loo

.

.

EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA (1906-1907) .

.

E."3 (1906-1907) BY * A J. QUIBELL WITH A SECTION ON THE RELIGIOUS TEXTS BY P.SERVICE DES ANTIQUITES DE L'EGYPTE EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA t- v * 2. LACAU LE CAIRE IMPRIMERIE DE L'INSTITUT FRANCAIS D'ARCHEOLOGIE ORIENTALE 1908 SEEN BY PRESERVATION SERVirpc .

623G92

INTRODUCTION.
The digging
continued
till

at

Saqqara in the winter of 190 6- 1907 began on October ayth and

the end of February; only a small and continually decreasing
the first fortnight of March.
left

band of

men were retained through
The previous season had

us two sites where

work had

to

be continued and an

accident drove us to a third, so that for part of the time there were three separate

gangs

at

work.
,

The

great mastaba

the

owner

of

which we had
Teta's

failed to

determine
to
at

,

had

to

be

farther cleared

and the excavations west of
,

pyramid

be advanced. These

were the two tasks but a third was given us by the sebakhin
into a

Ras

el-Gisr,

who dug
It

chamber the walls

of

which were decorated with paintings.

We

promptly
will

turned the cultivators on to another spot and began the excavation ourselves.

be well
words.

to take the three sites in order.

The main

results can

be stated in a few

I.

At the east side of the Teta pyramid the work was very laborious for the
great

men,

as a

number

of blocks

thrown down from the pyramid had
of temple sculpture

to

be broken up
to indicate

and removed. A few fragments
the plan of the building,
till,

were found, but nothing

opposite the south-east corner of the pyramid the

work

was carried deeper, and a small pyramid, denuded

to four or five courses of masonry,
built.

was disclosed, together with the court

in

which
to

it

was

The chamber was entered, but found
of potsherds.

be uninscribed and empty save for a mass
series of late

Above the pyramid the remains of a
shafts

New Empire

chapels

were found and the
II.

belonging to them cleared.

The south end

of the great mastaba

was dug out

in the

hope

that

an inscribed

chamber might be found, a hope that was not fulfilled. The south end of the building had been quarried away to the last course of stones and if any chapel once existed
,

outside the southern niche

it

had long

since disappeared; the mastaba

was here

II

INTRODUCTION.

covered over before the Middle Kingdom and in the rubbish and in the body of the

mastaba

itself

a series of Xth (?) Dynasty shafts

had been dug.

Two

of these, one that of Karenen, behind the south niche, the other of
, ,

Khennu,

in the south face of the

mastaba were untouched below ground though the chapels
fine coffins

had been destroyed, and the
carpenters' shops

and

series of

wooden models

of granaries,

and the

like

formed one of the best results of the season's work.
XlXth Dynasty and a
this
lot of

A group
stelae

of poor burials of the

fragments of Xth Dynasty
excavation

were the other main products of

piece of digging.

The

made was

a sort of crater about

3o metres

in

diameter and, in the centre 12 metres deep,

bounded
sides

to

north and south by the two massive walls of brick and on the other two

by sloping banks of limestone blocks and sand.

III.

The

excavations at the monastery, called locally Ras el-Gisr, disclosed five

chapels or cells, small and rudely built chambers, but decorated with paintings of
considerable interest. This

work must be continued
It is

in the

coming season

as the

monastery

is

not exhausted.
to the

a curious circumstance that, though this site has

been given over

sebakhin for twenty years, there seems not to be any record

of painted walls being found before.

We may

therefore

hope

that the

monastery has

not been

much touched and

that the area destroyed

by the sebakhin was covered

only by the villagp which adjoined the main building.
It is

a pleasure to acknowledge the help that
,

I

have received from Miss N. Macto

donald

who drew

with very great care the plates

XX

XXVI and from my
,

wife

,

to

whom

all

the coloured plates are due.

EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA,
1906-1907.

WORK EAST OF TETA
The search
for the

PYRAMID.

previous year had been on too small a scale; so deep was the rubbish that the width of pavement cleared did not exceed i 5 metres. This year a wider sweep was made and a trench, whose farthest edge was a5-3o metres from the foundation of

Pyramid temple

in the

the central stela, was run parallel to the east face of the pyramid. The work was slow and expensive, and was more of the nature of quarrying than digging, so great was the accumulation of massive blocks from the casing. In the northern part of the trench

pavement was not reached. The area really dug out is confined to the small pyramid with its courtyard which we discovered at the southern end. For clearness' sake, and to distinguish it from
the
its

large neighbour the pyramid of Teta,
is

we

will call this the

pyramid of Neferkara, although
in

the attribution

as yet doubtful.

The appearance
sides in plates
II

of this
III,

and

pyramid when partially excavated is seen while the plan and section are in plate IV.
at first

plate

I,

the west and east

We

came on the pyramid

from the west

side;

underneath the limestone detritus and
soil

the blocks from the Teta pyramid appeared a layer of dark
wall, running north

and

to the

west of this was a

and south. This
its

is

smooth on the

east side,

but unfinished on the side next

the Teta pyramid
of the Middle

and

not be determined. In the black layer a scarab original thickness could
face of the

Kingdom was found, and soon the

pyramid appeared, further

east;

evidently a pyramid and not a mastaba from the batter of the wall face.

Clearing was also carried on from the top, and the hole by which the robbers had forced their way into the chamber was found; later on as we got deeper on the north side the original entrance

from the north was

also disclosed.

cause that rendered the digging slow and tedious was the existence of a great number of coffins of late period which lay close together in the upper layers, mostly at the highest remaining level of the pyramid. In this same layer remains of late New Empire chapels were

A second

found and the stone-lined shafts belonging

to

them; these sank through the rubbish surrounding

the pyramid, penetrated the pavement and descended to chambers below, in which coffins

from secondary burials, as it appeared (XXII nd Dynasty or later), lay in considerable numbers. Still on the same high level and a little above it were burials under rude, roofshaped mounds
the date of which
is

mastabas, and with
Excavations at Saqqara
,

a

not yet determined, and a group of Coptic tombs of crude brick, like these were generally denuded to a foot plastered niche in the east end
:

1906-1907.

1

There is no sign of a third pair opposite the southern half. it The greater part of this wall remains. and these were cut out and replaced by wedges of new stone fixed in with plaster which give a characteristic look to the masonry. in with ridges at each end. They are very unequally weathered. are four basins. II and 111 : the alabaster bowl is the farther one in plate II). high and narrow. pyramid of like date. The courtyard is bounded on the north by a wall i m.. we should them from the face of the pyramid. to a chamber with i plain stone walls. long. the top course of which was rounded. ok cent. in thickness. The alabaster vessel is not a cube like the others but a bowl of ca. in diameter and of hemispherical shape. mostly unshaped stones about o m. or contained originally weak bits. burials wrapped in mats. and apparently of the same oblong coffins. Many of the stones of the outer face were damaged on the edge in transport from the quarry. their upper surface is a square of i m. Further east was a gateway. 7 2 cent. then becomes horizontal and leads . the wall has probably been entirely destroyed. thick. Ill). high and o m. period were some poor We will now take these buildings and tombs in what appears to be their chronologic order. They are placed on the east and west sides of the pyramid. polished internally. EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. At the has been broken through by one of the New Empire shafts (34-2 in pi. roofed with four very massive blocks of 5 by 2 metres. the burials in the black earth. o m. end There was a similar wall on the east side of which little remains : on the south we did not reach far enough to be sure. mentioning with them the scattered objects The pyramid is constructed of two faces of masonry. The quartzite basins are hollowed out of rough cubes of stone. thick. 72 cent. the New Empire chapels and tombs and the the itself. the basin is o m.2 in height. the face of which was not smoothed at all. IV). The entrance passage is o m. (pi. o3 cent. an outer one of dressed blocks of Tura limestone. an inner one of rubble of local stone. without any coffin at all. three of quartzite. was another group of burials. Such a channel indeed there : . very roughly. opposite the middle of the pyramid and the centre of the north half. 9 2 cent. near them. What the use of these vessels may have been is not certain similar ones have been found : at Abusir expect to find channels leading to undoubtedly intended to receive rain water if this had been the case here. and beyond this the digging has not reached the low level. probably once covered by paving blocks. wide and at first slopes down from the base of the pyramid. 2 metres or m. but each course was stepped back from the one below it. it filled half of the lower part formerly plugged with long stones one of which was found of the passage and was i metre long. 20 cent. later burials. The entrance was in the middle of the north side and was covered by the pavement was : it in place. This mortar is seen in the hole made by the robbers to be reddened by the fire employed in breaking through the roofing blocks. Sunk in the floor. 1906-1907. above the pavement but close to it. the door of which opened inwards. Inside this inner wall the pyramid is made of rubble. and was by breaking through the corner of one of these that the robbers had penetrated into the chamber. one of alabaster (pi. but. 70 cent. Lower down. very roughly laid with a light coloured mortar made of tajl and mud. It more east high. to the east is an inlet or spout. The west wall already mentioned has but one face and is 2-3 courses high. 01 cent. as the pavement is broken away.

XXXII. It is more were of ceremonial IN use. and string of beads still threaded.WORK EAST is OF TETA PYRAMID. then a sheet just large enough to enclose the body and inside this another mat. o m. inside the inner mat a palette and a cradle-shaped box (pi. the heads of which were directed each to a separate point of the compass. it was only o m. one with a single arm. N 324. pavement. XXXVI. Go broken through to bury the two colfin. so it of red and black ink in the cups. 70 cent. The body was in a bad carbonised cloth in the body cavity. 26 cent. east and west. In the body cavity were Below the head was a bronze mirror of the bones of an unborn child near full term. long. Over the The contents of the basket were quite clean. 3 in the floor. The materials of the scarabs are steatite and glaze. !*. last. BURIALS THE BLACK LAYER. probably be dated to the XVIII Dynasty. and over the head were 2-3 centimetres thickness of carbonised wrappings. There was also a string of blue beads with a few glass ones among them. A fragment earlier age. old and broken. o5 cent. do not reach to the floor Between them o m. N 323. then two parallel rows. The palette has a little cake state. but it leads through the gateway and turns to the east. the pattern thus*' three spherical carnelian. and above the body a quantity of cloth laid flat. close to the side of the pyramid. which we are now to speak (pi. XXXVIII. i). may be attributed to the cross walls XIX th Dynasty. wide. broad pear shape with handle of the same metal. each of five white glaze (?) beads. 2) and fourteen plaques and scarabs. In this neighbourhood were four other burials in mats. Between the two mats was a bundle of reed pens (pi. 3o cent. This burial was to the north of one of the brick walls and lay west and east. cent. to the east of the pyramid. At the south-west corner. the larger of them o m. with ridges at both ends. high and narrow. 11 ' The tomb may Similar coffin of the high and narrow type. This interment but some wrappings remained and there was was probably mummified. inside were bandages o m. they were an alabaster kohl vase with a stick in it. south. which had been coffins of The two mentioned above. 2). the outer one made of sticks a finger thick and midribs of palm leaves. made of palm midribs only. above the stone floor was another floor of brick. above the pavement was a body wrapped in two mats. The mat was tied with cloth. square-ended. 2) it with four divisions. then. exactly similar are seen in plate III. bearing the inscription \ ^<=^ must belong to an At the same low level were two wooden statuettes of the Middle Kingdom type (pi. a To north of the head was an alabaster kohl vase. not to one of the basins likely that these as yet found. like the parallel one. Two west end of the lid stood part of a chair and a basket. above the pavement. and on the back some faint notes in hieratic. XXXVI. A wooden two spheres and two pears of blue glaze (pi. a small child above and an adult below. . One end rested on the There were two bodies in the coffin. north. then three carnelians again. IV). of a stela close by.

may be derived from The torso of a small limestone statue. Here again were fragmentary sculptures and before these walls was a pavement. 70 from the the north of the north-east corner was the vase-shaped slip of of wood (pi. of offerings. the lower part of a stela with the it name pillars V i was found (pi. representing an adoration of Osiris. a. but it is not easy to see where they had been buried. a small oar from a model boat and a bit of an alabaster A (o m. at its east side.. a wooden plaque. 5). An angarib. must be added To to the list of small antiquities in this layer. bearing lid on the back the name cent. ca. 1906-1907. the one opened opposite the pillars (33 2 ) was filled with . O ~i jtj ( and 3^. and o m. but not necessarily connected with it. i m. dummy alabaster vases with drill caps and pestles and a lot (at least XIX Above the Neferkara pyramid. 3. 09 k "iP \jf ^ _^^ floor. In front of were the bases of several two rows and before these. V. near the north-east corner. indislinguishcent. very long and thin. high. A few cylindrical beads. h) with the name the Pepy to the west of this and near the middle of the north face were still more of 60) of the small saucers so well known near Old Kingdom tombs. 2) four alabaster drill foundation deposits. represents O (tj ~"f ( again. of detailed work and rather deep sunk with relief. much colour. o m. 6). The first of these. level. I '/ ""/'"": A. o in. was placed : against the north wall. One of these bore a cornice with two short columns of inscription In the (pi. above the floor. running 7 metres to the west. These alabasters have the look of foundation deposits. by o m.4 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. only one block of the face remained (south face) but this bore in low relief the feet of two the wall figures wearing sandals with turned up toes all had once been covered by These clearly : reappeared further west. same neighbourhood and probably derived from the same building. (pi. 07 cent. i ). a large stone-lined shaft.4i i= *X TjT|. to o m. and some long cylindrical blue beads. were two blocks XXXVII.) incised | ^ $:jA f ~"^. Five metres south was another wall. XXXVII . the mouth of which belonged together. 26 cent. It was found on the level of the XIX th Dynasty pavement to the west of the part preserved. o5 cent. on the same slabs. and an of blue glaze completed the group which must surely have come from a foundation deposit and. 10 cent. together with two rude 3 cent. plastered and gilt bore the name of king Neferkara. this quarter has been disturbed. kneeling and holding a table With these chapels were connected four shafts which sank through the pyramid pavement and into chambers below. caps like those in Another group of stone drill caps were found in close proximity to the south-east corner of the alabaster vases o m. 1 ul th % B. pi. and A-~* in DYNASTY CHAPELS. IV. 5o cent. The statue in plate XXXVII. were V. near it. above which a considerable number of pieces of inscription were found. as the pavement in the foundations of the pyramid. 62 cent. stela. able from the modern product. high and several pyramid. on one of which was an inscription fragments of small plaques of faience (ca. 7 by in ink |O jj"^. above the west wall of the pyramid yard and there turned south.

The next filling (338) was more productive. from the bottom there was a burial. to my knowledge. a blue glaze plaque all thoroughly looted. i55 mill. three staffs and some dom nuts. i a cent. The smaller one was painted. 5 metres by k metres) and beyond a model hoe with coffins and fragments of coffins of others of plain wood with the arms and body indicated in low late period. however. is Though a common coffins it nd Dynasty. the larger. In the west chamber were a chambers a (333) opened on three sides (north. o m. bits of headrests. I. relief on the lid. an amethyst scarab. one good object remained. some brightly painted. which opened into three others. o4 cent. an anthropoid coffin brightly The lid XIX th had been varnished. original a child's burial in an oblong box. over shaft 336). Higher laid side in the sand. /i) o m. at 9 m. a cylindrical wooden vase. Scattered among them were the small objects shown in plate XXXIV. so cut through For some reason. anthropoid coffins. the face yellow. found it interfere with their shaft. (pi. It would appear that the " Dynasty burial was robbed as early as the XXII Dynasty. from the top. and period later than the XXII uncertain. decorated. however. 5 clean sand and opened at 9 in. thoroughly robbed set of coarse Canopic heads. on the floor of the shaft was an unfinished Osiride statue. down. XXXV. g5 cent. incomplete a dad (3). on the floor. they would be certainly attributed to may well be that nothing from the original burial was found by us. the well-sinkers the stone. rather smaller. colours of the scenes red and blue on yellow. XXXIII). Both these rooms were filled . the head was found separate. pierced at the top for suspension and bearing this inscription in black fired in the glaze ~'^j'^~ "jj*" ""^J^ ^^ Tllis must have come from one of the original burials. Near it was a large Red Sea shell. east. XXXIV. 5o cent. Further. covered with rough chiselling. long. then. to the chamber (to the west. seated. a plaque with curved top inscribed above and below toadstool. by side in the north-west corner. and also the four harps (pi. in shape like a and two bronze rods the dating of these (o m. wig yellow and white stripes. had been used. a3 cent. 4) a wooden double tray (3). to shoulder. But 2 shaft ends without a m. The pyramid was entirely forgotten.WORK EAST OF TETA PYRAMID. hut in the sand were broken coffins of the late type. It had. the body of the coffin had not. 5o cent. This is of a definite and well-known type but not. The to the third shaft left (334) is that which of the wooden platform which cuts through the east face of the small is pyramid (pi. the tomb was not finished. by o in. 5o cent. (i). O-iftp a little ivory rod (o m. A barrel-shaped bead of red glass o m. of course been robbed. Below this we came again into clean sand. dated. The which ivory Hathor head should be placed below the shallow bowl to the right with it . from base shaft. 08 cent.) with buttonlike top. depth into a chamber. came upon the sloping face. just half way down the head east. Inside was a cartonnage. were two undamaged burials. west) into irregular each of these were a lot of poor. the handle of a wooden sickle and shaft (pi. the chamber. 1 1 A second : shaft metre high in and thrown about. an No varnish anthropoid coffin with bright decoration in red and blue on a yellow background. long) were the small objects found.. at 7 m. 2 and 3 it to another. 5o cent.

one to the north. It was the brick statuettes. TOMB OF The north chamber was had been broken away 1 ^. To the east of the southern niche of the mastaba are several square shafts of Old all Kingdom tombs. 3a cent. one to the south. hollowed m. probably. of limestone. Above the chamber was some brickwork. and on the upper surface of this was a raised ridge pierced witli a series of holes (21 to 28).. : to allow closed by two upright slabs of stone a metres high a corner of one entrance to a robber and the hole thus made had been closed again by the undertakers of the burial on the other side of the shaft. the nature of which we had not before understood. 88 pierced to receive the upright m. a boat-shaped body. When mouth of the XXXIX). each consists of three parts. but the sides had collapsed. 69. They were four in number. at a depth of 5 metres below the top of the masonry at that into 1 1 tomb point and metres below the Greek pavement close by. the workmen observed a hole and looking through it saw a chamber containing a coffin and some wooden an undisturbed Middle Kingdom tomb. violated and the NORTH CHAMBER. viz. to the west. to i their lengths varied from o m. tomb was opened we could at once see that this burial. 78 centimetres long) were fixed a series of pegs (16. long) of wood. At the base of the door were four pots. there were signs too of robbery. the openings of two chambers were disclosed. 18) and the strings were stretched between these and the ridge on the sounding board. the fragment on the left and the spatula below (o were also two pairs of castanets and a bronze spearhead. The body of the harp was is closed above by a sounding board pegged on with wooden nails. 1906-1907. human bones on the top of the lid. is fits. so the Old Kingdom shaft was temporarily filled in again and the Middle Kingdom shaft cleared. short. had suffered from the white ants.6 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. the more important southern one. But none of the cords remained and the harps had been broken up. The north door was of blocks of stone and had been disturbed in ancient times so that the account of this burial will be but The blocking of the southern chamber was of brick and had not been clearing of this tomb gave us active occupation for some weeks. When the floor was reached. In the standards (67. There The harps are more important the pieces are seen in plate XXXIII as they were found. . very thoroughly robbed. evidently lining the shaft leading to the which we had looked. of filling the space between the outer and inner casings of the mastaba. the double kohl pot cent. and had to be soaked in paraffin before they could be handled. KARENEN TOMB. close to the mastaba. 09 : from a single piece of wood and standard : solid at one end where a hole cent. and therefore. They were very much decayed. light as paper. two bottle-shaped and two coarse cylindrical jars with slightly spreading mouth the (pi. In the side of one of these. The lid of the great outer coffin could be seen.

