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* " &e0e" (7) le3 (le c!- e& * t% t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, * t% -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ ' c!-. t%e,e!$ !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t. '"+ !" t%e c!u,t !, '3e"c. ' Au!# T%e !, 3 "'l c!-. !$ t%e -et t !" "te"+e+ $!, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll (e "+ c'te+ '& &uc% (. t%e -et t !"e,# U-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e -et t !", t%e -et t !"e, &%'ll -'. t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& t%e +!c)et "3 '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& '"+ +e-!& t t%e &u1 !$ =800#00 $!, c!&t&# E/e1-t !" $,!1 -'.1e"t !$ +!c)et "3 '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& '"+ t%e +e-!& t $!, c!&t& 1'. (e 3,'"te+ (. t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& u-!" ' 0e, $ e+ 1!t !" &ett "3 $!,t% 0'l + 3,!u"+& t%e,e$!,# I$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& +e" e& t%e 1!t !", t%e -et t !"e, &%'ll -'. t%e +!c)et "3 '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& '"+ +e-!& t $!, c!&t& * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e +e" 'l# Sec# 9# C!"te"t& !$ t%e -et t !"# T%e -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* &%'ll (') &t'te t%e $ull "'1e& !$ t%e -',t e& t! t%e c'&e, * t%!ut 1-le'+ "3 t%e c!u,t !, '3e"c e& e t%e, '& -et t !"e,& !, ,e&-!"+e"t&: (() c!"t' " ' c!"c &e &t'te1e"t !$ t%e $'ct& '"+ &&ue& "0!l0e+ '"+ t%e 3,!u"+& ,el e+ u-!" $!, t%e ,e0 e*: (c) (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. ' cle',l. le3 (le +u-l c'te !, 3 "'l !, ' ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e '*',+, 5u+31e"t, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" '--e'le+ $,!1, t!3et%e, * t% ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!- e& !$ &uc% 1'te, 'l -!,t !"& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ ,e$e,,e+ t! t%e,e " '"+ !t%e, &u--!,t "3 -'-e,&: '"+ (+) c!"t' " ' &*!," ce,t $ c't !" '3' "&t $!,u1 &%!-- "3 '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e l'&t -','3,'-% !$ &ect !" 2, Rule 62# T%e -et t !" &%'ll &t'te t%e &-ec $ c 1'te, 'l +'te& &%!* "3 t%'t t *'& $ le+ * t% " t%e -e, !+ $ /e+ %e,e "# Sec# 7# E$$ect !$ $' lu,e t! c!1-l. * t% ,eAu ,e1e"t&# T%e $' lu,e !$ t%e -et t !"e, t! c!1-l. * t% '". !$ t%e $!,e3! "3 ,eAu ,e1e"t& ,e3',+ "3 t%e -'.1e"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, t%e +e-!& t $!, c!&t&, -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ t%e -et t !", '"+ t%e c!"te"t& !$ '"+ t%e +!cu1e"t& *% c% &%!ul+ 'cc!1-'". t%e -et t !" &%'ll (e &u$$ c e"t 3,!u"+ $!, t%e + &1 &&'l t%e,e!$#

+ame as in Rule 42- )ut you need to also attac( ALL certi%ied true copies* o +ince t(e court will not )e a)le to veri%y t(e issued resolutions are genuine*

Sec# 8# Act !" !" t%e -et t !"# T%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e ,e&-!"+e"t t! $ le ' c!11e"t !" t%e -et t !", "!t ' 1!t !" t! + &1 &&, * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce, !, + &1 && t%e -et t !" $ t $ "+& t%e &'1e t! (e -'te"tl. * t%!ut 1e, t, -,!&ecute+ 1'" $e&tl. $!, +el'., !, t%'t t%e Aue&t !"& ,' &e+ t%e,e " ',e t!! u"&u(&t'"t 'l t! ,eAu ,e c!"& +e,'t !"# Sec# B# C!"te"t& !$ c!11e"t# T%e c!11e"t &%'ll (e $ le+ * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce " &e0e" (7) le3 (le c!- e& '"+ 'cc!1-'" e+ (. cle',l. le3 (le ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!- e& !$ &uc% 1'te, 'l -!,t !"& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ ,e$e,,e+ t! t%e,e " t!3et%e, * t% !t%e, &u--!,t "3 -'-e,&# T%e c!11e"t &%'ll (') -! "t !ut "&u$$ c e"c e& !, "'ccu,'c e& " -et t !"e,G& &t'te1e"t !$ $'ct& '"+ &&ue&: '"+ (() &t'te t%e ,e'&!"& *%. t%e -et t !" &%!ul+ (e +e" e+ !, + &1 &&e+# A c!-. t%e,e!$ &%'ll (e &e,0e+ !" t%e -et t !"e,, '"+ -,!!$ !$ &uc% &e,0 ce &%'ll (e $ le+ * t% t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&# Sec# 10# Due c!u,&e# I$ u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e c!11e"t !, &uc% !t%e, -le'+ "3& !, +!cu1e"t& '& 1'. (e ,eAu ,e+ !, 'll!*e+ (. t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& !, u-!" t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ $!, t%e $ l "3 t%e,e!$, '"+ !" t%e ('& & !$ t%e -et t !" !, t%e ,ec!,+& t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& $ "+& -, 1' $'c e t%'t t%e c!u,t !, '3e"c. c!"ce,"e+ %'& c!11 tte+ e,,!,& !$ $'ct !, l'* t%'t *!ul+ *',,'"t ,e0e,&'l !, 1!+ $ c't !" !$ t%e '*',+, 5u+31e"t, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" &!u3%t t! (e ,e0 e*e+, t 1'. 3 0e +ue c!u,&e t! t%e -et t !": !t%e,* &e, t &%'ll + &1 && t%e &'1e# T%e $ "+ "3& !$ $'ct !$ t%e c!u,t !, '3e"c. c!"ce,"e+, *%e" &u--!,te+ (. &u(&t'"t 'l e0 +e"ce, &%'ll (e ( "+ "3 !" t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&# Sec# 11# T,'"&1 tt'l !$ ,ec!,+# < t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce t%'t t%e -et t !" %'& (ee" 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e c!u,t !, '3e"c. c!"ce,"e+ t! t,'"&1 t t%e !, 3 "'l !, ' le3 (le ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e e"t ,e ,ec!,+ !$ t%e -,!cee+ "3 u"+e, ,e0 e*# T%e ,ec!,+ t! (e t,'"&1 tte+ 1'. (e '(, +3e+ (. '3,ee1e"t !$ 'll -',t e& t! t%e -,!cee+ "3# T%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. ,eAu ,e !, -e,1 t &u(&eAue"t c!,,ect !" !$ !, '++ t !" t! t%e ,ec!,+#

+ame as in Rule 42* ;ut note t(at t(e %indings o% %act o% B3A- w(en supported )y su)stantial evidence- s(all )e )inding on t(e CA*

Sec# 12# E$$ect !$ '--e'l# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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T%e '--e'l &%'ll "!t &t'. t%e '*',+, 5u+31e"t, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" &!u3%t t! (e ,e0 e*e+ u"le&& t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll + ,ect !t%e,* &e u-!" &uc% te,1& '& t 1'. +ee1 5u&t#

Appeal %rom t(e B3A s(all 16" stay t(e award- =udgment- etc o 41L?++ t(e CA orders so* +imilar to Rule 42- e9cept %or proviso on summary procedure*

Sec# 12# Su(1 && !" $!, +ec & !"# I$ t%e -et t !" & 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 1'. &et t%e c'&e $!, !,'l ',3u1e"t !, ,eAu ,e t%e -',t e& t! &u(1 t 1e1!,'"+' * t% " ' -e, !+ !$ $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce# T%e c'&e &%'ll (e +ee1e+ &u(1 tte+ $!, +ec & !" u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e l'&t -le'+ "3 !, 1e1!,'"+u1 ,eAu ,e+ (. t%e&e Rule& !, (. t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&# RULE 68 A==EAL 4H CERTIORARI TO T@E SU=REME COURT Sect !" 1# F l "3 !$ -et t !" * t% Su-,e1e C!u,t# A -',t. +e& , "3 t! '--e'l (. ce,t !,', $,!1 ' 5u+31e"t, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" !$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, t%e S'"+ 3'"('.'", t%e C!u,t !$ T'/ A--e'l&, t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t !, !t%e, c!u,t&, *%e"e0e, 'ut%!, 7e+ (. l'*, 1'. $ le * t% t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t ' 0e, $ e+ -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* !" ce,t !,', # T%e -et t !" 1'. "clu+e '" '--l c't !" $!, ' *, t !$ -,el 1 "',. "5u"ct !" !, !t%e, -,!0 & !"'l ,e1e+ e& '"+ &%'ll ,' &e !"l. Aue&t !"& !$ l'*, *% c% 1u&t (e + &t "ctl. &et $!,t%# T%e -et t !"e, 1'. &ee) t%e &'1e -,!0 & !"'l ,e1e+ e& (. 0e, $ e+ 1!t !" $ le+ " t%e &'1e 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3 't '". t 1e +u, "3 t& -e"+e"c.# Sec# 2# T 1e $!, $ l "3: e/te"& !"# T%e -et t !" &%'ll (e $ le+ * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" '--e'le+ $,!1, !, !$ t%e +e" 'l !$ t%e -et t !"e,G& 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" $ le+ " +ue t 1e '$te, "!t ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t# O" 1!t !" +ul. $ le+ '"+ &e,0e+, * t% $ull -'.1e"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& '"+ t%e +e-!& t $!, c!&t& (e$!,e t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e ,e3le1e"t',. -e, !+, t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t 1'. $!, 5u&t $ '(le ,e'&!"& 3,'"t '" e/te"& !" !$ t% ,t. (20) +'.& !"l. * t% " *% c% t! $ le t%e -et t !"#

