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Acceptance curve A practical means for EHV transmission line damper performance evaluation Vibration of bundled and single

e conductors: A comparative case study The wind-induced vibration control of feed supporting system for large spherical radio telescope using electrorheological damper The optimization of mechanical dampers to control self-excited galloping oscillations Abstract The use of mechanical dampers for the control of the self-excited galloping of transmission lines is considered. Two particular dampers, an in-span damper and a resilient mounting, are studied, two mass representations being used. For both dampers it is possible to produce an optimum damper either by maximizing the negative damping excitation that the damped system can withstand, or by choosing the smaller logarithmic decrement of oscillation of the system to be as large as possible in the absence of excitation. These two procedures do not produce the same damper parameters. Simple analytical expressions are produced for the optimum parameters, and these are shown to agree well with numerically optimized parameters. For the in-span damper, either method of optimization gives a damper for a much wider range of ratios of the damper to conductor masses than is predicted by earlier work. For the resilient mounting the optimization based on damping gives very similar behaviour to that of the in-span damper. When aerodynamic excitation is considered for the resilient mounting, a clear optimum exists only for a small range of mass ratios. Results from a representation of the conductor by a stretched string are used to define the range of mass ratios over which the two-mass damper idealizations may be used to define damper properties.

Effectiveness of cable networks of various configurations in suppressing stay-cable vibration Estimation of conductor vibration amplitudes caused by aeolian vibration Abstract High tension transmission conductors vibrate as light breezes blow across a line. This aeolian vibration can lead to fatigue damage which may be severe enough to cause the conductor to fail. Aeolian vibration levels on the conductor will increase in amplitude until the power input from the wind is balanced by the power dissipated by the conductor self-damping and any external damping devices. This paper uses quantifications of wind power input and conductor self-damping power dissipation, which have been published in recent papers, to solve iteratively for the vibration levels at which a power balance will occur. The paper also examines the effect of external vibration dampers on these vibration levels. 10

The design of an optimal viscous damper for a bridge stay cable using energy-based approach

Abstract
An energy-based method is developed in the present paper to evaluate the damping property of a stay cable when transversely attached to a viscous damper. The overall increase of the cable damping offered by the external damper is determined by examining the time history of the kinetic energy in the damped cable. The concept of kinetic energy decay ratio is introduced as a key index to evaluate the effectiveness of a damper design in suppressing cable vibration. Compared to earlier studies, the proposed energybased approach has no restrictions on the damper location. In addition, the flexural rigidity and sag extensibility of the cable are included in the formulation. Numerical simulation of free vibration of a damped stay cable is conducted using ABAQUS. To assist the design process, a set of damping estimation curves, which directly relate a damper design with the corresponding equivalent structural damping in a damped cable are developed for the practical parameter ranges of bridge stay cables. A number of numerical examples are presented. The validity and accuracy of the proposed method and damping estimation curves are verified by comparing with other studies. Results show that the energybased approach developed in the present study is effective and efficient in determining the overall damping property of a cable-damper system, particularly in the preliminary stage of a damper design. In addition, the flexible applications of the developed damping estimation curves to damper design are demonstrated through these examples.

Article Outline
Nomenclature 1. Introduction 2. Formulation of the method 2.1. Important parameters in a cable-damper system 2.2. Kinetic energy decay ratio and its relation with an equivalent structural damping ratio 2.3. Refined formulation 3. Numerical simulations 4. Comparison with other studies 5. Design curves for estimating equivalent modal damping ratio 5.1. Damping estimation curves 5.2. Estimation of optimum damper size 5.3. Design examples 6. Conclusions Acknowledgements Appendix A. Supplementary material References

VORTEX-EXCITED VIBRATIONS IN BUNDLED CONDUCTORS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Damping cable vibration for a cable-stayed bridge using adjustable fluid dampers Abstract

Passive fluid damper is one of most widely used control devices for damping vibration of stay cables in a cablestayed bridge in practice. However, each stay cable features unique dynamic characteristics and requires a specific damper to achieve the best control performance, which engenders many troubles in manufacture, implementation and maintenance of dampers. This paper presents a new approach for damping vibration of stay cables in a cablestayed bridge by using adjustable fluid dampers. The principle and main features of adjustable fluid dampers with shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are first introduced. The solution of a taut cable with the adjustable fluid damper described by the Maxwell model is provided. A most favorable design principle is then proposed for selecting the least types of adjustable fluid dampers for damping vibration of a few hundreds stay cables in a cable-stayed bridge. A case study of stay cables in a super long span cable-stayed bridge is finally performed, demonstrating that only two types of adjustable fluid dampers are required for damping vibration of all stay cables in the bridge. Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Adjustable fluid damper with SMA actuators 3. Approximate solutions of cabledamper system 4. Most favorable design principles 5. Case study 5.1. A long span cable-stayed bridge 5.2. Favorable design of adjustable fluid dampers 6. Conclusions Acknowledgements References Damper vibration attenuation for overhead lines Abstract

