This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A SURVEY RESEARCH
SUBMITTED TO DR. CATALINA SALAZAR
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY PHILIPPINES ON OCTOBER 20, 2006 IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RQUIREMENTS IN EDRE101: EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND EVALUATION BY JENNY PAGUYO
Many thanks to my parents and family for their continued support, Dr. Catalina Salazar for the guidance and patience, Prof. Elenita Que for letting us use the computer during the ‘emergency’, Alma Griño and Gabriel Griño for the inspiration to pursue this research, Andrew and Victor; if it weren’t for your remarkable traits, I would not have been interested in ADHD, Krus na Ligas Elementary School teachers, and Mrs. Clara E. Rabulan, Krus na Ligas Elementary School Principal
It has been quite some time since the studies on Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder had begun, but despite the many discoveries about the disorder and its nature, a lot of people are still confused and unsure of what it really is. Due to the inadequate dissemination of information, the disorder
acquired a certain kind of stigma. There are four major points about awareness on Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder that the study covers namely, 1) the common misconceptions about ADHD that teachers have, 2) the level of awareness on ADHD of public school teachers 3) the necessity to reeducate the public school teachers on ADHD 4) the receptivity of public school teachers to the idea of making room for a child with ADHD in their class.
The following are the researchers’ hypotheses: 1) There is a significant level of misinformation about Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder among the elementary public school teachers in Quezon City thus the teachers hold many misconceptions about the disorder especially on the nature of the disorder as well as its causes. 2) Public schools nowadays are not updated on the new developments on the conditions that can affect student learning such as ADHD and most teachers have very little idea about ADHD.
3) There is a great necessity to reeducate the teachers and promote advocacy on ADHD as an initial step in eliminating the misconceptions and providing an appropriate learning environment for children with ADHD. 4) Most teachers are willing to learn more about ADHD, but they are hesitant to accept into the regular class a child with ADHD.
The researchers decided to gather information through survey method. The survey questionnaire includes a true or false test to determine the common misconceptions that public school teachers have on ADHD and a short essay type of questions to give the respondents a chance to explain their stand on the issues raised. The misconceptions are grouped according to the aspects of ADHD from which they are related. The groupings were as follows: I. II. III. IV. V. Definition of ADHD Causes of ADHD Defining characteristics of ADHD Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, and Teaching strategies for managing a child with ADHD.
Results are then tabulated and ranked according to the most number of correct answers and are used to formulate conclusions.
Title Acknowledgements Abstract List of Tables Chapter I Introduction Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitatons Chapter II Theoretical Framework Review of Related Literature Teachers and Schools Evolution of Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder Definition of ADHD Causes Common Traits of Children With ADHD Treatment and Medication Hypotheses Chapter III Methodology Respondents Research Design Method Chapter IV Presentation and Analysis of Data Data Presentation and Analysis Chapter V Summary, Implications, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary of Findings Conclusions Recommendations Bibliography
i ii iii vii
ix x xii
xv xxi xxiv xxvi xxviii xxxi xxxvi xxxviii xxxviii xxxviii xl
li li lii lv
Appendices A1 First draft of questionnaire A2 A3 A4 A5 Approved questionnaire Letter asking for permission to conduct a survey at Krus na Ligas Elementary School
lvii lx lxiii
Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder in Children (according to DSM-IV) lxiv Eight Principles on Managing ADD lxv
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4
ADHD Information Source Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Definition of ADHD Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Definition of ADHD Top Three Misconceptions Respondents Have About the Definition of ADHD Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Cause of ADHD Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Cause of ADHD Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Defining Characteristics of Children With ADHD Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Defining Characteristics of ADHD Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on Teaching Children ADHD Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False Regarding the Basic Teaching Strategies Used to Handle ADHD Distribution of Answers on the Teachers’ Attitudes Towards ADHD Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on ADHD in General
xl xli xlii xlii
Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12
xliii xliii xliv xlv xlv xlvi xlvi
xlvii xlviii xlviii
Table 13 Table 14
Chapter I Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Once in a fourth year high school class seven years ago, a Health Education teacher labeled two of her ‘naughty’ students ‘may ADD’. She even gave out the meaning of the acronym: Attention Deficit Disorder, explaining that children who are naughty are afflicted with ADHD. Since then, the students held on to the idea that ADHD indeed is an illness that makes people restless. Oftentimes, people associate the term with people who demand attention or what most Filipinos popularly call KSP (Kulang sa Pansin). Others call children who get into a lot of trouble in school as kids with ADHD. Soon enough, the term is already being used to signify stupidity, brain damage, retardation and abnormality. The most famous definition though is ‘hyperactive’. People with ADHD are hyperactive, so they say. While this may be true, the term seems to have
become overused without people really knowing what it is all about. Studies show that labeling can be damaging to children as much as lack of awareness on conditions that hamper learning. This prompted the researchers to conduct a
survey in one of the public schools in the city to assess how much the public school teachers know about ADHD. This study aims to determine if teachers are well-informed on the matter. It also aims to find out the misconceptions most teachers have about ADHD and if there is a great need for further information dissemination. It also attempts to gauge the receptivity of the teachers to the possibility of including a child with ADHD in their class. Unlike Autism or Hearing Impairment, Attention -Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is quite vague and difficult to understand. Aside from the fact that the
disorder is still in the process of being fully understood, the characteristics that are often used to describe children with ADHD looks like they are just describing a typical child who is always on the go. This leads to the most frequently asked questions on the definition Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder’ and how does it affect learning. The researchers though would like to know are the following: (1) What are the most common misconceptions that teachers have about it? (2) (3) How aware are they about this condition? Is there a need to educate the teachers on the basic techniques on handling children with ADHD? (4) How do most teachers in the public school nowadays feel about the possibility of having a child with ADHD join their class through inclusion?
Significance of the Study A lot of teachers these days, even parents, complain that children these days are very difficult to discipline and control, too active, too aggressive, unfocused or lazy. More often than not, the school gives hope up and these children are all grouped together and are labeled as the ‘slow-learners’, ‘delinquent’ or simply the ‘bad kids’ thus, overlooking their capabilities and potentials that are probably masked or hindered by something else called Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Due to the lack of awareness of teachers about the disorder, they fail to provide the students the instruction they need and they are also deprived of the chance to cultivate their ‘smart’ self. Soon, the students themselves believe that they are good-for-nothing fellows, feel a dislike for school and eventually drop out. Another grave implication of having limited or almost no knowledge about the disorder is that the disorder goes undiagnosed among these children. The teacher, having no idea that there exists a disorder that can probably explain the ‘unbelievable’ attitude of a child, cannot make the appropriate recommendations to the parents. In the end, the teacher, the parent and the child end up
frustrated. If they had known about its existence though, they could have been saved from a lot of heartache and headache. In some cases, children with ADHD are not allowed to attend the regular school system. Teachers and sometimes even the administrators feel that these children are meant to attend special schools. Because of this, most parents of children with ADHD especially those who cannot afford sending their children to a special school hide the fact that their children do have ADHD for they fear that the school will expel their sons or daughters. These resistances are frequently due to the misconceptions that school personnel have about the condition. With this study, though, the different misconceptions will be cleared. It shall attempt to find a way to make the teachers properly informed. The study will try to minimize if not totally remove the discrimination that many people have against ADHD. If teachers are made knowledgeable on this matter, information
dissemination to parents will be a lot easier. This can also encourage parents to open up to the teachers regarding the conditions of their child in case they were indeed diagnosed to be having ADHD. If there is a good collaboration between parents and teachers, handling the student with ADHD will be a lot easier. Aside from that, the child will be given the appropriate instruction so that he or she can bring out the best in him or her. The findings may also serve as a guide to the teachers when they are faced with students who are becoming quite a problem in class. The study will provide teaching strategies which they can use not only to motivate and handle students with ADHD but also those who are ‘hyperactive’ in general. Finally, the study will motivate teachers to gain more knowledge on the different teaching strategies that will encourage students with or without the exceptionality.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study The study focuses on the awareness of city public school teachers on Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder. Its main concern is to determine the misconceptions that teachers commonly have about what the condition is, its hall mark characteristics, causes, treatment and medication and appropriate teaching strategies. It shall also make an effort to quantify the level of awareness of teachers on ADHD. It is also concerned with the openness of teachers to the possibility of accepting a child with ADHD in his or her class considering the fact that most cases of ADHD can be mainstreamed or included in the regular class.