"(e only way to go up to t(e +C is t(roug( a Petition %or Review on Certiorari o ?9cept in criminal cases w(ere t(e punis(ment is LI- RP- or deat(: ordinary appeal 6nly #uestions o% law may )e considered- su)=ect to =urisprudential e9ceptions* C! Period: o !< days ?9tension o% G days upon motion and payment o% docket %ees 6nly 61? e9tension allowed- you can,t ask %or !< days and t(en ask %or anot(er !< days* o )ompare !ith petition 'or revie! "(is is 16" t(e Certiorari we,ve come to know and care a)out in Rule C< o "(e Certiorari in Rule C< is a +CA* $Period: C days' Rule C< Certiorari is 16" a su)stitute %or a petition %or review on certiorari* $Cone=os v CA- 2 2w(erein Rule C< was wrongly used' o ?AC?P" $t(e %ollowing grounds must concur so t(at Rule C< can )e considered as a petition %or review on certiorari': /iled wit(in t(e reglementary period %or petition %or review on certiorari $!< days' Alleged errors o% =udgment +u%%icient reason to =usti%y t(e rela9ation o% t(e rules $6aminal v Castillo- 2 G'

Sec# 2# D!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&: -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ -et t !"# U"le&& %e %'& t%e,et!$!,e +!"e &!, t%e -et t !"e, &%'ll -'. t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t '"+ +e-!& t t%e '1!u"t !$ =800#00 $!, c!&t& 't t%e t 1e !$ t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e -et t !"# =,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ ' c!-. t%e,e!$ !" t%e l!*e, c!u,t c!"ce,"e+ '"+ !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t. &%'ll (e &u(1 tte+ t!3et%e, * t% t%e -et t !"# Sec# 6# C!"te"t& !$ -et t !"# T%e -et t !" &%'ll (e $ le+ " e 3%tee" (18) c!- e&, * t% t%e !, 3 "'l c!-. "te"+e+ $!, t%e c!u,t (e "3 "+ c'te+ '& &uc% (. t%e -et t !"e,, '"+ &%'ll (') &t'te t%e $ull "'1e !$ t%e '--e'l "3 -',t. '& t%e -et t !"e, '"+ t%e '+0e,&e -',t. '& ,e&-!"+e"t, * t%!ut 1-le'+ "3 t%e l!*e, c!u,t& !, 5u+3e& t%e,e!$ e t%e, '& -et t !"e,& !, ,e&-!"+e"t&: (() "+ c'te t%e 1'te, 'l +'te& &%!* "3 *%e" "!t ce !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" &u(5ect t%e,e!$ *'& ,ece 0e+, *%e" ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !,
41

like conflicting findings of fact, conclusion is grounded entirel" on s!eculation, etc

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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am+dg

,ec!"& +e,'t !", $ '"., *'& $ le+ '"+ *%e" "!t ce !$ t%e +e" 'l t%e,e!$ *'& ,ece 0e+: (c) &et $!,t% c!"c &el. ' &t'te1e"t !$ t%e 1'tte,& "0!l0e+, '"+ t%e ,e'&!"& !, ',3u1e"t& ,el e+ !" $!, t%e 'll!*'"ce !$ t%e -et t !": (+) (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. ' cle',l. le3 (le +u-l c'te !, 3 "'l, !, ' ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" ce,t $ e+ (. t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t !$ t%e c!u,t ' Au! '"+ t%e ,eAu & te "u1(e, !$ -l' " c!- e& t%e,e!$, '"+ &uc% 1'te, 'l -!,t !"& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ '& *!ul+ &u--!,t t%e -et t !": '"+ (e) c!"t' " ' &*!," ce,t $ c't !" '3' "&t $!,u1 &%!-- "3 '& -,!0 +e+ " t%e l'&t -','3,'-% !$ &ect !" 2, Rule 62# Sec# 8# D &1 &&'l !, +e" 'l !$ -et t !"# T%e $' lu,e !$ t%e -et t !"e, t! c!1-l. * t% '". !$ t%e $!,e3! "3 ,eAu ,e1e"t& ,e3',+ "3 t%e -'.1e"t !$ t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee&, +e-!& t $!, c!&t&, -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !$ t%e -et t !", '"+ t%e c!"te"t& !$ '"+ t%e +!cu1e"t& *% c% &%!ul+ 'cc!1-'". t%e -et t !" &%'ll (e &u$$ c e"t 3,!u"+ $!, t%e + &1 &&'l t%e,e!$# T%e Su-,e1e C!u,t 1'. !" t& !*" " t 't 0e +e". t%e -et t !" !" t%e 3,!u"+ t%'t t%e '--e'l & * t%!ut 1e, t, !, & -,!&ecute+ 1'" $e&tl. $!, +el'., !, t%'t t%e Aue&t !"& ,' &e+ t%e,e " ',e t!! u"&u(&t'"t 'l t! ,eAu ,e c!"& +e,'t !"# Sec# 9# Re0 e* + &c,et !"',.# A ,e0 e* & "!t ' 1'tte, !$ , 3%t, (ut !$ &!u"+ 5u+ c 'l + &c,et !", '"+ * ll (e 3,'"te+ !"l. *%e" t%e,e ',e &-ec 'l '"+ 1-!,t'"t ,e'&!"& t%e,e$!,# T%e $!ll!* "3, *% le "e t%e, c!"t,!ll "3 "!, $ull. 1e'&u, "3 t%e c!u,tG& + &c,et !", "+ c'te t%e c%','cte, !$ t%e ,e'&!"& *% c% * ll (e c!"& +e,e+; (') <%e" t%e c!u,t ' Au! %'& +ec +e+ ' Aue&t !" !$ &u(&t'"ce, "!t t%e,et!$!,e +ete,1 "e+ (. t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t, !, %'& +ec +e+ t " ' *'. -,!('(l. "!t " 'cc!,+ * t% l'* !, * t% t%e '--l c'(le +ec & !"& !$ t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t: !, (() <%e" t%e c!u,t ' Au! %'& &! $', +e-',te+ $,!1 t%e 'cce-te+ '"+ u&u'l c!u,&e !$ 5u+ c 'l -,!cee+ "3&, !, &! $', &'"ct !"e+ &uc% +e-',tu,e (. ' l!*e, c!u,t, '& t! c'll $!, '" e/e,c &e !$ t%e -!*e, !$ &u-e,0 & !"#

A review is 16" a matter o% rig(t- )ut o% =udicial discretion* Jill only )e granted i% t(ere are special and important reasons t(ere%ore*

Sec# 7# =le'+ "3& '"+ +!cu1e"t& t%'t 1'. (e ,eAu ,e+: &'"ct !"&# F!, -u,-!&e& !$ +ete,1 " "3 *%et%e, t%e -et t !" &%!ul+ (e + &1 &&e+ !, +e" e+ -u,&u'"t t! &ect !" 8 !$ t% & Rule, !, *%e,e t%e -et t !" & 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e u"+e, &ect !" 8 %e,e!$, t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t 1'. ,eAu ,e !, 'll!* t%e $ l "3 !$ &uc% -le'+ "3&, (, e$&, 1e1!,'"+' !, +!cu1e"t& '& t 1'. +ee1 "ece&&',. * t% " &uc% -e, !+& '"+ u"+e, &uc% c!"+ t !"& '& t 1'. c!"& +e, '--,!-, 'te, '"+ 1-!&e t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 &'"ct !"& " c'&e !$ "!"-$ l "3 !, u"'ut%!, 7e+ $ l "3 !$ &uc% -le'+ "3& '"+ +!cu1e"t& !, "!"-c!1-l '"ce * t% t%e c!"+ t !"& t%e,e$!,# Sec# 8# Due c!u,&e: ele0't !" !$ ,ec!,+&# I$ t%e -et t !" & 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e, t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t 1'. ,eAu ,e t%e ele0't !" !$ t%e c!1-lete ,ec!,+ !$ t%e c'&e !, &-ec $ e+ -',t& t%e,e!$ * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce# Sec# B# Rule '--l c'(le t! (!t% c 0 l '"+ c, 1 "'l c'&e&# T%e 1!+e !$ '--e'l -,e&c, (e+ " t% & Rule &%'ll (e '--l c'(le t! (!t% c 0 l '"+ c, 1 "'l c'&e&, e/ce-t " c, 1 "'l c'&e& *%e,e t%e -e"'lt. 1-!&e+ & +e't%, ,eclu& !" -e,-etu' !, l $e 1-, &!"1e"t# =ROCEDURE IN T@E COURT OF A==EALS RULE 69 ORIGINAL CASES Sect !" 1# T tle !$ c'&e&# I" 'll c'&e& !, 3 "'ll. $ le+ " t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, t%e -',t. "&t tut "3 t%e 'ct !" &%'ll (e c'lle+ t%e -et t !"e, '"+ t%e !--!& "3 -',t. t%e ,e&-!"+e"t# Sec# 2# T! *%'t 'ct !"& '--l c'(le# T% & Rule &%'ll '--l. t! !, 3 "'l 'ct !"& $!, ce,t !,', , -,!% ( t !", 1'"+'1u& '"+ Au! *',,'"t!# E/ce-t '& !t%e,* &e -,!0 +e+, t%e 'ct !"& $!, '""ul1e"t !$ 5u+31e"t &%'ll (e 3!0e,"e+ (. Rule 67, $!, ce,t !,', , -,!% ( t !" '"+ 1'"+'1u& (. Rule 98, '"+ $!, Au! *',,'"t! (. Rule 99#