Structural impedance measurements are useful for determining the characteristics of vibration dampers. Earlier theoretical work demonstrated how impedance or dynamic mass measurements could be used to determine the vibration attenuation achieved at the damper end of a transmission line span. Now the theory is extended to

determine vibration attenuation at all points in the span. For example, the vibration attenuation can be determined at mid-span, at the end of the span at which a damper is installed and at the undamped end of the span. The theory could be used to predict vibration attenuation by making dynamic mass measurements on the conductor at points of interest and combining the results with dynamic mass measurements on dampers. However, the vibration attenuation achieved at both ends of the span is more simply determined from vibration amplitude measurements made with and without the damper installed. The results provide a simple means for evaluating the vibration attenuation characteristics of dampers.

Dynamics of stockbridge dampers

The aim of the present investigation is to establish a theoretical analysis of the response characteristics of Stockbridge dampers and to verify the theoretical predictions experimentally. Expressions have been derived for the response of the Stockbridge damper, by treating it as a two-degree-of-freedom system. The dynamic stresses introduced on the stranded cable are also theoretically determined. The experimental findings have been reported and explanations for discrepancies, where they occur, have been made.

Optimum design of a Lanchester damper for a viscously damped single degree of freedom system subjected to inertial excitation

Abstract

The problem of designing an optimum Lanchester damper for a viscously damped single degree of freedom system subjected to inertial harmonic excitation is investigated. Two criteria are used for optimizing the performance of the damper: (i) minimum motion transmissibility; (ii) minimum force transmissibility. Explicit expressions are developed for determining the absorber parameters.

On the numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibrations of oscillating conductors

Abstract

Aeolian vibrations for electrical overhead transmission line conductors have been investigated for many decades. Special dampers, e.g., Stockbridge dampers or spacer dampers, are mounted on the conductors to suppress these vibrations, which may otherwise lead to the fatigue failure at the points of high strain values. Simulations are routinely carried out in order to estimate the vibration levels, to determine the need of dampers, and to optimize

their locations and the impedances. The energy balance principle (EBP) is well established for estimating the vibration amplitudes, and hence, the strain levels in the transmission line conductors. Besides the parameters of the conductor and of the dampers, the aerodynamic forces acting on the vibrating conductor are the main input data required for the energy balance. For the wind power input, researchers still depend on the experimental data of drag and lift forces of a vibrating cylinder obtained from wind tunnel testing. In case of the bundled conductors, many combinations regarding the number of conductors, spacing of the conductors as well as their orientations are possible, which make wind tunnel tests very expensive and formidable. It may be useful to replace the wind tunnel tests by numerical simulations, as far as possible. However, it is indispensable to validate the numerical results first, for at least some special cases, so that they can be used with confidence in the general case. The present paper is a first step towards obtaining the wind power inputs for different configurations of bundled conductors. In the current work, the flow around a vibrating conductor is simulated with the finite-volume method, by considering it as a circular cylinder. The two-dimensional NavierStokes equations are solved first. The drag and the lift forces are then calculated by integrating the pressure and the shear values on the boundary of the cylinder, which ultimately cause the impartation of wind power. The numerically obtained wind power input is then compared with that obtained by different researchers in wind tunnel tests. A very good match between the experimental and the numerical values of wind power input is found. Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Wind power input 2.1. Numerically obtaining the wind power input 3. Computational fluid dynamics 3.1. Governing equations 3.2. Solution procedure 3.3. Grid modification and boundary conditions 4. Numerical results 5. Conclusion References

Identification of large amplitude wind-induced vibration of ice-accreted transmission lines based on field observed data

