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B-GL-382-004/FP-001

TRAINING

CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT


(ENGLISH)
(Supersedes B-GL-318-018/PT-001 dated 1992-08-24.)
WARNING ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED, THIS PUBLICATION, OR ANY PART OF IT, MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR ANY PART OF IT MAY BE RELEASED.

Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Land Staff

B-GL-382-004/FP-001

TRAINING

CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT


(ENGLISH)
(Supersedes B-GL-318-018/PT-001 dated 1992-08-24.)
WARNING ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED, THIS PUBLICATION, OR ANY PART OF IT, MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR ANY PART OF IT MAY BE RELEASED.

Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Land Staff

OPI: DAT

2007-02-03

Close Quarter Combat

WARNING USE OF THIS MANUAL 1. The techniques in this manual are basic techniques for most close combat fighting. Instructors shall teach the techniques in this manual rather than their own individual styles. 2. Techniques in this manual can cause serious injury or death. Training of these techniques will be conducted in strict accordance with approved basic level, unit level and instructor level training plans. 3. Throughout this manual the term opponent refers to any enemy, belligerent, subject or person opposing the soldier.

Close Quarter Combat

FOREWORD GENERAL 1. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Close Quarter Combat is issued on the authority of the Chief of Defence Staff. 2. This publication, dated 2007-02-03, is effective upon receipt and supersedes BGL318018/PT001 Close Quarter Combat change 2 dated 1992-08-24. 3. The NDID for the French version of this publication is BGL382004/FP002.

4. Any loss or suspected compromise of this publication, or portions thereof, must be reported in accordance with A-SJ-100-001/AS-000 Security Orders for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces, Chapter 34. SCOPE 5. This manual covers basic close quarter combat fighting, bayonet fighting, and use of force training. 6. This publication is the sole reference for close quarter combat training in the Army. As such, it is intended for the use of qualified Close Quarter Combat Instructors. CHANGES 7. Comments and suggestions for changes should be forwarded through the usual channels to DAT. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2007.

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Close Quarter Combat

RECORD OF CHANGES Identification of Change Change No Date Date Entered Signature

B-GL-382-004/FP-001

Identification of Change Change No Date

Date Entered

Signature

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Close Quarter Combat

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD..................................................................................................................... iii RECORD OF CHANGES.......................................................................................................... v CHAPTER 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 CHAPTER 2 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 PRINCIPLES OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT CONTINUUM OF FORCE ...........................................................................1 EFFECTS OF COMBAT STRESS................................................................4 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT RANGE BANDS ......................................11 VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE BODY .................................................11 PRESSURE POINTS OF THE BODY ........................................................13 STRIKING SURFACES ..............................................................................17 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT STANCES ................................................22 BASIC MOVEMENT ..................................................................................24 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................29 THROWS .....................................................................................................30

CHAPTER 3 THROWS, TAKEDOWNS AND BREAKFALLS

Hip Throw ............................................................................................................................30 Shoulder Throw....................................................................................................................33 Turning Throw .....................................................................................................................36 Leg Sweep ............................................................................................................................38 SECTION 3 TAKEDOWNS.............................................................................................42 Head Tear Down ..................................................................................................................42 Compression Takedown .......................................................................................................45 Double Leg Takedown .........................................................................................................47 Single Leg Takedown...........................................................................................................49 Leg Hook Takedown............................................................................................................50 Rear Takedown ....................................................................................................................52 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 COUNTERS TO THROWS/TAKEDOWNS ..............................................54 BREAKFALLS ............................................................................................54 REAR BREAKFALLS ................................................................................55

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Lying ....................................................................................................................................55 Sitting ...................................................................................................................................57 Squatting...............................................................................................................................58 Standing................................................................................................................................60 SECTION 7 FRONT BREAKFALLS ..............................................................................61 Kneeling ...............................................................................................................................61 Squatting...............................................................................................................................62 Standing................................................................................................................................63 Forward Rolls.......................................................................................................................64 SECTION 8 SIDE BREAKFALLS ..................................................................................65 Lying ....................................................................................................................................65 Squatting...............................................................................................................................66 Standing................................................................................................................................67 CHAPTER 4 SECTION 1 STRIKING TECHNIQUES AND COUNTERS LONG RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES ..............................................71

Kicking Theory ....................................................................................................................71 Balance .................................................................................................................................72 Methods of Delivery.............................................................................................................72 Chambering the Leg .............................................................................................................72 Snap Kick .............................................................................................................................72 Roundhouse Kick .................................................................................................................78 Thrust Kicks .........................................................................................................................80 Front Thrust Kick .................................................................................................................80 Side Thrust Kick...................................................................................................................82 Back Kick .............................................................................................................................84 SECTION 2 MID-RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES .................................................86 Punches.................................................................................................................................88 Straight Punch ......................................................................................................................88 Reverse Punch ......................................................................................................................90 Lunge Punch.........................................................................................................................93 Heel Palm Strikes .................................................................................................................95

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Hammer Fist .........................................................................................................................96 Knife Hand/Ridgehand.........................................................................................................98 SECTION 3 CLOSE RANGE TECHNIQUES ..............................................................100 Head Butt............................................................................................................................100 Uppercut .............................................................................................................................100 Hook ...................................................................................................................................102 Eye Gouge ..........................................................................................................................103 Elbow Strikes .....................................................................................................................104 Vertical Elbow Strikes .......................................................................................................104 Horizontal Elbow Strikes ...................................................................................................107 Knee Strikes .......................................................................................................................108 Forward Knee Strike ..........................................................................................................109 Horizontal Knee Strike.......................................................................................................110 Stomp Kick.........................................................................................................................111 SECTION 4 DEFENSIVE AND COUNTER-ATTACK TECHNIQUES .....................111 Closing the Distance...........................................................................................................112 Lead and Rear Hand Parries...............................................................................................112 Hook Block ........................................................................................................................114 High Guard.........................................................................................................................115 Lower Block.......................................................................................................................116 Leg Block ...........................................................................................................................117 Double High Blocks ...........................................................................................................118 Defence Against Head Butts ..............................................................................................121 CHAPTER 5 CHOKES AND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS/CHOKES SECTION 1 CHOKES..................................................................................................123 Air Choke ...........................................................................................................................123 Blood Choke.......................................................................................................................123 Grips ...................................................................................................................................124 Front Choke........................................................................................................................125 Cross Collar Choke ............................................................................................................126 Trachea Choke....................................................................................................................127 Rear Chokes .......................................................................................................................128
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Rear Choke 1......................................................................................................................129 Rear Choke 2......................................................................................................................130 Rear Choke 3 .....................................................................................................................131 Side Choke .........................................................................................................................132 Guillotine Choke ................................................................................................................135 SECTION 2 COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS..................................................137 Follow-up Techniques........................................................................................................137 Headlocks ...........................................................................................................................138 Side Head Lock ..................................................................................................................138 Side Headlock With Punching ...........................................................................................142 Front Headlock...................................................................................................................146 Bear Hugs ...........................................................................................................................148 Overhand Rear Bear Hug ...................................................................................................148 Underhand Rear Bear Hug .................................................................................................151 Front Overhand Bear Hug ..................................................................................................154 Front Under Hand Bear Hug ..............................................................................................155 Full Nelson .........................................................................................................................157 Counters to Full Nelson......................................................................................................158 Counters to Wrist Grabs .....................................................................................................159 One-Handed Wrist Grab.....................................................................................................159 Low Two-Handed Wrist Grab............................................................................................160 High Two-Handed Wrist Grab ...........................................................................................162 SECTION 3 COUNTERS TO CHOKES .......................................................................163 Counters to Rear Chokes....................................................................................................163 Counter to Front Chokes or Grabs .....................................................................................170 Counter to Front Chokes or GrabsOne Hand .................................................................170 Counter to Front ChokesTwo Hands..............................................................................171 Counter to a Two Hand or Cross Collar Choke .................................................................172 CHAPTER 6 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 NON-LETHAL TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION......................................................................................175 LEVEL 1 COMPLIANT ............................................................................176 LEVEL 2 PASSIVE RESISTANT ............................................................177

Escort Position....................................................................................................................177
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Head Control Position ........................................................................................................178 SECTION 4 LEVEL 3 ACTIVE RESISTANT ..............................................................179 Compliance Techniques .....................................................................................................180 Wristlocks...........................................................................................................................181 Basic Wristlock ..................................................................................................................181 Reverse Wristlock ..............................................................................................................182 Escort Position Resistance .................................................................................................183 Come-Along Wristlock ......................................................................................................184 Straight-Arm Bar Takedown ..............................................................................................189 Non-Lethal Restraint Techniques.......................................................................................191 Handcuff Grip ....................................................................................................................192 Standing Handcuffing ........................................................................................................194 Kneeling Handcuffing ........................................................................................................197 Prone Handcuffing .............................................................................................................198 Rear Control Position .........................................................................................................201 Flexi-Cuffs .........................................................................................................................202 Standing and Escorting a Restrained Opponent .................................................................204 Restraint Removal ..............................................................................................................205 Soft Hand Striking Techniques ..........................................................................................206 Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons .........................................................................................206 SECTION 5 LEVEL 4 ASSAULT .................................................................................207 Defensive Techniques ........................................................................................................207 Striking Techniques............................................................................................................207 Enhanced Pain Compliance Techniques ............................................................................208 Basic Wristlock Takedown ................................................................................................208 Reverse Wristlock Takedown ............................................................................................211 Side Choke .........................................................................................................................213 Iron Wristlock Takedown...................................................................................................214 Finger Lock Takedown ......................................................................................................214 Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons .........................................................................................215 Agent Characteristics .........................................................................................................216 Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Spray........................................................................................216 Non-Lethal Impact Weapons .............................................................................................220
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Augmented Rear Arm Bar..................................................................................................223 SECTION 6 CHAPTER 7 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 LEVEL 5 DEADLY FORCE ASSAULT ..................................................225 EDGED AND IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION......................................................................................227 FUNDAMENTALS OF KNIFE FIGHTING ............................................228 KNIFE FIGHTING TECHNIQUES ..........................................................232

Angles of Attack.................................................................................................................227

Slashing Techniques...........................................................................................................232 Vertical Slashing Technique ..............................................................................................232 Outside Slashing Techniques .............................................................................................233 Inside Slashing Techniques ................................................................................................235 Thrusting Techniques.........................................................................................................237 Forward Thrust ...................................................................................................................237 Reverse Thrust....................................................................................................................238 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 FUNDAMENTALS OF IMPACT WEAPONS.........................................240 IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES.........................................................241

Strikes.................................................................................................................................241 Overhand Strike..................................................................................................................241 Underhand Strike................................................................................................................244 Outside Strike .....................................................................................................................246 Inside Strike........................................................................................................................248 Forward Thrust ...................................................................................................................250 Forward Two-Hand Thrust.................................................................................................252 SECTION 6 BLOCKING TECHNIQUES .....................................................................253 Upper Block .......................................................................................................................253 Low Block ..........................................................................................................................254 Middle Block......................................................................................................................255 SECTION 7 DEFENCE AGAINST WEAPONS ...........................................................255 Defence Against Overhead Strike ......................................................................................256 Counter to Forward Thrust .................................................................................................259 Counter to an Inside Slash..................................................................................................260 Counter to an Under Hand Attack......................................................................................262 Counter to Outside Slash....................................................................................................264
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Defence Against Knife Held to the ThroatFront ............................................................266 Defence Against Knife Held to the ThroatRear .............................................................269 Defence Against Impact Weapons .....................................................................................271 Defence Against Firearms ..................................................................................................271 Defence Against Pistols .....................................................................................................272 Defence Against Rifles.......................................................................................................274 Rifle to the Front ................................................................................................................274 Rifle to the Rear .................................................................................................................277 SECTION 8 WEAPON RETENTION TECHNIQUES .................................................280 Rifle Hand Guard Grab ......................................................................................................280 Rifle Muzzle or Hand Guard Grab .....................................................................................282 Butt Strokes ........................................................................................................................283 Off-Balance Techniques.....................................................................................................285 Holstered Pistol With Opponent to the Front.....................................................................287 Holstered Pistol With Opponent to the Rear ......................................................................288 Drawn Pistol to the Front ...................................................................................................290 SECTION 9 CHAPTER 8 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 IMPROVISED WEAPONS .......................................................................291 SENTRY REMOVAL INTRODUCTION......................................................................................293 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A KNIFE ...................................................294

The Throat ..........................................................................................................................294 Subclavian Artery...............................................................................................................296 The Kidney.........................................................................................................................298 SECTION 3 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A GARROTTE ..........................................298 Garrotte from the Rear .......................................................................................................298 Garrotte to the Front ...........................................................................................................300 SECTION 4 NECK BREAKS ........................................................................................303 Helmet Neck Break ............................................................................................................303 Helmet Smash ....................................................................................................................304 Neck Break from Rear........................................................................................................306 Neck Break Kneeling Opponent ........................................................................................309 SECTION 5 TAKEDOWNS...........................................................................................311 Rear Takedown ..................................................................................................................311
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Crotch Takedown ...............................................................................................................312 SECTION 6 CHAPTER 9 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 CHOKES ....................................................................................................313 RIFLE BAYONET FIGHTING TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION......................................................................................313 BAYONET TECHNIQUES.......................................................................313