"(e CA (as original =urisdiction over: o Rule C< cases against t(e R"C $concurrent wit( +C' o Da)eas corpus- (a)eas data- writ o% amparo- #uo warranto- Rule C< against lower courts $concurrent wit( +C and R"C' o Annulment o% =udgments o% R"C $e9clusive'

Sec# 2# C!"te"t& '"+ $ l "3 !$ -et t !": e$$ect !$ "!"-c!1-l '"ce * t% ,eAu ,e1e"t&# T%e -et t !" &%'ll c!"t' " t%e $ull "'1e& '"+ 'ctu'l '++,e&&e& !$ 'll t%e -et t !"e,& '"+ ,e&-!"+e"t&, ' Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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am+dg

c!"c &e &t'te1e"t !$ t%e 1'tte,& "0!l0e+, t%e $'ctu'l ('c)3,!u"+ !$ t%e c'&e, '"+ t%e 3,!u"+& ,el e+ u-!" $!, t%e ,el e$ -,'.e+ $!,# It &%'ll (e $ le+ " &e0e" (7) cle',l. le3 (le c!- e& t!3et%e, * t% -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce t%e,e!$ !" t%e ,e&-!"+e"t * t% t%e !, 3 "'l c!-. "te"+e+ $!, t%e c!u,t "+ c'te+ '& &uc% (. t%e -et t !"e,, '"+ &%'ll (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. ' cle',l. le3 (le +u-l c'te !, 3 "'l !, ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t, !,+e,, ,e&!lut !", !, ,ul "3 &u(5ect t%e,e!$, &uc% 1'te, 'l -!,t !"& !$ t%e ,ec!,+ '& ',e ,e$e,,e+ t! t%e,e ", '"+ !t%e, +!cu1e"t& ,ele0'"t !, -e,t "e"t t%e,et!# T%e ce,t $ c't !" &%'ll (e 'cc!1-l &%e+ (. t%e -,!-e, cle,) !$ c!u,t !, (. % & +ul. 'ut%!, 7e+ ,e-,e&e"t't 0e, !, (. t%e -,!-e, !$$ ce, !$ t%e c!u,t, t, (u"'l, '3e"c. !, !$$ ce "0!l0e+ !, (. % & +ul. 'ut%!, 7e+ ,e-,e&e"t't 0e# T%e !t%e, ,eAu & te "u1(e, !$ c!- e& !$ t%e -et t !" &%'ll (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. cle',l. le3 (le -l' " c!- e& !$ 'll +!cu1e"t& 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e !, 3 "'l# T%e -et t !"e, &%'ll 'l&! &u(1 t t!3et%e, * t% t%e -et t !" ' &*!," ce,t $ c't !" t%'t %e %'& "!t t%e,et!$!,e c!11e"ce+ '". !t%e, 'ct !" "0!l0 "3 t%e &'1e &&ue& " t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& !, + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"& t%e,e!$, !, '". !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c.: $ t%e,e & &uc% !t%e, 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3, %e 1u&t &t'te t%e &t'tu& !$ t%e &'1e: '"+ $ %e &%!ul+ t%e,e'$te, le'," t%'t ' & 1 l', 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3 %'& (ee" $ le+ !, & -e"+ "3 (e$!,e t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, !, + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"& t%e,e!$, !, '". !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c., %e u"+e,t')e& t! -,!1-tl. "$!,1 t%e '$!,e&' + c!u,t& '"+ !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c. t%e,e!$ * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& t%e,e$,!1# T%e -et t !"e, &%'ll -'. t%e c!,,e&-!"+ "3 +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& t! t%e cle,) !$ c!u,t '"+ +e-!& t t%e '1!u"t !$ =800#00 $!, c!&t& 't t%e t 1e !$ t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e -et t !"# T%e $' lu,e !$ t%e -et t !"e, t! c!1-l. * t% '". !$ t%e $!,e3! "3 ,eAu ,e1e"t& &%'ll (e &u$$ c e"t 3,!u"+ $!, t%e + &1 &&'l !$ t%e -et t !"# Sec# 6# Ju, &+ ct !" !0e, -e,&!" !$ ,e&-!"+e"t, %!* 'cAu ,e+# T%e c!u,t &%'ll 'cAu ,e 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e -e,&!" !$ t%e ,e&-!"+e"t (. t%e &e,0 ce !" % 1 !$ t& !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" "+ c't "3 t& " t 'l 'ct !" !" t%e -et t !" !, (. % & 0!lu"t',. &u(1 && !" t! &uc% 5u, &+ ct !"#

"(e CA ac#uires =urisdiction over t(e respondent )y: o +ervice on (im o% its orderIresolution $like Rule !G' "(ere must )e proper service o% t(e resolutionIorder- or else- no =d over t(e person* o Dis voluntary su)mission to suc( =d

Sec# 8# Act !" (. t%e c!u,t# T%e c!u,t 1'. + &1 && t%e -et t !" !ut, 3%t * t% &-ec $ c ,e'&!"& $!, &uc% + &1 &&'l !, ,eAu ,e t%e ,e&-!"+e"t t! $ le ' c!11e"t !" t%e &'1e * t% " te" (10) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce# O"l. -le'+ "3& ,eAu ,e+ (. t%e c!u,t &%'ll (e 'll!*e+# All !t%e, -le'+ "3& '"+ -'-e,& 1'. (e $ le+ !"l. * t% le'0e !$ c!u,t# Sec# 9# Dete,1 "'t !" !$ $'ctu'l &&ue&# <%e"e0e, "ece&&',. t! ,e&!l0e $'ctu'l &&ue&, t%e c!u,t t&el$ 1'. c!"+uct %e', "3& t%e,e!" !, +ele3'te t%e ,ece-t !" !$ t%e e0 +e"ce !" &uc% &&ue& t! '". !$ t& 1e1(e,& !, t! '" '--,!-, 'te c!u,t, '3e"c. !, !$$ ce#

As you can see- t(e CA can conduct (earings %or original cases* o It can also delegate t(e reception o% evidence to any o% its mem)ers or to an appropriate court- agency or o%%ice*

Sec# 7# E$$ect !$ $' lu,e t! $ le c!11e"t# <%e" "! c!11e"t & $ le+ (. '". !$ t%e ,e&-!"+e"t&, t%e c'&e 1'. (e +ec +e+ !" t%e ('& & !$ t%e ,ec!,+, * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! '". + &c -l "',. 'ct !" *% c% t%e c!u,t 1'. t')e '3' "&t t%e + &!(e+ e"t -',t.# RULE 68 =RELIMINARH CONFERENCE IN T@E CA Sect !" 1# =,el 1 "',. c!"$e,e"ce# At '". t 1e +u, "3 t%e -e"+e"c. !$ ' c'&e, t%e c!u,t 1'. c'll t%e -',t e& '"+ t%e , c!u"&el t! ' -,el 1 "',. c!"$e,e"ce; (') T! c!"& +e, t%e -!&& ( l t. !$ '" '1 c'(le &ettle1e"t, e/ce-t *%e" t%e c'&e & "!t 'll!*e+ (. l'* t! (e c!1-,!1 &e+: (() T! +e$ "e, & 1-l $. '"+ cl', $. t%e &&ue& $!, +ete,1 "'t !": (c) T! $!,1ul'te &t -ul't !"& !$ $'ct& '"+ '+1 && !"& !$ +!cu1e"t',. e/% ( t&, l 1 t t%e "u1(e, !$ * t"e&&e& t! (e -,e&e"te+ " c'&e& $'ll "3 * t% " t%e !, 3 "'l 5u, &+ ct !" !$ t%e c!u,t, !, t%!&e * t% " t& '--ell'te 5u, &+ ct !" *%e,e ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l & 3,'"te+ !" t%e 3,!u"+ !$ "e*l. + &c!0e,e+ e0 +e"ce: '"+ (+) T! t')e u- &uc% !t%e, l'tte,& *% c% 1'. ' + t%e c!u,t " t%e -,!1-t + &-!& t !" !$ t%e c'&e# Sec# 2# Rec!,+ !$ t%e c!"$e,e"ce# T%e -,!cee+ "3& 't &uc% c!"$e,e"ce &%'ll (e ,ec!,+e+ '"+, u-!" t%e c!"clu& !" t%e,e!$, ' ,e&!lut !" Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