KARENEN TOMB. from the name of the owner of the tomb was re- covered. a ledge above it. bigli). Models of boats and granaries and various statuettes stood on the two coffins and in the spaces between one of them and the wall. except the bones that lay on the top Close to the canopic chest was a hammerstone of quartzite stained by paint. In the southeast corner left was a canopic chest with a granary above it and a boat placed over was the hole by which we had looked in from the Old Kingdom shaft. Under the coffin lid at the south-east Little of the real wood of the coflin end was the fragment of a statue in black granite (pi. SOUTH CHAMBER. below the coffin lid. its red and white chequer pattern. But the massive wooden coffins had been so badly On which was left . a large steering oar. There are grave suspicions against those who conducted the funeral of Karenen. a mast-rest (?) and the deck with A model of a brewing scene could also be recognised. and the vases were represented by fragmentary shells of paint.box The canopic was of thin wood. with the owner seated in a cabin in the stern. room cent. that. with some remains of coffin cloth. . No part of the coffin could be preserved but it was noted that the outer surface was painted yellow with columns of incised hieroglyphs span distance apart. o m. at a coffin nor of the skeleton. were a boat and a vase of black clay. -e anyone entered the tomb. long. This tomb had evidently been robbed in very early times and the inner coffin with the body of the deceased seems to have been destroyed and removed. A bowl covered with another inverted bowl contained bones of a calf's leg and some organic dust. To the by the workmen as soon as they broke into the older tomb. A few almond-shaped carnelian beads were found in the on the floor. The greater part of the chamber was filled by two large coffins ^ 'nted yellow and bearing inscriptions in blue. was just large enougli with a narrow space to one side and on the east. they were badly eaten away. 70 cent. the vases had disappeared. all humanheaded. 5o cent. among them a boat. derived from the cloth in which they had been wrapped. was left the mass of white ant tunnels which occupied its : in the hand. XI). Tlie 7 chamber (2 m. and the canopic chest was a mass of fragments of wood and pottery. Behind him was a trunk and there were traces of a steersman and of a sailor hauling on a Between the rope. as will be seen from the photograph reproduced in plate XII. witli beards and painted. 60 to contain the coflin. TOMB OF {J* We now turned to the AND j southern chamber and took down the brick wall. The first glance showed that the tomb had suffered nothing from man but very much from the white ant. which was taken bo. by i in. for a canopic box. and two more of the same kind appeared afterwards it mud mortar of the wall which closed the southern chamber. in a little recess. Nothing was seen of the inner of the outer lid. by i in. and the fingers would pass almost without resistance place could be gathered up through a foot thickness of this porous material. the lids were of wood. 80 cent.

) Under It this the next model can be seen. This was clearly a tomb where much might be seen that could not be transported. the roof is supported by a single the cross beam. i. the side walls remain. being fairly almost escaped the insects' attacks. o m. the boys red. a floor once. The figures are made free from other objects and more exposed to the air. and a side of one of them had collapsed. another a bowl of charcoal and a fan. (Dimensions by cent. with the coffin of view of the western coffin. The model had. of the coffin was next taken out. and one a bottle. the vineyard could be examined. in the middle another roasting a goose and in a corner the scene of the slaughter of an ox. the tallest o m. two boys carry a box of of clothes. In the is rooms at the little back are little bits . three of them cylindrical jars two of which contained the shapes are given in plate XXXIX. had fallen over upon others placed on the ground. XV). a table with beer like jars. The statuettes are represented as carrying food and drink in baskets and jars for the funeral festival. The inner half of the shelter divided into two storeys in the lower are three chambers with square doors while the upper is open. attacked by the white ants that they had given way. but the termites got at it from below. flat . 60 cent. The door. A group of four pots were first black clay. and rafters are pillar. presumably belonging to it. fixed in a common wood. The women are painted yellow. 5o it from the which had fallen. cent. had board i mat and a headrest. it. a double row of : removed. yet another a green painted m. this made like the hieroglyph jf . Some model figures. the floor had gone but thickness (o m. another of the beehive shape. a man with a yoke on his shoulder and lastly a joint of meat.8 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. There further a circular table and of the shape of an the leg of wood the top of bronze and two of wood. of course. several small - pieces. high. represents a building open on one side and with a court in front. . 1906-1907. with two small pillars as further support for the roof. a man behind them leaning forward. In the court are a series of large vases. one a plain cylinder of wood. The bowl. long (pi. 60 cent. plate XIII gives a appeared when opened. long. while others had fallen through the body of the coffin. which show that the vine was at this time grown on trellises set on brick columns. leaning against the west painted blue and represents the vine very summarily by little arches of wood supported on wooden pillars. . were found and two ovens. taken when the first half of tomb as it the floor had been cleared. carefully reproduced. When on the this object was moved. placed too near the edge of the lids.) could still be seen as the layers of blue paint remained in place. is in a corner of the yard. two baskets (?). two figures of girls painted blue with horizontal red lines. of rough red ware wooden statuettes. its The kitchen from the top The model was about oti o m. painted red. lid of It is It is seen in plate XIII. Plate XII shows the eastern half of the as far as possible Karenen on the right. ca. At one end was a man holding a tray. but. isosceles triangle. 76 cent. some women bear flowers. o m. all One jar was closed by a stopper of black clay. so we photographed the objects before they were moved from the tomb. Above these was the procession of women and boys. was now moved and coffin. two flat trays. a large vase lying on its side on a is : support a barrel on trestles. containing veal bones and covered with another bowl inverted over coffin lid below. 38 cent.

06 cent. objects 9 which may not form any part of this model. The mast laid in the rest T. . a man seated on deck before the cabin read to Karenen from a roll. XXVI. . pierced along the bulwarks by a o m. 09 cent. There were also shields. raised on the stream. and on the basin : O The board forming but is a side of the model seen in plate XII behind the bowl was now moved and the two boats near the canopic box better seen. line at 9) was a metre long it we could see that rose sharply from the water series of holes at bow and stern.) The granary (n 5) Excavation! at Saqifara is a double one with a central court : on the inside partition walls doors : are painted with red for the frame . one lookout. was of another type. and painted white with red and black patches these may represent the spears of the crew laid in a spearcase like a large quiver. made. (Dimensions o m. and a basin to correspond of beaten bronze.KARENEN TOMB. one fender or mallet. The stem and stern have the shape of a papyrus flower and the sides are painted green. : both red and white and black and white. Four sailors were hoisting sail. The boat from the top of the granary (n 6) which was now moved. In the cabin sat the proprietor. his trunk behind him. by the side of it lies the gangplank. 3) containing model tools. in the mast mast-step. 18 cent. namely. On is the ewer cut. and two reeds (o m. before the mast were three sailors and a lookout and two more had fallen over-board. reis with 4. Two shields still hung on the roof of the cabin. with broad leaf-shaped blades. quite carelessly : I SfS _ A. with a mooring stake on either side and a mallet Under the boat one spearcase (?) and part of another. sits on a square is seat. it was not easy to see which belonged to each boat. that it was painted yellow. XVIII. a small ewer of cast bronze. o m. The owner. The position of the sailors showed that the boat was supposed to be sailing upstream. a There were ten rowers. the main difference being that the mast was stepped and the T shaped rest laid on the deck forward. 16 cent. This boat is paddling down Laid also on the granary at the north-east corner was a small box (pi. Below the boat was the fallen steersman and stakes figure of the owner was made of superior a long steering oar. mast and two yards (these are laid rest) peg. representing the light boat. There are eight men which is armed with paddles in its place. and canopy with open sides. The nearer boat (n badly damaged. intervals and that the deck was white with red thwarts. were two long objects (o m.) tapering at one end (pi. by o m. the hulk being nearly destroyed. The nails on the floor had rotted so the sides and lid could be lifted oil' and shown separately. The further boat (n 7) was of similar type and in better condition. It has a sliding lid and two knobs for tying the lid. both on one side. high. 22). 08 cent. once made of reeds and propelled by paddles. not by oars. both of them inscribed. the wood. landing plank and T shaped mast-rest.09 cent. on each side of him a reed and one of the spearcases. ' ) <= I 1 V JQ C~3 LJ ^ I I _ . and white for the panels there are holes in the roof to a 1906-1907.staff before the cabin. Under the boat and across the deck respectively. left. as usual. of better wood than the sailors. long) may also belong to either boat.

The first (pi. the south-east had black painted with diagonal stripes of yellow and red white. one in the court. and nearly fallen through. To the right is a man working a bow drill and another shaping a headrest with an adze. A stair leads up on to one roof. The model is o m.. We . 6). on the near side is the rod which served to tighten the cords which the Egyptians always lashed round a log before sawing it. Two scribes sit on the roof of one granary and pour A lot of real grain write. After To the rotten but we away we were able to open the inner coffin of Nefer-semdet-entheb may leave the account of it to the end and finish the list of the small objects. LJ AVMPMA The box of a drab colour and a good deal plastered. resting on the spongy mass of white ant tunnels were three models. 54 cent. lady. The north-west vase was to imitate alabaster. made of light wood. he has a harper on each side of him. In each of the four divisions were the remains of a canopic vase. 62 cent. The pegs that held on the lid were by o m. Three of them contained masses of carbonised wrappings which fell to pieces spots on when touched. 1906-1907. simplicity the right. Another granary (n 17) stood on the top of the second coffin in the middle. but of natural size. Two pairs of sandals. but there may have been an internal vase of nage painted yellow and decorated wood. all used. were also laid on the granary. it is new to us and it is carried out with which served. Above and by the side of the canopies were a lot of sherds from a large red bowl of the period. it and yet with the necessary detail. 55 cent. Karenen is made of the superior dark wood. There is a workable would once open and shut on a pivot hinge. One vase had a human headed lid (north-east). two of them of more than average interest. XVI) shows us Karenen enjoying an evening with a party of musicians. that of the At the north not end. and similar to the last one by except that the door was in one cleared wood was corner. At one end a man is sawing. (north) of this. the handle lies at his feet. was a potter's workshop and to the right of it again the most complete of the carpenter's shops (pi. had been placed in it. This is the most attractive of all these groups. now go on to the objects on the western coffin. long and was enclosed by low walls which have mostly disappeared. XVII. for one of them wears the knob-ended queue of the gymnast. as it seems. he carries a wand ending in a hand.10 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. the girls are clearly dancing girls. cent. what was left was canvas carlonwith black lines. Two thirds down are a pair of crossed slats. o m. 56 to the one pair on the roof. one the stomach (in the north-west vase) and the other a parcel of intestine. 5o cent. coffins appears. He is seated in his palanquin. the little bronze saw still sticks in the wood. is it was inscribed =L -&\ V -*^l=-affiffi }t W* ^ O I I I ' *=" f I*-"*. It is o m. both in the granaries and on the door to the model which floor of the court. high exclusive of the lid. in the grain. to keep the vases from shaking. also from a smaller bowl that had contained resin. 55 cent. The granary was now removed and we turned drilledout and the lid taken out. by o m. It was o m. indoors as an easy chair. three singers in front and the favourite on a stool before his knees. canopic chest (n 6). so that the left granary had to be shorter than the one on the right. Elliot Smith recognised two of them as viscera. but Between the two Dr. not in the centre.

26 cent. 61 cent. i). two of them in with the other vineyard did not help. o5 m. mat To To it the left of this big boat. breadtli o m. whether a man squatting posture. another a squatting figure. XVIII. but the white ants had done so much damage that it could not be completely planned. is roasting a goose. was possibly a laundry. height o .). was still in the boat. was another workshop of a potter and a i5). in dark wood. by o m. their oarblades were of a broad leaf shape and curved at the tip. The man under the (o shelter appears to be cent. 60 cent. i and 3 (o m. a kitchen cent. a tiny bronze : sixpence and the top of a fan of wood. at the other end of which sat the owner her palanquin. Comparison or a woman was not observed. another. as its floor too had disappeared and any figures that may have been on it were lost. visible 11 in plate XIII. The pear-shaped mallet. shop (n i5) were several small objects. one a man (o standing with the left arm and the right leg raised. 2) m. ^19 cent.. larger than usual. The T shaped mast-rest was raised and the mast and yards laid over the boat. to o making beer. It is knife.. between the last o in. her harp. and o m. i 3 cent. The mast and two yards were complete. she stood on a board. but it was in a very poor state. 35 shown. a larger scale in plate . to find that propriety required a or curtain to be drawn before the door of this lady's cabin. In this inverted canopy or cabin we found part of the figure of a girl. 70 cent. m. three in Behind and under the granary n 17 was the second vineyard (n 62) (pi. or slaughter-house It is (length o m. the mast-step and a peg were also recovered. one only was found. some parts were a mere shell of paint. after being taken outside and cleaned.KARENEN TOMB. and three women. the right of this. by o m. of the in : tomb a small box of tools. by o m. 20 cent. and the boat. 67 cent. potter's Behind the The boat was green with black vertical stripes. Close to it were two pairs of wooden sandals. in height). between by o m. XIX. 07 cent. i 2 cent. One was a statuette of (pi. considering the freedom of womens' lives. a girl with her hands raised XVII. side. long) of joints of meat. To the left of this stood another boat (n out at one end to 16) shown in plate XVII. and the statuette of the lady. There were ten rowers. Under the shelter was a sitting sfatuette. o5 (lid cent). plate XIX. four adzes. but the canopy had fallen over it differed from those on Karenen's boats in being nearly closed in front. Inside the inner chamber were wooden models number. This was evidently the companion piece to the evening entertainment of the husband. In it were three figures. was a model the nature of which was not clear. similar to that of blades of chisels and adzes. plate XVII and are shown on lastly Karenen and containing three saws. 38 cent. 2. This is sawyer (n shown in it plate XVII. long. a size of a wooden mirror the very curious. Dimensions o m. on the corner of the lid.). whose head is just seen. was in. (PI. These are visible in XIV. The hulk is eaten a shell into which the rowers have fallen. nine the two good statuettes of the lady. parts of a painted box fallen to pieces o m.) two and further back was another papyrus boat. Lying on its 2. 87 cent. It is probable that these figures formed part of the model. in i there should be two small pillars between the two roofs. On the near side of the yard two men are killing an ox.

the with lady. with white hands. and by the side The querns are not of the modern kind that rotates. but girls side the millstones. In the large division of the yard two of them is a vessel for holding flour (?). standing. being made of better wood. The space between Inside the cabin are three figures of hard wood. and one was a black (pi. Above the rest. the boat (n 19). had suffered very little from the wliite ants. of the heavy type. top row.) The court : probably kneading next him is a girl with a poker in her hand and in the corner is a furnace. behind him a man facing astern. The outer coffins have been examined by M. 20 in number. long. white objects with lines scored on them along and across. behind it is the steersman. . Along the end wall are two oblong which may represent bread on trays. In the smaller and nearer division is a man standing in a tub. on the floor. doubtless. In the corner is an oven and in front of it are two more girls. then the mast. and inverted over it was a third bowl. thick. 45 cent. similar. painted green with black stripes and was in the worst condition. one flat and rounded. In front of this group is another girl holding a large in her extended hands but the vessel in which she was pounding or stirring is not prepestle served. The space below these last models was covered with pots. 21 et seq. I XXXIX. a lookout. he. Four bore rough mud stoppers. by 20) is shown is divided into two o by a wall leaving a passage at one end. sufficiently shown in plate XVIII. were covered on the inside with texts and these We may now proceed were very massive. into which.12 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. a handful at a time. Tlie lid of the outer coffin was now removed and we obtained access to the north end. were chiefly of the round-bottomed bottle shape but six were vase wide mouthed cylinders. i. she has a lotus bud stuck in her wig. It is a flat-bottomed bowl : it stood in another. but the state of preservation was very bad. while the other probably once held a fan. the contents of which are white. Parts of the lines of blue inscription on the outside could be copied. over which lay two wooden a boat and a brewery. one of whom in plate XIX. that were pushed backwards and forwards. by side are working querns. two maids before her. 2/1 cent. their and to the examination of the bodies. The inner coffins. but round-bottomed. second from right). with a dish in her lap. As in all the boats sails and ropes have utterly disappeared. one a high shouldered vase with spout. 3. the coffin and the wall was filled with pottery. 72). like the outer ones. however. 60 cent. suppose. The remainder. 8/ cent. (Dimensions o m. was the last of the boats (n was a papyrus It is boat with mast raised. the was pushed. I There flour is a kind of bowl attached to the lower stone in front. he is The brewing scene (n m. In the near corner (not visible in the photograph) is a man was making up the loaves for baking. It At'the south end of the coffin. 1900-1907. i). astern of it two men squatting and four hauling on shrouds. i. one seated. the cabin is nearly closed in front. It has objects. o in. to the coffins lids being o in. holds up a tiny mirror. but the interiors were hopeless. in the north-west corner of the tomb was the large bowl containing veal bones and carbonised cloth (pi. so often found in excavations. three of the peaked kind. Pierre Lacau (p.). XXXIX. They. seated. raised.