Rest.....................................................................................................................................313 On Guard ............................................................................................................................314 Thrust .................................................................................................................................315 Left and Right Parry...........................................................................................................315 Horizontal Butt Stroke .......................................................................................................318 Vertical Butt Stroke............................................................................................................320 Smash .................................................................................................................................321 Slash ...................................................................................................................................321 Ground Point ......................................................................................................................323 High Block .........................................................................................................................325 Low Block ..........................................................................................................................326 Middle Block......................................................................................................................326 Combinations .....................................................................................................................328 Multiple Opponents............................................................................................................328 Offensive Strategy..............................................................................................................329 Defensive Strategy .............................................................................................................330 SECTION 3 BAYONET TRAINING ............................................................................331 Bayonet Obstacle Courses..................................................................................................332 Bayonet Targets..................................................................................................................332 Conduct of Bayonet Obstacle Courses...............................................................................334 SECTION 4 PUGIL STICK TRAINING .......................................................................335 Pugil Training Safety .........................................................................................................335 Safety Equipment ...............................................................................................................336 Safety Personnel .................................................................................................................337 General Conduct.................................................................................................................337 Safety Inspection and Kit Issue..........................................................................................338 Briefing...............................................................................................................................338 Warm-Up............................................................................................................................338
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Review................................................................................................................................338 Pugil Stick Drills ................................................................................................................338 Pugil Bouts .........................................................................................................................339 Instructor Supervision ........................................................................................................341 Second Impact Syndrome...................................................................................................341 Pugil Stick Construction.....................................................................................................342 CHAPTER 10 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 GROUND FIGHTING INTRODUCTION......................................................................................345 GROUND FIGHTING POSITIONS .........................................................345

Mount Position ...................................................................................................................345 Guard Position....................................................................................................................346 Cross Mount .......................................................................................................................346 Side Mount .........................................................................................................................347 SECTION 3 DEFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING ........................................................348 Mount Reversal ..................................................................................................................349 Guard Reversal...................................................................................................................351 Reversal from Cross-Mount ...............................................................................................352 Escaping the Guard ............................................................................................................355 SECTION 4 OFFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING TECHNIQUES ..............................357 Armbar from Top Mount....................................................................................................357 Counter to a Front Armbar .................................................................................................362 Armbars from the Guard ....................................................................................................362 Straight Armbar..................................................................................................................366 Figure 4 Armbar .................................................................................................................368 Shoulder Rip.......................................................................................................................369 SECTION 5 GROUND FIGHTING CHOKES ..............................................................370 Rear Chokes .......................................................................................................................370 Ground Fighting Side Choke..............................................................................................371 Cross Collar Chokes...........................................................................................................373 SECTION 6 GROUND COUNTER TECHNIQUES.....................................................375 Counter To Rear Choke (Attempted) .................................................................................375 Counter To Rear Choke (Applied) .....................................................................................376 SECTION 7 GROUND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS ...............................378
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Side Headlock from the Knees...........................................................................................379 Recovering from a Ground Position...................................................................................382 Defensive Ground Position ................................................................................................383 CHAPTER 11 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 TRAINING TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION......................................................................................385 INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE ............................................................385

Instructor Responsibilities..................................................................................................385 Training Safety ...................................................................................................................386 Training Areas....................................................................................................................387 Training Methodology........................................................................................................388 Stages of Practice ...............................................................................................................388 Conduct of Training ...........................................................................................................389 Conduct of Warm-up and Cool Down Exercises ...............................................................389 Body Hardening Exercises .................................................................................................390 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 PROTECTIVE TRAINING EQUIPMENT ...............................................394 SPARRING ................................................................................................396

Protective Suit Training .....................................................................................................397 Multiple Opponents............................................................................................................398 Training Drills ....................................................................................................................399 Tactical Positioning............................................................................................................399

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TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 2-1: Body Side, Front and Back ........................................................................................13 Figure 2-2: Pressure Points of the Body .......................................................................................17 Figure 2-3: Making a Fist .............................................................................................................18 Figure 2-4: Striking Surface of the Fist ........................................................................................18 Figure 2-5: Back Fist ....................................................................................................................19 Figure 2-6: Hammer Fist...............................................................................................................19 Figure 2-7: Knife Hand.................................................................................................................20 Figure 2-8: Ridge Hand ................................................................................................................20 Figure 2-9: Ball and Toe of the Foot ............................................................................................21 Figure 2-10: Instep Strike .............................................................................................................22 Figure 2-11: Natural Stance ..........................................................................................................23 Figure 2-12: Fighting Stance ........................................................................................................24 Figure 2-13: Directions of Movement ..........................................................................................25 Figure 2-14: Forward ShiftStart Point ......................................................................................26 Figure 2-15: Forward ShiftMid-point .......................................................................................26 Figure 2-16: Forward ShiftFinish .............................................................................................27 Figure 2-17: Turn to the RearStart............................................................................................27 Figure 2-18: Turn to the RearMid-point ...................................................................................28 Figure 2-19: Turn to the RearFinish .........................................................................................28 Figure 3-1: Directions for Balance Displacement ........................................................................30 Figure 3-2: Hip Throw Step 1.......................................................................................................31 Figure 3-3: Hip ThrowFoot Position.........................................................................................32 Figure 3-4: Hip Throw Step 2.......................................................................................................32 Figure 3-5: Hip Throw Step 3.......................................................................................................33 Figure 3-6: Hip Throw Step 4.......................................................................................................33 Figure 3-7: Shoulder Throw Step 1 ..............................................................................................34 Figure 3-8: Shoulder Throw Step 2 ..............................................................................................35 Figure 3-9: Shoulder Throw Step 3 ..............................................................................................35 Figure 3-10: Shoulder Throw Step 4 ............................................................................................36 Figure 3-11: Turning Throw Step 1 ..............................................................................................37 Figure 3-12: Turning Throw Step 2 ..............................................................................................37 Figure 3-13: Turning Throw Step 3 ..............................................................................................38 Figure 3-14: Turning Throw Step 4 ..............................................................................................38 Figure 3-15: Leg Sweep Step 1.....................................................................................................39 Figure 3-16: Leg Sweep Step 2.....................................................................................................40 Figure 3-17: Leg Sweep Step 3.....................................................................................................41 Figure 3-18: Leg Sweep Step 4.....................................................................................................41 Figure 3-19: Leg Sweep Step 5.....................................................................................................42 Figure 3-20: Head Tear DownOccipital Strike Step 1..............................................................43 Figure 3-21: Head Tear Down Step 2 ...........................................................................................43 Figure 3-22: Head Tear Down Step 3 ...........................................................................................44 Figure 3-23: Ocular GripThumb...............................................................................................44 Figure 3-24: Ocular GripFingers ..............................................................................................45 Figure 3-25: CompressionTakedown........................................................................................46

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Figure 3-26: CompressionTakedown Step 1.............................................................................46 Figure 3-27: CompressionTakedown Step 2.............................................................................47 Figure 3-28: CompressionTakedown Step 3.............................................................................47 Figure 3-29: Double Leg Takedown.............................................................................................48 Figure 3-30: Double Leg TakedownStep1................................................................................48 Figure 3-31: Double Leg TakedownStep 2...............................................................................49 Figure 3-32: Single Leg Takedown ..............................................................................................50 Figure 3-33: Single Leg Takedown ..............................................................................................50 Figure 3-34: Leg Hook TakedownStep 1..................................................................................51 Figure 3-35: Leg Hook TakedownStep 2..................................................................................52 Figure 3-36: Leg Hook TakedownStep 3..................................................................................52 Figure 3-37: Rear TakedownStep 1 ..........................................................................................53 Figure 3-38: Rear TakedownStep 2 ..........................................................................................54 Figure 3-39: Rear Breakfall LyingStep 1..................................................................................56 Figure 3-40: Rear Breakfall LyingStep 2..................................................................................56 Figure 3-41: Back Breakfall LyingStep 3.................................................................................57 Figure 3-42: Back Breakfall SittingStep 1................................................................................57 Figure 3-43: Back Breakfall SittingStep 2................................................................................58 Figure 3-44: Back Breakfall SittingStep 3................................................................................58 Figure 3-45: Back Breakfall SquattingStep 1 ...........................................................................59 Figure 3-46: Back Breakfall SquattingStep 2 ...........................................................................59 Figure 3-47: Back Breakfall SquattingStep 3 ...........................................................................60 Figure 3-48: Back Breakfall StandingStep 1 ............................................................................60 Figure 3-49: Back Breakfall StandingStep 2 ............................................................................61 Figure 3-50: Front Breakfall KneelingStep 1 ...........................................................................62 Figure 3-51: Front Breakfall KneelingStep 2 ...........................................................................62 Figure 3-52: Front Breakfall SquattingStep 1...........................................................................63 Figure 3-53: Front Breakfall SquattingStep 2...........................................................................63 Figure 3-54: Front Breakfall StandingStep 1............................................................................64 Figure 3-55: Front Breakfall StandingStep 2............................................................................64 Figure 3-56: Side Breakfall LyingStep 1 ..................................................................................65 Figure 3-57: Side Breakfall LyingStep 2 ..................................................................................66 Figure 3-58: Side Breakfall SquattingStart...............................................................................66 Figure 3-59: Side Breakfall SquattingStrike.............................................................................67 Figure 3-60: Side Breakfall SquattingFinish ............................................................................67 Figure 3-61: SideBreakfall StandingStart..............................................................................68 Figure 3-62: SideBreakfall StandingMid-point ....................................................................68 Figure 3-63: SideBreakfall StandingFinish ..........................................................................69 Figure 4-11: Roundhouse Kick.....................................................................................................79 Figure 4-12: Roundhouse KickStep 1.......................................................................................79 Figure 4-13: Roundhouse KickStep 2.......................................................................................80 Figure 4-14: Front Thrust KickStep 1.......................................................................................81 Figure 4-15: Front Thrust KickStep 2.......................................................................................81 Figure 4-16: Front Thrust KickStep 3.......................................................................................82 Figure 4-21: Side Thrust KickStep 4 ........................................................................................84 Figure 4-26: Power Generation.....................................................................................................87

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Figure 4-28: Figure 4-29: Figure 4-30: Figure 4-31: Figure 4-32: Figure 4-33: Figure 4-34: Figure 4-35: Figure 4-36: Figure 4-37: Figure 4-38: Figure 4-39: Figure 4-40: Figure 4-41: Figure 4-42: Figure 4-43: Figure 4-44: Figure 4-45: Figure 4-46: Figure 4-47: Figure 4-48: Figure 4-49: Figure 4-50: Figure 4-51: Figure 4-52: Figure 4-53: Figure 4-54: Figure 4-55: Figure 4-56: Figure 4-57: Figure 4-58: Figure 4-59: Figure 4-60: Figure 4-61: Figure 4-62: Figure 4-63: Figure 4-64: Figure 4-65: Figure 4-66: Figure 4-67: Figure 4-68: Figure 4-69: Figure 4-70: Figure 4-71: Figure 4-72: Figure 4-73:

Straight PunchStep 2............................................................................................89 Straight PunchStep 3............................................................................................90 Straight PunchStep 4............................................................................................90 Reverse PunchStep 1............................................................................................91 Reverse PunchStep 2............................................................................................91 Reverse PunchStep 3............................................................................................92 Reverse PunchStep 4............................................................................................92 Lunge PunchStep 1 ..............................................................................................93 Lunge PunchStep 2 ..............................................................................................94 Lunge PunchStep 3 ..............................................................................................94 Lunge PunchStep 4 ..............................................................................................95 Heel Palm Strike ......................................................................................................96 Heel Palm Strike ......................................................................................................96 Hammer Fist.............................................................................................................97 Hammer Fist.............................................................................................................98 Outside Knife Hand .................................................................................................99 Outside Ridge Hand .................................................................................................99 Downward Knife Hand ..........................................................................................100 Upper CutStep 1.................................................................................................101 Upper CutStep 2.................................................................................................101 Upper CutStep 3.................................................................................................102 Hook PunchStep 1..............................................................................................103 Hook PunchStep 2..............................................................................................103 Eye Gouge..............................................................................................................104 Vertical ElbowStrike Upward............................................................................105 Vertical ElbowStrike Downward .......................................................................106 Vertical ElbowStrike Rearward .........................................................................106 Vertical Elbow StrikeRear Upward ...................................................................107 Horizontal ElbowStrike Forward .......................................................................108 Horizontal ElbowStrike Rearward .....................................................................108 Knee Strike to the HeadStep 1 ...........................................................................109 Knee Strike to the HeadStep 2 ...........................................................................110 Horizontal Knee Strike...........................................................................................110 Stomp Kick ............................................................................................................111 Inside Lead Hand Parry..........................................................................................113 Inside Rear Hand Parry ..........................................................................................113 Outside Lead Hand Parry.......................................................................................114 Outside Rear Hand Parry .......................................................................................114 Hook Block(Front View) ...................................................................................115 Hook Block(Side View).....................................................................................115 High Guard.............................................................................................................116 Lower Block...........................................................................................................117 Leg Block...............................................................................................................117 Double High Block 1 .............................................................................................118 Double High Block 1 .............................................................................................119 Double High Block 2 .............................................................................................119

