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—— 162 The solution to the problem is not exceedingly dif- fleult if strict adherence to the teaching on this point is maintained, ond close sttention is paid to the words of 8%. Thomss, Indeed, it is herd to see why it has ree quired such an involved é@isoussion on the part of 20 meny authors, in view of the fact thet bed luck, as well ss good, is commonly spoken of, and like chance, fortune too, ie an scoidental cause, both sharing the character of being unfsvoreble agents sa well as favorable ones, in Pelation to good end bed effects, : ‘The answer to the difficulty'is that, the undesirable effect, although not in itself a possible object of inte: ‘tion, tp neverthaloss gedueible to en ond, es on evil to: be avoided, Honce, it ia included among the possible objects of purposeful sotivity, insofar as it has, nege~ Hyely, the chereoter of ati ond, In the Physios St. Thomas intimates this when he seyss Bb dioit qued eufortamium et infortunium dieitur, quando hebet aliqued bonua vel malun oun magni tue dine: nen evfortuniun dicitur quando sequitur aliquod magnum bonumy infortunium autem quando sequitur sliquod magnon malum, it quia privart bono acoipitur in rstione mali, et privari malo in ratione bonis ideo quando aliquis perum distet 8 magno bono, sf anittat tliud, dieitur infortue hatus; ot sf ellguis eat propinquus waguo malo, at Lberetur ab illo, dicitur eufortunatus. (58) 56. In Ti Phys, lect. Ix, m7 163 Tt will be useful now to consider briefly the dif= ference between chance as it is understood in the phile osophy of neture, and as it is used in reference to mathes motiest laws of probability, As explained earlier {¢ to not enough that an effeet be rere in order that chance be esgignea as the canse of it, Nevertheless, those things in nature thet are rare, are said by meny to have come about by chance, But the atatiatioally rare oan not be indentified with whet is by pure chance; what ls rare from the viewpoint of probability 1s often something intended by © higher oe occurrence which 1s rare in the sense of boing statistieslly Luprobable, in reality often sonstitutes a victory of form over ae is for this PDe106=08 58, » leoteIIT, 061205; "Ordinstio, autem, quae ea ‘effectibus ox aliqua causa tan= tum se oxtendit quantum oxtendit se illius causae ceusalites. Omis enim causa oer se habet determinatos effectus, quos secundun aliquem ordinem producit. wanifestum igitur est, quod eftoctus relati af eliquan tnferioren sensan nic.iun os nem habere videntur, sed per sceidens aibi ipsia coincidunt; qui si roferantur sd superiorem causam communem, ordineti ine veniuntur, et non per aceidens con junoti, sed ab une per se eauaa simil producti outs" ibid.) n12ile12121 "Haeo autem sontingentie, ai ulterins in oausan caelestem reducantur, multe horun inventuntur non esas per aceidens; quia causa perticulares etai non continentur sub s9 invicem, oontinentur temen sub una causa oselosti communi...Quamvis igitur multe, quae videntur esse per acaidens reducendo ipse ad ceusas par- iowlarea, inventantur non esse per accidens reducendo ipsa ad causam comunem universalen, scilicet yirtuten cselestem, amen etiam heo reductione facta, inveniuntur esse aligua per scoidens, siout superius est hebitum a philosophos 59.) Ste Thoes, Contra Gentiles, TI, 0.303 Hin quibus vero forma con complet Sota potentiam materies, remanet ad- huc in moteria potentie sd sliam foram, Et ideo non ost in e419 necessitas essendi, sed virtue essendi consequitur in ois vietoriam formae super materiam, ut patet in elementis ot elenentetis. 164, very reason that the perspective of finslity is so important for o correct underatsnding of accidentel causality in ne= ture; for unless the role of final causality is given ite proper place in a consideration of naturel ceusea and effects, the kind of contingency that is most characteris= tie of the neturel universe will be overlooked, and the most striking evidence of divine providence will be neglected. 4n exemple may serve to meke this cleert Prom a statistical point of view, the appearance of Life fo a phenomenon that 1s highly improbeble, being given 11 the materiel conditions necessary to aupport Lt end one able ita continued existence in the universes From the statistiodl improbability of these conditions coming about,” some might be inclined to attribute such phenomena to chance, as well as other less improbable oceurrences, such as, the formation of the planets, Actually, however, in the light 60, Sir James Jeans, L'Univers, trad. Georges Gro Payot, 19303 pp.277=278: “Le osloul mathematiq pour donner naissance & un systhme planétaire, ux étot: ofvent se rapprocher 2 ure distance gui ne dépasse pas le valeur de trois fois leur diemdtres puisque nous connsissons le réparbition des 6tolles dans 1"Sspace, nous pouvons calouler avec une certaine approximstion le probabilité d'un tel événe- ments on trouve que, pour une durée d'lexistence de plusieurs trillions dtannées, cette probabilité rfest gadre que de 1 sur 100,000...Yout cop nous indique que seulement une peroalle infiniment petite de l'univers peut se trouver dans con= ditions voulues pour donner asile & des Stree vivants. If faut quo le metidre primitive ee transforme en ratiations pendant plusieurs trillions d'ennfes pour donner une quantite minuscule de cendre inerte sur laquelle le vio paut oxister. Alors soule= nent, s'il survient un accident oxtrémement exceptionnel, cette candre, et psa autre chose, peut se trouver expuisée du soleil gui 1's produite et se condenser en donnant nalasance & une planete, Mais co nfest pas tout: 11 faut que ce residu de gendre ne soit ni trop chaud ni trop froids sinon, toute vie y sera impossible.®