Below the arms the body was wrapped by a narrow spiral bandage the arms were also held in position by : : a of bandages passing obliquely across the chest and pads of linen filled up the gaps between the limbs. INNER COFFIN OF KARENEN. . two at each end. The hands were clenched with thumbs extended. .. the wig painted green. the end pieces were of gilt wood. The right hand held a half moon of wood covered with gold Below this came a large sheet of linen with fringed edge and under it a single longitudinal sheet of linen in contact with the skin. were kindly taken for me by Drs. Under large masses of side padding. The body was now taken out. to imitate a reed. Each leg was wrapped separately and the outermost separate wrapping thickly encrusted with red resin. the The lid : eyebrows. moustache and beard also green. stretched the on outer wrapping. wrapped separately and folded across the chest. In the back of the with parcels of linen bandages. Over the head was a cartonnage. reddish moustache and beard of about two weeks growth and the short hair on the head face The was of the same colour. The following notes on the wrapping. the head to the north and resting on a wooden pillow. all the knots being on the front surface.KARENEN TOMB. folded in eight layers. Over the body was a mass of linen cloth just as in the coflin of Khennu and above this and in front of the body lay a group of staffs and (pi. etc. the beads of glaze and cylindrical. XXVIII) bows. the right forearm uppermost. long oblique bandages these oblique bandages was the lower part of the cartonnage mask. The body had not been moved it lay on the left side. Dobbin. Elliot Smith and was wrapped round the right side of the body. each hand on the being opposite shoulder. plugs of which were also placed in the nostrils. Underneath these were more than twenty-three circular bandages connected with one another Ihe outside a long sheet of cloth. two bows were divided in halves. Under these came from the shoulders towards the feet. Part of a necklace could be seen still in place. 13 was removed by drilling out the pegs. the head photographed and the mask removed. folded in eight in front of the body and a similar one behind. on some of which incrustations of resin were upper part of the thorax a viscus (? heart) was found. then snapped. The opening for embalmin the usual position ment was a fusiform gaping wound on the left flank. filled was clearly seen. this On under came a second sheet on the left side. number fastened round the neck with cord. Plugs of linen to were between the and a of series small round were laid under the lips. The inner wrappings. represent eyes placed eyelids pebbles The face bore a short. On the neck was a collar of gilt cartonnage. One of the nine staffs was carved first sawn half through. the face yellow. which fastened the dowels. then a few bandages just broad bands of cloth laid longitudinally and some more large pads of folded cloth both at the sides and on the front of the body then the arms were exposed. in front of them. The man was circumcised The whole body cavity : the penis was not wrapped. longitudinally along the middle and front of the body. both on the limbs and body. was thickly smeared with resin. were very much blackened and burnt and were covered with salt crystals. of half circular form foil. with a row of almond-shaped carnelian beads below. having been two were left entire. Then came on the front of the body a series of large pads of folded cloth and under them a second series of circular like the first. Some parts of the linen appeared in very good condition but some was very badly carbonised and had been attacked by the termites. Next then a coarse towel.

The headrest was inscribed. both on the top and on the shaft this was fluted like a column and painted blue in the Outings. on the right. The necklaces. one on the right. Under these was a doubled cloth folded once round the body. in circular ties. broad. The race is typically Egyptian cranium a large mass but no sign perforation On the left wrist was a copper bracelet. across the body.) The arms shoulders. the necklace. above the carnelian a row of beads. 10 cent. over the end of the cartonnage. Below these came 10 thicknesses of coarse wrapping and three of fine. and reaching from the chest to the knees. 06 cent. There were four bows. none on the left beads. free. COFFIN AND BODY OF | W The account of the last body will in many respects serve for this. all fringed. 1906-1907. fringe sewn on. . First a mass of folded cloth o m. apart. row of with aquiline nose. Below these were pads o m. of it a double On On large cylindrical the right wrist was a similar bracelet but no carnelian or copper ring. o& cent. placed along the sides of the body. was a copper mirror with wooden handle. 08 cent. the mass of linen above the body. are not clenched but on the On the left upper arm was a ring of bronze. the cartonnage. On the right wrist five rows of cylindrical blue wrist a single carnelian similar to that of the male. Inside the of the ethmoid bone. front of the body now appeared a mass of black gauze and under it a series of cross ties o m. two of them broken deliberately. The ears were not pierced. by o m. one of which ran downwards over the Up arm to this point the cloth had been brown or dark brown . : The succession of bandages observed was as follows. the right foot was an anklet of four horizontal rows of cylindrical beads and a similar one on the left. right (At this stage Drs. 60 cent. Diagonal of about strips Over the same breadth ran from the two shoulders. then hand-broad bandages across the body and over the shoulders. one layer was brushed away in dust. the hands' however. and the the body be seen. the head broad. then a series of ties o m. Then came in a layer of fine cloth of 6 thicknesses. The arms were crossed over the breast. When the body was lifted out it was seen that the left flank was badly decayed. below it a large barrel-shaped carnelian bead and above blue glaze beads arranged vertically. 26 cent. The position was the same. apart. Two more. but on the breast. V-shape though coarse. above. it very brown and had a o m. the headrest with the name written on it in ink. and four staffs. it The mirror was now lay between the two lapels of the wig.. still partly adhered to the wrappings. two on the left side. this latter doubled over the shoulders. fragile.14 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. the tips of the curved upper part were also painted. Elliot Smith and Dobbin took up the note-taking. are in the same position as the male's arms. were placed on the two sides. Next came a pad of 6 thicknesses. below this it became blacker and carbonised. o m. neatly wrapped up face. The mask could now be removed. the ends of these last split for tying. 16 cent. similar to the last one. broad with long fringes.

Nothing remained of the chapel above but some brick detritus. courses appeared. they appeared but more probably formed part of the cartonnage mask. and the east side of blue cylindrical beads with two end pieces. Near the door was a lot of pottery. The posterior bandages and the whole of the body had is fallen away before the mummy was examined. then. When this was removed the view given in plate XXVII laid in o m. a wooden statuette and some more pots. the blue wig of cartonnage had existed but only a shell of paint remained. Two burials lay side by side. at the end of the east coffin a canopic chest could be seen. the entrance of which was blocked by a wall of brick almost certainly intact when found. The date of these bodies is fairly established as being of the Early Middle Kingdom or even before this. TOMB OF KHENNU AND APA-EM-SA-F This is (289). Inside was a mass of white ant casts. 22 cent. 355 mill. The interest of this examination of the bodies that there has been a lack of well authenticated mummification before the New Empire. one of the pair of shafts in the south-west of the great mastaba. plaits 15 The hair was arranged in a mass of small on the back of the head. though by no means so richly furnished. to the south. At the north end was an alabaster head-rest. whiskers and beard in blue on a white ground. : of the coffin. EAST COFFIN The outer little had panelled pattern in relief and was painted yellow. (289). broad. On the lid were several wooden figures. of wood or cartonnage. and on the lid : of the west coffin were a boat.TOMB OF KHENNU AND APA-EM-SA-F The ears were not pierced. . these must have been. the sides and lids had slipped away. The ruins of the outer lid were swept away and the inner removed. boats and workcoffin shops. The canopic coffin. The shaft was lined with long blocks of stone carefully and was above k metres deep. In general the tomb was very similar to that last described. the outer one of ordinary wood which had been attacked by ants and had largely lost the character of wood. o m. Inside the skull was a huge black mass which broke ^ith a shining fracture but the ethmoid was perfectly intact. The face had the moustache. occupying the greater part of the bare stone chamber each consisted of two coflins. were two ears of plaster. and the fact of their being mummified and the skill born of old experience with which the process was carried out are both very cases of clear. the hair in front was cut short. There was one chamber. all The forearms were bent up heap between the body the body was that of a youth as the lay in a epiphyses were not joined. lay in a collapsed condition at the south end of the were some sherds of pottery but no canopic vases. the poor remains of a set of models of offering-bearers. In it chest. Over the body lay a mass of linen wrappings of feathery consistency. skull Under the to have been between the wrappings The necklace.

a conical mallet or fender. no doubt owing to the On youth of the deceased. The elaborate pattern on the cabin. A better preserved piece of the west side of the outer coffin now became visible. the o I vase m. WEST COFFIN y man. 2 5 cent. The figure of the master of the boat inscribed with his name in the in ink. is graph. name on his The fender is he wears a wooden cone with a hole near the top and is coloured white with red spots. one of the kind with on the top. part of another oven. A third boat was found later. high. there were several other objects. a girl with basket on her head and a pigeon in her hand. an oven. To the north of this boat was an oven o m. In this again the proprietor squats below a canopy also a brace or strap over his left shoulder. between the and the his wall. near was the leg of a bull. the top of the coffin were traces of a boat. always the same coffin photoan imitation of leather work. These objects may have been hide bags stuffed with palm fibre if indeed they are fenders perhaps it is more reasonable to : see in them mallets covered with a jar hide. had a shelter with four papyrus bud in bands of blue. besides the good boat. Underneath it on the lid of the inner lid of the The coffin lay a pair of wooden sandals. wbich does not shew in these boats. these were the remains of a kitchen or slaughter house. a sailor. it The shown There better preserved boat in plate is is of the other and heavier type. and three small bronze tools were found when the tomb was cleared on this side. green and yellow. long and is XXIX. This was a rather poor burial. all relics of models like those in Karenen. carved in . white with black spots. outer coffin could not be preserved. though there was time to observe that it was covered internally with texts written in short columns. a cow.16 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. and has There are ten sailors. On the sides were the following texts incised and painted in blue. separated by black and white rings. figure of a and bowl and the seen in plate XXVII. it i 5 cent. is It is o m. A rectangular paint slab of dark stone with sloping sides. 76 cent. 190G-1907. skirt. the spouted vase On the lid. A papyrus boat was hardly more than a shell of paint. was pillars gaily painted itself painted yellow with coloured bands near the bow and had a rosette on the end of the prow.

square. it was inscribed on the the wood was o m. a bow sawn in two and laid with the two and another and longer columns of staff laid behind the body. oo3 mill. the owner was a woman. The mass of cloth above the body was singularly white. in diameter and o m. Along the top ran a line of large blue hieroglyphs and on some of the projecting panels were columns of text in black. some gold leaf found I in the Below the body also was a wrappings here no doubt came from a gilt sheath. On the east side the wood was less well preserved but the two eyes were carved on a separate wood (o m. these were unwrapped and noted with some care. These two tombs of Karenen and Khennu were the prizes but there were several other tombs of the period in a more or less ruined state. 17 recessed panel pattern like the granite coffin of Khufuankli. Excavationi at Saqqara 1906-1907.OTHER TOMBS OF MIDDLE KINGDOM. o4 cent. the box o m. the coffin were quite bright. o m.) there were wooden figures from boats and in one of them a boat in very bad condition. thick. The colours of the scenes and texts inside Laid over the body. which was the canopic box. In another (5o6) though the coffin was destroyed the canopic box. of wood. one of each kind. 3 . as the character of the wrapping was much the same as in the case of Karenen. The carthe wig was dark green. When the coffin was removed a square hole appeared below it in This was empty except for some traces of cloth. / I 8 X m J I A great quantity of cloth was employed for the bandages. remained. thick) let into the plank. facing east. the rest in front. sunk in a pit under the coffin. 62 cent. One was carved to imitate a cane and above the joints were some bands of fine punctures made by minute nails. the tonnage was gilt on the face. the two canes thus -W^ % I Ik. Of these several were inscribed in ink with vertical text. head supported on a wooden pillow. staff. A difference in position was that the hands were laid over the pubes. " Cl U C~~J A~~A * sV *Vand-M. and E. four shields hung over . lid and on the four sides. o35 mill. Under the head was a flat disc of red resin. two (5o& W. but the details are not given here. one behind. were the staff and bows. There In were also two boats to the north of the canopic box. only broken by a line of brown dust that had fallen between the planks of the lid. a stout points towards the head. The body was on the left side. another staff has a round gilt knob. and a group of pots. Five shafts were found in the angle between the great wall and the side of the mastaba. thick. piece of better The inner lid was now lifted and the view shown in plate XXVIII appeared. 08 cent.V IHh~K JT = "jj^jim X -=> X Jj J *~A JT J I and the two stout clubs m. and by a patch over the shoulders where the white ants had penetrated. There was a second imitation reed. There were some bronze model tools among the beads that lay in a heap below the chest. OTHER TOMBS OF MIDDLE KINGDOM.

but nothing so well preserved had yet come to light. are similar to those in Karenen's tomb. the cabin of the heavier boat. 5o cent. 16 cent. but not identical. The part brick chamber. High in the north side of this shaft was another burial n a83. that of ^-^M^^ I. Nothing but its lid shifted to one side and the wooden coffin half position and level really connects this tomb with the rest of the group. the below the great south wall is a brick arched chamber (26/1) opening the south and containing a heavy limestone sarcophagus. daubed with a yellow plaster. The shapes of the pots. long and only cent. The box was is name was again ^B^^^T^. o5 cent. but could not try for the burial below we brought down on The upper part of this tomb lest us the huge Greek wall that hangs above. The body was disturbed and there was another coffin to the south. veal bones. and in these were sherds of canopic vases of pottery daubed inside with pitch. In the floor was a hole (o m. however. sides o m. 3. deep with a chamber below to east. high. In the bank of earth to from a shaft broken. in one case. the two scenes of sacrifice and bringing of offerings. 02 cent. 2. of boats and of models (a furnace). they are rather coarser. pi. formed the two sides. The box was divided into four by partitions o m. a m. 1906-1907. Under the box was one of the ties used to letit down. Nothing more could be seen of the coffin than that it was o m. 5i cent. In the filling were bronze tips of masts. The south end had been left dragged out.we saw the chapel. square) intended for the canopic box but containing only 1 N 281. the accessible to us was probably an arched shaft the name p ~pJ-j- V (height o m. fragments of outer codin. a few human bones including a lower jaw. The next tomb (Soy) door from it is shewn in plate XXX. and some beads were all that was left. The seen in the background. The canopic box had been damaged inscribed on three sides. * earlier period -o * i Another shaft close to (-- \ J=^ came ! could not be finished owing to the same danger of destroying the big wall. This simple form of chapel in which three slabs take the place of the ornate chamber of an had been already recognised to be characteristic of these X th Dynasty tombs from the fragments found in the preceding year. A late New Empire coffin had been buried with its head resting against the block of stone on which the three stelae were erected. and o m. Sunk into the floor was the canopic box with A must be under the great wall. VIII). consisted of a mastaba of brickwork in the east side of which was a niche lined by the three stelae shewn in plate X. later in date and much decayed. with the lady dining below. 62 cent. An alabaster head-rest. 5o cent. wood box was a large bowl inverted. ko eight pottery bowls. From it ^ several fragments of a stela bearing the name T--M (pi. thick and painted white inside. A shaft 10 metres : m. A lot of other pots had been stacked by the last visitors into a corner of the chamber. thick)..18 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. m.. 60 cent. Inside the the shafts and chambers are to be seen Generally the chapels have disappeared and only . XXXIX. . four small bronze knives. broad it opens into another and earlier chamber and the opening was bricked up. the : the base of a jar was found k in k ^ o Mil tn one of the four divisions. The false door occupied the centre.

but it is not so clear whether these last two objects may not have come from outside. h ewer and basin and a pile vase. it The complete above is a line of large hieroglyphs in white and below tables on which are depicted the various articles of funerary furniture. XXXI). its door had been closed by two limestone slabs which had been pulled back. it the name I IN I M was obtained. The chamber had walls it of brick and was roofed with limestone slabs. this is statuette half a in was metre high. k . thick is veneer of better wood nailed on with o m. but the outer one was entirely eaten away. k anklets. In the shaft were a number of fragments of wood statues (pi. by by h m.. There was a wooden headrest on the lid at N 276. The east wall chamber. domed probably fruits. VII. ooA mill. was well preserved. deep.OTHER TOMBS OF MIDDLE KINGDOM. a table of offerings with very deep basins and the granite statue of a king (pi. Some pots still stood on the east and north sides. and a wooden stripes. filling also in the name Khety (pi. it had been made of common wood which had disappeared but a o m. high. 3) also bits of coarse alabaster. The masonry is good. square. the floor was covered with potsherds and on the west side a few pieces from the coffin had been left though the greater part of the wood cavity. containing four vases and the ruins of a canopic box. 3. XXXII. 7 a table against which lean two lower row 1 necklace and menat brightly painted. In the floor was a o m. 6 two shields and a spearcase. then. and lastly. 80 cent. It is i m. parts of statuettes of sailors. yellow with red outline. N 283. and from the end. 5o cent. 21 cent. stones up to i metre in length. 85 cent. a of bags | these on a stool with feet imitating lions' legs. which we did not see. 5 a pile of oval objects. some fragments of plaster with hieratic texts proving its existence. 3 : on the north the sides of the door were blank. 56 cent. courses o m. The chamber is on the south. 7 a pair of sandals. had contained two coffins. a slab of stone. (5 a table with quivers. the height of the mask a weak patch in the rock and to this the plaster has not is is the part intact : covered by a menu rather roughly written in white paint. on the first of the tables. as preserved. had been removed. of a flat barrel shape. The paintings on the south end are left shewn on plate XXX. in the 3 tall top decorated with chequer pattern. 2. ok cent. It 19 was not clear whether this or whether there had been another pit to chamber was approached from the shaft to the south. Going from right to left these objects are. 2 bows and five staffs. The walls and the roof. standing alone. 5 necklaces. The inner coffin too was mostly destroyed. Evidently the wooden statuettes were derived from the tomb. had been used adhered well west side is : to somewhat damaged. A). t ^. were covered with a layer of brown mud plaster on which texts and scenes were painted directly without any white plaster. a three vases. : are two rows of in the top row 1 a headrest. of a man in a long skirt marked with horizontal too bad condition to be of value except that the very heavy wood of which it the small stela with the made may be There were a Sudan ebony. the north.. . a bone from a calFs foot. a fragment from a false door m. pegs. then 3 bracelets. Part of this seen in plate laid XXX. The stone-lined shaft next to the Khennu tomb.