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Figure 4-74: Double High Block 2 .............................................................................................120 Figure 4-75: Double High Block 3 .............................................................................................120 Figure 4-76: Double High Block 3 .............................................................................................121 Figure 5-1: Four-finger Grip.......................................................................................................124 Figure 5-2: Three-finger GripVersion 1 .................................................................................125 Figure 5-3: Three-finger GripVersion 2 .................................................................................125 Figure 5-4: Front Choke..............................................................................................................126 Figure 5-5: Cross Collar ChokeStep 1 ....................................................................................126 Figure 5-6: Cross Collar ChokeStep 2 ....................................................................................127 Figure 5-7: Cross Collar ChokeStep 3 ....................................................................................127 Figure 5-8: Trachea Choke .........................................................................................................128 Figure 5-9: Trachea Choke Alternate Grip .................................................................................128 Figure 5-10: Rear Choke 1Step 1............................................................................................129 Figure 5-11: Rear Choke 1Step 2............................................................................................129 Figure 5-12: Rear Choke 1Side View.....................................................................................130 Figure 5-13: Rear Choke 2Step 1............................................................................................130 Figure 5-14: Rear Choke 2Step 2............................................................................................131 Figure 5-15: Rear Choke 3Step 1............................................................................................131 Figure 5-16: Rear Choke 3Step 2............................................................................................132 Figure 5-17: Side ChokeStep 1 ...............................................................................................133 Figure 5-18: Side ChokeStep 2 ...............................................................................................134 Figure 5-19: Side ChokeStep 3 ...............................................................................................134 Figure 5-20: Side ChokeStep 4 ...............................................................................................135 Figure 5-21: Guillotine ChokeStep 1......................................................................................136 Figure 5-22: Guillotine ChokeStep 2......................................................................................136 Figure 5-23: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 1 ........................................................................138 Figure 5-24: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 2 ........................................................................139 Figure 5-25: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 3 ........................................................................139 Figure 5-26: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 4 ........................................................................140 Figure 5-27: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 5 ........................................................................140 Figure 5-28: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 6 ........................................................................141 Figure 5-29: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 7 ........................................................................141 Figure 5-30: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 8 ........................................................................142 Figure 5-31: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 1 ........................................................142 Figure 5-32: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 2 ........................................................143 Figure 5-33: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 3 ........................................................143 Figure 5-34: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 4 ........................................................144 Figure 5-35: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 5 ........................................................144 Figure 5-36: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 6 ........................................................145 Figure 5-37: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 7 ........................................................145 Figure 6-1: Escort Position .........................................................................................................178 Figure 6-2: Head Control Position..............................................................................................179 Figure 6-3: Head Control Position..............................................................................................179 Figure 6-4: Basic Wristlock ........................................................................................................182 Figure 6-5: Basic Wristlock ........................................................................................................182 Figure 6-6: Reverse Wristlock ....................................................................................................183

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Figure 6-7: Reverse Wristlock ....................................................................................................183 Figure 6-8: Come-along Wristlock .............................................................................................184 Figure 6-9: Come-along Wristlock .............................................................................................184 Figure 6-10: Come-along Wristlock ...........................................................................................185 Figure 6-11: Come-along Wristlock ...........................................................................................185 Figure 6-12: Come-along Wristlock ...........................................................................................186 Figure 6-13: Come-along Wristlock ...........................................................................................186 Figure 6-14: Basic to Come-along Wristlock .............................................................................187 Figure 6-15: Basic to Come-along Wristlock .............................................................................187 Figure 6-16: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock .........................................................................188 Figure 6-17: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock .........................................................................188 Figure 6-18: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock .........................................................................189 Figure 6-19: Straight-arm Bar Takedown...................................................................................190 Figure 6-20: Straight-arm Bar Takedown...................................................................................190 Figure 6-21: Straight-arm Bar Takedown...................................................................................191 Figure 6-22: Straight-arm Bar Takedown...................................................................................191 Figure 6-23: Handcuff Grip ........................................................................................................193 Figure 6-24: Handcuff Grip (modified) ......................................................................................193 Figure 6-25: Standing Handcuffing ............................................................................................195 Figure 6-26: Standing Handcuffing ............................................................................................195 Figure 6-27: Standing Handcuffing ............................................................................................196 Figure 6-28: Standing Handcuffing ............................................................................................196 Figure 6-29: Standing Handcuffing ............................................................................................197 Figure 6-30: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 1...........................................................................197 Figure 6-31: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 2...........................................................................198 Figure 6-32: Prone Handcuffing .................................................................................................199 Figure 6-33: Prone Handcuffing .................................................................................................199 Figure 6-34: Prone Handcuffing .................................................................................................200 Figure 6-35: Prone Handcuffing .................................................................................................200 Figure 6-36: Rear Control Position.............................................................................................201 Figure 6-37: Rear Control Position (modified)...........................................................................202 Figure 6-38: Flexi-cuff Position..................................................................................................203 Figure 6-39: Applying Flexi-cuffs ..............................................................................................203 Figure 6-40: Applying Flexi-cuffs ..............................................................................................204 Figure 6-41: Applying Flexi-cuffs ..............................................................................................204 Figure 6-42: Handcuff Escort Position .......................................................................................205 Figure 6-43: Keyhole Up ............................................................................................................206 Figure 6-44: Keyhole Down .......................................................................................................206 Figure 6-45: Basic Wristlock Takedown ....................................................................................209 Figure 6-46: Basic Wristlock Takedown ....................................................................................209 Figure 6-47: Basic Wristlock Takedown ....................................................................................210 Figure 6-48: Basic Wristlock Takedown ....................................................................................210 Figure 6-49: Basic Wristlock Takedown ....................................................................................210 Figure 6-50: Basic Wristlock Takedown ....................................................................................211 Figure 6-51: Reverse Wristlock Takedown ................................................................................212 Figure 6-52: Reverse Wristlock Takedown ................................................................................212

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Figure 6-53: Reverse Wristlock Takedown ................................................................................213 Figure 6-54: Reverse Wristlock Takedown ................................................................................213 Figure 6-55: Iron Wristlock Takedown ......................................................................................214 Figure 6-56: Iron Wristlock Takedown ......................................................................................214 Figure 6-57: Finger Lock Takedown ..........................................................................................215 Figure 6-58: Finger Lock Takedown ..........................................................................................215 Figure 6-59: Peroneal Strike .......................................................................................................221 Figure 6-60: Femoral Strike........................................................................................................221 Figure 6-61: Radial Strike...........................................................................................................222 Figure 6-62: Ulna Strike .............................................................................................................222 Figure 6-63: Augmented Rear Arm Bar .....................................................................................223 Figure 6-64: Augmented Rear Arm Bar .....................................................................................223 Figure 6-65: Augmented Rear Arm Bar .....................................................................................224 Figure 6-66: Augmented Rear Arm Bar .....................................................................................224 Figure 7-1a: Right-handed SoldierAngles of Attack ..............................................................229 Figure 7-1b: Left handed SoldierAngles of Attack.................................................................230 Figure 7-2: Hammer Grip ...........................................................................................................231 Figure 7-3: Ice Pick Grip ............................................................................................................232 Figure 7-4: Knife Fighting Stance ..............................................................................................233 Figure 7-5: Vertical Slash ...........................................................................................................235 Figure 7-6: Outside Slash(Start) .............................................................................................236 Figure 7-7: Outside Slash(Mid-point).....................................................................................237 Figure 7-8: Outside Slash(Finish)...........................................................................................237 Figure 7-9: Inside SlashStart...................................................................................................238 Figure 7-10: Inside SlashMid-point ........................................................................................239 Figure 7-11: Inside SlashFinish ..............................................................................................239 Figure 7-12: Forward ThrustStep 1.........................................................................................240 Figure 7-13: Forward ThrustStep 2.........................................................................................241 Figure 7-14: Reverse ThrustStep 1 .........................................................................................242 Figure 7-15: Reverse ThrustStep 2 .........................................................................................242 Figure 7-16: One-hand Grip........................................................................................................243 Figure 7-17: Two-hand Grip.......................................................................................................243 Figure 7-18: Stance One-hand Grip............................................................................................244 Figure 7-19: One-hand Vertical Strike(Down) Step 1............................................................245 Figure 7-20: One-hand Vertical Strike(Down) Step 2............................................................246 Figure 7-21: One-hand Vertical Strike(Down) Step 3............................................................246 Figure 7-22: Underhand strikeStep 1......................................................................................247 Figure 7-23: Underhand StrikeStep 2 .....................................................................................248 Figure 7-24: Underhand StrikeStep 3 .....................................................................................248 Figure 7-25: Outside StrikeStep 1...........................................................................................249 Figure 7-26: Outside StrikeStep 2...........................................................................................250 Figure 7-27: Outside StrikeStep 3...........................................................................................250 Figure 7-28: Inside StrikeStep 1 .............................................................................................251 Figure 7-29: Inside StrikeStep 2 .............................................................................................252 Figure 7-30: Inside StrikeStep 3 .............................................................................................252 Figure 7-31: Forward Thrust Angle 5Step 1...........................................................................253

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Figure 7-32: Figure 7-33: Figure 7-34: Figure 7-35: Figure 7-36: Figure 7-37: Figure 7-38: Figure 7-39: Figure 7-40: Figure 7-41: Figure 7-42: Figure 7-43: Figure 7-44: Figure 7-45: Figure 7-46: Figure 7-47: Figure 7-48: Figure 7-49: Figure 7-50: Figure 7-51: Figure 7-52: Figure 7-53: Figure 7-54: Figure 7-55: Figure 7-56: Figure 7-57: Figure 7-58: Figure 7-59: Figure 7-60: Figure 7-61: Figure 7-62: Figure 7-63: Figure 7-64: Figure 7-65: Figure 7-66: Figure 7-67: Figure 7-68: Figure 7-69: Figure 7-70: Figure 7-71: Figure 7-72: Figure 7-73: Figure 7-74: Figure 7-75: Figure 7-76: Figure 7-77:

Forward Thrust Angle 5Step 2...........................................................................253 Forward Thrust Angle 6Step 1...........................................................................254 Forward Thrust Angle 6Step 2...........................................................................254 Forward Two-hand ThrustStep 1 .......................................................................255 Forward Two-hand ThrustStep 2 .......................................................................255 Forward Two-hand ThrustStep 3 .......................................................................256 Upper Block ...........................................................................................................257 Low Block..............................................................................................................257 Middle Block..........................................................................................................258 Angle 10 Attack .....................................................................................................260 Two-handed Soft Block .........................................................................................260 Counter to Angle Knife Sticks ...............................................................................261 Counter to Angle 10Step 1 Knife Does Not Stick .............................................261 Counter to Angle 10Step 2 Knife Does Not Stick .............................................262 Soft Open Hand Block ...........................................................................................262 Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 1 .............................................................263 Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 2 .............................................................263 Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 3 .............................................................263 Counter to Inside SlashStep 1 ............................................................................264 Counter to Inside SlashStep 2 ............................................................................264 Counter to Inside SlashStep 3 ............................................................................265 Counter to Inside SlashStep 4 ............................................................................265 Counter to Underhand AttackStep 1 ..................................................................266 Counter to Underhand AttackStep 2 ..................................................................266 Counter to Underhand AttackStep 3 ..................................................................267 Counter to Outside SlashStep 1 .........................................................................268 Counter to Outside SlashStep 2 .........................................................................268 Counter to Outside SlashStep 3 .........................................................................269 Counter to Outside SlashStep 4 .........................................................................269 Knife on Left Side..................................................................................................270 Knife on Left SideStep 1....................................................................................270 Knife on Left SideStep 2....................................................................................270 Knife on Left SideStep 3....................................................................................271 Knife on Right Side................................................................................................271 Knife on Right SideStep 1 .................................................................................272 Knife on Right SideStep 2 .................................................................................272 Knife From Rear ....................................................................................................273 Knife From RearStep 1 ......................................................................................273 Knife From RearStep 2 ......................................................................................273 Knife From RearStep 3 ......................................................................................274 Disarming PistolStep 1.......................................................................................275 Disarming PistolStep 2.......................................................................................276 Disarming PistolStep 3.......................................................................................276 Disarming PistolStep 4.......................................................................................277 Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 1 ............................................................278 Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 2 ............................................................278

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Figure 7-78: Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 3 ............................................................279 Figure 7-79: Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 4 ............................................................279 Figure 7-80: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside)........................................................................280 Figure 7-81: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside)........................................................................280 Figure 7-82: Disarming Rifle to Rear Shoulder Height..............................................................281 Figure 7-83: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Parry).............................................................................281 Figure 7-84: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Elbow Strike) ................................................................282 Figure 7-85: Disarming Rifle to Rear Small of the Back ...........................................................282 Figure 7-86: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Lower Block) ................................................................283 Figure 7-87: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) ..............................................................................284 Figure 7-88: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 1 ...................................................................284 Figure 7-89: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 2 ...................................................................285 Figure 7-90: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) .................................................................285 Figure 7-91: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 1 ......................................................286 Figure 7-92: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 2 ......................................................286 Figure 7-93: Butt Stroke Femoral Nerve ....................................................................................287 Figure 7-94: Butt Stroke Peroneal Nerve....................................................................................287 Figure 7-95: Opponent Pushes Rifle...........................................................................................288 Figure 7-96: Opponent Pushes Rifle...........................................................................................288 Figure 7-97: Opponent Pulls Rifle..............................................................................................289 Figure 7-98: Opponent Pulls RifleStep 1................................................................................289 Figure 7-99: Opponent Pulls RifleStep 2................................................................................290 Figure 7-100: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol.........................................................................290 Figure 7-101: Opponent Grabs Holstered PistolStep 1...........................................................291 Figure 7-102: Opponent Grabs Holstered PistolStep 2...........................................................291 Figure 7-103: Opponent to the Rear ...........................................................................................292 Figure 7-104: Opponent to the RearStep 1 .............................................................................292 Figure 7-105: Opponent to the RearStep 2 .............................................................................293 Figure 7-106: Pistol to the Front.................................................................................................293 Figure 7-107: Pistol to the FrontStep 1...................................................................................294 Figure 7-108: Pistol to the FrontStep 2...................................................................................294 Figure 8-1: Close the Distance....................................................................................................295 Figure 8-2: ThroatStep 1.........................................................................................................295 Figure 8-3: ThroatStep 2.........................................................................................................296 Figure 8-4: Subclavian ArteryStep 1 ......................................................................................297 Figure 8-5: Subclavian ArteryStep 2 ......................................................................................297 Figure 8-6: Kidney......................................................................................................................298 Figure 8-7: Stalking the Sentry ...................................................................................................299 Figure 8-8: Garrotte from the RearStep 1 ...............................................................................299 Figure 8-9: Garrotte from the RearStep 2 ...............................................................................300 Figure 8-10: Garrotte from the RearStep 3 .............................................................................300 Figure 8-11: Stalking the Sentry .................................................................................................301 Figure 8-12: Garrotte to the FrontStep 1.................................................................................301 Figure 8-13: Garrotte to the FrontStep 2.................................................................................302 Figure 8-14: Garrotte to the FrontSide View..........................................................................302 Figure 8-15: Helmet Neck BreakStep 1..................................................................................303

