Steam Power Plants-I

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 Power and Energy are buzz words in today’s world.
 Electricity is emerged as basic necessity with Food,

Shelter and Clothing for human being.
 Life without electricity has become highly unimaginable.  Electric locomotives, Heating, Cooling, Fans, Blowers,

Motors, Illumination are some applications that converts electrical energy into useful work.

CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY

Asst.Professor 2

 Progress of any nation is measured in terms of per capita

consumption of electrical energy.(KWH consumed per person per year)
 India- 500 KWH /person per year

UK- 15 times that of India US- 30 times that of India
 Reasons of Popularity of electricity: Clean environment for user

 Higher efficiency
 Better controllability  Quick transfer of power from source to load  Energy conservation is simple

CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY

Asst.Professor 3

Power Generation Scenario In India Thermal Power --Hydro Power 1.Professor 4 .95.00.1.000MW Total Installed Capacity--.000MW 65.000MW --- Nuclear Power -- Other sources --- 10.000MW CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.000MW 20.

Non conventional Sources Wind Solar.PV Biomass CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Sources Of Electrical Power Generation A.Professor 5 .Conventional Sources Thermal (Coal) Nuclear Gas Water B.

increasing transmission cost. CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Disadvantages Of Conventional Sources Fossil fuels shall be depleted. Hazardous gases. Maintenance cost is high. Overall conversion efficiency is very poor.Professor 6 . forcing us to conserve them and find alternative resources. Toxic. Residues pollute environment. Sources are located at remote places with reference to load.

Professor 7 .Block Diagram Of Coal Fired Thermal Plant CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 8 . rotor of 3 PH a.Coal Based Thermal Power Plant  India has rich stock of coal as natural resource. and pressure.  Coal powder is fired in boiler that converts water into steam at high temp.c.  Chemical energy stored in coal is transformed to electrical energy. CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. generator rotates.  This steam is injected over the blades of steam turbine (prime mover) in controlled way and hence.

 Mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy at rated voltage(10-30KV).  Ash(40% of coal weight) is collected and transported to AHP.  Used steam is cooled down to water using cooling towers and condensers.  This preheated water is again injected in boiler tubes to convert back to steam.Professor 9 . CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.  Flue gases are passed into atmosphere and fine particles of ash are collected through ESP.

 Less initial cost as compared to other conventional process of power generation.  Less space required as compared to Hydro based station and less hazardous than Nuclear power plant. so no experimentation is required. CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.  It is a time tested process.Merits of Coal Thermal Plant  Coal is cheap and available in abundance at present.Professor 10 .

CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.  Atmospheric pollution is very high.Demerits of Coal Thermal plant  Calorific value (Kcal/Kg) of Indian coal is very low and large ash content.Professor 11 .  Huge volume of ash is produced daily and it’s disposal is burning issue today.  Transportation of coal to plant and transmission of generated power to load centre involves large expenses.

Power plants circuits CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 12 .

Professor 13 .Thermal ( Steam ) Power plants mainly consists of 4 circuits Coal and ash Circuit    Coal produced in the mining site is transported to power plant site Coal handling equipment for generation of steam The combustion of coal produces ash which is collected and removed to ash storage yard through ash handling equipments CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Air and gas circuit     FD or ID fans are used for supply the air to combustion chamber of the boiler through airpreheater The air preheater is placed in the path of flue gases to preheat the air The flue gases produced by combustion of fuels in the boiler furnaces after passing around boiler tubes and super heater tubes Pass through a dust collector or precipitator where most of dust is removed before venting it of to atmosphere through chimney CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 14 .

In the boiler shell and tubes water circulation is setup due to density difference of water between low and high temperature sections A super heater is used to super heat the wet steam from boiler drum and is then supplied to prime movers CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Feed water and steam circuit:        Prime mover develops power by utilizing steam generated in the boiler Then condenser is used to condense the steam coming out of prime mover A pump is used to feed the condensate to the boiler The condensate leaving the condenser is heated in feed heaters through extracted steam from lowest pressure extraction point of the turbine The feed water may also be supplied from external source to compensate any loss of steam and water.Professor 15 .