. mill. vases of the normal high shouldered canopic a coat of plaster. I 7 -W^ j^L. LAk i and a third A - m. Ik . probably from the had been robbed before the white ants passed over the site. thick 008 tomb GISR EL NEHAS PLAN OF AREA BETWEEN THE GREAT WALLS.. The fragments of the coffin remaining included some pieces of veneer This covered with hieratic text in black ink..20 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. . 1906-1907. another V lid. One of the pieces of the The square depression in the floor contained four inside and out with type made of pottery covered canopic box bore the incised text Ilk . o m.

= Sarcophage du Caire n (voir ch. Q.) = Pepi7. 58 lignes verticales i- ( ) qui se re- Irouve dans plus loin ch. 5-g (sans sep. ix). PIERRE LACAU. . 3o-3i = Texte nouveau (voir ch. 22 6a-63 (sans sep. xn). loi-ioa. 100-101. 66 jusqu'a ^[ s== |" 55-58 (sans sep. 6a n 66-67 (sans sep. 6 a jusqu'a ~~^^ = Pepi 7. 67-68 (sans sep. SARCOPHAGE DE Couvercle. x). 28083. 5i-56 (sans sep. 5g-6i.) = Un texte nouveau 3g-4a (sans sep. . n 3go56. . 1. 38-4o ) 1 1 .) = Pepi I. 52-56 = Un chapitre qui se decompose ainsi 52-55 (sans sep.TEXTES RELIGIEUX fiCRITS SUR LES SARCOPHAGES PAR M. sep. couvercle.) = Ounat. i23-ia4.(jj 3-i 5 (sans sep.) 0wnas. 60-62 (sans sep. a8-3o = Texte nouveau (?) (voir ch. 6i-63. pi. Cote droit. 107 i3-2i (sans sep. 2-3 = Pe/n 7. grades i- 27 lignes verticales retro- i-5 (sans sep. io3-io4.) = Pepi 7.) le = = Une phrase qu'on * Pepi i o3 1-1 3 (sans sep. I "^ . 9 lignes verticales : ( ) Cote gauche. = Texte nouveau (voir ch. : = = = Texte nouveau (voir ch. ^ ^ 1. | ) 3g-45 45-52 1 . 66 lignes verticales i-3 (sans sep.) = Pepi 7. 42-44 (sans 44-45 (sans sep. . 3 (sans sep.) 1 . (voir ch. 2g-3g (sans sep. xiv). (voir ch. . 3 3-io iv). = Sarcoph. = Pepi 7. : xm). = Pepi 7. 55-56 1. 1 .) = Harholep 2 3 7-2 45. XXIX. 103-107. ) cote 4. = Pepi 7. du Caire n a8o83.58 = Texte nouveau (voir ch. ) 5 (sans sep. Un chapitre qui se decompose ainsi 32-3g 32-34 (sans sep. : plus loin ch. Then follows the text of all new chapters and of a few chapters which are not found often. .) = Livre des morls. m-'*^21-29 (sans sep.) = Pepi 7.) 1 .) = Pepi 7. u). ^ f ffj ^ grades 3-5 (sans sep. ) = Texte nouveau (voir ch. 107-111. vi). 2g-3i (voir = Texte nouveau (voir ch. 1. m). 63-66. Under the head of each coflin is given the list of ihe chapters it contains.) 1 . cote 4 . VH). couvercle. = 10-18 Texte nouveau (voir ch.\n). i5 lignes verticales ( ) retro- Pepi 7.) = Pepi 7. = Texte nouveau (voir ch. = Pepi I. = Texte nouveau (voir ch.) = Pepi 7. Journal d'entree du Musee.) = Pepi 6a-63. The rest of the chapters on our coffins have not been collated with the Pyramid texts or with oilier versions already The religious texls painted on Ibese coflins of the early published.) 5-i3 (sans sep. *~ a 68-5o (sans sep.)= Ounat. 3 1-3 a = Sarcophage de Amamu. ch. = Pepi 7. 58-6o (sans sep. 56-6o. 7 60-6 1 jusqu'a . i22 n 63-66 (sans sep. 18-28 = Texte nouveau (voir ch. = Texte nouveau (voir ch. 46o-462(voirch. v). : i). sarcophage de Jj^ ^. 34-37 sans sep. Lacau who has furnished me with the following notes on three of the best among them. ) = = u : (J) ( ) retrogrades : Cote des pieds. jusqu'a -j. LXVII (debut) (voir 37-39 ( ix). 61-62. 1. E. 4o-4a 57. xi). = Pepi 7.) = Pepi 7. ) 1. xxxvm).) 45-46 (sans sep. retrouvera dans 4-5. Middle Kingdom have been examined by M.n). J. VHI ). ( ) Cote de la tfite.) i3 (sans sep. 63 de "|"*= 5o-5i (sans sep.

SARCOPHAGE DE Couvercle. ch. = Texte nouveau (voir ch. jr couvercle. ="s=8" 3g-42 (sans sep. 7-1 2 ii- ) I. XXVII. 1.29 = 1-6 (voir ch. xxn). ^ "^ j|! ] | = Mirinri. 1. 2 62-68 (deux chapitres C6te des pieds. xxvi). 1. jusqu'a = Pepi I. xv). J "^ = Amamu.) 1 Cote de la tete. 1-2 (voir ch. xxvn).) = 11 (sans sep. : = Sarcophage de jj 2S. = Un texte qui se decompose ainsi : 3. io-i4 (voir 77-81 (ou 82) 61-67 pi. : ( ) 89 (sans = Pepi 1 63-64. et seq. 66-70 (sans sep. pi. 22 n = Pepi I. 101-102. 11-12 (voirch.) ) f -*. XXVIII. pi. XXVII. !- 106 lignes verticales ( ) retrogrades : = Amamu. I. 7-ib=Harhotep. xxx ). 18-21 (voirch. sep. XXVIII. Cote droit. 29-85 1.) Pp /. 128-128. couvercle. xxxvni). sans sep. dans 3i-34 (sans 35-87 = Pepi /. . 4 2 -43 = Amamu. 7-10 (voir ch. i-4 (voir ch. 1. 3g-42 (voirch. "*. 1. 6-9 (voir ch. xv). xxi). 78-77 = Amamu. ) = Pep /.) 4g-55 55 1-2 (sans sep. 4-n 1 1 1 ( ) 1 1 1 1 -* \. (voir ch. xvn). verticales 7 6 lignes ( ) retrogrades s : 48-4g (sans sep. Pepi I. xxxn). = Texte nouveau (voir ch. phrase) (voir ch. = Amamu. xxix). xv). Livre des morts. xvi). 21-22 22-24 Litre des marts pi. 9-1 i 1. 1 5 61-62. 61-62. 2-7 (voir ch.) . 87-89 ( sans sep. 46-48 (sans sep.) = Pepi I. i 60-61. XXVII. ' La separation enlre ce chapitre Journal d'entree du Musee. 56-6o. i melanges). xxxv). 66-70. 7-2 = Pepi 1 5 9-61. = io4-io6 = Texte nouveau (voir ch. 1. (sans sep. 7_! 3 3_! 7 = Texte nouveau (voir ch. = Pep /. mu. (sans sep. = Ounas . cote gauche. 11 el le precedent se Irouve dans une Jacune. 67-78 = j4nantt.!. 107-111. 6 1 lignes verticales 3 (< ) retrogrades 1.) 1 . 21-24 et pi. p. 24. jusqu'a 42-44 (sans sep.) = 4. dif- XXVII. XXIX. 70-76 _ 56-66 (sans sep. = Texte nouveau (voir ch. XXIV. ) = Pepi o3 = One phrase 1. XXVII. xxxni). " = Pepi 1 . 118-121. xviu). '' Dans ce lexle nous avons trois fois la variante ^" * ffttl -- Cf - . 1. 1-17 (sans sep. I. XXVII.) = ^_i Une phrase (sans sep. : I 3-4 (sans sep. = Amademeure) 46-5 1 5 1-56 56-6i Fond.) 4 (sans sep. 64. xxv). xxxi). 4o-42 = Amamu. xxn). 44-46 (sans sep. jusqu'a qui se retrouve dans * / * = Pepi /. = Texte nouveau (voir ch. Recueil de travaux. i o 1-1 o4 xxm). XXVII. = Texte nouveau (voir ch.27 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA.xx). xxvin). = Texte nouveau (voir ch. i.22 3. pi. 122 sep. (sans sep. = Texte nouveau qui se 29-81 (sans sep. = Amamu. xxxiv).) = Pepi 100-101. 188-186. XXVIII.8 Texte nouveau qui se retrouve dans 1. 86 re (i 1. pi. 198. Amamu.) = Pepi I. XXVIII. xxxvi). i 5 lignes verticales ( ) retro- ) . = Pepi I.) = Mir. Texte nouveau (voirch. 21-29 (sans sep. 107*. xxxix). xix). grades retrouve i- : ) 6 = 0unas. cole droit. 3goi4. 81 (ou 82) (1) -ioi =Texte nouveau (voirch. pi. xxxvn). = OHnns. 181-1 48. = Pepi I. = Pepi 1. pi. J7_2i 7 1 = Texte nouveau (voir ch. pi. i iAg (8 2-1 5 (voir ch. XXVII. 4-5. . i22-ia4' 7 = Ounas. 1906-1907. 35-4o 43-46 pi. 1. 1.pl. . = Amamu. 63 1 . 108-107. 3 1. 443-446 avec de grandes 18-27 8-18 ferences. (voir ch. ) lignes verticales 3 '. = Amamu. 1-2 (voir ch. pi. i5-i 8 (voirch.

TEXTES RELIGIEUX.
4-i 2
i

23
fond,
1.

2-1 7

=Harholep, ig Harhotep, 206-212.

=
= =

17-87 =Harholep, 212-287. 38-45 Harhotep, 287-245. Texte nouveau (voir ch. XL). 45-46 46-6 1 Harholep, 245-a6g.
Cote gauche. 4i lignes verlicales
:

= JJS, fond, 15-17 = Texte nouveau 17-26
26-28

i2-i5=jj^5,

18-17 (voir ch. xvin).

1.

4o-42 (voir

ch. xxv).

(voir ch. XLIII).
1.

|t*~*, cote droit,

i-3 (voir ch. n).

(

)

-3o

Pepi II, 291-806. Notre exemplaire complete d'une fagon interessanle Pepi II qui est tres mutile en cet endroit, je le donne en enlier (voir
ch. XLI).

= jj~"*i c "^ droit, 3o-3i (voir ch. VH). 28-29 = MS, cote droit, 3 1-82 (voir ch. vm). 29-80 3o-34 = 45-52 (voir ch. cote droit, {J ^, = se Texte nouveau decompose ainsi qui 35-47 = Texte en tableau (voir ch. xuv). 35-42 42-44 = Texte qui se retrouve dans sarcophage
1. 1. 1.

xi).
:

le

du Caire n

28118,

cole 2,

1.

3i-4o
41

=

i4-22, publie

Teti,
,

= Pepi II

278-277
du

(voir ch. XLII).

par LACAU, Renteil de travaux,
(voir ch. XLIV).

XXX,
XLIV).

p.

198

291. Cette derniere ligne est ecrite en
>)
i
:

sens inverse (repete la Iigne

reste de {'inscription. Elle

44-47

= Texle

nouveau (voir ch.

le scribe avail

commence par
de son erreur,
( ).

47-48 (sep. de chap.)
(voir ch. xn).

=

j

S,

cole droit,

1.

55-56

cette extremile, puis s'apercevanl
il

a repris a 1'autre bout et

dans

1'aulre sens

Fond. 64 lignes verlicales
i-

48-5a (sans sep. [?]) (les lignes 5o-52
c6te 4,1. 87-88).

= Texte nouveau (voir ch. XLV) = Sarcoph. du Caire n 28088,
1.

(

)

retrogrades

:

7
i

={J j~~j,
={_

fond,

i.

1-7 (voir ch. xvi).

52-53=jJ^^,

cote droit,

52-56 (voir

ch. xn).

7-1

~*, fond,

1.

7-18

(voir ch. XVH).

Le reste du panneau

est efface.

SARCOPHAGE DE
Couvercle. 68 lignes verticales
:

(-

)

45-48 (sans sep.)
=

=

/

) cj

/,

64, seulement jusqu'a

i-

3 (sans sep. )

"\
3-

4-

\ ^ f > = Pepi 108, jusqu'a | ^ 4^(sep. 5 (sans sep.) = Une phrase qui n'esl pas dans
etc.
,

^ "^

= Pepi

I,

60-61, depuis

jusqu'a s=>

-

48-5i (sep. ?~^)
5 1-5 2

\

flj

= Pepi I, (sans sep.)
= Pepi
I, Pept' /,

Py/,

100-101.

101-102.

| )

I,

,

,

5-i 2 (sans sep.)
1

2

= Pepi I, 103-107. = Pepi I, 107. (sans sep.)
1

= 56-62 (sans sep.) = Pepi 62-68 = Pepi I, 118-120.

52-54 (sep. f~^) 55-56 (sans sep.)

122 1

.

i22 n

.

I,

128-128

(variantes).

1

2-1 9 (sans sep.) == Pepi I,

19-28 (sans sep.)
a 3-3 3 (sans sep.)

= Pepi I, = Pepi I,
1.

07-1

1 1

.

m-ii4.
5 9-61.

Cote de la tete. Pas de texles religieux, mais seulement des representations d'objets.

C6te des pieds.

1

1

lignes verticales

:

(

)

33-36 (sans sep.) == Un

texte qui se retrouve

dans

1-11=

Texte nouveau (voir ch. XLVI).
:

5,

couvercle,

3g-42
/,

(voir ch. xxxvin).

&o (sans sep.) = Pepi I, 6 a 4o-4i (sans sep. = Pepi 1 6a n 4 1-42 (sans sep.) = Pepi I, 62-68. *~ 42-44 (sans sep.) = Pepi I, 63 "114-45 (sans sep.) = Pepi I, 63-64.
1
.

86-89 (sans sep.)=Pe^t

61-62.

C6te droit. 52 lignes verticales

(

)

i-33 (fin de

la

colonne sans sep. )

= Texte

nouveau

)

,

.

(voir ch. XLVII).

Le

litre et

quelques passages sont

1

"
jjjj

identiques a
de travaux,

un

texte publie par LACAU, Becueil
p.

,

XXVI,

67-78
1.

(=

Sarcophage du

Gaire n

28088,

cote 3,

20-88).

1J

Journal d'enlree du Musee, n

EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA, 1906-1907.
34 (sans
sep.)

= 4wamu,
dans
).

pi.

XXIX,

1.

2-3. Ce
'

mSme
a 9~3

tres

abime;

les

deux

tiers

du

texte sonl illisibles.

texte se relrouve

J~^1T'
3o-34,

^on ^'

f 1-1 3

35-43 =

vin (voir ch.

= Mr, = 13-17
!

i3i-i5o.
170-173.
indeterminable.
i)

Teti,

1 7* *"""*, f

nd

i

J-

oil

ce texte forme

2= Texte ^-2

un chapitre
43-52
ch. XLIV).

distinct (voir ch. xi).

22-4a (une separation de chapitre en rouge
et

= 1^*^
i"

fond,

ligne

35

seq. (voir

264-271. 42-56 (on ne voit pas s'il y a separation) Pepi II, comII sont de 8 1 4-820 quelques passages Pepi
Teli,

=

=

,

verticales () = Litre des

C6te gauche,

La

liste d'oft'randes; 2

1

4 lignes

cet exemplaire. pletes par

marts, ch. LXVIII.