The study also includes the questions that lets the teachers express their feelings towards ADHD as well as the teaching strategies they have used when they handled a child with ADHD. The study is limited only to testing the level of awareness of teachers on ADHD. It does not cover the effects of the area of concentration of the The
respondents as well as the schools from where they graduated.
investigators also limited the research to the grade school teachers of only one city public school thus, it is not sufficient to represent the whole public school teacher population in the city. It does not seek to include the correlation between the teacher awareness and the learning outcomes of the students in the school.
Chapter II Theoretical Framework
Review of Related Literature Schools and Teachers
“As a parent, how much can I reasonably expect my child’s teacher to know about ADHD?” That was one of the many questions posted by a parent in Dr. Edward Hallowell’s book, Answers to Distraction. In response to that he wrote: “The safest assumption is that the teacher knows nothing. You should not expect the teacher to know anything about ADD1. ADD is not yet a common knowledge, nor is it knowledge that every teacher will have… Do not react with shock if you discover the teacher knows less than you’d like. “However, you can expect your child’s teacher to be willing to learn. Almost every teacher is willing to learn if you approach him or her with respect and trust… Just provide information and work out a plan that will serve your child through the school year…”2 One should acknowledge the fact that teachers and school play a big role in the life of a child with ADHD. Though teachers should NEVER take the
responsibility of making the diagnosis, they are the best persons to assess the child’s behavior and academic performance because they live day in and day out with the children. And when the child finally gets the professional help he or she needs, and is diagnosed, it is the teacher, in cooperation with the family and the child, who prepares and implements (in school) the structuring the child needs. Teachers also play a great role in having the child diagnosed in the first place. If she is well informed on ADHD, it would be a lot easier for her to notice the behavioral and learning patterns of the child and she would be able to suggest assessment for ADHD.
ADD and ADHD will be used interchangeably in this paper. Before APA renamed the disorder as ADHD, it was given an undifferentiated name of ADD where hyperactivity was considered a sub type. 2 Hallowell, Edward M. and Ratey, John J., Answers to Distraction. (US: Bantam Books, 1994), p.42
Dr. Hallowell fittingly subtitled the chapter three of his book “Making or Breaking the Spirit of the Child. Teachers and ADD.” True enough, the manner teachers would deal with every child, disabled or not, affects the child in more ways than one could ever imagine. Humiliation has a corrosive effect on the child’s view of himself. If carelessly handled, unnecessary, indirect emotional damage may occur. One mistake and it could shatter the child’s respect for himself, for the teacher, for the school and for learning. All the same, many teachers have an ‘attitude’ about ADHD. They can be quite, stubborn and ‘impossible’ to deal with. More often than not, they are quick to stand on the defensive side when parents try to discuss the matter with them. Consider the findings of Jenny Corbett (1991) in her study about teacher reaction to the proposed integration of a special education unit in the regular school. She cited some common reactions and some of those were as follows: 1. Totally impractical! 2. I disagree with the whole idea! 3. Fine with me! 4. I think a tremendous amount of thought has to be put into any integration considering the benefits/disadvantages to everyone. 5. I am very unsure about the idea. 6. We need more integration with normal nursery and primary schools.3 This can also be true in our country as it had been in London where the study was conducted. In fact, most schools often resist the idea of catering to
Jenny Corbett, “’Totally Impractical!’ Integrating ‘special care’ within a special school” in Learning For All 1. Curricula for Diversity in Education, ed. Tony Booth, Will Swann, Mary Masterton and Patricia Pots (Routledge, London: Chapman and Hall Inc.,1992), pp. 193-198.
students who were diagnosed of having ADHD most of the time, because other parents make the trouble. All these can be attributed to the lack of knowledge about the nature of ADHD and the many misconceptions that are fast spreading. The general mood that schools have on the issues of inclusion and mainstreaming, such as the aforementioned example, shows “caution reflecting a mixture of fear, lethargy, and lack of imagination, common resistance to change”4 and hostility. When Corbett had the opportunity talk to one of the staff, she found out that they had the wrong idea on ‘special care’. It turns out that it has gained a reputation of being synonymous to ‘enduring violent and difficult behaviors’. Clearly, ADHD has a deep social impact because not only does it affect the child but also everyone else within his or her environment thus, advocacy is very important. For an individual with ADHD to be understood, the people
around him or her should also know what is going on inside him or her. Dr. Hallowell (1994) would often say that telling the truth to the child and the school helps de-stigmatize ADHD and it can also imply that there is no reason to fear or to be ashamed of. Most children with ADHD are actually smart and physicians hardly recommend going to a special school. Hallowell (1994) stated that if the teacher knows the simple techniques in handling a child with ADHD and if the class size is reasonable, most children with ADHD can be managed in a mainstream classroom.
Jenny Corbett (1991)
Another current trend these days is inclusion where regular teachers and special education teachers as well as the parents are enjoined to work cooperatively within the regular classroom to provide instruction to all students, both non-disabled and disabled. These placement trends prove to be very effective as well. Here is one experience of a London school head teacher. “An adolescent girl arrived from another borough and her notes had not yet been forwarded. The head teacher placed the girl in the group which was appropriate for her age. Although she proved to be sometimes awkward and ill-tempered, the class teacher was able to cope. After a short period of settling-in, she started to develop rapidly, showing an interest in many tasks. It was only when her notes arrived some months later that the head teacher discovered that this girl had been in a special care unit of her previous school, where she had been regarded as a behavior problem.” Later on the head teacher concluded that once children have been labeled and segregated, the expectations which teachers had of them became diminished and their behavior was likely to be adversely influenced by other children with behavior problems in the special class.5 In the Philippines Title Two, Section 12 of the Magna Carta for Disabled Persons stated the following provisions regarding access to quality education: • The State shall ensure that disabled persons are provided with adequate access to quality education and ample opportunities to develop their skills
Jenny Corbett (1991)
It will be unlawful for any learning institution to deny a disabled person admission to any course it offers by reason of handicap or disability.
The State shall take into consideration the special requirements of disabled persons in the formulation of educational policies and programs.
Auxiliary services that will facilitate the learning process for disabled persons shall be provided
Section 1 Article IV (School Admission and Organization) of the Constitution also states that all schools shall admit children and youth with special needs-preschool, elementary, secondary and tertiary levels. Section 1 Article VI (Organizational Patterns) endorses various settings like integration, mainstreaming and Inclusion. Despite all these regulations, most teachers especially those in the regular schools still seem to be unprepared and skeptical about accomodating these kinds of students in their classes. It is quite understandable though because movements to have room for these learner types only came out just recently. Even specialists from the medical field admit that they have not yet done enough to clarify the diagnosis and educate parents and teachers. Needless to say, Philippines has always had budgetary deficits in education or so most people would claim. Nonetheless, schools should try to provide an ADHD-friendly environment to ease up dealing with children with the disorder. “In fact, it is inexpensive to equip a classroom so that it can be ADDfriendly. The main investment should be in teacher-education”, says Hallowell.