Cooling water circuit      In the condenser. river or sea The cooling water is taken from upper side of the river and then passed through the condenser The hot water is then discharged to lower side of the river The system is known as open system Where water is not available in abundant water from condenser is cooled either in cooling pond or in cooling tower the system is known as closed system CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. quantity of cooling water required to condense the steam is large and is taken either from lake.Professor 16 .

Professor 17 . Economizer 4. Condensers 9. Coal mills 12. Super heater 3. FD and ID Fans 13. Pumps 1. Reheater 6. Steam turbine 7. CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY 11.Main Components of Thermal Power Plants Boiler 2. Generator 8. Air preheater 5. Cooling towers 10. ASH Precipitators 14. Water treatment plant Asst.

Oil & Gas)  Industrial waste gases  Synthetic fuels or SYNFUELS CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. Hydrogen of fuels and produce heat In thermal power plants normally steam is produced from water by using combustion heat of fuels (Except in Gas turbines) Various fuels were used in thermal power plants  Fossil fuels ( Coal.Professor 18 .Combustion of fuel is accomplished by mixing with air at elevated temperatures Fuels used in thermal power plant Oxygen in the air chemically unites with Carbon.

 Coal is the principal energy source for India because of its      large deposits and availability Coal originated from vegetable matter.Professor 19 Coal . which grew millions of years ago Trees and plants falling into water decayed and later produced peat bogs Huge geological upheavals buried these bogs under layers of silt Subterranean heat. soil pressure and movement of earth's crust distilled off some of the bog's moisture and hardened it to form coal Basically classification of coal is based on Physical and chemical composition  Peat  Lignite and brown coal  Bituminous coal  Anthracite CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Coal properties  There are certain properties of coal. which are important in power plant applications  They are  sulphur content.  weather ability.Professor 20 .  heating value  ash softening temperature  swelling index  grind ability. CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 21 .)fixed ash.Moisture All coal contains some % of moisture and it is generally varies from 3 to 30 % Volatile matter – The volatile matter resent in the coal may me as high as 50% The volatile matter may be combustible gases (methane.formed from clay and impurities(it can be removed by washing screening CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.co) and non-combustible gases(CO2.N2) These gases decrease heating value of coal and increase the volume of the furnace required ASHThis is resent in two forms 1.which is formed after burning 2.) free ash.hydrogen.

storing.Disadvantages of ash increase cost of transporting.adds little heating value It is responsible to corrosion CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. Carbon: –gives heating value to coal sulphar:.Professor 22 . handling . Decrease the heating value of coal.

Desirable properties of coal  High calorific value  Small sulphur content ( les than 1%)  Good burning characteristics for complete combustion  High grind-ability index  High weather-ability Grading of coal done on the basis  Heating value  Size  Ash content  Sulphur content  Ash softening temperature CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 23 .

Dried) has CV of 16 MJ / kg CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Peat  Low grade coal  First stage coal formation  Contains 90% moisture  Small amount of volatile matter  Not suitable for power plants  Used in domestic purposes  Requires 1-2 months for drying in sunlight  Peat (20% water.Professor 24 .

Professor 25 .Lignite (Brown coal)  Intermediate stage of coal development  High amount of moisture 30-40%  Brown in color  High heating value and carbon compared to peat  Should be stored to avoid spontaneous combustion  Used in pulverized form  Can be air dried easily  Suitable for local use instead of transporting CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

used in briquette or pulverized form  Semi-Bituminous coal high carbon and heating value. &VM. contain less moisture. ash than lignite and no CAKING power. Has tendency to break into pieces CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. ash.Professor 26 . Containing 46-86% of fixed carbon and 20-40% of VM  Ash content may vary 6-12 % Bituminous coal  High percentage of volatile matter CV of 32 MJ / Kg  Available in two forms CAKING and NON Caking  Sub-Bituminous is having less moisture. sulphur.