56-63=
64-71
est

Teti,
Teti,

Fond. 77 lignes verticales

(*

).

Le tout

= 287-290. = indeterminable. Texte 7 1-77

271-273.

Sarcophage de

|

|*~~*,

c6t

des pieds,

1.

i3-i5

'

^^^

V

fin

du panneau.

II

A B

Sarcophage de Sarcophage de

, [

c6te" droit,

1.

i-3.

T

,

fond,

1.

26-28.

~~-A

^~

^k

|

|

|

B

I

W*A J

V A
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s

T* J

B

QlV JEV
''

1
1

<A- fffffff\

1 1

n'c

J'ai

mis en

I6te

des chapilres

les litres

qui se (rouvent a

la fin.

TEXTES RELIGIEUX.

25
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AN
OUI
~^~

F)

A

N N

A"~w4
ii

f,;

*"

vj

.1
91

II
I

B

B

y
in

Sarcophage de

I
|

,

cote droit,

1.

3-i o.

Ill

1

1

1

$

H
*
1

Jr

I

A ^^

J
I.

y^wA
I
I

| J
I

=!i^-N J Aww
?

i--N

"
Avwv^\

Excavations at Saqqara

,

1906-1907.

EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA, 1906-1907.

IV

Sarcophage de

If^^'
8
'i
I

cot e droit,

1.

10-18.

1 41
I

Jr

mw

\\

*~~*

^

X

,

J

I

JT

m

<*.

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?

IP

)|

7

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AvA

o
J J\ A
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J\.

v

\\

^J

.^> I

\\

J-^-N /MWWA -Hi

V^PU **
.

1T

N

J

N

TJL

Sarcophage de

f

t^^,

cote droit,

1.

18-28.

V m M

!J

* -_-fl ^r J C3 I i I AW^ I ^ . . 27 9 irr l-^ I JO o A~M*~" V _. cote droit. 28-80. 3o .TEXTES RELIGIEUX. vv _y ^zr " A ^HIQ if O ! i V AV V JA. I. JK\ i I l5 O VI Sarcophage de I | '~~~*.V ^"=* O _ c Jr M 4"! _ r n ^ I I I i v \ ^"^ j al 4 36 \\ 1 v^ v ^^ _y _/r M.

3 1-82. = Sarcophage de %. I. ^. . fond. fond. ^ X * - W A . Pas de titre. B B ^ . I. cot^ droit. 2-3. 3o-3i. pi. 28-29. 36 (au milieu d'un autre chapitre).^g^ C Ce ^^ t*^*s. 'Xt~2'! 3t p VIII A = Sarcophage de ? | A~~A. 1. G Pas de titre.28 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. VII A Sarcophage de Sarcophage de jj 1 A *. N 34 G . I. N U ill 3 n ^ I I I II IAVWW* . 1906-1907. XXIX. ag-3o. texte se retrouve dans Amamu. 1.^^. cote droit. I. c6t droit.

82-89. IX 29 Sarcophage de J [*~"'"V cote droit. . . J\ J ^. 39-34 til Q -A U J . 66o-46a (avec de grandes differences). Ge chapitre se decompose = 0unas. 1.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. "! I 10 / p X Sarcopliage de J (^~^. chap. SA-Sy = 87-89 Livre des morls. 3g-A5. LXVII (delmt). = Texte nouveau(?). ainsi : 1. cote droit. ~*vri * 1 1 fl. ^ . ^ ^to^ k. II k.

1. le textc commence en haul de la ligue 35. 35-i3. 1. . 1. 65-5a. cot^ droit. w = Sarcophage de z %. 3o-3/i. 1 rf ^^^ V T^ A _/? . N ._ IN | " 1J Dans ce sarcophage le ddbut manque. ^w^*^ <fc cote droit. ^ B 5B N VA XUUU /..30 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQAIU. fond.Xl JA~~*N " ft*+**\ XI A B C = = Sarcophage de Sarcophage de ] [ l^-J 1 ^ 'f A^. 1906-1907. .

31 in N 38 A I i X BV B V m _y f I I S3 I I AVWVWV 1M" O III N I AVW~A ^ JJ ^.MV 1 SK | .^^- _ZT *V~N I JT *^ ^ A>VWA r-T! I g > I .TEXTES RELIGIEUX.A-Lf\v TV ytov.

198. =un ' autre chapitre dans le m&me sarcophage du Caire n 28088. et 1. flecueiV rfe travaux. . 1. IJ par LACAU. "*. chapitre distinct dans le sarcophage du Caire n 28088. le premier. k 0-6 2 2 >. 1906-1907. A ft" GTHU fV 3o ft " O XII A = Sarcophage de I I A~~M. B Pas de litre. 56-56. 38-AoW.d par LACAU. cot<5 4. Noire nouvel exemplaire ame'liore et complete p. XXX. p. B = Sarcophage de W ] se "X ^ fond. 52-56. Ce chapitre decompose ainsi : 52-5& = un I. depuisH c6te/i. 1.32 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. 5 A J JT i v. BecueiY de travaux. Notre nouvei exemplairc ameliore le premier. XXX.i lj Pultlie Puhl'. 199. cote droit. 5a-53 ^7-68. 1.

A N !( stc B N N I- 1 i5 fN Awww\ n ^d..TEXTES RELIGIEUX.. 1. (1) Animal peu Excavations al Saqqara .^. 55 J I AT j-* N . . totalement / 1 S==J 1 g p flTVT I i . foime un chapilre s^parddans J "^ *^".. . fond. A parlir d'ici environ 1 1 lignes.^.N^^ n-^ !'__. 5y-58. 1906-1907. I B XIII Sarcophage de I (*''*) cote droit. 33 B P \. 1. 58| *\ ' /"\ AvsvsvA T (l) _ A partir d'ici ce texle dislincl.

XLI).^^ AWW^V . A A i parti de J I la ligne 18 on comparera Ounas. O A ip::iHVJ^- . A%vw^ _/i * " 'V '^ Av*A V IK V. m |->-N A~~A JJ N A"~"V1_^ f| I I - ] >~~~* I = m. x MW~A o J B . I J^^ J -=*>- N 5 A AMMM4 k -^ ^^ UUMUI Av-vwA B Cfnl" A I I JIV j| hZl . ch. 1.. i-4. 1. I -J| ~- J^t . 8-27. = ^^v Sarcophage de r T w ^ A ^ cot6 droit. ( I W ^BP . . ^ .EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. le c6t< gauche.J A~~A I 1 fl l| XV A B = Sarcophage de I [ A*^. 1906-1907. . . 27-28 donn pins loin. i-3. les lignes 6.^ A B A p "* I . C~D . A VVWVWA L^^J ^**^^*^ cote gauche. Oncomparera dans (ce texte est sarcophage de I cote gauche. | __ IL j Ul m. 21-28. -JI* '^^PTl JE. 1. XIV Sarcophage de | Lrfi&J /**^**\ j^^. 4^ >- M N .

J i . 11 A partir de la ligne 5 J on a dans J " ^ . 5. un autre texto sans separation = Harhotep.N^7^ . 35 B p B SI ~^ J ao ' 1 " T 7 i I*.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. ' Depuis . v ~^~ * AVWWA .

s. = T ^ . " AwwVwA B J AvwvA JM" N A~^ Illlf 1*11 I ' J1HJilJJ * N *~~* JIM. 1906-1907. w Depuis 444-445. 1-7. . SIC in B m (1 > Depuis Depuis A >- N = Ounas. 446. 444. 445.} A X I ' 1 1 () (7) 35 XVI A B = Sarcophage de Sarcophage de I |~"S fond. (5) Le texte est ainsi dispos^ : Depuis j^ = 0n<M. = Ounas. 1. 1-7.36 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. 1. fond.

A 37 N N N N B xv-jN B t -M I N B N' i5 N O'?ivn c I 3 Ms - i2r A B N N IV 1 T _Zt (IV) \ Ji / 1 =* Vfi&SH-* (l) (1) Tous les sont sans Le : lexte est ainsi p z: ! dispos^ I T N .TEXTES RELIGIEUX.

-.38 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. .P'VS* ^ I =1V|U. 7-18. 1906-1907.. ^ I I I ANWWA A W V m fJl Jl Hi A~~A I J A . Sarcophage del V fond.Sj->-N AvA J JT LJ A I I I >**%^A . 1. 1. "hJV^M .-.vw^ . AMVMA B ' A.^^ x V A _F J T 4 *=* X ?W i i i O J? V n . 8 X I '"^> I I I J^N " t~~~* ?P~P^. N 8 4 6 ft A~A X U ^~ s=> /^k I I I / - w I I g I V Jj* SK A . xvn A B = = Sarcophage dejj*~s ^k fond.a *j J J I I . >*wA n^ I e >^ ? I Jj. 7-1 1 1 1 M.1 I 1 H' V f~~~* Jt* -V J* JH 1 ' r-^W ?X y T _F 'T II I ll-Ir'-^'yw^^ J"^ L ^.

1.^ \ I A LuJ XVIII A = Sarcophage de I |^v^. fond. w 1 1 1 AvwwA \\ -ifc~3*JV-*H I 4flJ A~~^ 1 A i A~~~\ ] J\ J J Aww>\ ^7^ f jff. 12-1 5. 1. . 4k * . 39 - 1^1 ^^*l I I B ^ A h ^i I > \\ 'y^^ ->. 18-17.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. f - ft V ^_i Jr ^fe 1. ^ "X i"^*v AkVWvA .^. fond.

226.40 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA.^^ J v N i5 XIX Sarcophage de Cf. 17-21. j \. l I . . I.. 1. Mission du Caire. 1906-1907. p. ^ . :>. cot^ k. Sarcophage du Caire n a8o3&. 62-68 = MASPERO. |"~"S fond.^^. 5 ANj^V^-Jl'^ BN ' V " - * -11* Tl "11 n I j j .

21-22. XXIX. 1. Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu. LXXXVI.. 92-2^. ch... it! tM.. v J CD Jr* A A ui ui i ~~*> * ( n >i *~~* XXII Sarcophage de ] * | -IM^) AW^. pi. 1.%>%. derniere ligne. /^***^ 1. J. Ce texte = i Livre des marts. I.. '9 til JU. . premiere phrase. i\j Excavation! at Saqqara.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. ~~ II v Ai * -Bl x ' '' ! vh -I* . 1906-1907. fond. j | LwJ ^*M**^ fond. et pi. XXVIII. 26-29. 1-2. O I I I 8 X ^ |_d^N Avw-A j U I f I I I "^ W ! .T1 A~~V XX Sarcophage de *"""* | f fond. x -""- Jr M N N N XXI Sarcophage de *""""*.

1.. I.i "'~'f -V ^PJ-JTlP?Pff* '^^^'V ^r-J! lU^m 1 *ww ^ ? .^^- J* o J ' J xi = 1*1 J. ag-35. 1906-1907. Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu.EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA.IV i* 1 r. XXIII Sarcophage de | |*"~"S fond. 1-6. pi XXVII. IHVVi^VJJ A Qi * A Pi AVVVWA Mvs%t*A % ?^$^3 A ^^^^R O 4. ..

. pi. Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu. fond. fond. I. 9-11. Ge chapitre se retrouve dans Amamu.JJ ^ Aw-vA p 6. AVWWA fond. pi. XXIV Sarcophage de I t^MhJ ^******^ |*~~*. ^ ^ i^^V ^ .<>-. 16-17. 6-9. XXVII. 4o-&2. 35-6o.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. 1. I. XXVII. J\ AtMMMV I . 111 ""T XXV A = Sarcophage de J |^ A. 1. 1.

I. 1906-1907. 77-78. couvercle. 1. J^ I I I \\ v B = XXVI Sarcophage de I |^''^. XXVII. sarcophage du Gaire n" 28088. a les patles lides sous le venire. [J) Le taureau . 11-12 W. I J !5^ JJ XXVII AW**.44 5 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. 43-66. AN J^ LJ iM " \\ffj II ttVV ^. * g= ' j^ <l) Cf. fond. pi. Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu. Sarcophage de f LJ AtwwA | 1. fond. pi. Jr' ch. e Ge texte = LtVre des morts. Aa-A3. XXVII. 1. 1 2-1 5. 1. CXLIX (8 demeure) = Amamu.

I. plus haul ch. CXLIX (10* demeure). ce texte a 6l6 public par LACAU. Dans ce dernier texte 1'ordre des membres de phrases J. On comparers egalement Livre des marts. Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu. ch. cf. i-4. esl normal. le sarcophage du Caire u 281 18. c6l6 3. Recueil de travaux. 5i-56. XXVII. (l) Pour le deliut. I. 3a-34. 46-5 1. I. I.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. la fin. 1. p. XXIX Sarcophage de | 1 1~~~\. V'<-| J ^S-V N ft**** ' 1isvn I ' T < I I I I I (1) Cf. pi. cf. fond. xix. plus haul ch. 18-21 <==" Ps ji i J M ' " AWV AWMV _^H * 1 \ I I I . I. ig4. XXVII. . xv. pi. Pour 54-56. XXX. Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu. XXVIII Sarcophage de "'"'% j j 45 fond. i5-i8.

Ce * Pi texte se retrouve dans Amamu. !) Tres analogue a Livre des morls. 190-197 (m^mc litre). 1-2 _y i i i ' P MV*^| >w*vy^ "~"fjV -^ _T ii P n XXXI Sarcophage de | [^*^. ffi 1 1 1 J^ jj . 1906-1907. p. 1. et pi. 190. I. 1. ch. Ce texle se relrouve an milieu d'un autre chapitre dans le Sarcophage du Caire n* 28088. Ce publi^ par LICAU. quelques phrases en plus. Recueil de travaux.EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. XXVII. CXLIX (i i" demeure). . 1. 1. fond. XXX Sarcophage de | 1 *""""* fond. La fin diflere dans les deux exemplaires. pi. 5 6-61. XXVIII. 61-67^. XXX. chapitre a e"td cole" 3.

~ M/ I ^^ U~J *^^">^ A XXXII \t~*~\.*-:- M _ZT J -7 ^^ i ji ^ Ji J 66 I fcj-U.it^u^at. 2-7. Sarcophage de | ^J J*t+tt*\ I. Ce % ' texte se retrouve dans Amamu. 1. "^ N A~A *v^L I MWA A"**"* -j ^ 64 J ' I I"* x ^ O l^-^\ 5 pf"3?prppf i-\ o ^t V \ J J* ii&. X ^^> ? I" L N t~~~\\ 1 " . \ N j^i i ii J"^*^] V AWWA V/ Jr AA ^^ J i AV**^ T 1C JPV (10 cadrats environ) I J -^^^ N AWM (u cadrats environ) I IN AtwwA ^=V-O T "V. 67-78.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. XXVIII.__ J 5^- J x w n . j*rt "/'#/&%% 3 m ywwww^ w * N JLfJ l ^-!^ 68 ^^"TJ ^ f| J A . fond. AVVVWA ^J^^B^ . !J'-^. pi.^M.

et demi environ) ' A%V~* i^l'V DIT O V ^W/ 1(^0 c6lt^ cadrats 1(2) . 29-80. 1. pi. -M V ^* -w A 79 %<'" Jt 7 % WMV? (p r (1 7 cadrats environ) 80 I Jin' H*T (1) ^ ing I (10 cadrats / . Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu. fond. I. I I 77-82. 7-10. le (1) fin du chapilre est sarcophage du Gaire u 281 18. environ) Pour La cette phrase. 10-16. 1. k ^4 "^ A ~l v I 11 ^? J^ A A II ^ .EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. a. (17 cadrats environ) 7 N[ | (12 cadrats environ) environ) XXXIV Sarcophage de *~'*. 1906-1907. cf. XXVIII. dans la lacune. . 1. XXVIII. "T I A J'J Jl 31 N AWMMV m g ittiMjP I (10 cadrats environ) I mSm 'iP ^. XXXIII Sarcophage de | I'"*"""*! fond. pi. 1. 73-77. Ce texte se retrouve dans Amamu.

^ ikVPH^ ~ N (i 3 cadrats environ) J 9 I i Mm. iK W IK "^? X PIPP ^ / ^ (i 5 cadrats environ) r \ P | 5 J : |-< ae>-N t5 97 11 La separation cntre ce chapitre .TEXTES RELIGIEUX. XXXV Sarcophage de |^""~S fond. (i 5 cadrats environ) | lY i5 cadrats environ) i I I J .t i T^ I | \ cadrats environ ) N I JL ^> P 5 III (17 cadrats environ) . 1. 83 N ^* * " I T -Hi m I Jr % cadrats environ) Y? JV n? i ' 3 cadrats environ i I i /*vw^ V J^ I ^ >^ '"---A I I I --- I i~Nj^jp- (i V i i 3 cadrals environ) ' i I VvV J^l -1* I l\ I I v N. et ie pr&&lenl se trouve dans une lacune.. . -1 I s l (5 cadrats environ) I ^ ^T^.>. n Excavation! at Saqqara 1906-1907. on ue voit pas oil ii faul couper exaclement. j 82-101 W.N yw^v (i5 cadrats environ) / ^ %^\ | I V JUj T .