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Figure 8-16: Helmet Neck BreakStep 2..................................................................................304 Figure 8-17: Helmet Neck BreakStep 3..................................................................................304 Figure 8-18: Helmet Smash ........................................................................................................305 Figure 8-19: Helmet SmashStep 1 ..........................................................................................305 Figure 8-20: Helmet SmashStep 2 ..........................................................................................306 Figure 8-21: Helmet SmashStep 3 ..........................................................................................306 Figure 8-22: Neck Break from Rear ...........................................................................................307 Figure 8-23: Neck Break from RearStep 1 .............................................................................307 Figure 8-24: Neck Break from RearStep 2 .............................................................................308 Figure 8-25: Neck Break from RearStep 3 .............................................................................308 Figure 8-26: Stalking the Enemy ................................................................................................309 Figure 8-27: Neck Break KneelingStep 1...............................................................................310 Figure 8-28: Neck Break KneelingStep 2...............................................................................310 Figure 8-29: Stalking the Sentry .................................................................................................311 Figure 8-30: Rear TakedownStep 1 ........................................................................................311 Figure 8-31: Rear TakedownStep 2 ........................................................................................312 Figure 8-32: Crotch TakedownStep 1.....................................................................................312 Figure 8-33: Crotch TakedownStep 2.....................................................................................313 Figure 8-34: Crotch TakedownStep 3.....................................................................................313 Figure 9-1: Rest...........................................................................................................................314 Figure 9-2: On Guard..................................................................................................................315 Figure 9-3: Thrust .......................................................................................................................315 Figure 9-4: On Guard..................................................................................................................316 Figure 9-5: Left Parry .................................................................................................................316 Figure 9-6: Left Parry .................................................................................................................317 Figure 9-7: On Guard..................................................................................................................317 Figure 9-8: Right Parry ...............................................................................................................318 Figure 9-9: Right Parry ...............................................................................................................318 Figure 9-10: Left Parry ...............................................................................................................319 Figure 9-11: Horizontal Butt Stroke ...........................................................................................319 Figure 9-12: On Guard................................................................................................................320 Figure 9-13: Vertical Butt Stroke ...............................................................................................320 Figure 9-14: Smash .....................................................................................................................321 Figure 9-15: Slash (Start)............................................................................................................322 Figure 9-16: Slash (Mid-point) ...................................................................................................322 Figure 9-17: Slash (Finish) .........................................................................................................323 Figure 9-18: Ground Point (Start)...............................................................................................324 Figure 9-19: Ground Point (Mid-point) ......................................................................................324 Figure 9-20: Bayonet Extraction (Finish) ...................................................................................325 Figure 9-21: High Block .............................................................................................................325 Figure 9-22: Low Block..............................................................................................................326 Figure 9-23: Middle Block..........................................................................................................327 Figure 9-24: Middle Block..........................................................................................................327 Figures 9-25: Two against One...................................................................................................329 Figure 9-26: Three against TwoStep 1....................................................................................329 Figure 9-27: Three against TwoStep 2....................................................................................330

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Figure 9-28: One against Two ....................................................................................................330 Figure 9-29: Two against Three Step 1.......................................................................................331 Figure 9-30: Two against Three Step 2.......................................................................................331 Figure 9-31: Two against Three Step 3.......................................................................................331 Figure 9-32: Scaffold Target.......................................................................................................333 Figure 9-33: Gallows Target.......................................................................................................334 Figure 9-34: Ground Target ........................................................................................................334 Figure 9-35: Pugil Stick Construction and Materials .................................................................343 Figure 9-36: Pugil Stick Construction ........................................................................................344 Figure 10-1: Mount Position.......................................................................................................347 Figure 10-2: Guard Position........................................................................................................348 Figure 10-3: Cross Mount...........................................................................................................348 Figure 10-4: Side Mount.............................................................................................................349 Figure 10-5: Top Mount ReversalStep 1 ................................................................................350 Figure 10-6 Top Mount ReversalStep 2...................................................................................350 Figure 10-7 Top Mount ReversalStep 3...................................................................................350 Figure 10-8: Top Mount ReversalStep 4 ................................................................................350 Figure 10-9: Top Mount ReversalStep 5 ................................................................................350 Figure 10-10: Guard Position .....................................................................................................351 Figure 10-11: Guard ReversalStep 1.......................................................................................352 Figure 10-12: Guard ReversalStep 2.......................................................................................352 Figure 10-13: Cross-mount Reversal 1Step 1.........................................................................353 Figure 10-14: Cross-mount Reversal 1Step 2.........................................................................353 Figure 10-15: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 1.........................................................................354 Figure 10-16: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 2.........................................................................354 Figure 10-17: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 3.........................................................................354 Figure 10-18: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 4.........................................................................355 Figure 10-19: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 1.........................................................................355 Figure 10-20: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 2.........................................................................356 Figure 10-21: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 3.........................................................................356 Figure 10-22: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 4.........................................................................356 Figure 10-23: Guard Pass 1Step 1 ..........................................................................................357 Figure 10-24: Guard Pass 1Step 2 ..........................................................................................357 Figure 10-25: Guard Pass 2.........................................................................................................358 Figure 10-26: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 1 ....................................................................359 Figure 10-27: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 2 ....................................................................359 Figure 10-28: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 3 ....................................................................360 Figure 10-29: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 4 ....................................................................360 Figure 10-30: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 1 ....................................................................361 Figure 10-31: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 2 ....................................................................361 Figure 10-32: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 3 ....................................................................362 Figure 10-33: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 4 ....................................................................362 Figure 10-34: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 5 ....................................................................363 Figure 10-35: Armbar from Guard 1Step 1 ............................................................................364 Figure 10-36: Armbar from Guard 1Step 2 ............................................................................364 Figure 10-37: Armbar from Guard 1Step 3 ............................................................................365

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Figure 10-38: Armbar from Guard 1Step 4 ............................................................................365 Figure 10-39: Armbar from Guard 2Step 1 ............................................................................366 Figure 10-40: Armbar from Guard 2Step 2 ............................................................................366 Figure 10-41: Armbar from Guard 2Step 3 ............................................................................367 Figure 10-42: Armbar from Guard 2Step 4 ............................................................................367 Figure 10-43: Straight ArmbarStep 1 .....................................................................................368 Figure 10-44: Straight ArmbarStep 2 .....................................................................................368 Figure 10-45: Straight ArmbarStep 3 .....................................................................................368 Figure 10-46: Figure 4 ArmbarStep 1.....................................................................................369 Figure 10-47: Figure 4 ArmbarStep 1.....................................................................................369 Figure 10-48: Figure 4 ArmbarStep 1.....................................................................................370 Figure 10-49: Shoulder RipStep 1 ..........................................................................................370 Figure 10-50: Shoulder RipStep 2 ..........................................................................................371 Figure 10-51: Rear Choke on the GroundStep 1 ....................................................................371 Figure 10-52: Rear Choke on the GroundStep 2 ....................................................................372 Figure 10-53: Top Mount ...........................................................................................................373 Figure 10-54: Side ChokeStep 1 .............................................................................................373 Figure 10-55: Side ChokeStep 2 .............................................................................................374 Figure 10-56: Cross Collar Choke Fingers in .............................................................................374 Figure 10-57: Cross Collar Choke Thumbs in............................................................................375 Figure 10-58: Cross Collar Choke ..............................................................................................375 Figure 10-59: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)Step 1 ......................................................376 Figure 10-60: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)Step 2 ......................................................376 Figure 10-61: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)Step 3 ......................................................377 Figure 10-62: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 1.............................................................377 Figure 10-63: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 2.............................................................378 Figure 10-64: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 3.............................................................378 Figure 10-65: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 4.............................................................379 Figure 10-66: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 5.............................................................379 Figure 10-67: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 1 ..............................................................380 Figure 10-68: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 2 ..............................................................380 Figure 10-69: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 3 ..............................................................381 Figure 10-70: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 4 ..............................................................381 Figure 10-71: Ground Side Headlock .........................................................................................382 Figure 10-72: Ground Side HeadlockStep 1...........................................................................382 Figure 10-73: Ground Side HeadlockStep 2...........................................................................382 Figure 10-74: Recovering from the Ground PositionStep 1 ...................................................383 Figure 10-75: Recovering from the Ground PositionStep 2 ...................................................383 Figure 10-76: Recovering from the Ground PositionStep 3 ...................................................384 Figure 10-77: Defensive Ground Position 1 ...............................................................................384 Figure 10-78: Defensive Ground Position 2 ...............................................................................385 Figure 11-1: Bridging .................................................................................................................390 Figure 11-2: Sprawl Drill............................................................................................................391 Figure 11-3: Mountain Climbers ................................................................................................391 Figure 11-4: Mountain Climbers ................................................................................................392 Figure 11-5: Iron Cross...............................................................................................................392

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Figure 11-6: Iron Cross...............................................................................................................393 Figure 11-7: Shrimping Drill ......................................................................................................393 Figure 11-8: Shrimping Drill ......................................................................................................394 Figure 11-9: Shrimping Drill ......................................................................................................394 Figure 11-10: Tactical Positioning..............................................................................................400

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Close Quarter Combat

CHAPTER 1 PRINCIPLES OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT SECTION 1 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT TACTICAL PRINCIPLES 1. Introduction. Close quarter combat is the physical confrontation between two or more opponents. It involves armed, unarmed, lethal, and non-lethal fighting techniques that range from enforced compliance to deadly force. The purpose of close quarter combat is to apply armed and unarmed techniques to produce lethal and non-lethal results. Unarmed techniques include hand-to-hand combat and defence against hand-held weapons. Armed techniques include those applied with a rifle, bayonet, knife, baton or any improvised weapon. 2. Close quarter combat is a weapons-based system that spans the spectrum of conflict. Close quarter combat techniques both flow from and support the tactical principles listed below. These principles are not applied separately, but are combined to achieve maximum effect. a. Decisiveness. Decisiveness is essential in close quarter combat. An indecisive soldier wastes energy and possibly lives. Whether the intent is to control an opponent using restraints or defend themselves in war, soldiers must have a clear purpose before engaging in close quarter combat, and act decisively once engaged. Speed. Speed is used to gain the initiative over an opponent. In close quarter combat, the speed and violence of the attack against an opponent provides soldiers with a distinct advantage. Soldiers must know and understand the basics of close quarter combat so that they can execute techniques instinctively and rapidly. Concentration of Force. To achieve maximum power, the strength of all parts of the body must be used simultaneously. A strike will be ineffective if applied with the arm or leg alone. Power concentrated at the time of impact must be instantly released to prepare for the next action. Note that various muscles and tendons must be kept loose and relaxed to permit instant response to changing circumstances. Flexibility. Close quarter combat can be characterized by friction, uncertainty, disorder and rapid change. Every situation is a unique combination of changing factors that cannot be controlled with precision or certainty. For example, a soldier dealing with crowd-control will have to employ various techniques ranging from non-lethal restraints to possibly deadly force. Soldiers must adapt to situations quickly to maintain their advantage. Simplicity. Close quarter combat is based on instinctive responses. A wide range of situations have to be handled with the same simple skill sets, as it has been found that increasing the number of possible responses results in increased response time. This is because the soldier must decide which response or
B-GL-382-004/FP-001 1

b.

c.

d.

e.

Close Quarter Combat

technique is most appropriate for the threat. While the difference in time may only be minimal, even a half-second hesitation in a deadly force confrontation could be fatal. 3. Gaining Advantage. A basic principle of martial arts is to use an opponents strength against him to gain more leverage than ones own muscles alone can generate, thereby gaining the advantage. In close quarter combat, soldiers must exploit every advantage over an opponent to ensure a successful outcome. This can include employing various weapons and techniques to present a dilemma to the opponent. Achieving surprise can also greatly increase leverage. Soldiers try to achieve surprise through deception, stealth, and ambiguity. 4. Exploiting Success. Typically, an opponent will not surrender simply because he is placed at a disadvantage. Soldiers cannot be satisfied with gaining an advantage in close quarter combat. They must exploit that advantage aggressively and ruthlessly until an opportunity arises to completely dominate the opponent. Soldiers must exploit success by using every advantage that can be gained. SECTION 2 CONTINUUM OF FORCE 5. Soldiers will face both combat and non-combat situations. Threat levels may rise and fall based on the actions of the soldier and the opponents involved. Escalation of force stops when the opponent complies with the demands imposed by the soldier. This range of actions is known as the continuum of force. 6. The continuum of force describes a wide range of possible actions, ranging from verbal commands to the application of deadly force, which may be used to gain and maintain control of a potentially dangerous situation. The continuum of force consists of five levels that correspond to the behaviour of opponents and the actions the soldier uses to control the situation. Close quarter combat is employed in Levels 3, 4 and 5 of the continuum.