Professor 27 . zero CAKING power  Difficult to pulverize Anthracite coal CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. Contains more than 86% fixed carbon &VM around 8%  Ignites slowly has high CV of 36 MJ / Kg Anthracite Coals  Low ash.

store and to burn  They have nearly constant heating values  They are primarily a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds.Professor 28 . ethane (C2H6) propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) which are gaseous.Liquid fuels  They are easy to handle. like methane (CH4). which may also contain nitrogen. there can be isoparaffins. oxygen and sulphur  The bulk of the hydrocarbons belong to the paraffin series. cycloparaffins and aromatic compounds CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. and pentane (C5H12) hexane (C6H14) and octane (C8H18) which are liquid at STP  In addition.

Sulphur 0-4%  There can also be some moisture and sediment  Crude oil distilled into a number of fractions gasoline. kerosene. light diesel oil.Professor 29 . aviation fuel.  Oxygen + Nitrogen 0-7%.  flash point and heating value CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. lubrication oil  The heavier fractions are used for boiler fuels and chemical production  The required physical properties of fuel oil are  specific gravity. Carbon: 83-87%. heavy diesel oil. Hydrogen: 11-16%.  viscosity. pour point.

Gaseous fuels  Transportation of natural gas is made through pipelines  Natural gas is the cleanest of all fossil fuels  It is free from ash and mixes well with air to undergo complete combustion producing very little smoke  It consists of a mixture of the most volatile paraffins- methane to pentane  It has high hydrogen content and produces a considerable amount of water vapour when burned  The heat of combustion varies from 33. particularly during peak load.Professor 30 .5 to 40 MJ/m3  Since the major constituent of all natural gases is methane  Liquid natural gas (LNG) is transported by special tankers and stored in spherical pressure vessels to be used when needed. CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

 Industrial Wastes & Byproducts Other fuels blast furnace gas. coal-oil mixtures (COM) CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. coke oven gas.Professor 31 . rice husk  Synthetic fuels Gaseous and liquid fuels from coal economically and environment friendly manner Liquid fuels using mixtures of fine coal in oil have been known as colloidal fuel. and refinery gas sugar factory refuse (bagasse). saw mill wood dust. coal-in-oil and more recently.

Professor 32 .Coal handling CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Pulverised coal system

In this system coal is ground to a fine in a pulverised mill and stored in bunkers from where it is fed into the combustion chamber by means of steam of hot air .
The air is used to dry the coal an conveying it to the furnace is called primary air . The air blow separately to complete the combustion is called as secondary air

CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY

Asst.Professor 33

Advantages of pulverised coal system

Rapid combustion with out use of large quantity of excess air. Higher boiler efficiency because of better combustion. Low grade coal can be used. Ash removal is easy. Fluctuation of loads can be easily used. Disadvantages
installation cost is high. Risk of explosions are more Special equipment is required for starting the system
CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 34

1.Ring Type Coal Crusher 2.Hammer Mill Coal Crusher 3.Brad Ford Breaker

Ring Type Coal Crusher

CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY

Asst.Professor 36

Hammer Mill Coal Crusher

CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY

Asst.Professor 37

OPERATION  The coal is fed at the top  Is crushed by the action of rings that pivot off centre on a rotor or by swinging hammers attached to it  Adjustable screen bars determine the maximum size of the discharged coal CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 38 .

Professor 39 .Brad Ford Breaker CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 40 .Brad Ford Breaker  Bradford breaker which is used for large capacity work  It consists of a large cylinder made up of perforated steel plates to which lifting shelves are attached on the inside  The cylinder rotating slowly at about 20 rpm receives coal at one end  The shelves lift the coal up and then the coal drops down by gravity CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

The inclination at which coal can be successfully elevated by belt conveyor is about 200 Average speed of belt conveyer is 60-100 m/min Load carrying capacity of the belt is 50-100 tones/hr CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 41 .Belt conveyors Best suitable for transporting large quantity over large distance It consists of end less belt running over a pair of end pulleys and supported by series of rollers.

Professor 42 .Advantages It is most economical method of coal transporting in medium and large capacity plants Min repair and maintenance cost power consumption is minimum Disadvantages not suitable for greater heights and small distance CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

the movement of screw drives the coal from end of the conveyor to other end where it is discharged This is used for small capacities Its length is limited to 30 m Seed 70 to 120 RPM Max capacity-125 ton/hr Low initial cost Simple and compact Adaptable to space available Dust roof CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Screw conveyors It consists of end less helicoids screw rotating inside a housing .Professor 43 .