XXVI. fltt****^ fond. io4-io6. \\\ il XXXVI Sarcophage de | L^_J |^A. p.50 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. 1.J.. !^ so 8 iii9 i ^^i~i-^ N ~HBH^^l vwvrx 'wn J/ J^ JV J* I I N \ I I l v ^a>- I J J- N <~~A w &. fond. le sarcophage du Caire n' a8o83. en N O i * i Pour le debut de ce texte. ]. Ge chapitre a el^ publie par il . cf. loi- t o \1mV : *j|]it Jl p~p. ^^ : -.. aa5. c6te 3. LICAD dans Recueil de travaux. XXXVII Sarcophage de t J . '' 1.^. 1906-1907. 168-169.

el dans * frttttt^ * \. | 1 TL w ^>^ -IV J J * T ]>j =t> AVW^ A>*~^ ^= ~ C~D CUD -^^ J\ 1 1=] ^^t A~v^ =>. ag (1) . 33-36. couvercle. 7- . couvercle. 1. couvercle. 1. 1. XXXIX Sarcophage de T ^ .^^ 1 =* tf *~"* A~~* JiL Aw-v^ If) -^^ J^> HI A V m^ 46 *"""* i | rf | 1 I I A (1) Ge lexte se retrouve dans j |^ f J /MWM^ S. 45-66. c6t^ droit. _f couvercle. 3q-/i2. XL ^ 'f i^^^ AvVrWA ^ . 66-70. 51 XXXVIII Sarcophage de I w f- A . 1.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. i. 1 I I I I .

291-806 fait tout a chapitre qui est Notre exemplaire complete tres heureusement ce mutile dans la pyramide de Pepi II. 1906-1907. . V^ -f* Ofl I /tow** AtwwA J AV^-V -ffV \ -W ^ -0 '=" -^fc>.= I -E* * >*~~^ ^J Y -^ n *v _ I A VN -. p*~*-^i . \LI ? Sarcophage de 9 x "^ A "*. Ce texte = Pepi II.<S>. n ^*<~A * w\ I II I y*=A 19 -JE1I mP Aw~^ -ttV V .g I* ^^ywv^^ ^ |^VV .>% ' v ' <= ^ v n II I I k ... jik*- . 1 J |J |->-N TVT e^--* A VtV A => -11 A~~*'T^ * R 3 -ffV f -ffV ll Aw^A "H'l JB1 ^ I V-Jt =V^P~^fl -* A~A ^^ LJ I X t I ^n I A A<**\ -%. i-3o. et 4oi-og.V 1 VMT V ^ -H* Av>A irWA*. 1.52 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. J j I .^^ -S\ 1 r^j^*" 11 .*. *-= AwmAAwwwA N 4 I _ ! I * -^^ ^-"V * ^ ^k ^k A JtV ^>--^V A>*A A /~HM\ A . cote" gauche.

S^- ill t~~* i -^ " J^JM ^A^v^l ITT Jr n ^i^ M 16 4 m. H*H A**^ i JI^III |-C*^ A~ 7 35 J I -<*=- N AWVWA A*w~* ^r i LD I >>w~A J % tvi *= 31 _2T A Ul 1 1 I *~~* 4= I _2T m *=* T 3o n I Hykwv^l^^J i I I AWMK n J T '^V^ I I . ^ -^1 ^fcfc. AW*AM^ O A yW^^A _ffV ^^4 f-\4W -^^ ^ H ft Q A * 3 I I ~ " ? '*p| r: ! 1 1-^ N AMWA VIP JEVll AWWMtJ I ^*%.ftH Jr - i .^n~~^v^*=> m A I 1*1 X o^-^=>a _. II I N fiw*~\-B\ J ^ . 53 o o Y i VV JT-ff* I I - ' - n ' ill V %.TEXTES REL1GIEUX.

278-277. 1. ^k 17-26. LXIX. I N /w~A J i N -^ ^ j ^*^M^*\ XLII 1 Sarcophage de w . Vti J _^\. 1906-1907. ch. " > tie sic '! tie - _ o III ffi i V i Jll *= *l \ I I * *V I I i I lllilP|Pf|P m ^"* ^ \s ? t * \ A 10 XLIIl ^ " I^^V AvvwvA . N !N . L3o-Ao Ce texte = Tcrt'.54 35 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. fond. Ge texte = Livre des morts. 'f cote gauche.

kk-k' = un texte nouveau. publi^ par LACAU. c6"te" 1. V J* -1--1I A . i/i-i5.N >i5 A XLIV x "^x t*t+#+*\ . i V. Recueil de travaux. JtaWHHft n 281 18. I (i _ VI Jv IN A . Sarcophage deT fond. p.A I^VJ^-V \ % -^ A % ** N AMMWA _ff^ V Mtf I ' I I I I 10 ill . 2.. "'" g A V ^ V "^ ^. 44-5a. . c6t4 droit. \\ 25 _. iN A~~* s= ft VI V I Aw"~A 1 il o i ^^~ ~**~ "U.TEXTES REL1GIEUX.v 4 J 55= f I J g ->. ]S 55 % I A /*vv^ ''///. ainsi : Ce chapitre se decompose 35-6 1 /J2-64 = un texte nouveau en tableau qui se retrouve dans = un texte qui se retrouve dans le sarcophage du Gaire XXX. 1.'''"' ^-i-J-nl . L SS-iy. 198.

1906-1907. 1 A n x j N 01 X N 1) tJ j IS ^11 II ft nn J V N 14 o X i JV ft N X N 11 n ici I i' dans le Ces deux ligaes sont donates sens de i'original._^V j J (1) J J Ml 5 EL u 'M en m /.56 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQAUA. I 35 36 37 38 4o !J M CD tf{ V k i I Q \\ - tr: V s i i i i J^. .

cote &&-5a ltd : 4:> 46 47 48 4<j 5o 5i 5a IJ 1 CD V p I^^ X o \\ J N \\ J j| . * m. de partie de ce chapitre formant tableau se retrouve dans le sarcophage 1.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. 1906-1907. .f V '<?//////////# It u - t n N S= N -Q rt J N Excavalioni at Saqqara. 4a 57 La droit.

1. Recueil XXX. 1906-1907. ncr^np ip^. public par LACAU. cote de travaux. separation en le noir. c6te des pieds. 48-5a. 1. p. XLV Sarcophage cle I . 192. 1-11. Ce texte a et sarcophage du Caire n 28088.p XLVI Sarcophage de * %. w *f ^ fond.58 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. .i. Les Hgnes 5o-5a forraent un chapitre distinct dans L 87-88.

59 XLVII ' Sarcophage de *%> t'ote droit. . XXVI. Ce texte rappelle un cliapitre publi6 par LACAU dans Recueil de Iravaux. 1.TEXTES RELIGIEUX. '^ : "/f"' 'S-Xil. 8 V ! O ^V^\ k ILJ Q \ N rpc rk P 10 V N : N JLJL>P " 7\ N N? '? i5 8. i-33. p. ^"J'>lKi M'FJN! *y?~o*-v J\ N V -By V'"Hi Jr II A***~A i | y ii f -ni N? nn N w P4)WiY N (1 ^. 67-78.

60 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. $i 'iJbf-f O N: v oo ~^^^ ~E\ V '*' i v k M ^ A*w*^ t | _Z? % w i IH~T" -^ I I 1 T S$ -^i^A^ /|\AWV "T kjv-TPMKntt-frM- -PHM So (1) Le texle est ainsi dispose : m Le texle est ainsi dispose" : * V (S) Le texle est ainsi dispose" : (t) Le texte est ainsi dispose* : ft . 1906-1907.

V I' Jl 1 ./\ |u il 35 N " AvsM^A'-f)" J. 61 o 28 N i * -' I I I I I JP V ^^ " A AV^^\ AT .TEXTES RELIGIEUX.

.

by human and animal life in past ages. 200 metres square and the : place was generally called a Roman but Maspero many years ago pointed out that it was probably the monastery of Saint Jeremias. languages.THE MONASTERY. Plates This was the first found. in order to save the earlier is that much-dug area on the desert edge from Bedrashein. presumably deriving its value from the nitrates left on the fields. are the names sebakh. the practice cannot be interfered with. But the fellahin : are not supposed to dig quite at large for sebakh certain sites are given over to them. a layer of mud On the east was an apsidal recess i metre high. Ao cent. The site is by no means exhausted there are more rooms to be dug and the cemetery is well known to the Saqqara population. Ot 2 ~ 5~~ 10 METRES CELL A. amphora handles. even the name of the customer is known to the who bought from him. Saqqara. a valuable manure. Among the most as common of the Arabic words that have been adopted into European employed by those concerned with antiquities in Egypt. A guard is employed to report any discovery ies. XL-XLIV shew It . would be in the introduction of a very cheap imported manure. at the end of the dyke leading Many all of them belonging to small chambers. sebakhin. the rounded arch of which was formed of . great as the only is remedy the destruction caused to ancient sites. certainly may be seen. brick walls appear above the surface. It is most laboriously gathered and laid and. The floor was paved with oblong blocks of stone fairly cut and up to o m. Saqqara tomb -robEgypt the village does bers. Perhaps one third of the time and energy of the out door staff of the Antiquities is on the care of the interests which these words express. the name it must be largely destroyed. and it was he who pointed out to us the first of the group of chambers now to be described. extensive. The type of burial of the dealer who bought the beads and embroideries. so well known that has been described to me. at monuments. and. by o m. here and there a block of an earlier period Ras el-Gisr ft the head of the embankment T> : reused. But whither the antiquities went they left when not know. Sebakh is the expended Department soil from ancient sites. on of its walls. in size. perhaps. the dome that once roofed it had collapsed but the pendentives remained in the four corners. even a granite sarcophagus. the decoration Plan of the chapel and cells. then with one of white plaster. but nowhere is there a sign of a large church fragments of Coptic capitals. 70 cent. The area covered by these ruins is rather village. the site of Ras el-Gisr has been for of antiquityears abandoned to the sebakh industry. mud brick square chamber the walls covered with is a mortar.

and Apollo has gained a finger in the process. In the recess the Virgin Virgin's garments Above are the lower parts of three on the pendentive North i saints in the figures of same style. slate blue. covered with plaster. be bringing the feet of Phib and Apollo together (?). on the west wall are the remains of eight figures which once filled the arc. may aged. represents four of the name of which is not legible. wide). much smaller. 90 cent. Four colours were used. not shewn in the plate. On the right side is a of a bearded man holding a book. yellow. sunk in the ground. i k cent. the tallest of the is m. by o m. 68 Threshold and lintel cent. The plaster surface is very irregular and lumpy but this has not embarrassed the artist and the drawing of the head of the Virgin on the concave surface is well manis meant for The colour of the purple but is really very dull and East wall (pi. very weak for the purpose. 5o cent. The painting is of a debased kind. long and the height of a of a seat though the material is conceivably have been the base In the opposite corner. a female saint over whose $ nxnx^exnxo?ic. another in the north-west corner.). West wall. Little only in the centre two faces better pre- with the titles served figure head are the words ^xnAANOYrwcxy and ^nNxnxMOYCHcimpi?!. and two penitents to the left the nude Ggure then Makare Apollo and ( as Crum suggests) Phib. high. Three of the four walls are painted. pink with a greenish mixture in the shadows. 1906-1907. m. black. high and i in. There is ana stone with several holes for water jars. and Child. part of a figure in the cruder style figures side. for the inner garments of the other two saints the rest of the clothes and the haloes are yellow. red. XL1). and in the west wall two small recesses for lamps.64 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. and further to the north is of the next painting. The crouching : . was a broken water jar. to the left of the naked saint. it were two small cupboards. The door is rather low and narrow (i m. blocks of stone (pi. Below In the north-west corner two halfbrick walls about e chair. then. XL). there was a larger one to the south of the altar (o m. This scene given in a photograph only (pi. and. There is a second penitent. Going now bolt hole for a door and outside the chapel A. Picture of four saints on a white background. but is left. and. it has been restored once. . bear alike incised crosses and on the latter are several scratched graffiti the clearest of which is Tc xc nxyxe KOY'ZA. also a palm tree and some other object which I do not recognise. Slate colour is used for beards and hair. ao cent. The north-west pendentive has unimportant traces only. 60 cent. The shade lines on the face are of a muddy green: ish colour. brownish. the bookbindings red with white jewels. The the famous saints picture. for the outer cloak of Makare and the penitent. opening to the south this part : we come is to another door with a latch other door to the east into another room and near it not yet wholly dug out. The figures were painted in with broad streaks of colour and the black outline was added last. for the flesh of the figure on the figure appears to left. XLIV) as it was not worth repro- ducing in colour. on the two sides the archangels Michael and Gabriel. This end is much damaged.

the detail of the pillar and arch. There was. The The west end has gone. the second of these so as to get better into the plate. pi. Above was once the figure of Our Lord The garments are reddish. the face on the by the wings with eyes of Ezekiel's darting beams from its eyes. On the left was a cupboard with stone half-shelf : above it to the right a very small sills cupboard with another shelf.THE MONASTERY. this slope in one of them a lower sill of wood remains. . the geometric decoration on the north wall to the left. is a thin slab of marble. roofed with palm logs. There were two windows in this wall. its length has entirely disappeared. once upheld by a bar of wood. a small stairway leading to the roof of chamber G. It and even two pieces of the wooden screen itself. north wall was covered . was lay full of clean sand and doorway at the level of the lintel an amphora. for there is a lamp recess in a wall on the left. metre wide. Beginning now from the altar adding such notes as are not rendered unnecessary by the photographs. eyes of the Virgin have been wilfully gouged out. too. and above y Excavations at Saqqara 1906-1907. South side. while plates LI and LII reproduce again the ornament painted on the plaster. the stone base of the screen separating the liaikal from the church CHAPEL B. the altar. wide). one was inscribed in Coptic. but this had been blocked with stone below and brickwork above. cent. to the height of a metre with geometrical patterns. the background is dark green with some stars in white. The archangels. Was dug out next. was by far the most interesting of all. the window is a recess The patterns on has been laid flat the plaster are given again in colour on plate LI. - we do not know. 3.xm62MOT The vision. both with and below for a lamp. in glory. XLVIII) and red black with a yellow border on the pilaster the centres of medallions are of wavy red : lines. East end. The next Gve plates show the paintings of the altar. both large (o m. 65 Outside this doorway to the east we are still indoors. The chapel is quite small. In the pillar and pilaster the imitation of stone carving is in brown on yellow. another bore the name in the 3 of ^fc" II ^^ The chapel. and all but a XLVI. At a later time someone has scrawled in charcoal on the upper band of white the following line : -f nxpxANrexocMixAnx. flanked left. painted on plaster are medallions of the Virgin and the two altar. that on --At the east end a doorway leads into a smaller room (J). is painted in red on white. Under sloping sharply inwards. Plate XLV shows its appearance immediately after the sand was taken out. Above it. 2. On the pillar the spirals are (pi. the rest black and white. The building here is of the rudest and bricks of various sizes and blocks from other buildings are used. when found. the borders are yellow. There were two cupboards. just h metres wide. for the western part we may go round the little church. 70 the right had a stone shelf.

5o cent. Two empty vases were found in the sand and then about o m. but the yellow has proved far more fugitive than other colours and mere traces of it now remain. one or (pi. The floor is : an epitaph purloined from the cemetery close by and used as building material. near the door. At the north-west corner is was photographed but George or Saint Theoa few hours and the scene an angle of good limestone masonry older than the chambers we have examined. good characters. Enoch and Apollo engraved in the west pillar is entirely Coptic : and bears a cross in red paint and below it. nces. 1906-1907. that the monk Phoiburied below.66 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. vertical hole paved with limestone slabs in the part outside the haikal is an inscription which covers two stones. thinking that the monks might have been buried in their cells or under the floors of the chapels we removed these two slabs. 2) one the monk Lilammon. a deacon good uncial hand. these was a line of figures. The general scheme of colour is that the centres of medallions are red. is not published. The inscription is: i?excpoeicenxcoN<|>oi mu) H peiM H N OH At a later date. originally a metre or more high. One LXIV. It of Saint fell in dore on horseback. below a pavement of plaster appeared and this for fear of bringing the [bammon] was not mentary inscription we could not disturb whole chapel down. was a still more frag: * fc xc nu>. however.c CELL C. mentions a certain Stephen. very incomplete. another inscription Kxeocxpin AMGY6XNOK K . is To a the south of the small room farther east are two pillars : the east one a papyrus shaft from XIX th Dynasty tomb surmounted by : a late capital inscribed with an invocation of Jeremias. It which now communicates by a may have been an airshaft. as some stones found later. either with The white bands of these decorations had been utilised by various a knife point or with a pen a series of graffiti. must be then a commemorative inscription and not. it is Coptic. the dots hlack or red on a white ground and the leaf patterns (like trfleur de lisn) yellow. of which nothing of value remains. for it has that horizontal groove cut in the stone to insert the long decorated beams of wood which is so characteristic of the period. monks in a to write.n. . It was fairly certain though. On another paving slab.In this small chamber there was one painting. This last reads two of them There was a very small cupboard (?) in this wall in the thickness of the wall with the air outside.

the two archangels. To the right of this is a cupboard with two shelves. In the floor of this cell was found the frag: chapel ment of plastering with the medical inscription given on plate LXIII. again the south of the first pair. in niche. . The figures are the Madonna. There are in the walls no less than nine recesses or cupboards of different sizes. remove the no pictures. . the shown in plate LIX. In this were altar slab. 60 cent. feature is The chapel a is small. one the north corner of the east. 1 6 cent. washed away by rain before it graffito . 7. 80 cent. and a pattern from the west wall in plate LVII. 60 On one of the figures in the niche was a vni 1' 1 Greek pronounced to be of t]je had been photographed. In the south wall was a window with a sharply sloping sill like the two in A. wide) with a wooden shelf. apart) and above them the plaster of the upper storey and the line of the foot of the wall. blackened above next it is a larger recess (o m. one in the north wall. perhaps for a lamp there are two more of these recesses. Saint Jeremias and another pattern below it a small saint. to side. and this was convenient. unfortunately. beyond Below the altar with a shelf. CELL E.) This was painted on all four sides.OCMIXAHA " nxpxArrexocrxspiHX " n iz " Mnxorie // eipHNHZAMHN " MOMNCOYMOBNCOYCOYN2 (The letters o underlined are smaller than the rest.THE MONASTERY. cupboard with a small opening but larger inside. a stone bench projects before these two about o m. the wall face. lofty building. with incised letters painted in red. There is another. as we could without scruple which was part of an old gravestone with a well preserved inscription below. : The building was here two storeys high on plate LIV in the east wall we see the holes in which the roofing beams lay (o m. k. century. CELL D. It was not a cent. - north wall in plate LVIII. doubtless Enoch. part of the on the painting over the altar in plate LVI the three children again in plate LVII the decoration . It which was seen by Dr. its main the altar in its little recess with paintings above and below. and plate LXIV. it is the middle room in plate LIV. Grenfell and was. pxi // A. and there are two more at the north end of the east is a one in the north wall and two in the west. Is 67 is just seen on the left in altar plate LIV. 6. The altar and the picture of the three holy children to the right of it are shown on plate LV. below this a bench of brickwork. To the right of the altar is a small niche for a lamp. from the floor of the upper room to the floor of the chapel was but 5 m. CELL F. and the Jeremias alone in plate figure of LX.