Most schools would shy away from the idea of setting up programs to cater ADHD because they think that it would cost too much money. What they do not realize is that the more they delay on acting upon it, the larger the price to pay for ultimate intervention becomes. Hallowell and Ratey outlined the basics of setting up an ADD program. 1. Find someone who is knowledgeable on the matter, someone who has set up this kind of program in another school and seen it work. 2. Educate the teachers about ADHD. Teach them the simple and practical means of handling ADHD in a mainstream classroom. These methods are not disruptive to other children; in fact, they help other children so everyone benefits. 3. The school may need to invest a little money in special equipment depending on what the administration and the consultant agree to use. Then again, Hallowell and Ratey
suggests that the best programs are ‘low-tech, high-personalattention’. Human warmth, skill and energy they say are
relatively cheap in education. Use them freely for they are the best “remedial tools” the school has. 4. Still, some children may have need of more help than what the mainstream school can provide therefore, in-house programs might still be necessary though not as much as it was before.
Provide budget for ongoing education. The field of ADHD is rapidly advancing and the school must keep abreast the developments if they want the program to be effective.
Form a staff and have a person in charge of the program to ensure that it works and meets its purpose.6
Evolution of Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder As Dr. Russell Barkley, Ph.D mentioned in his book Taking Charge of ADHD. The Complete, Authoritative Guide for Parents (1995), “ADHD is
probably the best studied of all psychological disorders of childhood.” Through out history, there have been a lot of researches and studies conducted to fully understand the condition and to find out what really causes the disorder. As early as 1800s, people have been trying to prove the relationship between nervous system diseases and ADHD. They observed that children recovering from
nervous system injuries exhibit ADHD-like symptoms. At the dawn of the 20th century, George Frederic Still, M.D. described “a group of twenty children who were defiant, excessively emotional, passionate, lawless, and spiteful and had little inhibitory volition.”7 Their troubling behaviors according to their life story had appeared before the age of eight. What Still found striking is that these children had been raised with ‘good enough’ parenting. Because of this, he concluded that there must be a biological basis for the unbounded behaviors that the children exhibited.
Hallowell, Edward M. and Ratey, John J., Answers to Distraction. (US: Bantam Books, 1994), pp.79-81 Hallowell, Edward M. and Ratey, John J. Driven to Distraction. Recognizing and Coping with ADHD from Childhood to Adulthood. (New York: Touchstone, 1994), 271.
In the 1934s, Eugene Kahn and Louis Cohen observed that the outbreak of encephalitis in 1917-1918 left several children victims with symptoms that are similar to those of hyperactive children and from this observation they concluded that hyperactive children are brain damaged. Later on, further research revealed that these children are not brain damaged so they changed the label to minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). In 1957, there was an attempt to establish the diagnostic category called hyperkinetic reaction or syndrome of childhood. They associated the syndrome to a dysfunction in a specific anatomical structure of the brain. Maurice Laufer in Psychosomatic Medicine identified the location to be at the thalamus. However, this hypothesis was never proven. During the 1960s, some researches tried to define hyperactivity as an environmental problem, blaming parents and the community for the development of ADHD behaviors. These years were humorously called the ‘mommy-bashing’ years. It wasn’t until 1980 that ADHD became a legitimate neurological disorder as affirmed by the American Psychological Association (APA). They established two diagnoses for the disorder. One was Attention Deficit WITH Hyperactivity and the other was Attention Deficit WITHOUT Hyperactivity. In 1987, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised (DSM-III-R) was published under which the sub typing of hyperactivity was eliminated. Instead, undifferentiated Attention Deficit Disorder
(ADD) became the diagnosis for children who displayed marked inattention but were neither impulsive nor hyperactive. Later on, the DSM-IV was published and the disorder was divided into three types-hyperactivity, Inattention and impulsivity. A copy of the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in children as set forth in the standard psychiatric manual is provided in the appendix. Due to the lack of biological evidence, some people contest the existence of the disorder. Thomas Armstrong (1995) for one, author of The Myth of the ADHD Child, stated “(The ADD phenomenon) is a recent historical development that represents a confluence of parent advocacy groups, legislative efforts, psychological studies, pharmaceutical advances and psychiatric endorsements. ADD isn’t an educational virus that’s been lurking in the brains of our children for centuries waiting for a chance to spring into action. Instead ADD is a construct that was essentially invented in the cognitive psychology laboratories of our nation’s (and Canada’s) universities and given life by the American Psychiatric Association, the US Department of Education, and the chemical laboratories of the world’s pharmaceutical corporations.”8
Another who formulated a hypothesis about the cause of ADHD is Thom Hartman. He hypothesized that individuals with ADHD were descendants of the hunters of the ancient times who roamed the wilderness killing prey and warding off danger. He said that children and adults with ADHD have inherited the fastmoving and impulsive characteristics of these hunters.
McEwan, Elaine K. The Principal’s Guide to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (US: Crown Press Inc, 1998), p.3.
Even in the United States, many teachers and parents were misinformed. This led Dr. Edward M. Hallowell, M.D. and Dr. John J. Ratey, M.D. to write the book “Answers to Distraction” in 1994 as a follow up to their previous book “Driven to Distraction” that same year. Here they compiled the most frequently asked questions about ADHD. Most of the questions are about the criteria for diagnosis, treatment and causes as well as strategies on how to handle the disorder. Definition of ADHD Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder, as it is now renamed, is defined by experts in the field as follows: “Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder of self-control. It consists of problems with attention span, impulse control, and activity level.” – Russell A. Barkley (1995) Barkley further added that ADHD is exhibited through the following eight points: 1. It arises early in child development 2. It clearly distinguishes these children from those who do not have the disorder 3. It is relatively pervasive or occurs across many different situations, though not necessarily all of them 4. It affects the child’s ability to function successfully in meeting the typical demands placed on children of that age 5. It is relatively persistent over time or development
6. It is not readily accounted for by purely environmental or social causes 7. It is related to abnormalities in brain functioning and development 8. It is associated with other biological factors that can affect brain functioning and development
Dr. Edward Hallowell (1994) would always explain to a child with ADHD, “The letters ADD stand for ‘attention deficit disorder.’ Having attention deficit disorder is like needing to wear glasses. It means you have trouble seeing life clearly. You have trouble paying Just as it can be attention. You may like to move around a lot, and this also makes it hard to pay attention to what is going on. annoying for people who wear glasses to have to put on their glasses, it can be annoying to have ADD. But there is nothing wrong with it. It doesn’t mean you are stupid or dumb. Not at all. In fact lots of really smart kids have ADD, just as lots of really smart kids wear glasses.”9 George J. DuPaul, Ph.D. (1994) stated that ADHD is not a disturbance in attention but instead it is a delay in the development of response inhibition which leads to the inefficiency in the neuropsychological dysfunction that inhibits responding. He further adds that ADHD is a “disorder in performance, not in skill;
Hallowell, Edward M. and Ratey, John J., Answers to Distraction. (US: Bantam Books, 1994), p.53
one of dysregulation, not of deficit; one of not doing what you know rather than of not knowing what to do.”10
Causes There are several theories on the causes of ADHD. One of the reasons looked at is heredity. Although it has not yet been proven, there is sufficient evidence that ADHD runs in the family. Doctors also look at the possibility of brain injury at birth as another reason for ADHD conditions. The words ‘at birth’ were highlighted because one factor that psychologists rule out when diagnosing ADHD is the fact that the hyperactivity should not be a secondary manifestation of another disorder or injury acquired due to accidents. In 1970 C. Kornetsky proposed that ADD is caused by an underproduction or underutilization of neurotransmitters as a result of his observations on the effect of Catecholamines on people with ADHD. This led to the conclusion that ADHD is caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. Like most theories
though, there was not enough evidence on the effect of the compounds to the alteration of neurotransmitters in the brain. In 1990, Alan Zametkin and his colleagues at the National Institutes of Mental Health attempted to demonstrate the biochemical process in the brain. He examined the activity of the brain in adults with and without ADHD by watching how the brain utilizes glucose during a continuous performing task. The tasks used were tests that have been designed to measure ones attention to
DuPaul, George J. Ph.D. and Stoner, Gary, Ph.D. ADHD in the Schools: Assessment and Intervention Strategies. USA: The Guilford Press, 1994.