Professor 44 .Disadvantages High power consumption Excessive wear and tear Short life compared to belt conveyor CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 45 .CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Bucket elevators Used for moderate lift .the coal can be conveyed at a speed of 16-40m/min Less power is required Coal can be discharged at elevated laces Less floor area is required Disadvantages Its capacity is limited CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 46 .

Professor 47 .Pulverized coal handling system CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Bowl Mill CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 48 .

Bowl Mill CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 49 .

Ball and Race mill CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 50 .

CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 51 . Less pressure losses and draught need. or in combination with gas and oil Ability to release large amounts of heat enabling it to generate about 2000 t/h of steam or more in one boiler Ability to use fly ash for making bricks etc.Pulverization Advantages           Low excess air requirement Less fan power Ability to use highly preheated air reducing exhaust losses Higher boiler efficiency Ability to bum a wide variety of coals Fast response to load changes Ease of burning alternately with.

3.Disadvantages 1.Professor 52 . 4. Added investment in coal preparation unit Added power needed for pulverizing coal Investment needed to remove fly ash before ill fan Large volume of furnaces needed to permit desired heat release and to withstand high gas temperature CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. 2.

1. 2. Grate-fired furnaces Chamber-type or flame furnaces .

Professor 54 .Combustion Equipment For Burning Coal     Fuel bed furnaces (coarse particles) Pulverized coal furnaces (fine particles) Cyclone furnaces (crushed particles) Fluidized bed furnaces (crushed small particles) CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 55 .Grate CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 56 .Chamber type CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Overfeeding Underfeeding CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Fuel bed furnaces (coarse particles) There are two ways of feeding coal on to the grate 1. 2.Professor 57 .

Professor 58 .Overfeeding CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 59 .Overfeeding  Receives fresh coal from top surface has following distinct zones  Fresh or green coal  Coal losing moisture (Drying zone)  Coking layer (loosing of VM) Distillation zone  Incandescent coke ( Fixed carbon is consumed) Combustion zone  Ash layer progressively cooled CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 60 .CO.CO2.Operations  Primary air gets warmed up as it flows through the ash layer  As it passes through the incandescent coke layer(1200 C) Carbon converted to Carbon dioxide releasing heat continues till oxygen is consumed. if layer is thick CO2 is converted to CO reducing layer temperature water gas reaction also takes  The stream while passing through distillation zone VM is added  In distillation zone moisture is added  Know stream contains N.H2.VM&moisture CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

For combustion of this stream  A hot ignition point ( In the range of 1000-1300oC  Done by providing a fire brick lined arch which stores up the heat and remains at high temperature  Sufficient fresh air  Secondary air or over-fire air  Turbulence  Providing secondary air at right angles to up-flowing gas stream emerging out of fuel bed CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 61 .

Results  Carbon is in CO.Professor 62 . CO2 both are color less  Carbon with hydrogen in VM which will be cracked to form free carbon at high temperature suspended in gas stream  If Burner is not designed properly or operated properly leads to unburnt carbon particles this appears as black smoke on chimney top CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 63 .Underfeeding CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Underfeeding  In underfeeding coal is fed from below  Primary air passing through holes in tuyeres diffuses through spaces in the raw green coal picking up moisture  In distillation zone to stream VM is added  In incandescent zone VM breaks readily burns with secondary air present above it where it is fed from top  VM burning is somewhat cooler need longer time to ignite and burn CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 64 .

Mechanical Stokers Overfeeding 1. Vibrating grate stoker Underfeed stoker 1. Single retort 2. Traveling grate stoker 2. Chain grate stoker 3.Professor 65 . Multiretort CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. Spreader stoker 4.

Traveling grate stoker CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 66 .

primary air flow controls the burning rate so that at the end of its rear ash only remains CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 67 .Traveling grate stoker  Grate surface is made up of Cast Iron bars joined together by links to form endless belt  Belt wound around two sprockets  A coal gate regulates the depth of fuel bed  Simultaneous adjustment of Fuel bed thickness.