12<

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am+dg

&%'ll (e &&ue+ e1(!+. "3 'll t%e 'ct !"& t')e" t%e,e ", t%e &t -ul't !"& '"+ '+1 && !"& 1'+e, '"+ t%e &&ue& +e$ "e+# Sec# 2# 4 "+ "3 e$$ect !$ t%e ,e&ult& !$ t%e c!"$e,e"ce# Su(5ect t! &uc% 1!+ $ c't !"& *% c% 1'. (e 1'+e t! -,e0e"t 1'" $e&t "5u&t ce, t%e ,e&!lut !" " t%e -,ece+ "3 &ect !" &%'ll c!"t,!l t%e &u(&eAue"t -,!cee+ "3& " t%e c'&e u"le&&, * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce t%e,e!$, '". -',t. &%'ll &'t &$'ct!, l. &%!* 0'l + c'u&e *%. t%e &'1e &%!ul+ "!t (e $!ll!*e+#

"(e CA can conduct preliminary con%erences in )ot( original cases and appealed cases* o In %act- it (as a super power to do so as it can conduct a preliminary con%erence A" A1> "IM? during t(e pendency o% a case* /ailure o% t(e appellant to appear will result to a dismissal o% t(e appeal* $Rule < '

RULE 6B ORAL ARGUMENT Sect !" 1# <%e" 'll!*e+# At t& !*" "&t'"ce !, u-!" 1!t !" !$ ' -',t., t%e c!u,t 1'. %e', t%e -',t e& " !,'l ',3u1e"t !" t%e 1e, t& !$ ' c'&e, !, !" '". 1'te, 'l "c +e"t " c!""ect !" t%e,e* t%# T%e !,'l ',3u1e"t &%'ll (e l 1 te+ t! &uc% 1'tte,& '& t%e c!u,t 1'. &-ec $. " t& !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !"# Sec# 2# C!"+uct !$ !,'l ',3u1e"t# U"le&& 'ut%!, 7e+ (. t%e c!u,t, !"l. !"e c!u"&el 1'. ',3ue $!, ' -',t.# T%e +u,'t !" 'll!*e+ $!, e'c% -',t., t%e &eAue"ce !$ t%e ',3u1e"t't !", '"+ 'll !t%e, ,el'te+ 1'tte,& &%'ll (e '& + ,ecte+ (. t%e c!u,t# Sec# 2# N! %e', "3 !, !,'l ',3u1e"t $!, M!t !"& &%'ll "!t (e &et $!, %e', "3 ',3u1e"t &%'ll (e 'll!*e+ " &u--!,t * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& $,!1 &e,0 ce, u-!" $!, ,e&!lut !"# 1!t !"&# '"+, u"le&& t%e c!u,t !t%e,* &e + ,ect&, "! %e', "3 !, !,'l t%e,e!$# T%e '+0e,&e -',t. 1'. $ le !(5ect !"& t! t%e 1!t !" t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ *% c% &uc% 1!t !" &%'ll (e +ee1e+ &u(1 tte+

6ral arguments are applica)le )ot( to original actions and appealed cases to t(e CA* $/eria' In t(e CA $and t(e +C'- no need %or (earing o% motions- unless directed ot(erwise* o Compare to "Cs w(ere it is mandatory %or motions o )e (eard*

RULE 80 DISMISSAL OF A==EAL Sect !" 1# G,!u"+& $!, + &1 &&'l !$ '--e'l# A" '--e'l 1'. (e + &1 &&e+ (. t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, !" t& !*" 1!t !" !, !" t%'t !$ t%e '--ellee, !" t%e $!ll!* "3 3,!u"+&; (') F' lu,e !$ t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l t! &%!* !" t& $'ce t%'t t%e '--e'l *'& t')e" * t% " t%e -e, !+ $ /e+ (. t%e&e Rule&: (() F' lu,e t! $ le t%e "!t ce !$ '--e'l !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l * t% " t%e -e, !+ -,e&c, (e+ (. t%e&e Rule&: (c) F' lu,e !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! -'. t%e +!c)et '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& '& -,!0 +e+ " &ect !" 6 !$ Rule 61: (+) U"'ut%!, 7e+ 'lte,'t !"&, !1 && !"& !, '++ t !"& " t%e '--,!0e+ ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l '& -,!0 +e+ " &ect !" 6 !$ Rule 66: (e) F' lu,e !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! &e,0e '"+ $ le t%e ,eAu ,e+ "u1(e, !$ c!- e& !$ % & (, e$ !, 1e1!,'"+u1 * t% " t%e t 1e -,!0 +e+ (. t%e&e Rule&: ($) A(&e"ce !$ &-ec $ c '&& 3"1e"t !$ e,,!,& " t%e '--ell'"tG& (, e$, !, !$ -'3e ,e$e,e"ce& t! t%e ,ec!,+ '& ,eAu ,e+ " &ect !" 12, -','3,'-%& ('), (c), (+) '"+ ($) !$ Rule 66: (3) F' lu,e !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! t')e t%e "ece&&',. &te-& $!, t%e c!,,ect !" !, c!1-let !" !$ t%e ,ec!,+ * t% " t%e t 1e l 1 te+ (. t%e c!u,t " t& !,+e,: (%) F' lu,e !$ t%e '--ell'"t t! '--e', 't t%e -,el 1 "',. c!"$e,e"ce u"+e, Rule 68 !, t! c!1-l. * t% !,+e,&, c ,cul',&, !, + ,ect 0e& !$ t%e c!u,t * t%!ut 5u&t $ '(le c'u&e: '"+ ( ) T%e $'ct t%'t t%e !,+e, !, 5u+31e"t '--e'le+ $,!1 & "!t '--e'l'(le#

"ake note o% t(e enumeration2 It is also not mandatory on t(e CA to dismiss- Rule is directory* 6t(er grounds aside %rom t(e enumeration: o Moot causes o /rivolous appeals $no =usticia)le #uestion- or so devoid o% merit on its %ace- or %iled )y a troll'

Sec# 2# D &1 &&'l !$ 1-,!-e, '--e'l t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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A" '--e'l u"+e, Rule 61 t')e" $,!1 t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& ,' & "3 !"l. Aue&t !"& !$ l'* &%'ll (e + &1 &&e+, &&ue& -u,el. !$ l'* "!t (e "3 ,e0 e*'(le (. &' + c!u,t# S 1 l',l., '" '--e'l (. "!t ce !$ '--e'l "&te'+ !$ (. -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* $,!1 t%e '--ell'te 5u+31e"t !$ ' Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t &%'ll (e + &1 &&e+# A" '--e'l e,,!"e!u&l. t')e" t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll "!t (e t,'"&$e,,e+ t! t%e '--,!-, 'te c!u,t (ut &%'ll (e + &1 &&e+ !ut, 3%t#

Intense small section t(at speaks magnitudes2 5on,t make t(e mistakes in t(e codal or else immediately dismissed2 o /iling Rule 4! on purely #uestions o% lawF 5ismissed* o /iling notice o% appeal w(en you s(ould (ave gone %or petition %or reviewF "(rown out t(e CA,s window* ?rroneous appeals will not even )e trans%erred to t(e appropriate court*

Sec# 2# < t%+,'*'l !$ '--e'l# A" '--e'l 1'. (e * t%+,'*" '& !$ , 3%t 't '". t 1e (e$!,e t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e '--elleeG& (, e$# T%e,e'$te,, t%e * t%+,'*'l 1'. (e 'll!*e+ " t%e + &c,et !" !$ t%e c!u,t#

Jit(drawal as a matter o% rig(t: )e%ore %iling o% t(e appellee,s )rie% Matter o% discretion: a%ter %iling o% appellee,s )rie%