stimuli. In his study, subjects are to indicate when they heard a particular set of tones using a push button apparatus that is hooked to a computer. The test was administered to twenty-five adults who were diagnosed to be having ADHD since childhood and were then biological parents of children with ADHD. The control group consists of adults who do not have ADHD but who shared the same demographic characteristics as themselves. PET, or positron emission tomography, was used to measure the rate of glucose consumption of the brains during the test. He found out in his study that there is a deficit in glucose uptake in the brains of the subjects with ADHD than of those who do not have ADHD. On an average, the ADHD group metabolized glucose at rates 8 percent lower than the control group. He also found out that reduced brain metabolism rate was more evident in the portion of the brain that is important for attention, handwriting, motor control and inhibition of responses. The PET scans indicating depressed frontal lobes are consistent with the claims of other researchers called functional neuroanatomy of ADHD. With these evidences, all environmental factors and psychological disorders are ruled out to be the cause of ADH.
Common Traits of Children with ADHD Most clinical professionals-physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists and others believe that there are three primary problems arising from ADHD. First are the difficulties in sustained attentions, another is impulse control and third is excessive activity. Others like Barkley included difficulties in following rules and
instructions and excessive variability in their responses to situations especially those involved at work. Difficulty in sustaining attention refers to problems with paying attention and concentration. Evidences of this characteristic are daydreaming, constant losing and misplacing things, failure to finish tasks, lost sense of direction, disorganization and confusion. They have trouble sticking to a task for as long as the others. Staying on activities that are repetitious and longer than usual is a constant struggle for them. Examples of these activities are lengthy household chores, uninteresting assignments such as those that involve research and a lot of writing, long lectures, lengthy reading assignments on topics that are not so interesting for them and finishing extended projects. Usually, children are able to bear a low stimulating task as they grow older. However, this is not the case with children with ADHD. According to Barkley (1995), children with ADHD will lag behind in this ability by as much as 30% or more. For example, a 10-year old boy with ADHD can have an attention span of a seven-year old. development. Studies though show that these children do not have problems with filtering information nor were they distractible. The only problem is their ability to sustain attention. They tend to look away from tasks more frequently than others and they are more readily drawn to activities that are more rewarding. This should not be confused with distractibility. Controlled experiments actually show that distractions do not seem to draw the children from their work. What really Many conflicts arise because of this delay in
happens when they drop an activity unfinished is that they easily get bored with or lose interest in their work much faster than the others. Children with ADHD also have difficulty in controlling impulses. They find it very difficult to wait for their turn or line up. When an anticipated activity is postponed they badger up the adults and the act can seem to be very selfcentered and demanding but actually, those behaviors surface because they have problems with holding back their initial response a situation. Another
classic example is when they blurt out answers or hit other playmates unintentionally thus given the character of being rude. They may act on
something else in the middle of doing another activity. They begin answering tests or exercises without reading the directions first. They are also loud talkers and without them noticing it, they can monopolize a conversation. Dr. Hallowell illustrated it this way. “… The ability to behave properly in our everyday lifr depends in part upon our ability to inhibit certain impulses. During the course of an average day we all have the impulse now and then to lash out at someone, either physically or verbally. Most people are able to inhibit that impulse. Their brains give them a millisecond of reflection before putting the impulse into action. If during that time to reflect the brain decides, “No, I had better not punch out this policeman who is giving me a ticket,” then the average brain will inhibit the impulse to punch. However, ADD often wipes out that millisecond of time to reflect. As the policeman reaches into his pocket to get his pad of tickets, the ADD fist hits his nose, and what had been a quiet day in Mudville becomes a catastrophe in the life of at least one of its citizens.”11
Hallowell, Edward M. and Ratey, John J., Answers to Distraction. (US: Bantam Books, 1994), p.31
One more remarkable manifestation of their impulsivity is their love for shortcuts. Children with ADHD are notorious for taking shortcuts in whatever they do. They always want to do less interesting tasks with the least effort with the shortest possible amount of time. Their impulsivity also shows up in greater risk taking thus exposing them to greater danger. It is not that they don’t care about what could happen instead, they fail to consider the consequences of a certain action. Lastly, they have a problem with too much behavior. They are often
‘squirmy, fidgety, restless’ and all the other synonymous adjectives one can ever think of. They do a lot of ‘unnecessary’ movements such as tapping of feet, drumming of fingers, pacing around or playing wit anything their hands could get hold of. Drs. Linda Porrino, Judith Rapoport, and their colleagues at the National Institute of Mental Health at Bethesda, Maryland conducted a study that measured the level of activity of these children and they found out that there is a significant difference in activity levels between boys with ADHD and those who do not even during sleep. Barkley, however, corrects the use of terms in this case. He stated that the term ‘hyperactive’ fails to explain the cause of the behavior. He said that these children don’t simply just move around, instead they behave too much meaning they tend to be more responsive to their environment than their nonADHD peers. He used the term hyperresponsive to describe them. Both
impulsivity and the hyperactivity are now seen as part of an underlying problem-
their being hyperresponsive or inability to inhibit behavior or response to the environment. Treatment and Medication One of the most publicized and hotly debated issues these days is the medication for ADHD. Numerous studies positively indicate that stimulant,
antidepressants and Clonidine can be of great help to people with ADHD. Understandably, there is great reluctance to try medication at the initial stage of treatment. Several factors cause the hesitation. For parents, they do not want to ‘drug’ their child. Adults on the other hand feel that they can get through the disorder without medical aid. Sometimes they feel embarrassed because they feel that they are sort of admitting a weakness once they try medication. Whatever the reason may be, one thing has to be kept in mind: one should never take any medication until he or she feels that he or she has learned all he or she needs to know about it and he or she feels comfortable with the course of treatment. (Hallowell) In the first place, one is never obliged to take medication especially when one does not fully understand the benefits and the risks involved. What too often happens though is that one decides against medication on the basis of hearsay, superstition, or gut feeling and not on scientific basis. For example, there have been rumors going around about the use of Ritalin saying that the drug makes the individual addicted and eventually crazy. The fact is, when used properly, Ritalin and all the other drugs are safe and effective.