Advantages & Disadvantages  Simple and Initial cost is low  Reliable in service and maintenance is low  Gives high rate of heat release per volume of the furnace Limited coal can be carried on grate Clinker problems are common Ignition arches are required There is always some loss in the form of particles CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 68 .

Professor 69 .Spreader stoker CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 70 .Spreader stoker  Coal from hopper is fed by rotating feeder  Feeder normally will have Blades fitted on the drum  Fine particles burn in suspension  Speed of the feeder varies with the steam output of boiler  Grate is made up of CI bars. wood waste. Links underneath the grate are connected to a lever  Fuels used may be Bituminous. baggase  Coal size used in 6-36 cm CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. lignite.

Advantages and Disadvantages  A wide variety of fuels can be used  Clinker formation is reduced  High temperature preheated air can be used  Quick response to load variation  Gives equal pressure drop and proper air distribution  Operation cost is low Difficult to operate variable sized coal particles Fly ash and entrapped carbon particles CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 71 .

Underfeed stokers CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 72 .

Professor 73 .Multiple retort CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 74 .ASH HANDLING SYSTEM  Mechanical Handling System  Hydraulic Ash Handling System Low pressure System High pressure System  Pneumatic Ash Handling System  Steam Jet System CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

ASH HANDLING FLOW DIAGRAM CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 75 .

Mechanical Handling System CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 76 .

3m/min CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.In this type belt conveyor is used Used for low capacity power plants Ash is quenched (cooled)by allowing it to fall through water seal over the belt conveyor Quenched ash is then carried to a dumping site over the belt This is continuous handling system in which power consumption is low It handles 3.Professor 77 .5 tons of ash per hour with a speed of 0.

Professor 78 .Hydraulic Ash Handling System Low pressure System CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

in this system trough provided below the boiler furnace and water is made to flow through it The ash directly falls into trough and is carried by the water to the sump The water and ash are separated with the help of screen in the sump.Professor 79 . The water is pumped back to the trough and used again while the ash is carried to the dumping site CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 80 .Hydraulic Ash Handling System Low pressure System CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Hydraulic Ash Handling System High pressure System CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 81 .

The water is pumped back to the trough and used again while the ash is carried to the dumping site CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.In this the the hoppers below the boiler is fitted with water nozzles at the top and at the sides. The water and ash are separated with the help of screen in the sump. Ash is quenched by the top nozzle and side nozzles provide the drive force for the ash.Professor 82 .

Discharge ash at a considerable distance of over 600m. Can also handles a stream of molten ash CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.Professor 83 .Advantages of hydraulic system clean. dustless and totally enclosed Carrying capacity is large.

Professor 84 .Pneumatic Ash Handling System CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 85 .In this system ash from boiler is pulverised in the crushers fine ash is then passed into stream of high velocity air Cyclone separators are used to remove ash from air stream Clean air is send to atmosphere Ash is send to dumping site System can handle 5-30 tons of ash /hr CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

It can carry ash through long distance Disadvantages Maintenance charges are high due to wear out of pipe line.Advantages Dust can be eliminated as the material are handled in a closed circuit Flexible and can fit varying conditions. CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. More noisy than other system.Professor 86 .

un -burnt coal(cinder) The quantity of dust is more in pulverised firing .Professor 87 . Less in stroker CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst. dust(fly-ash).Dust collection the exhaust gas leaving the boiler contain particles of solid matter in suspension smoke.

Wet type collectors 2.Professor 88 .Types of dust collectors Mechanical dust collectors 1. Dry type collectors Electrical precipitators(dust collectors CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 89 .Wet –type dust collector Water is sprayed to separate dust from flue gas Induced fan is used to carry gas through chimney Water is carried to a sludge pond CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

Professor 90 .Dry type dust collector Inertia separators Cyclone separator is one of the common forms of inertia separators Gravitational separators It works slowing down gas flow so that dust particles remain in a chamber for a long duration so as to settle at the bottom It requires a large chamber and not suitable in power plants CH KODANDA RAMA RAO GITAM UNIVERSITY Asst.

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