Continuum of Force Level 1 2 3 4 5 Level of Resistance Compliant Passive Resistant Active Resistant Assault Deadly Force Assault Level of Control Verbal commands Contact controls Compliance Techniques Defensive Tactics Deadly Force

Note: bold text indicates levels where close quarter combat is employed.

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Principles of Close Quarter Combat

a. b.

Level 1Compliant. The opponent complies with verbal commands. Close quarter combat is not necessary. Level 2Passive Resistant. The opponent resists verbal commands but complies immediately with any contact controls. Close quarter combat is not employed. Level 3Active Resistant. The opponent initially demonstrates physical resistance. Soldiers use compliance techniques to control the situation. Level 3 employs close quarter combat to physically force an opponent to comply. Techniques include: (1) (2) (3) compliance techniques; soft-hand striking techniques; and non-lethal chemical weapons (if ordered).

c.

d.

Level 4Assault. The opponent may physically attack soldiers, but does not use a weapon. Soldiers employ close quarter combat to neutralize the threat, including: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) defensive techniques (blocks & counters); striking techniques; enhanced pain compliance techniques; non-lethal chemical weapons; and impact weapon techniques.

e.

Level 5Deadly Force Assault. The opponent usually has a weapon, and will either kill or seriously injure someone if not stopped immediately and brought under control. To control the opponent soldiers typically apply deadly force using small arms weapons, but may also employ armed and unarmed close quarter combat.

7. Principles for Controlling Resistance. In use of force situations the soldier is responsible for the level of force employed. The following principles describe legally acceptable methods for controlling an opponent who resists. a. Pain Compliance. Pain compliance uses pain to control resistive behaviour. Pain is a formidable tool for disrupting an opponents thought process. Once the pain exceeds the opponents pain threshold he usually decides to stop resisting. Examples of pain compliance techniques are joint locks and pressure points.

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Close Quarter Combat

b.

Stunning Techniques. Stunning employs overwhelming sensory input that is sudden, intense and unexpected. The stun can result from heavy impact, hitting the ground, or being struck on certain areas of the anatomy. The average stun will average 3 to 7 seconds, and allows the soldier sufficient time for a follow-up strike. Examples of stunning techniques are the brachial stun, radial stun, suprascapular stun, and roundhouse kicks to the peroneal or femoral nerve motor points. Distraction Techniques. Distraction techniques weaken motor action by changing the thought process. A distraction technique could be as simple as a shin scrape, a knee to the femoral nerve, a straight punch to set up a reverse punch, or just asking a question that requires more than a yes or no answer. The average distraction technique lasts about 3 seconds. Balance Displacement. Balance displacement uses leverage, moving an opponents centre of gravity beyond the stability provided by his feet. An example of balance displacement is any form of takedown. Motor Dysfunction. Motor dysfunction is a controlled striking technique which over-stimulates motor nerves, resulting in temporary muscle impairment. Motor dysfunction targets an area which is a large muscle mass, and may be applied by feet or hand strikes, or impact weapons such as a baton or rifle butt. The average motor dysfunction may last from 30 seconds to several minutes. SECTION 3 EFFECTS OF COMBAT STRESS

c.

d.

e.

8. Stress can cause involuntary physiological responses, and thus in life and death situations combat stress can have a significant diminishing effect on task performance. Combat stress can impact what a soldier thinks (irrational thoughts), what he sees (tunnel vision and loss of near vision), what he hears (auditory exclusion), how he responds (loss of motor skills), and can even have an effect on how he bleeds (vasoconstriction). These stress reactions can never be negated, however proper training and preparation can reduce their effects. If a soldier is trained properly and is prepared he will be able to anticipate these responses in himself and others, and can then initiate measures to control the effects of combat stress. 9. Combat stress can activate the bodys sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and create a condition commonly known as the flight or fight response. Activation of the SNS is a powerful survival mechanism shared by all mammals, enabling them to completely focus all the bodys resources on either charging toward or running away from an opponent. The process is automatic, virtually uncontrollable, and dominates all voluntary systems until the threat has been eliminated or avoided. It can result from any of the following: a. b. an imminent threat of serious injury to the soldier; reaction time to a threat is minimal;

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Principles of Close Quarter Combat

c. d.

a potentially life threatening situation; or a soldier lacks confidence in his training/skill level to cope with the threat.

10. While flight or fight can be extremely effective in battle, it may not be during peace support or aid to civil power operations. The soldier must understand the effect of combat stress on the SNS, especially when required to make split second, life or death decisions. 11. Effects of Heart Rate on Performance. The heart is responsible for the massive discharge of stress hormones throughout the body via the bloodstream, and thus heart rate and SNS activation are linked. SNS activation will drive the heart rate from a normal range of 60-80 beats per minute (BPM) to over 200 BPM within seconds. 12. The optimal range for combat performance is between 115 and 145 BPM. When the heart rate is within this range complex motor skills, visual reaction time, and cognitive reaction time will be at their highest. Consequently, a soldier with a heart rate between 115 and 145 BPM will have a sharp and clear mind, reaction time will be at its peak, and close-range shooting skills will be at their best. 13. When the heart rate reaches 115 BPM, fine motor skills begin to deteriorate. At a heart rate of 145 BPM, complex motor skills begin to deteriorate and soldiers lose their ability to recognize and react to potentially hazardous situations. This is not to say a soldier will fail to react to a stressful situation when the heart rate surpasses 145 BPM, however performance will diminish. 14. At a heart rate of 175 BPM, gross motor skills, i.e. flight or fight, are the only physical actions that can be performed well. It is within this range that the most significant symptoms of SNS activation occur. Vasoconstriction is at its highest, almost completely shutting down blood flow for surface wounds. Soldiers may experience auditory exclusion and tunnel vision. Near vision and depth perception will also deteriorate. Irrational behaviour such as freezing in place and becoming submissive or passive will occur. Soldiers may also experience loss of bladder and bowel control, caused by redirecting energy from non-essential muscles that control the bladder and the sphincter. These effects are due to hormonal induced heart rate increases. Increases caused by exercise, such as wind sprints, will not have the same impact. 15. Each of the five sensory systems, also referred to as the perceptual senses, provide the brain with a constant flow of information. However, when the brain becomes focused on an activity or threat it will tune in the sensory system that provides the most relevant information at that given time. The brain will tune out all other sensory inputs because they lack immediate significance. This is known as perceptual narrowing or selective attention. 16. Auditory Exclusion. During SNS activation, the perceptual narrowing process becomes critical. In combat vision usually provides the most relevant information. As a result, the brain stops processing information from the other senses, particularly the auditory system. This is referred to as auditory exclusion. Selective attention can also tune out other tactile sensations (the sense of feeling or touch), so that scratches, cuts, blows and even bullet wounds may not be felt. When the auditory system is the dominant source of information, visual exclusion may occur due to low-or no-light environments.
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17. Auditory exclusion is a powerful process that can limit a soldiers ability to process critical information in combat. Verbal orders, information shouted by another soldier, or even an opponents shouts to surrender may not be heard. Thus one should use visual methods, such as moving in front of a soldier to get his attention. This is one reason why successful combat leaders have always led from the front. 18. Effects on Vision. SNS-induced vasoconstriction and hormonal processes have a profound effect on the entire body, including vision. In a combat stress environment this has a devastating impact on a soldiers ability to perform a task, since vision plays such an important role in nearly every aspect of survival performance. Tactical implications of SNS activation on vision include: a. Tunnel Vision. The field of vision narrows as though one were looking through a tunnel or tube, with the peripheral field reduced 70% or more. Perceptual narrowing causes all senses except one, usually vision, to close or be greatly diminished. Thus the mind is processing only minimal information and may miss critical information, such as threat cues. Loss of Near Vision. When near vision loss occurs a soldier will experience great difficulty focusing on objects closer than 1 metre. This is due to pupil dilation, a by-product of SNS activation. Dilated pupils degrade a soldiers ability to aim a weapon or focus on close threats and visual cues. Loss of Ability to Focus. Relaxation and loss of control over the muscles that control the lens causes distortion while focusing on a target. Thus, even a small amount of sensory information being processed by the brain is flawed, causing a significant decrease in accuracy and a significant increase in reaction time. Loss of Monocular Vision. Monocular vision is predominantly used in shooting where accuracy is critical, such as firing a pistol or rifle over an extended distance or sniping. SNS activation inhibits monocular vision, so that the soldier will see double. Binocular dominance, during SNS activation, will inhibit the accuracy of distance shooting, however, it can enhance accuracy during close engagements. Loss of Depth Perception. A soldier to incorrectly judges distance and believes that the target is either closer or further away than it actually is when depth perception is lost. Depth perception usually deteriorates when soldiers are surprised by a spontaneous deadly force assault and have to quickly return fire, often resulting in soldier firing low and to his dominant side. Loss of Night Vision. The eyes night vision receptors are located primarily in the peripheral field, thus the loss of peripheral vision also results in loss of night vision. This is why soldiers are taught to look around an object at night, in order to see it with their night vision receptors.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

19. If SNS activation occurs then these negative effects upon vision cannot be avoided, but they can be minimized through proper training. For example, soldiers should be taught to pivot their head, rather than just darting their eyes, in order to compensate for tunnel vision. Similarly,
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shooting programs can emphasize instinctive shooting which reduces the need to rely on sights at close range. 20. Effects of Combat Stress on Reaction Time. Surviving close quarter combat depends on a soldiers reaction time. Survival reaction time is the process of perceiving a threat and initiating a survival response. This includes sensory perception, processing sensory input, and motor skill performance. These functions are connected, and survival reaction time will suffer when any function is disrupted. 21. Survival reaction time is a four-step process: a. b. c. d. perception; analyzing and evaluating the information or threat level; formulating the response; and initiating a motor response.

22. These steps must be completed in sequence, the execution of each step depending on the information available at the previous step. Reaction time will increase if any of the previous steps lack sufficient information. Research has shown that information processing will begin to deteriorate when the heart rate exceeds 145 BPM, and physical performance will become very poor when the heart rate exceeds 175 BPM. 23. The survival reaction model corresponds with the effects of SNS activation on vision. As the visual field collapses and sensory perception is disrupted, the brains ability to analyze and evaluate information is also impeded. In addition, if these two steps are disrupted, response selection and motor response will not occur. 24. The impact of SNS activation on cognitive processing and survival reaction time includes: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. survival reaction time can take more than four times longer; disrupted concentration; failure to develop logical survival responses; irrational behaviour; repetitive actions; freezing in place; and submissive behaviour.

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25. Deterioration of Motor Skill Performance. Combat stress, by diminishing motor skills, can have a detrimental effect on physical performance. SNS will affect motor skills in the following ways: a. Fine Motor Skills. When the heart rate reaches around 115 BPM vasoconstriction of the fingers and hands begins to reduce the dexterity required to perform fine motor skills which require hand/eye coordination and hand dexterity, e.g. precision shooting or safe vehicle operation. . Complex Motor Skills. At approximately 145 BPM, complex motor skills begin to deteriorate. These skills involve muscle groups in a series of movements requiring hand/eye coordination, precision, tracking and timing, e.g. shooting stances in which muscle groups are working in different or asymmetrical movements, or a takedown that has multiple independent components. Gross Motor Skills. These are the only motor skills that actually increase effectiveness as the heart rate increases, because gross motor skills are simple strength skills or skills involving symmetrical movements that involve large muscle or major muscle groups, e.g. punching, striking with batons, or simple shooting stances.

b.

c.