RULE 81 JUDGMENT Sect !" 1# <%e" c'&e +ee1e+ &u(1 tte+ $!, 5u+31e"t# A c'&e &%'ll (e +ee1e+ &u(1 tte+ $!, 5u+31e"t; A# I" !,+ "',. '--e'l&#1) <%e,e "! %e', "3 !" t%e 1e, t& !$ t%e 1' " c'&e & %el+, u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e l'&t -le'+ "3, (, e$, !, 1e1!,'"+u1 ,eAu ,e+ (. t%e Rule& !, (. t%e c!u,t t&el$, !, t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ $!, t& $ l "3# 2) <%e,e &uc% ' %e', "3 & %el+, u-!" t& te,1 "'t !" !, u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e l'&t -le'+ "3 !, 1e1!,'"+u1 '& 1'. (e ,eAu ,e+ !, -e,1 tte+ t! (e $ le+ (. t%e c!u,t, !, t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ $!, t& $ l "3# 4# I" !, 3 "'l 'ct !"& '"+ -et t !"& $!, ,e0 e*#1) <%e,e "! c!11e"t & $ le+, u-!" t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ t! c!11e"t# 2) <%e,e "! %e', "3 & %el+, u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e l'&t -le'+ "3 ,eAu ,e+ !, -e,1 tte+ t! (e $ le+ (. t%e c!u,t, !, t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ $!, t& $ l "3# 2) <%e,e ' %e', "3 !" t%e 1e, t& !$ t%e 1' " c'&e & %el+, u-!" t& te,1 "'t !" !, u-!" t%e $ l "3 !$ t%e l'&t -le'+ "3 !, 1e1!,'"+u1 '& 1'. (e ,eAu ,e+ !, -e,1 tte+ t! (e $ le+ (. t%e c!u,t, !, t%e e/- ,'t !" !$ t%e -e, !+ $!, t& $ l "3# Sec# 2# 4. *%!1 ,e"+e,e+# T%e 5u+31e"t &%'ll (e ,e"+e,e+ (. t%e 1e1(e,& !$ t%e c!u,t *%! -',t c -'te+ " t%e +el (e,'t !" !" t%e 1e, t& !$ t%e c'&e (e$!,e t& '&& 3"1e"t t! ' 1e1(e, $!, t%e *, t "3 !$ t%e +ec & !"# Sec# 2# Fu!,u1 '"+ 0!t "3 " t%e c!u,t# T%e -',t c -'t !" !$ 'll t%,ee Ju&t ce& !$ ' + 0 & !" &%'ll (e "ece&&',. 't t%e +el (e,'t !" '"+ t%e u"'" 1!u& 0!te !$ t%e t%,ee Ju&t ce& &%'ll (e ,eAu ,e+ $!, t%e -,!"!u"ce1e"t !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !"# I$ t%e t%,ee Ju&t ce& +! "!t ,e'c% ' u"'" 1!u& 0!te, t%e cle,) &%'ll e"te, t%e 0!te& !$ t%e + &&e"t "3 Ju&t ce& " t%e ,ec!,+# T%e,e'$te,, t%e C%' ,1'" !$ t%e + 0 & !" &%'ll ,e$e, t%e c'&e, t!3et%e, * t% t%e 1 "ute& !$ t%e +el (e,'t !", t! t%e =,e& + "3 Ju&t ce *%! &%'ll +e& 3"'te t*! Ju&t ce& c%!&e" (. ,'$$le $,!1 '1!"3 'll t%e !t%e, 1e1(e,& !$ t%e c!u,t t! & t te1-!,', l. * t% t%e1, $!,1 "3 ' &-ec 'l + 0 & !" !$ $ 0e Ju&t ce&# T%e -',t c -'t !" !$ 'll t%e $ 0e 1e1(e,& !$ t%e &-ec 'l + 0 & !" &%'ll (e "ece&&',. $!, t%e +el (e,'t !" ,eAu ,e+ " &ect !" 2 !$ t% & Rule '"+ t%e c!"cu,,e"ce !$ ' 1'5!, t. !$ &uc% + 0 & !" &%'ll (e ,eAu ,e+ $!, t%e -,!"!u"ce1e"t !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !"# Sec# 6# D &-!& t !" !$ ' c'&e# T%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, " t%e e/e,c &e !$ t& '--ell'te 5u, &+ ct !", 1'. '$$ ,1, ,e0e,&e, !, 1!+ $. t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1, '"+ 1'. + ,ect ' "e* t, 'l !, $u,t%e, -,!cee+ "3& t! (e %'+# Sec# 8# F!,1 !$ +ec & !"# E0e,. +ec & !" !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" !$ t%e c!u,t " '--e'le+ c'&e& &%'ll cle',l. '"+ + &t "ctl. &t'te t%e $ "+ "3& !$ $'ct '"+ t%e c!"clu& !"& !$ l'* !" *% c% t & ('&e+, *% c% 1'. (e c!"t' "e+ " t%e +ec & !" !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" t&el$, !, '+!-te+ $,!1 t%!&e &et $!,t% " t%e +ec & !", !,+e,, !, ,e&!lut !" '--e'le+ $,!1# Sec# 9# @',1le&& e,,!,# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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N! e,,!, " e t%e, t%e '+1 && !" !, t%e e/clu& !" !$ e0 +e"ce '"+ "! e,,!, !, +e$ect " '". ,ul "3 !, !,+e, !, " '".t% "3 +!"e !, !1 tte+ (. t%e t, 'l c!u,t !, (. '". !$ t%e -',t e& & 3,!u"+ $!, 3,'"t "3 ' "e* t, 'l !, $!, &ett "3 '& +e, 1!+ $. "3, !, !t%e,* &e + &tu,( "3 ' 5u+31e"t !, !,+e,, u"le&& ,e$u&'l t! t')e &uc% 'ct !" '--e',& t! t%e c!u,t "c!"& &te"t * t% &u(&t'"t 'l 5u&t ce# T%e c!u,t 't e0e,. &t'3e !$ t%e -,!cee+ "3 1u&t + &,e3',+ '". e,,!, !, +e$ect *% c% +!e& "!t '$$ect t%e &u(&t'"t 'l , 3%t& !$ t%e -',t e&# Sec# 7# Ju+31e"t *%e,e t%e,e ',e &e0e,'l -',t e&# I" 'll 'ct !"& !, -,!cee+ "3&, '" '--e'le+ 5u+31e"t 1'. (e '$$ ,1e+ '& t! &!1e !$ t%e '--ell'"t&, '"+ ,e0e,&e+ '& t! !t%e,&, '"+ t%e c'&e &%'ll t%e,e'$te, (e -,!cee+e+ * t%, &! $', '& "ece&&',., '& $ &e-','te 'ct !"& %'+ (ee" (e3u" '"+ -,!&ecute+: '"+ e/ecut !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !$ '$$ ,1'"ce 1'. (e %'+ 'cc!,+ "3l., '"+ c!&t& 1'. (e '+5u+3e+ " &uc% c'&e&, '& t%e c!u,t &%'ll +ee1 -,!-e,# Sec# 8# Fue&t !"& t%'t 1'. (e +ec +e+# N! e,,!, *% c% +!e& "!t '$$ect t%e 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e &u(5ect 1'tte, !, t%e 0'l + t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t '--e'le+ $,!1 !, t%e -,!cee+ "3& t%e,e " * ll (e c!"& +e,e+ u"le&& &t'te+ " t%e '&& 3"1e"t !$ e,,!,&, !, cl!&el. ,el'te+ t! !, +e-e"+e"t !" '" '&& 3"e+ e,,!, '"+ -,!-e,l. ',3ue+ " t%e (, e$, &'0e '& t%e c!u,t 1'. -'&& u-!" -l' " e,,!,& '"+ cle, c'l e,,!,&# Sec# B# =,!1ul3't !" '"+ "!t ce !$ 5u+31e"t# A$te, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" '"+ + &&e"t "3 !, &e-','te !- " !"&, $ '"., ',e & 3"e+ (. t%e Ju&t ce& t') "3 -',t, t%e. &%'ll (e +el 0e,e+ $!, $ l "3 t! t%e cle,) *%! &%'ll "+ c'te t%e,e!" t%e +'te !$ -,!1ul3't !" '"+ c'u&e t,ue c!- e& t%e,e!$ t! (e &e,0e+ u-!" t%e -',t e& !, t%e , c!u"&el Sec# 10# E"t,. !$ 5u+31e"t& '"+ $ "'l ,e&!lut !"&# I$ "! '--e'l !, 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" & $ le+ * t% " t%e t 1e -,!0 +e+ " t%e&e Rule&, t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" &%'ll $!,t%* t% (e e"te,e+ (. t%e cle,) " t%e (!!) !$ e"t, e& !$ 5u+31e"t&# T%e +'te *%e" t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" (ec!1e& e/ecut!,. &%'ll (e +ee1e+ '& t%e +'te !$ t& e"t,.# T%e ,ec!,+ &%'ll c!"t' " t%e + &-!& t 0e -',t !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" '"+ &%'ll (e & 3"e+ (. t%e cle,), * t% ' ce,t $ c'te t%'t &uc% 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" %'& (ec!1e $ "'l '"+ e/ecut!,.# Sec# 11# E/ecut !" !$ 5u+31e"t# E/ce-t *%e,e t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !", !, ' -!,t !" t%e,e!$, & !,+e,e+ t! (e 11e+ 'tel. e/ecut!,., t%e 1!t !" $!, t& e/ecut !" 1'. !"l. (e $ le+ " t%e -,!-e, c!u,t '$te, t& e"t,.# I" !, 3 "'l 'ct !"& " t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, t& *, t !$ e/ecut !" &%'ll (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. ' ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e e"t,. !$ 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" '"+ '++,e&&e+ t! '". '--,!-, 'te !$$ ce, $!, t& e"$!,ce1e"t# I" '--e'le+ c'&e&, *%e,e t%e 1!t !" $!, e/ecut !" -e"+ "3 '--e'l & $ le+ " t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& 't ' t 1e t%'t t & " -!&&e&& !" !$ t%e !, 3 "'l ,ec!,+ !, t%e ,ec!,+ !" '--e'l, t%e ,e&!lut !" 3,'"t "3 &uc% 1!t !" &%'ll (e t,'"&1 tte+ t! t%e l!*e, c!u,t $,!1 *% c% t%e c'&e !, 3 "'te+, t!3et%e, * t% ' ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, t! (e e/ecute+, * t% ' + ,ect 0e $!, &uc% c!u,t !$ !, 3 " t! &&ue t%e -,!-e, *, t $!, t& e"$!,ce1e"t#