Barkley with George J. DuPaul, Ph.D, and Anthony Costello, M.D. stated five myths about the medication of ADHD and refute each of them. Myth 1: Stimulant Drugs Are Dangerous and Should Not Be Taken by Any Child. Inaccurate media propaganda campaign against the use of
stimulants, particularly Ritalin (methylphenidate) during the 1980s caused a decline in the prescribing of this medication. However since 1990, the trends were reversed despite the controversy. Since then, physicians require the
parents to sign a consent form not because the drug is dangerous but because they feel the need to protect themselves from threats of malpractice lawsuits. The consent form contains up-to-date information on the possible side effects of the drug. As parents or individual seeking medication, it is your responsibility to read the information thoroughly and clarify matters that may seem confusing. Myth 2: Stimulants Just Cover Up “the Real Problem” and Do Not Deal Directly with the Root Cause of the Child’s ADHD. This is simply false. Stimulants deal directly with the underactive part of the brain, stimulates it thus, minimizing the behavioral symptoms of ADHD namely inattentiveness, impulsivity and restlessness. Myth 3: Stimulants Make Children “High” as Other Drugs Do and Are Addictive. While this may be true to adults, this is rare in children. So far, there has not been any report of drug dependence and an increased risk of abusing the drug when the children become teenagers. Myth 4: Stimulant Medication s Stunt Children’s Growth, and Their Use is Strictly Limited by Age. Studies in the early 70s suggest that stimulants
can affect their growth adversely but recent studies show that weight and height loss are very minimal during the early years of treatment. Any loss in weight and height are compensated during the later years of treatment. Myth 5: Stimulants Can be Used Only by Young Children. On the contrary, stimulants can be used until adulthood. The theory that stimulants are no longer effective during puberty is a fallacy and was never backed up by sufficient study.12 Why stimulants are effective can be explained in a single sentence: The areas of the brain that these stimulants activate are the areas responsible for inhibiting behavior and maintaining effort or attention to things. As Barkley puts it, “they increase the braking power of the brain over behavior.” Target symptoms or behaviors are inability to stay focused at work, impulsivity, difficulty in maintaining attention in a conversation, poor frustration tolerance, angry outbursts, mood swings, disorganization, tendency to worry than act, inner feeling of chaos, hopping from topic to topic and difficulty in prioritizing. When medication is effective, it helps the individual to become more focused and the negative behaviors are kept under control. This can bring about secondary effects like increased confidence and self-esteem. The three most common prescribed stimulants are Dexedrine (dampethamine), Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Cylert (pemoline). Definitely, there can be side effects upon using these drugs but through the course of study of many physicians, these occur minimally. Should any of the
Barkley, Russell Ph. D. Taking Charge of ADHD. The Complete and Authoritative Guide for Parents. (New York: The Guilford Press, 1995.) p.252-253.
side effects become bothersome, they will likely go away when medication stops. Some of the common side effects are Decrease in appetite, increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased brain electrical activity, insomnia and nervous tics. Antidepressants are also used in some cases. The common medicines prescribed are Norpramin or Pertofrane (desipramine), Tofranil (imipramine), Elavil (amitriptyline) and Prozac (fluoxentine). These drugs are prescribed
primarily to treat children with ADHD when they have not shown a good response to stimulants or has depression or anxiety with ADHD. Common side effects of antidepressants include slower heart rate and sometimes seizures or convulsions particularly to those children who have history of experiencing seizures or have had a serious head injury or some other neurological disorder. Minor physical effects such as drying of mouth, Drying of mouth can be
constipation and blurred vision can be manifested.
addressed by giving the child some sugar-free gum to chew. Adjusting the diet to fiber-rich foods can avoid constipation. Another type used to medicate ADHD is Clonidine, a drug used to treat high blood pressure in adults. When used with ADHD, it appears to minimize hyperactivity and impulsivity. However, most children using this medicine were seen to feel sedated and experience a feeling of tiredness or sleepiness. This usually lasts till the fourth week of the treatment. There can also be a mild drop in the child’s blood pressure. Some cases show that children experience
nausea, headaches, stomachaches and even vomiting. Doctors warn that the medicine should not be stopped abruptly if any of these side effects occur
because the child may experience sudden elevation of blood pressure, agitation and rapid and irregular heartbeat. A guideline for the facts that one should know before they agree to a certain kind of medication is stated below.
Figure 1 What to Ask the Physician about Medication
1. What are the effects, and side effects, both short-term and long-term, of this particular medication? 2. What doses shall be used, and by what schedule should they be given? 3. How often should you see my child for reevaluation while he or she is taking this medication? 4. When should the medicine be stopped briefly to see if it is still required for treatment of ADHD? 5. Are there foods, beverages, or other substances that my child should not consume while taking this medication because they will interfere with its effects in the body? 6. Will you be in contact with the school periodically to determine how my child is responding to the medication in that environment, or am I expected to do that? 7. If the child accidentally takes an overdose of the medication, what procedures should I follow? 8. Do you have a fact sheet about the medication that I can have to read? Note: the questions were stated assuming that the parent is the one asking
Reference: Barkley, Russell Ph. D. Taking Charge of ADHD. The Complete and Authoritative Guide for Parents. p.250
The related literature and studies included in this research were selected on the basis of their significance as grounds to refute the misconceptions that teachers have about ADHD nowadays. These will also serve as the framework of the recommendations that will be cited. Also, the concepts on sufficient information dissemination and teacher awareness as reflected in the works of Hallowell and Ratey and Corbett revealed insights that are related to the present researchers’ study.
Hypotheses The researchers have the following hypotheses: 1. There is a significant level of misinformation and
misconception about Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder among the elementary public school teachers in Quezon City especially on the nature of the disorder as well as its causes. 2. Public schools nowadays are not updated on the new developments on the conditions that can affect student learning such as ADHD. 3. There is a great necessity to reeducate the teachers and promote advocacy on ADHD in order to clear up the misconceptions and be able to provide an appropriate environment for children with ADHD. 4. Most teachers welcome the idea of learning more about ADHD although they are quite reluctant when possibility of mainstreaming or including children with ADHD in their classes is brought up.
Chapter III Methodology
Respondents The respondents of the study were the elementary teachers of Krus na Ligas Elementary School in Quezon City. There were fifty (50) regular teachers employed this year in the school. Research Design
The research is conducted to test the level of awareness of public school teachers about ADHD. It is also designed to determine the misconceptions that teachers have nowadays as well as their willingness to accept a child with ADHD in their class and to learn more about ADHD. Method Survey was used to gather data. A list of misconceptions clustered
according to the different aspects of ADHD such as definition, causes, defining character traits, diagnosis and treatment and teaching strategies was given to the respondents of which they shall classify whether true or false. Six questions to be answered subjectively were also included. These will determine the teachers’ attitude towards ADHD.
Chapter IV Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Data Presentation and Analysis The following are the results of the conducted survey. All in all, there were 24 teachers out of the 50 employed ones answered the questionnaire.
Table 1 shows the different media from which one may have heard a thing or two about ADHD. The respondents were allowed to mark all items that apply to them thus, the total responses does not amount to 24.
ADHD INFORMATION SOURCE Table 1 Source Television Personal experience Magazines Friends Seminar Total Responses 13 13 8 8 6 Source College classroom discussion Radio Books Doctor Others (observation) Total responses 6 5 5 4 1
The media is already arranged in order from the most frequently used to the least used source. Based on the data, television and experience contributes the most to the conceptualization of ADHD among the teachers. College
classroom discussion and books, items of which are most credible sources of information on this matter belong to the lower half of the list. The succeeding tables will tackle the different misconceptions that teachers may have about ADHD. The statements all through out the survey are false, therefore, the more ‘false’ answers, the more aware are the teachers of ADHD. The mean and median for every cluster of misconceptions are already calculated. Table 2 presents the first group of misconceptions. The items on this cluster focus on how most people who are misinformed about the disorder may define ADHD.
Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Definition of ADHD Table 2
Statement illness that
True has a life-long 17 3 17 20
False 5 19 6 3 14 5 21 15 88
No Answer 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 15
implications 2. ADHD does not exist in adults. 3. ADHD makes children incapable of paying attention that is why it is called attention deficit disorder.. 4. ADHD is classified as a learning disability. 5. Having ADHD means being a slow learner or
8 retarded. 6. ADHD is a curable disease. 17 7. ADHD is contagious. 1 8. ADHD is a form of insanity* 5 TOTAL 88 *one of the respondents marked both true and false boxes in this item Mean = 11 Median = 10
From the above data, it is evident that the teachers are considerably misinformed about the nature of ADHD. It shows that only 46% of the total respondents (based on the calculated mean) possess a relatively accurate knowledge about what ADHD is. A look at Table 3 below shows the top three items that the respondents know most to be false about ADHD.
Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Definition of ADHD Table 3 Rank Statement 1 ADHD is contagious. 2 ADHD does not exist in adults. 3 ADHD is a form of insanity Mean = 18.33 Correct Answers 21 19 15
It appears from the above results that about 75% of the teachers are aware of the fact that ADHD is not a disease or a psychiatric disorder that only
children can have. However, there is still a considerable number of respondents who have misconceptions as shown in the table below.
Top Three Misconceptions Respondents Have About the Definition of ADHD Table 4 Statement ADHD is classified as a learning disability ADHD is an illness that have life-long implications ADHD makes children incapable of paying 2 attention that is why it is called attention deficit disorder. ADHD is a curable disease Having ADHD means being a slow learner or 3 retarded. Mean = 15.8 Rank 1 Total Answers 20
From the above information, it shows that an average of 16 out of 24 teachers or 66% of the total respondents have incorrect ideas about ADHD.
Table 5 presents the misconceptions most people have regarding the cause of ADHD.
Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Cause of ADHD Table 5 Statement True False No Answer 9. Poor parenting causes ADHD 16 8 0 10. Family stress cause ADHD 16 7 1 11. ADHD is caused by poor instruction. 13 10 1 12. High sugar, food coloring, additives etc. intake 12 11 1 and elevated lead levels can cause ADHD. 13. Brain injury causes ADHD. 14 6 4 14. ADHD is not hereditary. 15 7 2 15. Sociological problems can bring about ADHD 19 4 1 16. Psychological problems trigger ADHD 19 4 1 17. Smoking during pregnancy causes ADHD 18 5 1 18. Drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy 19 4 1 can cause ADHD TOTAL 161 66 13 Mean = 6.6 Median = 6.5
The results shown in the table indicates that only 27.5% are considerably well informed on what and what does NOT cause ADHD. It is also evident that the respondents place the blame on substance abuse and environmental factors. 79% of respondents also believe that ADHD is caused by psychological problems. Table 6 below will exhibit the top three items that teachers know best to be false.
Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Cause of ADHD Table 6 Rank 1 Statement High sugar, food coloring, additives etc. intake and elevated Correct Answers 11 10 8
lead levels can cause ADHD. 2 ADHD is caused by poor instruction. 3 Poor parenting causes ADHD Mean = 9.667
The results show that only 40.25% of the respondents know that food intake as well as external factors like teaching methods and parenting hardly causes ADHD. The next set of misconceptions shown in Table 7 covers the differing ideas on the characteristics of children with ADHD.
19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Defining Characteristics of Children With ADHD Table 7 Statement True False All children with ADHD are hyperactive 10 13 Someone with ADHD is hostile all the time 9 13 Children with ADHD can never excel 8 15 academically People with ADHD are unreliable 11 12 Children with ADHD are cry babies 5 17 Children with ADHD are naturally hard-headed 14 9 Students with ADHD are lazy 11 12
No Answer 1 2 1 1 2 1 1
26. People with ADHD cannot distinguish reality from fiction TOTAL Mean = 13.125 Median = 13
Based on the data presented above, it can be concluded that 55% of the respondents are conscious of the different characteristics that define a child with ADHD. Notice also that most teachers associate hard headedness with ADHD.
The top three correctly answered items are shown in Table 8.
Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Defining Characteristics of ADHD Table 8 Rank 1 2 3 Mean = 15.333 Statement Children with ADHD are cry babies Children with ADHD can never excel academically People with ADHD cannot distinguish reality from fiction Correct Answers 17 15 14
It appears therefore that teachers understand the fact that children with ADHD are very much like their non-ADHD peers and are able to excel academically under certain conditions. A look at Table 9 shows that teachers have a fair understanding on the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.
Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD Table 9 Statement True False No Answer 27. Teachers can diagnose ADHD 18 5 1 28. Children showing traits indicative of ADHD does 0 23 1 not need to be assessed and diagnosed
29. Psychiatrists are the only ones to diagnose an individual 30. Children with ADHD should take medicines** 31. There is no need for a second opinion regarding the diagnosis of the first examining doctor. TOTAL **one respondent answered ‘it depends’ Mean = 14.2 Median = 14
9 8 3 38
14 9 20 71
1 6 1 10
Notice respondents recognize the necessity of assessment and proper diagnosis as shown by their responses on items 28 and 31. Also, they prove to be misinformed about who should do the diagnosis. Like most people think, they majority of the sample feel that teachers are qualified to diagnose ADHD. Table 10 will show the top three correctly answered items.
Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False About the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD Table 10 Rank 1 2 3 Mean = 19 Statement Children showing traits indicative of ADHD does not need to be assessed and diagnosed There is no need for a second opinion regarding the diagnosis of the first examining doctor. Psychiatrists are the only ones to diagnose an individual Correct Answers 23 20 14
The next table, Table 11 will give an overview on how aware teachers are on the teaching techniques that work with students who have ADHD.
32. 33. 34. 35.
Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on Teaching Children ADHD Table 11 Statement True False No Answer Behavior modification schemes hardly work well 9 11 4 in managing children with ADHD. It is not fair to give a child with ADHD more time 6 15 3 in answering tests. Children with ADHD should always attend a 9 12 3 special school Inclusion should be practiced for students with 15 6 3
ADHD 36. Teachers should not be informed if the child has ADHD. 37. Children with ADHD should not be accepted in public schools 38. Students with ADHD should are always the be
3 6 8 1 57
20 16 12 20 112
1 2 4 3 23
mainstreamed 39. Detention and suspension punishments for children with ADHD. TOTAL Mean = 14 Median = 13.5
Based on the details above, it is very evident that the teachers are not well equipped with information regarding the different ways to handle students with ADHD. The group was also divided between whether to adopt inclusion or
mainstreaming programs to accommodate students with ADHD. Table 12 below summarizes the result to the top three correctly answered items.
Top Three Items Respondents Know to be False Regarding the Basic Teaching Strategies Used to Handle ADHD Table 12 Rank 1 2 3 Mean = 17 Statement Teachers should not be informed if the child has ADHD. Detention and suspension are the proper punishments for children with ADHD. Children with ADHD should not be accepted in public schools It is not fair to give a child with ADHD more time in answering tests. Correct Answers 20 16 15
The data shows that teachers acknowledge their need to be informed. It is also clear that they understand the ineffectiveness of traditional punishments in teaching children with ADHD.