26. The effects of SNS activation on motor skills must be constantly considered. Whenever possible, individuals required to conduct fine motor skill tasks should not be placed in frontline confrontations, and a reserve should be withheld from a stressful confrontation so that it may be called forward to perform fine motor skills if required. 27. Vasoconstriction. One of the initial symptoms of vasoconstriction is a lack of circulation at high levels of SNS activation. Vasoconstriction will reduce finger and hand dexterity, and can inhibit vision. It also limits blood loss, thus during combat a body can endure major wounds without significant bleeding. This can be very deceptive, as the lack of bleeding makes it appear that the wound is not critical. However, as SNS activation begins to decrease and the body returns to normal an opposite effect occurs known as vasodilatation, which increases bleeding. Therefore it is critical that all gunshot wounds or knife wounds be treated with pressure dressings as soon as possible following the incident. If a wound is bleeding excessively during SNS activation this indicates arterial bleeding, and appropriate first aid should be applied. 28. Endurance Limitations on Combat Performance. Combat fitness is an integral component of close quarter combat. The combination of aerobic (cardio/respiratory) and anaerobic (strength) conditioning not only enhances the soldiers ability to control and overcome an opponent but also increases his ability to survive. 29. The human body has limitations when exposed to high intensity close quarter combat activities. Under ideal conditions, the average soldier will have approximately 10 to 15 seconds to control a threat, expending or burning energy during this time. After this initial burn time the soldier can expect to experience a dramatic decrease in strength and energy output. The body relies primarily on three energy systems: the ATP (adenosin triphosphate) system, the lactic acid

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system, and the aerobic system. Each system can be equated to high performance fuels, which are designed to burn at different rates for varying levels of intensity. As with any fuel system, each energy system has a predictable burn time before performance will decrease. 30. For example, consider a situation where a soldier is employed in an aid to civil power operation and is suddenly attacked by an opponent who is bigger and stronger. During the first 10 to 15 seconds the soldier will normally maintain his balance and neutralize the opponents attempts at takedowns. If the soldier fails to control the opponent within 15 seconds, the soldiers strength output begins to dramatically decline and the soldier will be forced to escalate. If the soldiers attempt to escalate fails, then his probability of survival deteriorates substantially unless he resorts to deadly force escalation. The different energy systems perform as follows during combat: a. ATP System. ATP consists of small energy bundles stored in the muscles. It is used during high energy and high strength activities, such as sprinting, lifting very heavy weights, or defending against an aggressive assault. When this system is engaged, the soldier will perform at 100% of maximum output. The system burns out after 10 to 15 seconds, with a 45% decrease in maximum energy. Lactic Acid System. Once the ATP system has been depleted, the lactic acid system comes on-line to act as an afterburner fuel. This fuel will not burn as hot as ATP, but provides the soldier about 45 seconds of intermediate strength and endurance. So while during the first 10 to 15 seconds of a confrontation a soldier can expect to perform at 100% of maximum, once the lactic acid system is engaged a soldiers energy level will reduce to 55% at 30 seconds, and 35% at 60 seconds. Aerobic System. After about 90 seconds the lactic acid is depleted and the aerobic system becomes the final and dominant fuel system. The aerobic system is fuelled by a combination of oxygen, carbohydrates and free fatty acids. This system is very economical and can burn for long periods, depending on the soldiers cardio/respiratory conditioning. Unfortunately, when the aerobic system is activated after ATP and lactic acid depletion the soldiers maximum energy will be reduced to approximately 30%.

b.

c.

31. Preventing or Reducing SNS Activation. Five major variables have an immediate impact on the level of SNS activation: a. b. c. d. e. perceived level of threat; time needed to respond; level of confidence and personal skill; level of experience in dealing with the specific threat; and physical stress (fatigue, sleep deprivation, malnutrition) in combination with survival stress.
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32. These variables can be strongly influenced through proper training and prior preparation. Realistic scenario-based training will aid the soldier by allowing him to understand effects on both him and his team, and will also act as a form of combat stress inoculation. 33. As well, accelerated heart rates, panic attacks, and SNS activation can be reduced and controlled through a simple breathing exercise: a. b. c. inhale through the nose for 4 seconds and hold for 4 seconds; exhale through the mouth 4 seconds and hold for 4 seconds; and repeat four times.

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CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT SECTION 1 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT RANGE BANDS 1. Close quarter combat engagements occur within three range bands: long range, midrange, and close range. These ranges may blur together very quickly and at times jump from one to the other, depending on the actions of the soldier or the opponents reaction. When close quarter combat is probable the soldier should always try to maintain a reactionary gap of 2 to 3 metres from his opponent. 2. Long Range. Long range engagements use the rifle/bayonet or kicks. They may also include attacks with poles or sticks, or the entrenching tool. 3. Mid-range. Mid-range engagements use knives, batons and hand strikes. At this range, the soldier has to be prepared to advance to apply close range techniques, or back off to longrange techniques, depending on the situation. 4. Close Range. Close range techniques include knee, elbow and hand strikes, as well as throws, takedowns and grappling. The soldier should remember that pressure points are available to aid in escaping holds. Biting and gouging techniques are also effective. SECTION 2 VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE BODY 5. Vulnerable points are areas of the body which are susceptible to blows or pressure. The soldier is striking to subdue and/or kill the opponent, therefore any concept of fair play should be forgotten, and quick violent blows to vulnerable points should be implemented. In doing so the soldier may cause the opponent to drop his defence temporarily, allowing follow-up blows to other vulnerable points. The vulnerable points of the body are organized in five major groups: head, neck, torso, groin, and extremities. Before proceeding further, familiarize yourself with the parts of the body depicted at Figure 2-1. 6. Head. The vulnerable points of the head are the eyes, temple, ears, nose and jaw: a. a. b. c. Eyes. Blows to and raking or gouging of the eyes will cause temporary or permanent blindness and intense pain. Temple. Forceful blows to the temple, one of the most fragile areas of the head, may cause unconsciousness and possibly death. Ears. Sharp, heavy blows to the ears can cause brain concussion or ruptured eardrums and internal bleeding. Nose. A very sensitive area of the face, the nose can be easily broken, and when struck will cause immediate watering of the eyes. It must be stressed that some
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individuals may have the conditioning to withstand a blow to the nose, so the soldier must be ready to apply a follow up blow immediately. d. Jaw. When the jaw is struck forcefully the opponent may lose consciousness. A strike to the jaw will cause immense pain and damage to the teeth, lips and tongue. Note that the risk of self-injury is great unless the soldier strikes the jaw with a hard object such as a boot, rifle butt or helmet..

7. Neck. The front of the neck is a soft tissue area that is not covered by natural protection. When striking this area it is possible to cause the trachea to swell, leading to unconsciousness or even death. The areas to strike are the throat and nape of the neck: a. b. Striking the throat will cause swelling of the trachea and lead to asphyxiation. A trachea tear or forceful strike may kill the opponent. The back of the neck contains the spine and occipital nerve, which provides the nervous systems link to the brain. The weight of the head and lack of large muscle mass leads to severe spinal damage when repeated forceful blows are delivered. Striking this area will cause loss of vision and balance, temporary or permanent paralysis, or kill the opponent.

8. Torso. The torso contains the vital organs of the body and provides the most natural protection. The areas which the soldier should target are as follows: a. b. Collarbone (clavicle). A violent kick or strike to the collarbone, which is very fragile, will cause it to break or fracture and immobilize the arm. Solar Plexus. A forceful blow to the solar plexus or centre of the chest will knock the wind out of the opponent, causing breathlessness and possible internal injuries. Ribs. Violent and repeated blows to the ribs will cause intense pain. If the soldier applies repeated blows to the same area the bones may break and cause internal injuries, such as a punctured lung. Stomach. A sharp blow to the stomach may cause breathlessness and internal injuries. Kidneys. Powerful blows to the kidneys may cause immobilization, shock and permanent damage. Spine. Violent blows to the spine can cause pinching and/or severing of the spinal cord, leading to intense pain or paralysis.

c.

d. e. f.

9. Groin. The groin is another soft tissue area that lacks natural protection. Any damage to this area causes the opponent to involuntarily alter his stance to protect the area. Females are affected just the same as males, the only difference being that a near miss to the scrotum of the

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male will still cause severe pain. A violent blow can cause unconsciousness and/or internal damage. 10. Extremities. Rarely will an attack to the arms and legs cause death, but they are still important targets. A limb can be immobilized by delivering forceful blows to the joints in a direction opposite to the natural bend.

Figure 2-1: Body Side, Front and Back

SECTION 3 PRESSURE POINTS OF THE BODY 11. Knowledge of pressure points enables the soldier to control an opponent through pain compliance without causing death or serious injury, an important tool in situations where deadly force is not authorized. A soldier can also use pressure points to distract an opponent so lethal techniques can be applied. Before proceeding further, familiarize yourself with the pressure points of the body depicted at Figure 2-2. 12. Some areas of the body are susceptible to pain: a. b. c. 13. areas where there are many nerve endings; areas where nerves cross bones close to the outer skin; and arterial pressure points.

Two methods of applying pressure point control are:


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a. b. 14.

touch pressure using the fingertip; and striking techniques.

Five steps to correctly apply touch pressure to a nerve are: a. b. c. d. e. stabilize the target; apply pressure/counter-pressure; apply pressure with fingertip(s); loud repetitive verbal commands; and alleviate pressure when compliance is achieved.

15. Infra Orbital Nerve. The infra orbital nerve is located at the base of the nose. This pressure point is vulnerable to touch pressure with the index finger, pushing in and up on the underside of the nose at a 45 degree angle toward the top centre of the head. This will cause medium to high intensity pain, watering of the eyes, and a low level stunning effect. This technique can be used to gain compliance by inflicting pain, enabling the soldier to force balance displacement on the opponent. This pressure point can be used in conjunction with the Mandibular Angle (see paragraph 16) for enhanced pain. This pressure point may not be effective against some opponents, e.g. those who have previously broken their nose or have inhaled cocaine. 16. Mandibular Angle. The mandibular angle is located where the three nerves run together behind the mandible at the base of the ear lobe. This pressure point is vulnerable to touch pressure or quick penetration. Pressure is applied using the fingertips, the thumb or the knuckle between the mandible and the mastoid at the base of the ear lobe, directed toward the nose. This will cause medium to high intensity pain, immediate signs of submission, and probable cessation of all intentional motor activity. This technique is used to attain opponent compliance through pain. Enhanced pain can be inflicted if used in conjunction with the infra orbital nerve. 17. Hypoglossal Nerve. The Hypoglossal Nerve is located 2.5 centimetres forward of the R angle of the mandible, 2.5 centimetres under the jaw. This pressure point is vulnerable to touch pressure or quick penetration. Pressure is applied with the thumb, supported by the fist, or the unsupported fingertips, pushing toward the top and centre of the skull. When touch pressure is applied it causes medium to high intensity pain, immediate signs of submission, cessation of all motor activity, and involuntary hyperextension of the arms. If quick penetration is applied, immediate cessation of all intentional motor activity will occur as well as mental stunning, lasting 3 to 7 seconds. This technique is used as a distraction technique, to gain compliance through pain, or to displace the opponents balance. 18. Jugular Notch. The Jugular Notch is at the base of the front of the neck in the notch formed at the centre of the clavicle. This pressure point is vulnerable to pressure applied in a quick stabbing motion, or to touch pressure. Pressure is applied with the fingers down at a 45 degree angle in both cases. When touch pressure is applied it redistributes the opponents
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balance, causes involuntary flexing away from the pressure, and immediate cessation of the aggressive thought process. If the quick penetration method is used it causes immediate cessation of all intentional motor activity, redistributes the opponents balance, causes involuntary flexing away from the pressure, and low level mental stunning. This technique is used as distraction, to cause balance displacement, or to create space when grappling. 19. Brachial Plexus (Origin). The Brachial Plexus (Origin) is formed by nerve fibres stemming from the vertebrae in the neck. These nerves meet and form the Brachial Plexus group at the side of the neck, approximately 15 centimetres from the base of the neck, between two groups of the Sterno Cleido Mastoid muscle. Striking techniques are used to attack this pressure point. When striking, pressure is directed to the centre of the neck. When touch pressure is applied, medium to high intensity pain can be expected, causing motor dysfunction to the affected arm and hand, and probable signs of submission. The expected effects of striking techniques are a high degree of pain, immediate cessation of motor activity, probability of temporary motor dysfunction to the affected arm, mental stunning for approximately 3 to 7 seconds, and possible low levels of unconsciousness. This technique is used for pain compliance and to cause motor dysfunction. 20. Brachial Plexus (Tie In). The Brachial Plexus (Tie In) is located at the shoulder joint. Hand strikes and direct pressure with the thumb are effective against this nerve. Note that this is most successful if the arm is beside the body when the attack is made. When touch pressure is applied high intensity pain is expected and cessation of all intentional motor activity occurs. Motor dysfunction to the affected arm and hand, and immediate signs of submission, may also be seen. The expected effects of striking techniques are high intensity pain, temporary motor dysfunction to the affected arm and hand, possible flexing of the hand, mental stunning lasting 3 to 7 seconds, and numbing or tingling in the affected hand . This technique is used to cause motor dysfunction. 21. Suprascapular Nerve. The Suprascapular Nerve is located at the junction where the trapezius connects to the side of the neck. Striking techniques, such as the hammer fist and knife-edge strikes, are used to deliver an attack from the rear. The angle of attack is directly toward the ground. The effects of the strike are high intensity pain, temporary motor dysfunction to the affected arm or hand, possible flexing of the hand, mental stunning for 3 to 7 seconds, and numbing or tingling of the hand. This technique causes motor dysfunction and a flex/reflex response, used to get the opponent to release a grip on an object or individual. 22. Radial Nerve. The Radial Nerve runs along the inside of the forearm along the radius bone. Striking techniques applied with the hand or impact weapons to the Radial Nerve are a softening technique to distract the opponent and/or disarm him prior to other strikes. Expected effects of striking techniques are medium to high intensity pain, motor dysfunction to the affected arm or hand, and possible flex/reflex response to the affected hand. 23. Ulna Nerve . The Ulna Nerve is on the outside of the forearm along the Ulna Bone. Strikes and direct pressure applied with the hand or impact weapons to the Ulna Nerve are a softening technique to distract the opponent prior to a lethal or non-lethal blow. Expected effects of striking techniques are medium to high intensity pain, motor dysfunction to the affected arm or hand, and possible flex/reflex response to the affected hand.
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24. Femoral Nerve. The Femoral Nerve is on the inside of the thigh along the femur bone. The striking point is midway down the thigh. Repeated hand and elbow strikes are very effective. Expected effects of striking techniques are temporary immobilization and motor function of the affected leg; severe pain, and mental stunning lasting for 3 to 7 seconds. This technique can also be used to break a hold such as the scissors hold. 25. Peroneal Nerve. The Peroneal Nerve is the easiest of the three motor points in the leg to strike. Its location on the outside of the leg makes it an easy target for both leg and impact weapon strikes. Located just above the back of the knee, the Peroneal Nerve branches off the Sciatic Nerve and travels around the outside of the knee, just under the knee cap. Impact should be as close to the Sciatic Nerve and Peroneal Nerve as possible. Expected effects of striking techniques are temporary immobilization and motor dysfunction of the affected leg, flex/reflex response of the affected leg, probable sympathetic reflex response of the unaffected leg, severe pain, and mental stunning for 3 to 7 seconds. This technique can be applied from the fighting stance, helping to bring the opponent off balance and enabling a non-lethal blow to be delivered. 26. Tibial Nerve. The Tibial Nerve is the lower branch of the Sciatic Nerve. It starts just above the back of the knee and runs down the back of the leg through the calf muscle. This pressure point is generally used for impact weapons and leg strikes from a rear oblique angle. The strike should be delivered directly in to the calf, preferably at the top. The expected effects of striking techniques are temporary immobilization and motor dysfunction of the affected leg, flex/reflex response of the affected leg, probable sympathetic reflex response of the unaffected leg, severe pain, and mental stunning for 3 to 7 seconds. This technique can be employed when attacking with a baton, or heel of the boot when executing a leg sweep.