Rule <! talks o% =udgment rendered )y t(e CA* o /or t(ose o% t(e "C- go to Rule GC*

RULE 82 MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION Sect !" 1# =e, !+ $!, $ l "3# A -',t. 1'. $ le ' 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" * t% " $ $tee" (18) +'.& $,!1 "!t ce t%e,e!$, * t% -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !" t%e '+0e,&e -',t.# Sec# 2# Sec!"+ 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !"# N! &ec!"+ 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" (. t%e &'1e -',t. &%'ll (e e"te,t' "e+# Sec# 2# Re&!lut !" !$ 1!t !"# I" t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, ' 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" &%'ll (e ,e&!l0e+ * t% " " "et. (B0) +'.& $,!1 t%e +'te *%e" t%e c!u,t +ecl',e& t &u(1 tte+ $!, ,e&!lut !"# Sec# 6# St'. !$ e/ecut !"# T%e -e"+e"c. !$ ' 1!t !" $!, ,ec!"& +e,'t !" $ le+ !" t 1e '"+ (. t%e -,!-e, -',t. &%'ll &t'. t%e e/ecut !" !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !" &!u3%t t! (e ,ec!"& +e,e+ u"le&& t%e c!u,t, $!, 3!!+ ,e'&!"&, &%'ll !t%e,* &e + ,ect# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Can you %ile a MR in t(e CAF o >es2 Period: !< days 16 second MR2 o &rounds $same as t(ose in Rule GE in "C': 5amages awarded are e9cessive ?vidence insu%%icient to =usti%y t(e decision or %inal order 5ecision or %inal order is contrary to law It,s )asically t(e same as an MR in t(e "C e9cept %or two t(ings: o Period to resolve $8 in t(e CA- G in t(e "C' o Pendency o% t(e MR will +"A> t(e e9ecution o% t(e =udgment $unless ot(erwise directed )y t(e court'Q no similar provision in Rule GE

RULE 82 NE< TRIAL Sect !" 1# =e, !+ $!, $ l "3: 3,!u"+# At '". t 1e '$te, t%e '--e'l $,!1 t%e l!*e, c!u,t %'& (ee" -e,$ecte+ '"+ (e$!,e t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& l!&e& 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e c'&e, ' -',t. 1'. $ le ' 1!t !" $!, ' "e* t, 'l !" t%e 3,!u"+ !$ "e*l. + &c!0e,e+ e0 +e"ce *% c% c!ul+ "!t %'0e (ee" + &c!0e,e+ -, !, t! t%e t, 'l " t%e c!u,t (el!* (. t%e e/e,c &e !$ +ue + l 3e"ce '"+ *% c% & !$ &uc% ' c%','cte, '& *!ul+ -,!('(l. c%'"3e t%e ,e&ult# T%e 1!t !" &%'ll (e 'cc!1-'" e+ (. '$$ +'0 t& &%!* "3 t%e $'ct& c!"&t tut "3 t%e 3,!u"+& t%e,e$!, '"+ t%e "e*l. + &c!0e,e+ e0 +e"ce# Sec# 2# @e', "3 '"+ !,+e,# T%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll c!"& +e, t%e "e* e0 +e"ce t!3et%e, * t% t%'t '++uce+ 't t%e t, 'l (el!*, '"+ 1'. 3,'"t !, ,e$u&e ' "e* t, 'l, !, 1'. 1')e &uc% !,+e,, * t% "!t ce t! (!t% -',t e&, '& t! t%e t') "3 !$ $u,t%e, te&t 1!"., e t%e, !,'ll. " c!u,t, !, (. +e-!& t !"&, !, ,e"+e, &uc% !t%e, 5u+31e"t '& !u3%t t! (e ,e"+e,e+ u-!" &uc% te,1& '& t 1'. +ee1 5u&t# Sec# 2# Re&!lut !" !$ 1!t !"# I" t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l &%'ll (e ,e&!l0e+ * t% " " "et. (B0) +'.& $,!1 t%e +'te *%e" t%e c!u,t +ecl',e& t &u(1 tte+ $!, ,e&!lut !"# Sec# 6# =,!ce+u,e " "e* t, 'l# U"le&& t%e c!u,t !t%e,* &e + ,ect&, t%e -,!ce+u,e " t%e "e* t, 'l &%'ll (e t%e &'1e '& t%'t 3,'"te+ (. ' Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t#

Can you %ile a M1" in t(e CAF o >es- ot(erwise t(is Rule would )e useless* It,s )asically t(e same as t(e M1" in Rule GE e9cept %or t(ree t(ings: o Period o% resolution $8 days in CA- G days in "C' o Period to %ile: A1> "IM? in t(e CA as long as it (as =urisdictionQ reglementary period in t(e "C o &rounds: only newly discovered evidence in t(e CAQ newly discovered evidence and /AM? in t(e "C

RULE 86 INTERNAL 4USINESS Sect !" 1# D &t, (ut !" !$ c'&e& '1!"3 + 0 & !"&# All t%e c'&e& !$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll (e 'll!tte+ '1!"3 t%e + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"& t%e,e!$ $!, %e', "3 '"+ +ec & !"# T%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, & tt "3 e" ('"c, &%'ll 1')e -,!-e, !,+e,& !, ,ule& t! 3!0e," t%e 'll!t1e"t !$ c'&e& '1!"3 t%e + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"&, t%e c!"&t tut !" !$ &uc% + 0 & !"&, t%e ,e3ul', ,!t't !" !$ Ju&t ce& '1!"3 t%e1, t%e $ ll "3 !$ 0'c'"c e& !ccu,, "3 t%e,e ", '"+ !t%e, 1'tte,& ,el't "3 t! t%e (u& "e&& !$ t%e c!u,t: '"+ &uc% ,ule& &%'ll c!"t "ue " $!,ce u"t l ,e-e'le+ !, 'lte,e+ (. t !, (. t%e Su-e1e C!u,t# Sec# 2# Fu!,u1 !$ t%e C!u,t# A 1'5!, t. !$ t%e 'ctu'l 1e1(e,& !$ t%e c!u,t &%'ll c!"&t tute ' Au!,u1 $!, t& &e&& !" e" ('"c# T%,ee 1e1(e,& &%'ll c!"&t tute ' Au!,u1 $!, t& &e&& !"& !$ ' + 0 & !"# T%e '$$ ,1't 0e 0!te& !$ t%e 1'5!, t. !$ t%e 1e1(e,& -,e&e"t &%'ll (e "ece&&',. t! -'&& ' ,e&!lut !" !$ t%e c!u,t e" ('"c# T%e '$$ ,1't 0e 0!te& !$ t%,ee 1e1(e,& !$ ' + 0 & !" &%'ll (e "ece&&',. $!, t%e -,!"!u"ce1e"t !$ ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l ,e&!lut !", *% c% &%'ll (e ,e'c%e+ " c!"&ult't !" (e$!,e t%e *, t "3 !$ t%e !- " !" (. '". 1e1(e, !$ t%e + 0 & !"#