The last part of the survey includes an essay type of test where the respondents are given the chance to elaborate on their answers as well as express how they really feel about the topic. Table 13 below summarizes the responsiveness of the teachers on the issues concerning ADHD.
Distribution of Answers on the Teachers’ Attitudes Towards ADHD Table 13 Question Yes No No Answer 40. Have you ever experienced teaching a child with 6 12 5 ADHD?*** 41. If no, would you accept a child with ADHD in your 6 3 1 class? 42. Would you rather be informed or not by the 16 0 2 parent if the has ADHD? 43. Do you think that public school teachers are well14 0 3 informed and fully aware on ADHD? ***a respondent answered ‘uncertain’ Total of positive answers: 36**** Mean = 12 Median = 14 **** item number 40 not included
The table above shows that very few of the respondents have had the opportunity to experience teaching a child with ADHD. Also, note that a number of respondents did not answer this part of the survey. On the other hand, 14 out of 24 respondents admitted that public school teachers are not well informed about ADHD. Some of them even wrote comments on the survey form that seminars and workshops should be conducted to keep them updated on these issues on education. Table 14 summarizes the results of the study.
Distribution of Answers on Misconceptions on ADHD in General Table 14 Sectiion I. Definition of ADHD II. Causes of ADHD III. Defining characteristics of ADHD IV. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD V. Teaching strategies for managing ADHD TOTAL Percent rate compared to the perfect score True 88 161 76 38 57 420 44.87% False 88 66 105 71 112 442 47.22% No Answer 15 13 11 10 23 72 7.69%
*****note that there were two answers that were not in the choices given
From the above data, it can be concluded that teachers are relatively at the borderline between being aware and unaware of the different aspects of ADHD however. Teachers consider 44.87% of the stated misconceptions to be true.
Chapter V Summary, Implications, Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary of Findings Based on the survey, the respondents believe 44.87% of the statements cited to be true. When the questions were segmented, it turns out that most of the misconceptions are about the causes of ADHD. statements were believed to be false. Only 27.5 % of the
Most of the respondents believe that
substance abuse and sociological factors cause ADHD. On the other hand, two sections of the survey have the highest means of 14.2 and 14- teaching strategies and diagnosis and treatment, respectively. A significant percentage of (58%) the respondents acknowledge their lack of information about the disorder and they themselves suggested that seminars and workshops should be conducted. However, only 6 out of the 24 respondents expressed the willingness to include a child with ADHD in the regular class while 6 others did not answer the last part of the survey.
Conclusions The results of the survey conducted at Krus na Ligas Elementary School shows that public school teachers have a lot of misconceptions about Attention-
Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder because more than half of the sample believe that most of the statements that were presented to them are true for ADHD. Most of them believe that ADHD is a curable illness that can be managed with proper medication. A number of teachers still consider external factors to be causes of ADHD. The average respondents who are considered aware of the fallacy of the presented statements in every section of the survey are low and almost always in the middle-significant enough to conclude that majority of the sample are still unaware or misinformed about ADHD. Considering the fact that there is a significant level of misinformation among the teachers, reeducation is very necessary to provide teachers a clear view of what ADHD really is all about. Acquisition of accurate and up to date knowledge on ADHD is the only way to straighten up the wrong ideas that the teachers believe in.
Recommendations Based on the results of the study, the researchers propose the following: 1) Inform and educate the teachers and the rest of the school about ADHD. It is understandable that many teachers are not yet familiar with the disorder but this should be addressed accordingly sooner or later. There is greater risk in the school and teaching personnel not knowing what ADHD is. Only when everyone is aware of it can they participate in providing quality education to children both with or without ADHD.
Educating the teachers may include conduction of seminars and workshops for the faculty and staff of the school. It is a good idea to coordinate with parent groups and professionals who advocate ADHD.
Books are also the best sources of reliable information. Take time to read. Television and all the other ‘modern’ media indeed make it easy for individuals to gain access to a myriad of information but one should also be careful about what one sees and hears. Be critical of the sources of the information you receive. Believe only those that are scientifically proven and those that are supported by research
Establish an ADHD program in the school. It may cost the school quite a sum of money to make a school ADHD-friendly but compared to the damages that disregarding the disorder can create as well as the remediation costs when remediation becomes necessary, it is
It will also save the people concerned (i.e.
teachers and parents) a lot a agony and frustration.
Educate the parents.
Problems arise when one party does not
cooperate. It is essential to educate the parents so that the measures implemented in school can be implemented at home as well thus reinforcing whatever the school tries to teach the child. Consistency is important.
Educate the students. Take time to explain what the disorder is so that when the need to accommodate a child with ADHD in the class comes, everyone is psychologically prepared consequently minimizing the probability of trouble occurrence.
Advocate, Do NOT Discriminate. Teaching in a public school can be very stressful and sometimes teachers do flare up easily when confronted with ‘naughty’ students. Instead of lashing out at them, try to devise a way to calm yourself down.
Conduct studies on the advantages and disadvantages of having an ADHD Program in your school once the program is set up. Research also on the new developments on ADHD and the adaptation of new trends in education into your school program.
Barkley, Russell, PhD. Taking Charge of ADHD. The Complete, Authoritative Guide For Parents. New York: The Guilford Press, 1995. Booth, Tony, ed. Learning For All 1. Curricula for Diversity in Education. Routledge, London: Chapman and Hall Inc.,1992. Boyles, Nancy, M.Ed., and Contadino, Darlene, M.S.W. Parenting a Child With ADHD. USA: 1999. DuPaul, George J. Ph.D., and Stoner, Gary, Ph.D. ADHD in the Schools: Assessment and Intervention Strategies. USA: The Guilford Press, 1994. Guyer, Barbara P., ed. ADHD Achieving Success in School and in Life. USA: Allyn and Beacon, A Pearson Education Company, 2000. Hallowell, Edward M., MD and Ratey, John J., MD. Driven to Distraction. Recognizing and Coping with ADHD from Childhood to Adulthood. New York: Touchstone, 1994. Hallowell, Edward M., MD and Ratey, John J., MD. Answers to Distraction. USA: Bantam Books, 1994. McEwan, Elaine K. The Principal’s Guide to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. US: Crown Press Inc, 1998.
National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons. Magna Carta for Disabled Persons and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (Republic Act No. 7277). An Act Providing for the Rehabilitation, Self-Development and Self-Reliance of Disabled Persons and Their Integration into the Mainstream of Society and for Other Purposes. Quezon City: Regan Printers, 1995.