Fragments of bowls of earthenware with glaze of blue and yellow are exactly similar to those found in the dust heaps at Old Cairo. On the west side is a similar curtain pattern. other leaves. already mentioned. LXII). On scene blank. ao cent. capitals (pi.68 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. colour reproduced in monochrome and in the clothes the some red outleft in the original. but the fragmentary. it is J. LVIII) the lozenges are red. LXIII. Several gravestones with Coptic inscriptions were found (pi. the south wall a standing saint appears to pierce with a spear a crouching is woman. LXII. The surface of the green paint is cracked. 1906-1907. On much more modern than the vii" century. the leaves in the centre green. The treatment is singular. One would have supposed that the scene of the angel the collar of which fastens with the collar of the outer cloak in a central medallion. The angels' wings are yellow. but the green. of the large (o m. and an interesting find was a flat piece of plaster of Pans o m. In the upper part the knobbed spikes are red. black in the southern one. 06 cent. the lozenges are red. but the only one that situ was the altar slab in chapel E. a. 2) the larger of them o m. the with single heart-shaped leaves of bright green. red in the case of the middle figures. there was lines are in red. painted in white on the dark back1 the door to the altar. The curtain pattern below is also in red line with green for the leaf motives. the leaves green. LXI and LXII) both in our work and was t'n in the sebakli extraction that was going on and at the same time. Room G was the south of chapel B. thick. The children wear wide cloaks with bright yellow borders and an inner garment The scene of the three children in the fire is : there is little the legs are loose trousers. blue and green. These are painted with the curious pattern shewn in plate LIII and in plate LVI1. now appearing white against a drab ground. showed that. as usual. There was another painting in the reveal of the window. The flames were painted red. in this branch of art the Egyptians had kept up a high level of skill. closely resembling the plaster backing . 80 cent. pierced with cylindrical holes. 6) with a fish-pattern and a : also some pairs of pilasters No very in black lines on the red ware were found intact. has a small window in each of the three walls. a At the south end of this wall is an unintelligible scene of some standing figure raising suppliant hands to a saint. Near his head is the legend nAnxovco figure painted N6OC written in six lines. high. 3) was the typical vase.) decorated vases (pi. filled is a lozenge pattern of pairs of yellow lines with red between . deeply fluted amphora (pi. and inside the lozenges is a red circle crossed by a floral star of green. LXIII. is : an elaborate pattern (pi. Below. to Room probable egg used. holding out a protecting cross was very Below this scene is a single figure in better condition. Above lozenges vase. the flowers were once probably that white of was the medium pink. and three unbroken pieces (pi. but the the north side On colour was once red. Some fragments of thin and good coloured table glass. There were pottery was found Two human face great quantity of a shortnecked. It is a bearded ground and over the red band or dado which extends from in the style of the four saints in chapel A. and in one case. has largely fallen away.

The last from the Copts. perhaps made in very early Arab times. It bears on one side parts of five lines of very large Kufic writing. on ascribed to Heraclius. D. on which the stained learnt by the Arabs glass 69 art then. This is must have been the papyrus (pi. and. . J. small object to be mentioned Four coins were found and were submitted to Mr. 5). Prof. G.THE MONASTERY. Milne.The other two are barbarous copies of the same type. on the other a list of Christian names in Neskhy Arabic. who reports that they will not stand cleaning but that there is no doubt that they are Alexandrian folles of the end of the Roman on one side. Moritz was able to date this for me to not later than 780 A. with a 3/i length figure period two are of a type : i rj the other -rrW. windows of the mosques are made. LXIII.

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-- East side of the same pyramid. is a doorway into the court. The three walls of brick are of later date and probably belong to the early New Empire tombs two coffins of this period are in the foreground. A seal of reddish clay with the titles of Userenre. : two basins. In the Sunk loose detritus above the pyramid several of the late coffins. The north-east angle is seen on the left.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. of Ptolemaic date or earlier. taken from the south. PLATE it III. broken through in a length of 2 metres by the shaft of a late : New Empire tomb the rough masonry face is the outer side of the shaft where the boy is sitting. 1 : PLATE V. the nearer one of quartzite the further of alabaster. the right is a scored line on the pavement that marks the edge of the eastern boundary wall. the view is taken from the north-west. The west side of the small pyramid with part of its court and boundary wall. In the foreground the th shaft with planking laid over the mouth is one of the XIX Dynasty shafts. In the middle are two quartzite basins sunk in the floor and two later date. also the The fine outer casing and the core of rubble are both visible. G. Moller. Shews the small pyramid partly excavated. This I was from a low level at the south-eact coi ner of the mastaba. . two blocks of it remain on the extreme right. same period above is as the bases of columns and the line of blocks more to the left. blocked at a lining. PLATB II. belonging to the PLATE I. beyond is the boundary wall. with the Step pyramid and the unnamed pyramid in the background. as XIX th Dynasty floor. Further to the right. PLATE IV. The sharpness of the angle is noticeable be that the angle changed higher up and that this was a blunt n pyramid. it may Plan and section of the small pyramid. A\ ir 30E 3DE . For several points in the copy am indebted to Dr. On of the oblong New Empire shafts broken through it. In the centre the hole made by is the original plunderers. are in the floor are to be seen.

high covered with plaster and gilt. Stela of I. 3. A third piece bore the . forms the evidence. o m. I st . o m. which cannot have been very far away from that of Teta. but there are several kings of the one of lists. and must have been A inlaid in some form. Stela of | *~* . Parts of Xth Dynasty stelae. A a line wood. name on clay sealings. EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. high. It is also wider below than above. It may be. This was found near the tomb of f-on a single monument and on the same level. and that the two small monuments of Neferkara are Teta may have derived from a later building. east of the south niche of the great mastaba. it is slightly curved. This object was found in the stone chip at the south-east corner of the pyramid. long. Same scale.). o m. whose pyramid name known from the Abydos and the Turin to is well known. from a shaft (5o4 W. of the kings bearing this name. at Abusir. that this is the tomb of Teta's queen. The are rather noticeable. 2. varieties of spelling The period must be about the X th Dynasty. like n 2. It is. within the next presented advantages. -- 1 . it is and. 3o cent. Parts of two pear-shaped ceremonial maces of reddish limestone : one of them is incised with the Ka name of Teta l-^r-. But two years. 10 cent. incised with the name of Pepy of openwork decoration on a table or shrine. slight enough. of course. give us inscriptions from the chapel with the titulary of the king. object of conical The design in relief shows a goddess I - giving life to a KingNeferkara. 1. 60 cent. small plaque of wood. PLATE VII. 80 cent. the inscribed side being convex. almost at the same time. Fragments of stela of f-- \ .72 2. with the glaze plaques spoken of above. I !*%. Traces of colour. 1 fcTH- PLATE VIII. but the Deutsche Orient examples of the Gesellschaft found. Height o m. other h. flat slip of doubtless from PLATE VI. to whom the idea of building so close a wider clearance to the east may. for He can hardly be Pepy II. 1906-1907. cartouche of 1 and 2. Height i metre. At the time it was found this title was only known from a single inscription at Hatnub. attributing the small pyramid to one provisionally true. of white limestone. He was an official of the pyramid of Merkara.

20 cent). 2. Fragment of stela. 3 and 4. of a small mastaba of brick. not painted when found. as to The panelled stela | formed the centre |. i 'j 1 i granite and comes from the burial of *> & from the northern chamber of the same the southern chamber of which contained the untouched burial of Karenen. the other two flanked so form in plan three sides of an oblong They stood on a plain stone base. 6. presumably. with the name I st 7.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. - 1. PLATE XI. of course. Part of a flanking stela with h. Fragment of -a- 3. The scenes are. in a shortened form. The three stelae here shown of ( -\ 1 J^r J were found : in situ in the east face it. 73 Parts of flanking title stelae. Two bits of stelae of a certain m \r * 7 -^t j * PLATE X. 5i cent. 55 cent. 5 and 6. -- Only the lower part of i this statue i m i was found (height o m. Fragment with the Fragment of stela of a physician. Fragment stela of of stela of "p. The date is. It can be paralleled in the figures of women depicted on a small scale at their husbands' feet. between the Old and Middle Kingdom. The space between the end pieces was o m. a little white paint was rubbed in are given in order to Two photographs show the attitude. 5. I I. _i. h.). The inscription was. Fragment with the name of Usertesen o m. Excavation! at Saqfjara . those of the Old Empire mastabas. by if -TT J PI j I i PLATE IX. to bring up the signs in the photograph. which must be very rare in statues of men. 65 cent. 10 . (o m. of a certain y . 1906-1907. It is of black shaft. o m. names of oils. name rl. 88 cent. high.

taken from the door before anyone had been inside. The view shows about half of the chamber. the stonemasons changed the plan of the chamber presence was discovered the lower part narrower than they had intended. Before him are there girls. A fourth girl sits on a square stool at Karenen's knees. On the broken roof of the kitchen rests the procession of girls and boys and further back are two boats is in very bad condition and another model fallen on its side. a man to the left. A wooden model. PLATE XIII. Karenen. made They m. long. men red and women is yellow. and a large granary. The figures are painted in the usual colours. One of them indeed. and of work. In the foreground a boat the decayed lid of Karenen's coflin on which rests a model vineyard that has . especially those of the man. the side has slipped and crushed the models crowded between it and the rock wall. coffin. A In the line of blue incised hieroglyphs runs along the side of the PLATE XIV.). slipped from the wife's sarcophagus. On the roof three models are to be distinguished a potter. a woman : to the right. unique (length o m. singing and beating time by clapping their hands they are evidently dancing girls. . filled in and forgotten long before Karenen's A view of the tomb of Karenen as found . The bowl. PLATE XII. 3o cent. on which again was placed another boat and a box of tools. As soon as they left old bread tli and the ledge of rock thus left was utilised to receive a boat and a tall vase of black In the corner at the back is the canopic chest of Karenen with. from the of Karenen. This model also hand. a base of ordinary wood : those of the two inner figures were eaten away. time. robbed. The poles for carrying it were not found. badly damaged by white ants. but of the second coffin east. On the roof of the coffin another kitchen. The burdens consist mostly of food with the materials for cooking. 65 cent. in the last plate had been removed. It This gives a similar view. The hole on the wall on the left leads into the shaft of an earlier tomb. after the objects . but there also a box of clothes. has her hair done in the long tail with a knob at the end. This is a unique object. carved in superior wood. high. a pillow and a green mat. a large granary. covered by another bowl inverted. above it. On each side is a harper. of superior wood. is seated in his palanquin which evidently served as an armchair at home. but the holes for the thongs through which they were slipped are duly provided. pottery. The great man holds in one hand a staff the end of which is a clenched human is PLATE XVI. 1906-1907.74 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. contained the bones of a leg and shoulder of veal. i m. the upper part was cut out to the its : Below it is a large model of a kitchen. Each was placed on PLATE XV. one with a stopper of black clay. tomb Procession of girls and boys. a fashion favoured by these very gymnastic dancers. On the right is the massive outer coflin. to the left of this are two vases. that of I was taken from the is shown . tomb there were two are about o statuettes of Karenen and two of fine his wife. the roof of which is partly broken down. 33 cent.

On the left is the sawyer. long). 10. 75 and instruments of the performers. The piece of wood ties lying crosswise on the floor is the post to which the beam to be sawed was attached. duly hollowed out below. 1. had escaped and can be seen below the saw. The lever which tightened the ties 4. Four boxes. 4 2 cent. and in boiling paraffin wax. who spins his wheel with the left hand and turns with the right. the bar for tightening the cords lies on the other side of the work. Another view of the same model as feet. it may be a piece of meat. There really was little wood left in it. containing perhaps the the group. 89 cent. the boat was 3. of an adze. this A girl under her arm perhaps may appears to be in authority. Above a boat. It was one of the papyrus boats and was painted green with black stripes. at i of a The model shewn workshop with sawyer. all that remained was very fragile . but the model incomplete. be a laundry. The small there from red-coloured slip of wood leaning against the carpenter's block probably fell some other scene. A boat. moved from its place and laid on the ground. 78. Some of the wood had been eaten away. is Wooden model as found. from the tomb of Karenen (o m. Near The man at the making a head-rest by means flat him is some larger object. . in the last stage of decay. the handle has fallen from his little saw of bronze but lies on the floor. PLATE XVIII. In the middle is a man working right side a bowdrill is : in his left hand is the cap. clothes. rolls and kneads it and hands it to the potter. potter and. perhaps a bed. they do not open but are dummies of solid wood. Another scene of a carpenter's shop. n A scene. some of the sailors have fallen through into the cavity so formed. long). These two numbers are from the wife's coffin. The men were hoisting sail. kiln. on the the south end of the lady's coffin. a This continues the scenes of n lid - models on the lid of the coffin of J ^ - . ri i. one takes from the mass of clay on his left the requisite amount. another as she carries the scribes' tablets is armed with : a club. Continues the details from the tomb of Karenen and his wife. The lady sits under a slight shelter and a friend outside is also provided with a 2. n 43 (o m. the nature of which is is not quite clear. 2. the harps are of fine wood with pegs.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. The boxes are painted and provided with knobs to fasten them. made solid. the were no doubt of linen thread and had been devoured. 1. complete The model was finished with some care. eaten out by the white ants to a shell. the sawyer has been set on his There are two workmen. The massive outer is and the almost untouched inner coffin below will be noticed. but the type is clear. and originally with strings.the left. it was improved by a soaking PLATE XVII. seat. Two men are treading something in time. .

The drawing of these seven plates is by Miss Macdonald. A woman has here the unpleasant duty of attending to the kiln. PLATE XXVI. also of beer making. Good brewing scene (n 20) (o m. mast-step and spear-case (20. the mast being unstepped and resting on a shaped support. Another scene of a potter's workshop. three adzes. The minute tools. The tools have not been moved. kneads the dough with his feet. 1906-1907. the gangplank (3). EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. PLATE XXVII. The object leaning on Karenen's shoulder PLATE XIX. one of the shields (16) that were hung on the cabin roof. seven chisels l\. the box of the owner (2). 1. those of papyrus and of wood. 18). (5). A kitchen (n of slaughter of an ox. 60 cent. steering oar (16). PLATES XX-XXV. grinding corn. The men use leaf-shaped paddles. the east sides of both coffins have fallen. h. are of wood axes. most complete of the papyrus boats (n 6). long). i3). the owner's trunk (i 5). Model of a vineyard. gangplank. The inside of the inner coffin of Nefersemdetentheb. Above is the papyrus boat under sail to the right are the fittings. 18). is probably a spear-case. : Below are the mast (7) with its copper tip. eighteen in number. have vases. photographed in position. The original position of the spear-cases was not quite clear in any example. The inner coffins. (n A 2). made of finer wood. they sit square to their One of the J work. Walls and end of the woman's coffin. but they seem to have been laid inside the cabin in a leaning position on each side of the proprietor. the pile for mooring and the mallet or fender (6). Tomb of Khennu and Apa-em-sa-f as seen from the shaft when the entrance opened. mast (i i). mallet (19). her mortar has disappeared.76 3. trellis are alike painted blue 3. In the lower half is the a reed (10). as the nails in the bottom had disappeared the box was lifted from its base and the lid slid back to show its and bronze and comprise fourconstruction. in must have been almost poor condition. The boat is going down stream. The west wall of Khennu's coffin has leaned back a little but remains standing and the bright painting inside was first is disclosed. The outer coffins have collapsed owing to the ravages of the white ants. Box of tools from Karenen. and It is drills and one ^ staff. 21) and mooring peg (23). Diagrams of the two kinds of boats. but a duplicate of that in plate XVII. another stands in a trough and Another potter. painted in imitation of leather and perhaps heavy wooden boat with its fittings representing a spear-case. 5. hardly suffered. On the lid of Khennu's outer colfin are a series of wooden models and some . yards (i 2. and one of the yards (8). Two girls are A man pounding with a very large pestle. the mast step (&). Scene The rafters in the roof are indicated carefully. but. At the prow was a look-out with a sounding pole but the white ants had devoured his legs and he is laid on the floor below his post. From the 2. three saws. marlinspikes (17.

king depicted but there is as yet no proof . 3. with no trace of a layer of white. through the chamber. 77 The inner : coffin of Khennu with the lid removed. This boat (o m. (p. The body was covered : by a mass of folded cloths the head. on the left is the southern niche of the great mastaba. A great part of the common wood was destroyed but the see . The figure looked as if asleep and had a singular appearance of one staff dignity. whole and broken. behind it. are PLATE XXIX. lay upon the pillow the linen was quite clean except for the line of dust that had trickled through between the planking of the lid. The lid had been in ancient times. On the right is a massive coffin of limestone.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. early date. The tomb had been robbed k. to the east of is One of the tombs seen n \. three quarters life size found in the shaft of n 276 above the chamber in plate XXX. probably in displaced and the tomb robbed the New Empire. massive late View of part of the large mastaba taken from the south behind is the wall of brick. the best preserved of all found. The canopic chest was laid in a hole in the floor of the tomb and was in good condition. Tomb of I J II I I from the work south of the mastaba. The scenes plaster. Here we dug far below the Middle Kingdom levels and this tomb was left in the bank which supported the southern wall of brick. At the stage of clearance shown in the photograph the lid and part of the coffin have been removed. namely to that between the Old and Middle Kingdoms. The coffin had been removed at some 3. little The brickwork on the right the lining of the chamber. There is no inscription on the back pillar. The coffin was made of wood covered with veneer. and outside the mastaba are two other shafts of the same period. Granite statue of a king. The staffs and bows. covered with its green mask. the door in the centre is the entrance from the shaft which lay right under the great Ptolemaic wall. the outer 1. The statuette of the proprietor has his name written in ink on his white skirt. PLATE XXVIII. 19). The steering oar had fallen away and is not shown. It is possible that the often mentioned Merkara is the of this. veneer remained. PLATE XXX. This to the right is the lining of the shaft of Karenen's tomb. the roofing blocks remain and we can under them. Name II I l~rlK (p- J ^): Za (n 276) next are roughly painted on a brown of Tomb to that of Khennu the south side of the chamber. 76 cent. but part of the east side remains with the two eyes carved on it and the head of the deceased in the regular position. : casing of fine stone and the rougher local stone inside are both clear walls is and between these two a mass of brickwork. from the tomb of Khennu was. The north wall of the chamber has been broken away. but the statue may be attributed to the same period as the tombs. perhaps. Farther 2. PLATE XXXI. facing east. - laid before the body. long). the wall of the shaft behind.