NOTE All hinge joints (E.G. fingers, elbows) are designed to bend one-way, and THUS any pressure in the opposite direction will cause intense pain.

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Figure 2-2: Pressure Points of the Body

SECTION 4 STRIKING SURFACES 27. In close quarter combat any hardened portion of the body can serve as a weapon. Hands, elbows, feet and knees are used the most, and they become effective and powerful weapons when strengthened through proper training. 28. No one part of the body is effective if striking on its own. When employing striking surfaces the soldier must ensure that all parts of the body work as one when impacting the target. 29. Hands and Arms. Hands, forearms and elbows are the individual weapons of the arms. The hand itself consists of several surfaces that can be employed as weapons, including the fingers, palm, edges of the hand, and fists. 30. Fists. The hand can be used both opened and closed. For beginners a fist is the most effective striking surface (see Figure 2-3). To form a fist, fold the fingers so the tips touch the base of the fingers. Continue bending the fingers inward until they are tightly pressed in to the palm. Fold the thumb over the fingers and press tightly across the index and middle fingers. When forming a fist in this manner it is not unusual for the baby finger to become relaxed; try to prevent this from occurring. Use the fist to strike soft tissue areas such as the throat. The part of the fist which strikes the target is the area from slightly above the middle joint to the knuckle of the index and middle fingers (see Figure 2-4).

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Figure 2-3: Making a Fist

Figure 2-4: Striking Surface of the Fist

31. Back Fist. The hand is formed in a normal fist. The tops of the knuckles of the index and middle fingers on the back of the hand are the part of the fist used for striking (see Figure 25). The back fist is primarily used to attack the face and side of the body. This strike is delivered with a snapping motion of the forearm.

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Figure 2-5: Back Fist

32. Hammer Fist. After forming the fist, use the bottom of the fist along the meaty portion below the baby finger to strike (see Figure 2-6). As with the back fist ensure that you snap the forearm to deliver the attack.

Figure 2-6: Hammer Fist

33. Knife Hand and Ridge Hand. The knife hand is one of the most versatile and devastating strikes. The striking surface is the cutting edge of the hand, i.e. the meaty portion of the hand below the little finger extending to the top of the wrist (see Figure 2-7). The striking surface is narrow, allowing strikes on the neck between the opponents body armour and helmet. The ridge hand-striking surface is the bony portion between the thumb and the wrist (see Figure 2-8).

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Figure 2-7: Knife Hand

Figure 2-8: Ridge Hand

34.

Fingers. The fingers can be used to gouge and rake the eyes and face.

35. Forearms. Use the forearms to strike the opponent and break joints and limbs. A soldier will sustain less injury when strikes are conducted with the forearms than when strikes are applied with fists and fingers. 36. Elbows. Due to the short striking distance needed to generate power, elbows are excellent weapons for close range striking. Elbow strikes are possible from the front, rear and side. The strike may travel upward, downward and in a half circle, as well as in a straight line parallel to the ground. 37. Legs. The legs are the most powerful weapons on the soldiers body and are less prone to injury when striking. The feet are protected by boots and are the choice for striking. The soldier can use knees and feet to attack with devastating force. 38. Knees. Like elbows, knees are excellent weapons during close range fighting. Knees are employed at close range. The groin or peroneal nerve are the primary target for the knee strike if

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the opponent is standing. If the opponent is bent at the waist, or on the ground, knee strikes to the head and ribs are highly effective. 39. Ball and Toe of the Foot. The ball of the foot is used mainly for thrust kicks. The toe of the foot is used mainly for snap kicks. The attack with the ball or toe of the foot can be employed to the face, chest, abdomen, groin and leg areas (see Figure 2-9).

Figure 2-9: Ball and Toe of the Foot

40. Top of the Foot. The top of the foot runs from the toes to the ankle. The foot is stretched downward and the toes point downward. Use the instep (see Figure 2-10) to kick the groin.

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Figure 2-10: Instep Strike

41. Heel. The heel is used in kicks directed backward or sideways, and for foot stomps. It can also be used when an opponent is attempting to attack from the rear or side. SECTION 5 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT STANCES 42. Two stances are employed during close quarter combat training, the Natural Stance and the Fighting Stance. 43. Natural Stance. The Natural Stance (see Figure 2-11) is used during periods of instruction and for safety checks. It is a natural and comfortable stance. Both feet are placed flat on the ground and in line approximately shoulder width apart. The toes are pointed out approximately 10 degrees. Relaxed fists are formed with both hands placed at the front of the body.

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Figure 2-11: Natural Stance

44. Fighting Stance. If the body lacks balance and stability, offensive and defensive techniques will be ineffective. The ability to defend against an attack under any circumstances depends largely upon maintaining a correct stance. Powerful, fast, accurate and smoothly executed techniques can be performed only from a strong and stable base. The upper body must be set on this strong base, and the back must be kept straight. Although an effective attack or defence is impossible without a strong stance, it is only necessary to assume this position just before delivering an attack or reacting in a defensive manner. If the soldier concentrates too much on remaining in a firm and stable position, mobility will be lost. 45. The following points are key to developing a good stance. The soldier must: a. b. c. d. be well balanced when applying offensive and defensive techniques; be able to rotate hips smoothly when executing techniques; apply techniques with the greatest possible speed; and ensure that the muscles used in the attack and defence work together harmoniously.

46. The primary consideration, as stated earlier, is establishing a strong and stable base. From this base feet, legs, trunk, arms and hands must be controlled individually, but at the same time work together as a single harmonious unit. It is important to remember that in addition to stability while in the fighting stance, the stance must provide enough strength and firmness to withstand the shock caused by the application of techniques against the soldier.

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47. To adopt the fighting stance (see Figure 2-12), take a pace forward with the left/right foot, whichever feels most natural. The feet should be about shoulder width apart. The lead toe is pointed inward to prevent foot sweeps and also to allow the knee to naturally move inward and protect the groin. The knee of the lead leg should be directly above the lead foot. The rear foot should point in the same direction as the lead foot. This will naturally turn the hips to an angle of about 45 degrees. In doing so vulnerable points such as the groin and solar plexus are protected, and the soldier will be able to rotate the hips to generate power when striking. Distribute body weight evenly on both legs. Bend the knees slightly. The hands are positioned in front of and close to the centre of the body, with loosely clenched fists and thumbs in line with the cheekbones. The shoulders are relaxed with the lead hand forward. Elbows are close protecting the body. The chin is lowered slightly to protect the throat.

Figure 2-12: Fighting Stance

SECTION 6 BASIC MOVEMENT 48. Stepping Forward and to the Rear. The soldier may be required to move forward or rearward for both offensive and defensive techniques. The soldier must also end the movement in the proper fighting stance. 49. Stepping forward is executed by shifting the weight to the lead foot and bringing the rear foot straight forward, re-adopting a fighting stance. 50. Stepping rearward is executed by shifting the body weight to the rear foot and bringing the forward foot a full step to the rear, re-adopting a fighting stance.

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51. Shifting Forward, Rearward and Laterally. The soldier uses a lead leg stepping action (shift) to move. This movement is used both offensively and defensively. There are eight directions of movement (see Figure 2-13).

Figure 2-13: Directions of Movement

52. To shift forward the soldier moves the foot closest to the direction of movement, then draws the other foot forward in to the fighting stance (see Figures 2-14 to 2-16). The soldier must ensure that the movement of his feet are not so great as to cause balance displacement in his stance.

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Figure 2-14: Forward ShiftStart Point

Figure 2-15: Forward ShiftMid-point

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Figure 2-16: Forward ShiftFinish

53. Turns to the Rear. To turn to the rear the soldier shifts the rear leg forward at a 45 degree angle in line with the lead leg, then steps back out in a 45 degree angle with the same leg, rotating the body quickly to re-adopt the fighting stance (see Figures 2-17 to 2-19). Note that if the soldier is in the left leg forward fighting stance the body rotates to the right, and the exact opposite is done in the right leg forward fighting stance.

Figure 2-17: Turn to the RearStart

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Figure 2-18: Turn to the RearMid-point

Figure 2-19: Turn to the RearFinish

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CHAPTER 3 THROWS, TAKEDOWNS AND BREAKFALLS SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Throws and takedowns are used to throw an opponent to the ground during close combat. The principles of balance, leverage, timing and body position are applied to upset an opponents balance and gain control by forcing him to the ground. Throws and takedowns are effective because they rely on the momentum and power generated by the opponent rather than the strength and size of the soldier. Properly executed throws can be devastating, possibly causing broken limbs or unconsciousness. 2. When executing a throw or takedown the soldier must not fall with the opponent. Balance must be maintained and a strong stance re-adopted. Once the opponent is on the ground a series of lethal follow-up techniques can be applied such as knee drops, stomps, hand strikes, and breaking the elbow, wrist or fingers. 3. There are three stages which must be applied for a throw or takedown to be effective. Failure to complete any stage will neutralize the effectiveness of the technique. In sequence the stages are: a. b. c. balance displacement, by pushing or pulling; proper entry in to the technique; and execution of the technique.

4. The type of throw or takedown will depend on the opponents choice of attack or defence, and the location of his weakest balance point. 5. Balance displacement occurs as a result of either pushing or pulling. When standing there are eight directions in which the bodys balance may be displaced (see Figure 3-1). The point of balance of a standing person is the navel. To execute a throw the soldiers point of balance must be below or equal to the opponents. For example, if you were leaning against a chest high fence there would be little chance of falling, however if that fence was lowered to waist height the body could topple easily.

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Figure 3-1: Directions for Balance Displacement

6. Once the opponent is off balance, the soldier must enter in to the technique, ensuring the opponent cannot regain his balance and that he does not allow his own balance to be disrupted. 7. The throw or takedown will only be possible if the opponent is off balance and the soldier is in the correct position. The soldier must apply pressure or use leverage correctly to make the throw. Again, note that all stages of the technique are interdependent and must flow together. 8. The soldier must fully commit to the throw or takedown to be successful, but must also be prepared for counters to the technique. He must then immediately switch to another throw or employ striking techniques to neutralize the opponent. SECTION 2 THROWS HIP THROW 9. The hip throw is used to take the opponent to the ground while the soldier remains standing. This throw is effective when the opponent is moving forward or pushing, and to counter common attacks. Use the opponents forward momentum to execute the hip throw as follows (see Figures 3-2 to 3-6): a. b. Grasp the opponents upper arm with the left hand. Step forward with the right foot and place it against the front of the opponents right foot. At the same time grasp the opponent around the waist with the right hand.
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c.

Step back with the left foot, rotating on the ball of the right foot, and place the heel of the left foot so it is in front of the opponents left toe. The soldiers and opponents feet should form a box. Lower the hips so they are below the opponents point of balance. Then straighten the legs, pulling the opponent on to the right hip, to the point of balance. To execute the throw, pull the opponents left arm toward the left knee with the left hand, simultaneously pushing with the right arm and stepping back slightly with the right leg. Stepping back with the right leg drops the opponent off the hip using gravity, allowing the soldier to use arm strength to generate more power in the throw.

d.

e.

Figure 3-2: Hip Throw Step 1

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Figure 3-3: Hip ThrowFoot Position

Figure 3-4: Hip Throw Step 2

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Figure 3-5: Hip Throw Step 3

Figure 3-6: Hip Throw Step 4

SHOULDER THROW 10. As with the hip throw, the shoulder throw is used to take the opponent to the ground while maintaining control. This throw is effective if the opponent is attacking with a grabbing technique from the rear. Use the opponents forward momentum to execute the shoulder throw.
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This throw is more violent and has greater potential to break limbs or cause unconsciousness. The soldier must remember to maintain his balance during and after making the throw. To execute the shoulder throw (see Figures 3-7 to 3-10): a. b. Grasp the opponents right upper arm with the left hand and pull him off balance. Step in to the opponent, rotating the body on the ball of the left foot so the right foot is inside the opponents right foot. Simultaneously shoot the right arm under the opponents right arm and grasp the top of the right shoulder from behind. If this cannot be achieved, e.g. on a taller opponent, then with the right hand grasp the front of the shirt or webbing and pivot the elbow under the trapped armpit. Then lower the chin in to the left shoulder. Quickly slide the left foot beside the right foot so your feet form a box with the opponents feet, bend the knees, and lower the hips below the opponents. Ensure that the entire back is against the opponents torso. Simultaneously pull the opponents arm across the body from the right shoulder to the left knee, bend slightly at the waist, thrust the hips upward, and straighten the legs. Pull the opponent over the body to the left side, simultaneously shift the right leg back to gain momentum, and finish the throw in a fighting stance.

c. d. e.

f.