Abstract

This study presents a method for identifying the periodic galloping response and random gust response of transmission lines based on restricted field observed data, and for separating the major galloping component from the mixed mode of gust and galloping vibration. Time-averaged characteristics of wind-induced vibration are discussed based on spectral analysis, and non-stationary characteristics are considered to identify the windinduced vibrations quantitatively by applying Prony's method in a piecewise fashion. By applying highpass filter, the major galloping response component is separated from the mixed response modes of galloping and gust response, and characteristics of the separated major galloping response component are compared with those of total response. Results of these analyses show that there is a possibility of having large amplitude galloping as well as gust response in in-plane vertical motion in ice-accreted transmission lines. The applicability of the random decrement method to estimate the existence of the periodic correlated galloping component is also discussed. Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Outline of transmission line and field measurement 3. Typical wind-induced vibration of the ice-accreted Tsuruga Test Line 4. Identification of observed wind-induced vibration 4.1. Spectral analysis for time averaged characteristics of response 4.2. Filtering technique for exclusion of the quasi-static response 4.3. Prony-based exponential decomposition 5. Oscillation orbit and mode of vibration in Event 2 6. Random decrement method for identifying the galloping component 7. Conclusions References

Development of a new damper to reduce resonant vibrations in lightweight steel joist floors

Abstract

Floor vibrations annoying to humans often occur in lightweight constructions. A number of methods to solve the problem of resonant vibrations are reported in the literature. Tuned mass damper, semi-active tuned vibration absorber and active control system are all examples of existing methods. A new method has been tested in laboratory environment on a prefabricated floor containing a resilient ceiling with a size up to 6.84.8 m2. The

method takes advantage of small pieces of visco-elastic material connected between the ceiling joists and the primary beams. A finite element model is used to calculate the correct amount of visco-elastic material. The new damper is especially effective in damping mode shapes where the ceiling oscillates out of phase relative to the floor but shows improvements for other mode shapes as well. Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Existing methods to reduce resonant vibrations 3. The tested floor 4. Increase the damping using visco-elastic material 5. The technique applied to a four sections floor 6. Discussion and conclusions References

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF AEOLIAN CONDUCTOR VIBRATION WITH A STOCKBRIDGE-TYPE DAMPER

Abstract

An iterative finite-difference scheme is derived to predict the vertical, steady-state, monofrequent, aeolian vibration of a single conductor span with a Stockbridge-type damper attached. This numerical scheme is based on empirical models developed to represent the vortex-induced lift force from the wind as well as the forces of dissipation associated with the conductor self-damping and the damper. The scheme has the capability to account for more than one spatial mode of conductor vibration, travelling-wave effects, conductor flexural rigidity, and damper mass. A two-part numerical analysis is performed in which the finite-difference scheme is applied to simulate aeolian vibrations of a typical conductor with and without a Stockbridge-type damper. The computed results are employed to investigate (a) the steady-state form of conductor vibration, (b) the conductor bending amplitudes near each span end as a function of the vibration frequency and damper location, and (c) the influence of conductor flexural rigidity and damper mass. In addition, results from the finite-difference scheme are compared with solutions from the widely used energy balance method as well as field data on aeolian conductor vibrations. The numerical scheme predicts that, with a Stockbridge-type damper attached near a conductor span end, a travelling wave continually propagates towards that span end during steady-state aeolian conductor vibration. It also predicts that, with no dampers attached to a conductor, steady-state aeolian conductor vibration is essentially in the form of a standing wave.

Design and development of a liquid comparator Optimal design of viscous dampers for multi-mode vibration control of bridge cables

Abstract

Viscous dampers have been widely used for mitigating rainwind-induced vibration of bridge stay cables. Designing a damper with optimal damping in a specific mode may leave the cable susceptible to vibration in other modes, and it is almost impossible to specify a priori the dominant mode in which optimal performance should be achieved. In the present paper, a new method for optimal design of viscous dampers to achieve multi-mode cable vibration control is developed. With reference to a cabledamper model taking into account cable sag, inclination and bending stiffness, a method to determine the optimal damper size for cable vibration control in assigned multiple modes is proposed based on optimal LQG control theory. The system damping ratios obtained from the proposed strategy are thus found to satisfy the Irwins criterion for all the assigned modes. Case studies of prototype cables on a real cable-stayed bridge which experienced rainwind-induced oscillation show the efficiency of the proposed method. Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Formulation of governing equation 3. Method of optimal damper design 4. Case study 4.1. Cable configuration and shape functions 4.2. Analysis and results for xd/L=0.02 4.3. Analysis and results for xd/L=0.01 5. Conclusions Acknowledgements References.