5o cent. The statue did not come from a wrapped up in a tomb but was found loose in the earth. but there can be no doubt how they should be restored. The mouth of the shaft was at the XIX"' Dynasty level. These were found loose These fragments of wooden statuettes from tomb n 276. high) belongs to a very different and much later period. This dark layer. th almost certainly earlier earlier. and was inserted in row of pegs projecting like the teeth of a comb formed the the hole at the thin end of the base.) 3. the largest of them from figures half life-size. than the V Dynasty. The work is of the rudest. This statuette (o m. fl i T Traces of an older text now illegible. The boatcarved from a of wood formed the body of the instrument and was shaped object single piece closed at the top by one of the flat with six or pieces eight square holes and a central ridge. .78 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. The shaft too. PLATE XXXII. 276 mill. in a robbed small pyramid and east of tomb (n 338). deep. The harps were broken. 2. seems to be of the Middle Kingdom. near the south-east corner of the mastaba west and south of the shaft. shew how well furnished this tomb must once have been. it seems. On the front surface is [ I ~~* j J ~| J^. but painted and inscribed on both back and front. of the late New Empire inside the enclosure it. PLATE XXXIII. : the whole figure was tightly the figure is narrow bandage.) the chambers opened shaft 6 m. then. 90 cent. 1. 1906-1907. the larger o in the m. One of these is shewn in place in the laid harp horizontally before the others. being one of a group close to the mastaba is. a 6 cent. in the filling of the shaft of the The tomb had been robbed and from it and inside the chamber which opened west were coffins and fragments of coffins of mummiform type. high. whicli contains a good deal of black clay and is sharply distinguished from the later detritus of limestone. dark layer of earth above the floor of the pyramid court. It had been very carefully wrapped up a little piece of cloth was first put over the head and then 4. Parts of several harps found with the castanets and small ivory objects of the next plate. to the The cylindrical bar with a upright. Two wooden statuettes. nothing was found but this statue with some other beads of glazed steatite of that fine colour whicli fragments of wood and a few long cylindrical is known in the Old Kingdom. : The tomb had been robbed long ago. (Early Middle Kingdom. The strings ran from these pegs to perforations in the central ridge of the sounding board. A part of one is shewn so mounted in the second from the right. square (o ni. This small wooden statuette was found in a narrow.

wrapped in mats. They are probably of the late New Empire. The coffin was but i m. were found with the last group. most interesting of all. 26 cent. XXXV. o m. to Empire group south of the mastaba (n 272).). both pierced and doubtless originally joined some way together. spatula below of wood. t a cent. These were of poor people. (o Model pick (o m. PLATE 1. It is pos- same object. shewn n 3. 16 cent. A double tray of wood m. The inner pair. vase and cup of light green faience found outside and the south of the head end of a coffin. head on to which (o it fits. broken. across. photographing. a wooden figure of a captive and an in Scale ivory lion. a model chair or the like. and not quite complete. the outer one. 3. one of a late New PLATE 1. Represents most of the smaller objects found in the same tomb as the harps. reads -fr- A }. blue glaze plaque. fired in f***+**\ ^^^^1 J--J-J-. o m. i 55 mill. Wooden in vase with lid. by o m. the handle of a m. and. two pairs of wooden castanets and a bronze spear. about o m.) is The Hathor head (o m.} f*tttt*\ 9 Q ^ ^ k k St^. wide.) of limestone. A line of text. the beads plate and scarabs i. the double kohl pot (o m. long and the body inside that of a child. cent. from the neck and wrists also on XXXVIII. The pottery is shewn in the accompanying figure. 3o cent.^^ the glaze. long). One edge is grooved for the insertion of saw flints. That they belong to a single object is shewn by the finding of the other pair.J^JlI^Mb' column of the centre are the remains of a plaster. This should have been shewn above the Hathor 3. long). from near one of a group of burials west of the pyramid. perhaps the backing of a gilt figure A limestone portable seat or headrest. ok little of ivory. real sickle Kohl spoon. 5. Down of a god. Near the head were found in two of the four figures 2.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. without coffins. loose in the sand in which the group of sible that all four are parts of the 4. is the fragment of a double kohl tray while the nearly complete tray on the right is of ivory. Green faience bowl. the halves are separated for convenience 2. 26 cent. bearing the name of the . a ?.. with Hathor head design. coffins were laid. Of wood too. the on the left. ^ (^ ^ . laid in the dark layer of earth in the court of the pyramid. found in the chamber of one of the New Empire tombs (n 33 2) dug through the ruins of the small pyramid. part of h. 79 \XXIV.]_. ii5 mill. 09 cent. 23 cent.

65 cent. None were belonged to guards or to the staff of the Serapeum. Box with m. long. hollowed out to a round of these headrests. they were not numerous. about o m. . It seems that they may have pyramid of Teta and the mastaba. I I I I f] m. a i 3 cent.* ^~' * ~~ > ~ Aw*~<A LT1 o m wo in* _ c i . A small but complete demotic document .NOvn. She declares to. were found at a high level between the discovered in tombs. . The text incised on the back is f ! ZS *-" 1 I /MwwA T^ m> \ ^m - ' flTF. 2 and o 3. which without (further) lawsuit (l-qnbt] or anything on earth. of one Teos son of description. Male figure of yellow wax. . i m. found loose in the rubbish. If he(?) execute for you the judgment of Pa-hy(?) the herd which you pleaded before me on . 17 cent. Hapi-men son of Ankh-Hapi. I will give you the herd Pa-hy(?) on Phamenoth 27 in the year 6. of which Sir H. kneeling and bearing a table of offerings. Ankh-Hapi son of. (tcerning trwill not a decision (wt) dated year 6 Phamenoth 2 5. 7. i XIX lb Dynasty pavement."MB O l ' \\ L_E O Aw~<A . It is a Yours is the as judge or arbitrator. The best scarabs found. Height m. Petemestous son of Ankh-Hapi you pleaded for before me . \k 1 1 cent. the large scarab on the lower line from a poor coffin at the mastaba work. man wrapped up sliding lid (ca o mat (n 821). 5. by o m. Sculptor's trial piece (o m. Base of stela. 1906-1907. Palette with cakes of red in a stout and black ink and bundle of extra pens from the burial of a 2. 4. - - 1. At the ends are sunk hand-holds and the other arch. Thompson has given me the following Ti-Hapi. n The document is signed by five witnesse. Two views of a limestone statue. . and Harkhebis (?) son of P-shen-t-ehe (?). cent.) and ink sketches on a flake of limestone. o m. On it large figure of a fledgling goose (? a god) and the V J^^^^ "~ and tfl-j This was tound on the east of the pyramid at the level of the PLATE XXXVII. Harkhebis(?) son of P-shen-t-ehe (?).s or co-judges (?). side is owner epie. wide from above the small pyramid. 08 cent.) 3. PLATE XXXVI. from the same burial. Many 6. judgment con(?) acting the herd Pa-hy(?) which you pleaded before me on Phamenoth <zk in year 6. 69 cent.. . - 1. Name : Seen in plate IV also. The one of hard dark stone came from some Middle among Kingdom fragments. and the good private scarab of the Middle Kingdom. bearing the name of Siptah. thick texts and with rounded : surface.80 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. A is small limestone stela. from the lowest levels above the floor of the pyramid court. entire or in fragments. rrthe aforesaid day. Probably XIX th Dynasty.

All the small objects were in a round wicker basket together with an alabaster kohl vase and 3. a square depression in the floor. from the right side of the same altar. plaques and balls of faience from a high. on the other as Ra. 6). 1. /i 81 and 5. Two II. XXXVIH. The proprietor of the tomh adores. 16). of the period of the last named. of Rameses views of the upper part of a limestone pillar o m. Found above the small pyramid. PLATE XLII. is A group of amulets worn as a bracelet as to have this was found loose and as likely to have been dropped by a 5. oblong coflin in the courtThe two coffins in the foreground in plate II are of the same type. in this were laid. . on one side. ' Excavation* at Saqqara. 3. the other two are of fine faience. The niche is still is metre high. o m. tomb (n 281. the king as Ptah. coffin gilt beads.). is somewhat doubtful but may be six little that of the coffins near. Dynasty bodies south of the large mastaba. Faience in plate XXXV. 18). 5g cent. Pottery from Pots from tomb Za (n 276. from a water-colour drawing by my PLATE XLI. late : XIX th Dynasty. yard of the pyramid. * shaped faience and small cylindrical beads. Beads. PLATE New "2. scarabs and shells from a child burial (n 272) of the late Empire. all workman formed part of the furniture of a burial. Group of scarabs. the plaster on the sides are only painted but the floral ornament above a ledge carved in stone. o56' mill. XX\1\. There was k. p. wife. Two blocks from a XIX th Dynasty relief (height o m. Two end-pieces of a necklace. 62 cent. i. is a canopic vase. The level was about that of the PLATE 2. - - 1. 19). The is i On the right pillars on which a lamp once stood. 1906-1907. The Imhotep is of bronze. high of the time from south of the mastaba. PLATE XL. with considerable traces of colour. a kohl stick. Pots from the Karenen of tomb (p. smoked above it. - - The most important of the paintings found in cell A. - - The painting in the niche in chapel A. A scarab of Sety II (inverted) is in the top row. This group of amulets was found between two late New Empire coffins in the cemetery south of the mastaba. from an oblong th XIX containing a cartonnage mask. in bad condition but and p. The archangel Gabriel. G.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. high. eight of the spreading bowls From the tomb of Khennu (n 289. The date li. p. the is first one examined. the on the right high-shouldered vase low with white paint on it.

The decoration of this chapel has been given in detail as the better quality of the painting points to an earlier date than that of the other pictures. The background shows the appearance of the rest of the site. PLATE LI. PLATE XLV11. Part of the same scene in colour. Patterns from south wall of the same chapel. The view is three chapels to south of the taken from the south-west. G. . Geometric design from the north wall of chapel B. The chambers. From the same chapel. 1906-1907. 1 . North wall of chapel B again. PLATE LII. A large and a small piece of the sanctuary screen were at this time still standing. 2 and 3. F. PLATE L. PLATE LIV.82 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA. D. PLATE LV. Pattern of decoration in the chamber J south of chapel B. left to - The first pair and a room to the east of them. from Note the little altars on the plan (p. 63). Madonna and archangel from the same Side of the apse in chapel apse. PLATE LV1. B shewing the details of the decoration on the PLATE XLIX. on the east of each cell and the evidence of an upper storey in room F. shewing the altar and the scene of the three fire. . the LIII. General view of the two chapels A and B seen from the west and taken as soon as the nearer chapel was cleared. PLATE XLV. The apse in chapel B on a larger scale. From the north wall of cell A (p. PLATE XLIV. a rather boldly drawn floral pattern above with the lozenges of laurel leaves below. E. The head of the Virgin. are. PLATE leaves green. PLATE XLV1. The companion Michael figure of from the left side of the niche in chapel A. PLATE XLIII. PLATE XLVI1I. 66). pillars. Head of archangel to the right. right. children in the Part of the east side of chapel F.- From the same altar. The (J U pattern is dark red. mostly of walls in which the clay is free from sebakh are dug out by the villagers for manure bits : left by them standing.

An inscription condition and 5. The diagonals of laurel leaves are red. The smaller objects and pottery from the monastery. a list of names of monks in current Neskliy without points on the other. The portrait of Jeremias from above the altar in the same chapel. the leaves between were once green. k and Two large vases. It was in very bad A piece of papyrus with huge Kufic characters on one side. high. jambs. Part of another gravestone. noticeable that the name of Apa Jeremias follows immediately after the Trinity. 2 and k. PLATE LX. One is inverted. The decoration of the walls in the vestry in (J plan). A typical group of pots. one door-post. Two were The 2. AH from the monastery. The Virgin. be photographed in situ. Two from a pieces of ornament. 83 The scene of the three children from east wall of chapel F. . 3. had to on a piece of plaster fallen from the wall of chapel D. drawn in rim and the a salt cellar are darker. It is Another gravestone. The amphorae generally are very deeply grooved. It seems to have been the practice of the monks to rob the cemetery close by when repairs were needed in the buildings. Photograph of the west side of chapel F. Two door 5. Three pieces of bottle o m. PLATE LV1I. from the monastery. and -n is of light-coloured glass : the vase with 3. not the era of Diocletian. series of gravestones A PLATE LX1I. There are two long graffiti in red paint PLATE LVI1I. glass. found. k. with short necks. one blackened at the nozzle. Pattern on west side of chapel F. 2. is A lamp of limestone. As in given. 1 . 1 . the two archangels. Apa Jeremias (left) and Enoch (right). PLATE LXI. : Apo>Nn6ffcDcyMNn6NCON<j>ci>nxnpoi and HPITHC. A copy is on the next plate. 18 cent. PLATE LXIII.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. indeed the entire collection of well preserved pottery. 1. all the epitaphs found this year the indiction only is 3. - - Photograph of the east side of chapel D. PLATE LIX.

A selection of graffiti. 1. wall of chapel B. PLATE LXIV.84 EXCAVATIONS AT SAQQARA.3. Medical prescriptions. On a slab of plaster fallen from the wall of chapel D. From west side of chapel F.2. photographed on last plate. From 4. . 7.6. 1906-1907.5.

Seal. . from watercolour. . Side of apse in B. Graffiti. internal view. X XI XII . Pattern from north wall of B. . XVIII. . stela. Tomb Tomb of Karenen. Altar of cell F. . Pattern from wall of vestry of cells. IV. . from walls (from drawing). statuettes. . XXXV .. a XXXIV. ... Archangel Gabriel (watercolour). The three holy children patterns Middle Kingdom tombs. glass. XXXI. from entrance. Small objects found with harps. Parts of early stelae. . XXVIII. LXII . drum of pyramid pyramid. statue. . : The two types . Madonna and archangel from same altar (watercolour). xix. XLII . . . . . Pottery from early Middle Kingdom tombs. Old Kingdom maces. New New New New pyramid. pyramid. west.. VI VII Senten and Hotepa. XXXIX. LI LII Karenen at Second archangel. V. Procession wooden . .. .. m. XXXIII. XXXVIII. LXIV. XLV. XLVII . LVffl. Chapel B from XLVI. vases. papyrus. . . xvi. amulets.. . . Models from Karenen tomb. Lozenge and curtain pattern from F. (. xv ..1). LIV. . . New Empire column. Wooden Harps.. wood plaque. . XXVI. XXXVI. Portrait of Apa Jeremias from same XXX . Early Middle Kingdom tombs.. . . altar (watercolour). .. . east west side. Madonna from same altar. Khennu in his coffin. xm. plan and section. . Internal XX to XXV . . Boat from Khennu. PLATE!.. .. Lxm. ... Statue from tomb of Hershafnekht. . L home. . . XLVIIL XLIX. . amphorae. . New Empire.. . Khennu tomb as found. . . Stela of Meritit-Teta. . Faience. LX LXI.. Archangel Michael (photograph). xiv. Stelae of .LIST OF PLATES. II. out... decoration. . Virgin and Child (photograph). Coptic inscriptions. Altar from chapel B. Coptic lamps.. model. XL XLL. of Karenen. Altar from cell D. Group Coffin of Nefersemdelentheb. Geometric patterns in colour. XXVII . altar. Part of same early . XLIII. halt' dug side. of boat in LVI. etc. Pale tie scarabs sculptors' sketches. IX XLIV. XXXII. . . . . Epitaphs... . Statuettes of Karenen and of servants. . LV LVII . xvii . .. Musicians. Granite statue of a king. wife. Four Coptic saints. VIII. . . Virgin and Child (watercolour).. PLATE XXX VII. Groups of scarabs. LIX XXIX. LIII.

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