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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RULE 88 =U4LICATION OF JUDGMENTS AND FINAL RESOLUTION Sect !" 1# =u(l c't !"# T%e 5u+31e"t& '"+ $ "'l ,e&!lut !"& !$ t%e c!u,t &%'ll (e -u(l &%e+ " t%e O$$ c 'l G'7ette '"+ " t%e Re-!,t& !$$ c 'll. 'ut%!, 7e+ (. t%e c!u,t " t%e l'"3u'3e " *% c% t%e. %'0e (ee" !, 3 "'ll. *, tte", t!3et%e, * t% t%e &.ll'( t%e,e$!, -,e-',e+ (. t%e ,e-!,te, " c!"&ult't !" * t% t%e *, te,& t%e,e!$# Me1!,'"+' !$ 'll !t%e, 5u+31e"t& '"+ $ "'l ,e&!lut !"& "!t &! -u(l &%e+ &%'ll (e 1'+e (. t%e ,e-!,te, '"+ -u(l &%e+ " t%e O$$ c 'l G'7ette '"+ t%e 'ut%!, 7e+ ,e-!,t&# Sec# 2# =,e-','t !" !$ !- " !"& $!, -u(l c't !"# T%e ,e-!,te, &%'ll -,e-',e '"+ -u(l &% * t% e'c% ,e-!,te+ 5u+31e"t '"+ $ "'l ,e&!lut !" ' c!"c &e &."!-& & !$ t%e $'ct& "ece&&',. $!, ' cle', u"+e,&t'"+ "3 !$ t%e c'&e, t%e "'1e& !$ c!u"&el, t%e 1'te, 'l '"+ c!"t,!0e,te+ -! "t& "0!l0e+, t%e 'ut%!, t e& c te+ t%e,e ", '" ' &.ll'(u& *% c% &%'ll (e c!"$ "e+ t! -! "t& !$ l'*# Sec# 2# Ge"e,'l 1')e-u- !$ 0!lu1e&# T%e -u(l &%e+ +ec & !"& '"+ $ "'l ,e&!lut !"& !$ t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t &%'ll (e c'lle+ ?=% l -- "e Re-!,t&,? *% le t%!&e !$ t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll (e )"!*" '& t%e ?C!u,t !$ A--e'l& Re-!,t&#? E'c% 0!lu1e t%e,e!$ &%'ll c!"t' " ' t'(le !$ t%e c'&e& ,e-!,te+ '"+ t%e c'&e& c te+ " t%e !- " !"&, * t% ' c!1-lete 'l-%'(et c'l "+e/ !$ t%e &u(5ect 1'tte,& !$ t%e 0!lu1e# It &%'ll c!"& &t !$ "!t le&& t%'" &e0e" %u"+,e+ -'3e& -, "te+ u-!" 3!!+ -'-e,, *ell (!u"+ '"+ "u1(e,e+ c!"&ecut 0el. " t%e !,+e, !$ t%e 0!lu1e -u(l &%e+# RULE 89-A ORIGINAL CASES IN T@E SU=REME COURT Sect !" 1# O, 3 "'l c'&e& c!3" 7'(le# O"l. -et t !"& $!, ce,t !,', , -,!% ( t !", 1'"+'1u&, Au! *',,'"t!, %'(e'& c!,-u&, + &c -l "',. -,!cee+ "3 '3' "&t 1e1(e,& !$ t%e 5u+ c ',. '"+ 'tt!,"e.&, '"+ c'&e& '$$ect "3 '1('&&'+!,&, !t%e, -u(l c 1 " &te,& '"+ c!"&ul& 1'. (e $ le+ !, 3 "'ll. " t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t# Sec# 2# Rule& '--l c'(le# T%e -,!ce+u,e " !, 3 "'l c'&e& $!, ce,t !,', , -,!% ( t !", 1'"+'1u&, Au! *',,'"t! '"+ %'(e'& c!,-u& &%'ll (e " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e '--l c'(le -,!0 & !"& !$ t%e C!"&t tut !", l'*&, '"+ Rule& 69, 68, 6B, 81, 82 '"+ t% & Rule, &u(5ect t! t%e $!ll!* "3 -,!0 & !"&; ') All ,e$e,e"ce& " &' + Rule& t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll (e u"+e,&t!!+ t! 'l&! '--l. t! t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t: () T%e -!,t !"& !$ &&' + Rule& +e'l "3 &t, ctl. * t% '"+ &-ec $ c'll. "te"+e+ $!, '--e'le+ c'&e& " t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& &%'ll "!t (e '--l c'(le: '"+ c) E 3%tee" (18) cle',l. le3 (le c!- e& !$ t%e -et t !" &%'ll (e $ le+, t!3et%e, * t% -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce !" 'll '+0e,&e -',t e&# T%e -,!cee+ "3& $!, + &c -l "',. 'ct !" '3' "&t 1e1(e,& !$ t%e 5u+ c ',. &%'ll (e 3!0e,"e+ (. t%e l'*& '"+ Rule& -,e&c, (e+ t%e,e$!,, '"+ t%!&e '3' "&t 'tt!,"e.& (. Rule 12B-4, '& '1e"+e+#

J(at are t(e cases t(at can )e originally %iled in t(e +CF o Rule C< $Certiorari- pro(i)ition- mandamus' o Buo warranto o Da)eas corpus o Da)eas data o Jrit o% amparo o 5isciplinary proceeding against mem)ers o% t(e =udiciary and attorneys o Cases a%%ecting am)assadors- ot(er pu)lic ministers and consuls o Constitutionality o% a law- treaty- ordinance- ta9 imposition- ?6 "(e procedure in t(e +C )asically %ollows t(e procedure in t(e CA o Rule 4@ $Preliminary con%erence' o Rule 48 $6ral arguments' o Rule <! $=udgment' o Rule <2 $MR' Can +C conduct a M1"F o 1o- unless t(ey do so )ased on its e#uity =d Can t(e +C annul t(e =udgment o% t(e CAF o 1o- Rule <C makes no re%erence to Rule 4E*

RULE 89-4 A==EALED CASES IN T@E SU=REME COURT Sec# 2# M!+e !$ '--e'l# A" '--e'l t! t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t 1'. (e t')e" !"l. (. ' -et t !" $!, ,e0 e* !" ce,t !,', , e/ce-t " c, 1 "'l c'&e& *%e,e t%e -e"'lt. 1-!&e+ & +e't%, reclusion perpetua !, l $e 1-, &!"1e"t# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Sec# 6# =,!ce+u,e# T%e '--e'l &%'ll (e 3!0e,"e+ (. '"+ + &-!&e+ !$ " 'cc!,+'"ce * t% t%e '--l c'(le -,!0 & !"& !$ t%e c!"&t tut !", l'*&, Rule& 68, 68, Sect !"& 1, 2, '"+ 8 t! 11 !$ Rule 81, 82 '"+ t% & Rule# Sec# 8# G,!u"+& $!, + &1 &&'l !$ '--e'l# T%e '--e'l 1'. (e + &1 &&e+ motu proprio !, !" 1!t !" !$ t%e ,e&-!"+e"t !" t%e $!ll!* "3 3,!u"+&; (') F' lu,e t! t')e t%e '--e'l * t% " t%e ,e3le1e"t',. -e, !+: (() L'c) !$ 1e, t " t%e -et t !": (c) F' lu,e t! -'. t%e ,eAu & te +!c)et $ee '"+ !t%e, l'*$ul $ee& !, t! 1')e ' +e-!& t $!, c!&t&: (+) F' lu,e t! c!1-l. * t% t%e ,eAu ,e1e"t& ,e3',+ "3 -,!!$ !$ &e,0 ce '"+ c!"te"t& !$ '"+ t%e +!cu1e"t& *% c% &%!ul+ 'cc!1-'". t%e -et t !": (e) F' lu,e t! c!1-l. * t% '". c ,cul',, + ,ect 0e !, !,+e, !$ t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t * t%!ut 5u&t $ '(le c'u&e: ($) E,,!, " t%e c%! ce !, 1!+e !$ '--e'l: '"+ (3) T%e $'ct t%'t t%e c'&e & "!t '--e'l'(le t! t%e Su-,e1e c!u,t# Sec# 9# D &-!& t !" !$ 1-,!-e, '--e'l# E/ce-t '& -,!0 +e+ " Sect !" 2, Rule 122 ,e3',+ "3 '--e'l& " c, 1 "'l c'&e& *%e,e t%e -e"'lt. 1-!&e+ & +e't%, reclusion perpetua !, l $e 1-, &!"1e"t, '" '--e'l t')e" t! t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t (. "!t ce !$ '--e'l &%'ll (e + &1 &&e+# A" '--e'l (. ce,t !,', t')e" t! t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t $,!1 t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t &u(1 tt "3 &&ue& !$ $'ct 1'. (e ,e$e,,e+ t! t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& $!, +ec & !" !, '--,!-, 'te 'ct !"# T%e +ete,1 "'t !" !$ t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t !" *%et%e, !, "!t &&ue& !$ $'ct ',e "0!l0e+ &%'ll (e $ "'l# Sec# 7# =,!ce+u,e $ !- " !" & eAu'll. + 0 +e+# <%e,e t%e C!u,t en banc & eAu'll. + 0 +e+ " !- " !", !, t%e "ece&&',. 1'5!, t. c'""!t (e %'+, t%e c'&e &%'ll '3' " (e +el (e,'te+ !", '"+ $ '$te, &uc% +el (e,'t !" "! +ec & !" & ,e'c%e+, t%e !, 3 "'l 'ct !" c!11e"ce+ " t%e C!u,t &%'ll (e + &1 &&e+: " '--e'le+ c'&e&, t%e 5u+31e"t !, !,+e, '--e'le+ $,!1 &%'ll &t'"+ '$$ ,1e+: '"+ !" 'll "c +e"t'l 1'tte,&, t%e -et t !" !, 1!t !" &%'ll (e +e" e+#

/or appealed cases- t(e only mode is using Rule 4< $Petition %or Review on Ceritorari' Procedure %ollows: o Rule 4@ $Prelim Con%erence' o Rule <! $3udgment' o Rule <2 $MR' "ake note: no oral arguments in appealed cases

RULE 67 ANNULMENT OF JUDGMENTS OR FINAL ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS Sect !" 1# C!0e,'3e# T% & Rule &%'ll 3!0e," t%e '""ul1e"t (. t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& !$ 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,& '"+ ,e&!lut !"& " c 0 l 'ct !"& !$ Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t& $!, *% c% t%e !,+ "',. ,e1e+ e& !$ "e* t, 'l, '--e'l, -et t !" $!, ,el e$ !, !t%e, '--,!-, 'te ,e1e+ e& ',e "! l!"3e, '0' l'(le t%,!u3% "! $'ult !$ t%e -et t !"e,# Sec# 10# A""ul1e"t !$ 5u+31e"t& !, $ "'l !,+e,& !$ Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t&# A" 'ct !" t! '""ul ' 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !$ ' Mu" c -'l T, 'l C!u,t &%'ll (e $ le+ " t%e Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t %'0 "3 5u, &+ ct !" !0e, t%e $!,1e,# It &%'ll (e t,e'te+ '& '" !,+ "',. c 0 l 'ct !" '"+ &ect !"& 2, 2, 6, 7, 8 '"+ B !$ t% & Rule &%'ll (e '--l c'(le t%e,et!#