EDSP 101 Course Notes
First Draft of Questionnaire
Good day! There is a great movement in our current education system these days and one of the most popular changes that we are having is the immersion and acceptance of children with developmental delays both in the private and public schools. Because of this, I, a student taking up EDRE 101 (Educational Research and Evaluation) would like to know how informed are the teachers in the public school on the developmental delays particularly on Attention Deficit with or without Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Kindly answer the questions as honestly as possible. I assure you that this will be held confidential. Thank you very much for your cooperation. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Name (optional): _______________________________________________________ Number of years in the teaching profession: _______ Undergraduate course: ________________________ Graduate Studies (if any): ______________________ ______________________ Subject/s handled this school year: ___________________________________________________ • How did you come to know about ADHD? Please mark the ones that apply to you. ____ Radio ____ Doctor ____ Personal Experience ____ Magazines ____ College classroom discussion ____ Friends
____ Television ____ Books ____ Seminar ____ Others (pls. specify)
___________________________________________________________ Check the box under your answer Statement 1. Poor parenting and family stress cause ADHD 2. Behavior modification schemes work well in managing children with ADHD. 3. Anyone with ADHD is hyperactive. 4. Teachers play a crucial role in handling children with ADHD True False
because they can either build the child’s confidence up or ruin it. 5. ADHD is an illness. 6. ADHD does not exist in adults. 7. Children with ADHD are not capable of paying attention that is why it is called ‘attention deficit disorder’. Statement 8. Learning disabilities is also ADHD. 9. It is only fair to give a child with ADHD more time in answering tests. 10. Children with ADHD should take proper medication. 11. A developmental pediatrician should diagnose ADHD. 12. Children with ADHD should all attend the special school. 13. Mainstreaming and inclusion should be practiced in public schools. 14. Children with ADHD are aggressive and hostile. 15. ADHD is caused by poor instruction. 16. Children with ADHD should not be allowed in public schools. 17. Having ADHD means one is a slow-learner or retarded. 18. Public school teachers need more training in handling children with ADHD. 19. High sugar, food coloring, additives etc. intake and elevated lead levels can cause ADHD. 20. Teachers should be informed if the child has ADHD. 21. Brain injury and heredity causes ADHD. 22. The Department of Education provides guidelines for the accommodation of children with ADHD in the public schools. 23. Sociological / psychological problems can bring about ADHD. 24. Smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy cause ADHD. 25. ADHD is a curable disease. 26. Children with ADHD can excel academically. 27. ADHD can be contagious. 28. Children with ADHD are often creative. 29. Children with ADHD has a relative lack of inhibition. 30. Detention and suspension are the proper punishments for children with ADHD. • Have you ever experienced teaching a child with ADHD? _____ True False
If no, would you accept a child with ADHD in your class? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ How did you manage a child with ADHD in the class? (use the back page if necessary) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Would you rather be informed or not by the parent if the child has ADHD? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Do you think that public school teachers are well-informed and fully aware on ADHD? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Suggestions or comments _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thank you very much for the time!
Good day! There is a great movement in our current education system these days and one of the most popular changes that we are having is the immersion and acceptance of children with developmental delays both in the private and public schools. Because of this we, student taking up EDRE 101 (Educational Research and Evaluation), would like to know how informed are the teachers in the public school on the developmental delays particularly on Attention Deficit with or without Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Kindly answer the questions as honestly as possible. We assure you that this will be held confidential. Thank you very much for your cooperation. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Name (optional): _______________________________________________________ Number of years in the teaching profession: _______ Undergraduate course: ________________________ Graduate Studies (if any): ______________________ ______________________ Subject/s handled this school year: ___________________________________________________ • How did you come to know about ADHD? Please mark the ones that apply to you. ____ Radio ____ Doctor ____ Personal Experience ____ Magazines ____ College classroom discussion ____ Friends
____ Television ____ Books ____ Seminar
____ Others (pls. specify) ________________________________________________________ Check the box under your answer Statement 1. ADHD is an illness that has a life-long implications 2. ADHD does not exist in adults. 3. ADHD makes children incapable of paying attention that is why it is called attention deficit disorder.. 4. ADHD is classified as a learning disability. True False
5. Having ADHD means being a slow learner or retarded. 6. ADHD is a curable disease. 7. ADHD is contagious. 8. ADHD is a form of insanity 9. Poor parenting causes ADHD 10. Family stress cause ADHD 11. ADHD is caused by poor instruction. 12. High sugar, food coloring, additives etc. intake and elevated lead levels can cause ADHD. 13. Brain injury causes ADHD. 14. ADHD is not hereditary. 15. Sociological problems can bring about ADHD 16. Psychological problems trigger ADHD 17. Smoking during pregnancy causes ADHD 18. Drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy can cause ADHD 19. All children with ADHD are hyperactive 20. Someone with ADHD is hostile all the time 21. Children with ADHD can never excel academically 22. People with ADHD are unreliable 23. Children with ADHD are cry babies 24. Children with ADHD are naturally hard-headed 25. Students with ADHD are lazy 26. People with ADHD cannot distinguish reality from fiction 27. Teachers can diagnose ADHD 28. Children showing traits indicative of ADHD does not need to be assessed and diagnosed 29. Psychiatrists are the only ones to diagnose an individual 30. Children with ADHD should take medicines 31. There is no need for a second opinion regarding the diagnosis of the first examining doctor. 32. Behavior modification schemes hardly work well in managing children with ADHD. 33. It is not fair to give a child with ADHD more time in answering tests. 34. Children with ADHD should always attend a special school.
35. Inclusion should be practiced for students with ADHD 36. Teachers should not be informed if the child has ADHD. 37. Children with ADHD should not be accepted in public schools 38. Students with ADHD should always be mainstreamed 39. Detention and suspension are the proper punishments for children with ADHD. • • Have you ever experienced teaching a child with ADHD? ___ yes ___ no
If no, would you accept a child with ADHD in your class? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ If yes, how did you manage a child with ADHD in the class? (use the back page if necessary) ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________
Would you rather be informed or not by the parent if the child has ADHD? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Do you think that public school teachers are well-informed and fully aware on ADHD? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Suggestions or comments or questions about _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thank you very much for the time!
Letter asking for permission to conduct a survey at Krus na Ligas Elementary School
October 10, 2006
To: Principal Guitnang Bayan Elementary School Sta. Ana, San Mateo, Rizal
Dear ma’am; This is to introduce Ms. Jenny C. Paguyo, a student of EDRE 101: Educational Research and Evaluation at the University of the Philippines, Diliman. In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the subject, she is tasked to conduct a research related to herr area of concentration. In connection with this, she would like to ask your permission to carry out a survey in your school. I assure you that all personal information will be held confidential and a copy of the output will be given upon request. Hoping for your kind consideration on this matter.
Sincerely yours, Dr. Catalina Salazar Professor
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR ATTENTION-DEFICIT / HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER IN CHILDREN (according to DSM IV)
NOTE: Consider a criterion met only if the behavior is considerably more frequent than that of most people of the same mental age. A. Either (1) o2r (2) (1) six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level Inattention: (a) often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities (b) often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities (c) often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly (d) often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores and duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions) (e) often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities (f) often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework) (g) often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g. toys, school assignments, pencils, books or tools) (h) is often distracted by extraneous stimuli (i) is often forgetful in daily activities (2) six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level Hyperactivity: (a) often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat (b) often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected B. often runs about and climbs excessively I situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjected feelings of restlessness) (d) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly (e) is often “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor” ( f) often talks excessively Impulsivity (g) often blurts out answers before questions have been completed (h) often has difficulty awaiting turn ( i) often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g. butts into conversations or games B. Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g. at school [or work] and at home).
Eight Principles on Managing ADD
Russell Barkley, Ph.D., Professor at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester (proposed the following ‘Principles’) 1. Use more immediate consequences. 2. Use a greater frequency of consequences. 3. Employ more salient consequences 4. Start incentives before punishments. 5. Strive for consistency. 6. Plan for problem situations and transitions. 7. Keep a daily perspective. 8. Practice forgiveness. Of principle number 8, Dr. Barkley writes, “This is the most important but often the most difficult guideline to implement consistently in daily life.”13
Hallowell, Edward M. and Ratey, John J., Answers to Distraction. (US: Bantam Books, 1994), pp.50-51
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.