Annulment o% =udgments- etc can only )e done )y t(e CA $over t(e R"C' or t(e R"C $over t(e M"C'* o Rule <C o% t(e +C does not make any re%erence to Rule 4E* o Moreover- an R"C can,t annul anot(er R"C,s decision* $1ery v Leyson- 2 ' >ou always go to t(e (ig(er court to ask %or a PA3* "(e annulment is a last remedy* o It cannot )e resorted to i% t(e ordinary remedies o% M1"- appeal- or petition %or relie% or ot(er appropriate remedies are still availa)le- or are not availa)le t(roug( no %ault o% t(e petitioner* A petition %or annulment o% =udgment is only availa)le to decisions )y t(e R"C or t(e M"C* o It is not a remedy %or decisions o% #uasi0=udicial agencies* $Cole v CA- 2 - w(ic( involved a resolution o% t(e DL4R;'

Sec# 2# G,!u"+& $!, '""ul1e"t# Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

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T%e '""ul1e"t 1'. (e ('&e+ !"l. !" t%e 3,!u"+& !$ e/t, "& c $,'u+ '"+ l'c) !$ 5u, &+ ct !"# E/t, "& c $,'u+ &%'ll "!t (e ' 0'l + 3,!u"+ $ t *'& '0' le+ !$, !, c!ul+ %'0e (ee" '0' le+ !$, " ' 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l !, -et t !" $!, ,el e$# Sec# 2# =e, !+ $!, $ l "3 'ct !"# I$ ('&e+ !" e/t, "& c $,'u+, t%e 'ct !" 1u&t (e $ le+ * t% " $!u, (6) .e',& $,!1 t& + &c!0e,.: '"+ $ ('&e+ !" l'c) !$ 5u, &+ ct !", (e$!,e t & (',,e+ (. l'c%e& !, e&t!--el#

J(at are t(e groundsF o ?9trinsic %raud Jon,t )e availa)le i% availed o%- or could (ave )een availed o%- in a M1" or petition %or relie% Period: 4 years %rom its discovery o Lack o% =urisdiction $)ot( over +M and person' Dence- i% an indispensa)le party was not impleaded in a case w(ic( directly a%%ects (im- t(at party can %ile a petition o% annulment $6r)eta v Pendiong- 2 <- w(ic( was a case over real property w(erein t(e petitioner was a co0owner' Period: )e%ore it is )arred )y lac(es or estoppel

Sec# 6# F l "3 '"+ c!"te"t& !$ -et t !"# T%e 'ct !" &%'ll (e c!11e"ce+ (. $ l "3 ' 0e, $ e+ -et t !" 'lle3 "3 t%e,e " * t% -',t cul', t. t%e $'ct& '"+ t%e l'* ,el e+ u-!" $!, '""ul1e"t, '& *ell '& t%!&e &u--!,t "3 t%e -et t !"e,G& 3!!+ '"+ &u(&t'"t 'l c'u&e !$ 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e, '& t%e c'&e 1'. (e# T%e -et t !" &%'ll (e $ le+ " &e0e" (7) cle',l. le3 (le c!- e&, t!3et%e, * t% &u$$ c e"t c!- e& c!,,e&-!"+ "3 t! t%e "u1(e, !$ ,e&-!"+e"t&# A ce,t $ e+ t,ue c!-. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" &%'ll (e 'tt'c%e+ t! t%e !, 3 "'l c!-. !$ t%e -et t !" "te"+e+ $!, t%e c!u,t '"+ "+ c'te+ '& &uc% (. t%e -et t !"e,# T%e -et t !"e, &%'ll 'l&! &u(1 t t!3et%e, * t% t%e -et t !" '$$ +'0 t& !$ * t"e&&e& !, +!cu1e"t& &u--!,t "3 t%e c'u&e !$ 'ct !" !, +e$e"&e '"+ ' &*!," ce,t $ c't !" t%'t %e %'& "!t t%e,et!$!,e c!11e"ce+ '". !t%e, 'ct !" "0!l0 "3 t%e &'1e &&ue& " t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l& !, + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"& t%e,e!$, !, '". !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c.: $ t%e,e & &uc% !t%e, 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3, %e 1u&t &t'te t%e &t'tu& !$ t%e &'1e, '"+ $ %e &%!ul+ t%e,e'$te, le'," t%'t ' & 1 l', 'ct !" !, -,!cee+ "3 %'& (ee" $ le+ !, & -e"+ "3 (e$!,e t%e Su-,e1e C!u,t, t%e C!u,t !$ A--e'l&, !, + $$e,e"t + 0 & !"& t%e,e!$, !, '". !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c., %e u"+e,t')e& t! -,!1-tl. "$!,1 t%e '$!,e&' + c!u,t& '"+ !t%e, t, (u"'l !, '3e"c. t%e,e!$ * t% " $ 0e (8) +'.& t%e,e$,!1#

Petition %or annulment o% =udgment must )e :?RI/I?5- and o An a%%idavit o% M?RI" must also )e given* A permanent in=unction can serve as a PA3- )ut it must (ave t(e contents re#uired )y a PA3* $+alera v A0! Investors- 2 2'

Sec# 8# Act !" (. t%e c!u,t# S%!ul+ t%e c!u,t $ "+ "! &u(&t'"t 'l 1e, t " t%e -et t !", t%e &'1e 1'. (e + &1 &&e+ !ut, 3%t * t% &-ec $ c ,e'&!"& $!, &uc% + &1 &&'l# S%!ul+ -, 1' $'c e 1e, t (e $!u"+ " t%e -et t !", t%e &'1e &%'ll (e 3 0e" +ue c!u,&e '"+ &u11!"& &%'ll (e &e,0e+ !" t%e ,e&-!"+e"t# Sec# 9# =,!ce+u,e# T%e -,!ce+u,e " !,+ "',. c 0 l c'&e& &%'ll (e !(&e,0e+# S%!ul+ ' t, 'l (e "ece&&',., t%e ,ece-t !" !$ t%e e0 +e"ce 1'. (e ,e$e,,e+ t! ' 1e1(e, !$ t%e c!u,t !, ' 5u+3e !$ ' Re3 !"'l T, 'l C!u,t# Sec# 7# E$$ect !$ 5u+31e"t# A 5u+31e"t !$ '""ul1e"t &%'ll &et '& +e t%e Aue&t !"e+ 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" '"+ ,e"+e, t%e &'1e "ull '"+ 0! +, * t%!ut -,e5u+ ce t! t%e !, 3 "'l 'ct !" (e "3 ,e$ le+ " t%e -,!-e, c!u,t# @!*e0e,, *%e,e t%e 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" & &et '& +e !" t%e 3,!u"+ !$ e/t, "& c $,'u+, t%e c!u,t 1'. !" 1!t !" !,+e, t%e t, 'l c!u,t t! t,. t%e c'&e '& $ ' t 1el. 1!t !" $!, "e* t, 'l %'+ (ee" 3,'"te+ t%e,e "#

"(e CA $or R"C over t(e M"C' can 16": o resolve t(e merits o% t(e case or o su)stitute its own %indings* $Ceruila v 5elantar- 2 <' It will merely annul t(e #uestioned =udgment- order- resolution* "(at,s it* o It,s JI"D64" pre=udice and can )e re0%iled* I% t(e PA3 is granted )ased on e9trinsic %raud- t(e CA $or R"C over t(e M"C' can order t(e lower court to try t(e case as i% a timely M1" was granted*

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

134

Remedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

am+dg

Sec# 8# Su&-e"& !" !$ -,e&c, -t 0e -e, !+# T%e -,e&c, -t 0e -e, !+ $!, t%e ,e$ l "3 !$ t%e '$!,e&' + !, 3 "'l 'ct !" &%'ll (e +ee1e+ &u&-e"+e+ $,!1 t%e $ l "3 !$ &uc% !, 3 "'l 'ct !" u"t l t%e $ "'l t. !$ t%e 5u+31e"t !$ '""ul1e"t# @!*e0e,, t%e -,e&c, -t 0e -e, !+ &%'ll "!t (e &u&-e"+e+ *%e,e t%e e/t, "& c $,'u+ & 'tt, (ut'(le t! t%e -l' "t $$ " t%e !, 3 "'l 'ct !"# Sec# B# Rel e$ '0' l'(le# T%e 5u+31e"t !$ '""ul1e"t 1'. "clu+e t%e '*',+ !$ +'1'3e&, 'tt!,"e.G& $ee& '"+ !t%e, ,el e$# I$ t%e Aue&t !"e+ 5u+31e"t !, $ "'l !,+e, !, ,e&!lut !" %'+ 'l,e'+. (ee" e/ecute+, t%e c!u,t 1'. &&ue &uc% !,+e,& !$ ,e&t tut !" !, !t%e, ,el e$ '& 5u&t ce '"+ eAu t. 1'. *',,'"t u"+e, t%e c ,cu1&t'"ce&#

I% t(is reviewer (elped you in any way- please give to t(e ;lue Plate /eeding program* Pay it %orward2 ?nric( your soul- enric( t(e li%e o% anot(er2

Mickey Ingles 4C Ateneo Law 2 !2 Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

137