Figure 3-7: Shoulder Throw Step 1

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Figure 3-8: Shoulder Throw Step 2

Figure 3-9: Shoulder Throw Step 3

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Figure 3-10: Shoulder Throw Step 4

TURNING THROW 11. The turning throw is used to take the opponent to the ground while the soldier remains standing. A turning throw can be executed from a stationary position. It is particularly effective if the soldier and the opponent are wearing full fighting order. To execute a turning throw (see Figures 3-11 to 3-14): a. b. c. d. e. Grasp the opponents right arm with the left hand. Step forward with the right foot and place it past the outside of the opponents right foot. Hook the opponents right arm with the left arm, and pinch his arm between the bicep and forearm, touching the body to the opponents. Pull the opponents arm downward, keeping it close to the body. Pivot to the left on the ball of the right foot and step back with the left leg. Continue pulling downward on the opponents arm while rotating the arm outward to unbalance him.

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Figure 3-11: Turning Throw Step 1

Figure 3-12: Turning Throw Step 2

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Figure 3-13: Turning Throw Step 3

Figure 3-14: Turning Throw Step 4

LEG SWEEP 12. The leg sweep is used to take the opponent to the ground. It is effective if the opponent is already off balance and moving backward or pulling the soldier. To execute the leg sweep (see Figures 3-15 to 3-19):
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a. b. c. d.

Grasp the opponents right arm with the left hand, using the right hand for a trachea tear, eye gouge or brachial stun when the right leg strikes. Step forward with the left foot on the outside and past the opponents right leg. Pull the opponents right arm downward, close to the body, and push the upper body backward to unbalance the opponent. Raise the right knee just above the opponents knee and, as you thrust the opponent backward, sweep the right leg backward, kicking the back of the calf (tibial nerve) with the heel and driving the opponent to the ground. A brachial stun or ridge hand to throat may be used in conjunction with the leg sweep to take the opponent to the ground.

e.

Figure 3-15: Leg Sweep Step 1

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Figure 3-16: Leg Sweep Step 2

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Figure 3-17: Leg Sweep Step 3

Figure 3-18: Leg Sweep Step 4

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Figure 3-19: Leg Sweep Step 5

SECTION 3 TAKEDOWNS HEAD TEAR DOWN 13. To execute the head tear down (see Figures 3-20 to 3-22) move to the opponents tactical position 2, entering with an occipital strike. From this position the soldiers hand rotates to a thumbs up position to act as a fulcrum, and the other hand strikes up in to the center of the jaw, driving the head straight back. Continue to force the head back. Once the head is back as far as possible and the opponents hips are forward, continue pressure to the head and step back with the rear leg, driving the opponent to the ground. This technique may also be applied with a trachea grab or ocular grip (see Figures 3-23 and 3-24) to force the head back.

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Figure 3-20: Head Tear DownOccipital Strike Step 1

Figure 3-21: Head Tear Down Step 2

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Figure 3-22: Head Tear Down Step 3

Figure 3-23: Ocular GripThumb

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Figure 3-24: Ocular GripFingers

COMPRESSION TAKEDOWN 14. This technique is used to take an opponent to the ground to a control position (see Figures 3-25 to 3-28): a. b. c. d. execute a strike to the brachial plexus origin; while the opponent is stunned, place both hands on the back of his neck; bend the lead knee and using body weight force the opponents head directly toward his feet, maintaining control of the head at all times; and once on the ground move to a control position.

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Figure 3-25: Compression Takedown

Figure 3-26: Compression TakedownStep 1

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Figure 3-27: Compression TakedownStep 2

Figure 3-28: Compression TakedownStep 3

DOUBLE LEG TAKEDOWN 15. By attacking the legs, the soldier removes his opponents base. The soldier can close for the takedown at both mid- and close range (see Figures 3-29 to 3-31). Lower the fighting stance by bending the knees, using them to generate power drives in to the opponents midsection with the shoulder (head to the outside). Wrap the opponents legs with the arms, placing the lead leg as close as possible to the opponents legs. Continue to drive forward with the shoulder, pulling
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the opponents legs toward the body. Body position is important for this takedown and you must keep head up, back straight, and shoulders above the level of the hips. If possible drive the opponent up off the ground, then throw to generate more power. Once the opponent is on the ground, follow up with stomps to the groin, techniques to break the leg or ankle, or flip the opponent and go to a rear control position.

Figure 3-29: Double Leg Takedown

Figure 3-30: Double Leg TakedownStep1

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Figure 3-31: Double Leg TakedownStep 2

SINGLE LEG TAKEDOWN 16. Ideally the soldier should execute the double leg takedown, however if the opponent steps back there may only be a chance to grab the lead leg. Therefore the entry in to this technique is the same as the double leg takedown up to the point of wrapping the arms. Once the leg is trapped, apply power to take the opponent to the ground (see Figures 3-32 and 3-33). With this technique, the opponent maintains some balance rearward by hopping on one leg. Now turn and force the opponent directly to the side or to the rear on an oblique angle. Body position is the same as the double leg take down, and you can follow up with multiple techniques.

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Figure 3-32: Single Leg Takedown

Figure 3-33: Single Leg Takedown

LEG HOOK TAKEDOWN 17. The leg hook takedown originates from a standing grappling position. First, work to tactical position 2, with the head directly behind and tight to the opponents shoulder, and the arms wrapped high around the opponent. From this position, the opponent will have two options, either to step away to his side and widen his stance, or circle forward or rearward. The leg hook is used against an opponent stepping away (see Figures 3-34 to 3-36), as follows:

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a.

from the clinched position use the rear leg to sweep the opponents nearest/supporting leg back between the legs, simultaneously pushing with the upper body; once the opponent starts to fall plant the sweeping leg to maintain balance and prevent the knee striking the ground from the momentum of the throw; just before the opponent hits the ground release the arms to prevent landing on them; and once the opponent is on the ground remain standing or mount the opponent and use follow-up techniques.

b. c. d.

Figure 3-34: Leg Hook TakedownStep 1

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Figure 3-35: Leg Hook TakedownStep 2

Figure 3-36: Leg Hook TakedownStep 3

REAR TAKEDOWN 18. As discussed in the previous paragraph, from a standing grappling position the opponents second option is to circle forward or to the rear. The rear takedown is used against a circling opponent (see Figures 3-7 and 3-38): a. Step to one side so that you are behind the opponent at an angle.

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b.

With the rear leg, reach out and place the instep of the foot behind the opponents far side foot to prevent him stepping back. Sit down as close to the forward foot as possible and drop using bodyweight to make the throw. The opponent will fall backward over the extended leg. As this happens, turn the body backward to prevent the opponent from landing on top. Keep the elbows tucked to the side to avoid falling on them.

c.

Figure 3-37: Rear TakedownStep 1

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Figure 3-38: Rear TakedownStep 2

SECTION 4 COUNTERS TO THROWS/TAKEDOWNS 19. The key to not being thrown is to prevent the opponent from moving to tactical position 1 or 2 (the inside position). When attacking, if the opponent starts to apply a throw the best defence is to hang as a dead weight and immediately launch a counter throw or attack (execute stunning blows, rake the face, gouge the eyes, or attack pressure points). 20. If an opponent is attempting a double or single leg takedown, the soldier can defend using a sprawl. To sprawl, immediately on contact with the opponent kick both legs back, keep the head up to arc the back, and drive the elbows in to the opponents back. On hitting the ground move immediately to a control position. SECTION 5 BREAKFALLS 21. An opponent using a takedown or throw may take a soldier to the ground. The soldier uses breakfalls to absorb the shock of the impact with the ground. Once a breakfall has been executed, the soldier is in a defensive posture and must immediately attack to gain the initiative. 22. Breakfalls and rolls are a necessary part of close quarter combat training. Fear of falling is instilled at birth and unless countered by training that fear remains. This fear can be minimized by learning to land so that the major muscle groups absorb the shock of falling and lessen the pain of impact. Training for breakfalls should be progressive, and all breakfalls should be practiced repeatedly in all directions until they become instinctive.

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23. When executing any breakfall technique the soldier must expel as much air as possible from the lungs to prevent injury. This is done using a KEEOIA, to forcefully expel the air; the KEEOIA can be silent or loud. 24. After the breakfall is executed there must be immediate recovery from the technique. The soldier must move to face the opponent executing the throw or takedown, and counter follow-up attacks. From this position the soldier must execute counters such as leg sweeps or kicks to gain distance and, as soon as possible, recover to the fighting stance. SECTION 6 REAR BREAKFALLS LYING 25. Lie flat on the mat; tuck the chin in to the chest, and cross the arms on the chest with each hand touching the opposite shoulder (see Figures 3-39 to 3-41). 26. Force the arms to the side at a 30 to 40 degree angle, striking the ground with the full extent of the arms and palms of the hands, simultaneously exhaling air from the lungs. Upon striking the mat, draw the hands back in front of the body with one arm above the head and the other arm covering the mid-section in a defensive posture. Bring the legs up with the feet above the body, one leg being chambered1 to kick or deflect an attack from above. 27. This is the basic rear breakfall. It should be repeated before proceeding to other breakfalls, confirming that it feels natural for the hands to strike the mat and adopt the defensive posture.

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Figure 3-39: Rear Breakfall LyingStep 1

Figure 3-40: Rear Breakfall LyingStep 2

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Figure 3-41: Back Breakfall LyingStep 3

SITTING 28. Sit on the mat with the knees bent, chin tucked in to the chest and arms crossed on the chest (see Figures 3-42 to 3-44). Roll back and bring the legs up over the body, with the feet up to deflect an attack from above. Strike the mats and exhale, and return to the defensive posture.

Figure 3-42: Back Breakfall SittingStep 1

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Figure 3-43: Back Breakfall SittingStep 2

Figure 3-44: Back Breakfall SittingStep 3

SQUATTING 29. Squat on the mat, placing the hands in the same position as when sitting (see Figures 3-45 to 3-47). 30. Roll back letting the buttocks touch the mat first. Carry out the basic breakfall as when sitting.

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Figure 3-45: Back Breakfall SquattingStep 1

Figure 3-46: Back Breakfall SquattingStep 2

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Figure 3-47: Back Breakfall SquattingStep 3

STANDING 31. Stands with the back bent slightly forward, arms crossed in front of the chest and the chin tucked in, in a high squat position. 32. Do not reach for the ground. Stepping back slightly, drop back, landing with the buttocks first, then roll back executing the basic breakfall.

Figure 3-48: Back Breakfall StandingStep 1

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Figure 3-49: Back Breakfall StandingStep 2

SECTION 7 FRONT BREAKFALLS KNEELING 33. Kneel on the mat with toes pointing downward and buttocks on the heels (see Figures 350 and 3-51). Hands are raised in front of the body at a slight angle, with palms facing forward and hands cupped. Elbows are tucked in close to the body. 34. Fall forward, pushing the legs out straight, and land on the forearms, hands and toes. Ensure that the head is turned left or the right to avoid smashing the face or chin on the ground. Upon impact exhale air from the lungs. Knees, stomach and chest should not touch the mat. Legs should be spread more than shoulder width apart to lower the centre of gravity.

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Figure 3-50: Front Breakfall KneelingStep 1

Figure 3-51: Front Breakfall KneelingStep 2

SQUATTING 35. Squat on the mat and fall forward (see Figures 3-52 and 3-53). Bring the hands in to position in the air and perform the breakfall.

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Figure 3-52: Front Breakfall SquattingStep 1

Figure 3-53: Front Breakfall SquattingStep 2

STANDING 36. Stand with feet about shoulder width apart, leap forward, and execute the breakfall (see Figures 3-54 and 3-55).

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Figure 3-54: Front Breakfall StandingStep 1

Figure 3-55: Front Breakfall StandingStep 2

FORWARD ROLLS 37. The forward roll breaks a fall from an opponents attack and uses the momentum of the roll to get back to the fighting stance. To execute the forward roll step forward with the right foot and contact the ground with the back of the right forearm and upper arm. Tuck the chin in to the chest. Roll over the right shoulder and diagonally across the back and left hip to the feet, adopting the fighting stance once erect.

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SECTION 8 SIDE BREAKFALLS LYING 38. Lie on the back, chin to chest, left arm across the mid-section of the torso, right arm across touching the left shoulder, palm facing out and legs raised off the mat (see Figures 3-56 and 3-57). 39. For the right breakfall, rotate the body to the right, striking the ground with the full extent of the right arm and leg at about a 45 degree angle, palm downward. The left arm will come up to protect the face, and the left knee is bent slightly to protect the groin. Ensure air is exhaled during impact. All movements are carried out simultaneously. 40. The left breakfall is the exact opposite of the right breakfall.

Figure 3-56: Side Breakfall LyingStep 1

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Figure 3-57: Side Breakfall LyingStep 2

SQUATTING 41. To roll and execute a left breakfall roll over the right shoulder (see Figures 3-58 to 3-60). Place the palm of the right hand on the mat with the fingers facing the body on the inside of the left hand. Elbows should be slightly bent forming a wheel. Tuck the head in to the right arm, looking under the left armpit. Raise the left knee off the ground and roll forward over the right shoulder, landing on the left hip. Strike the ground with the legs and arms positioned as in the lying position.

Figure 3-58: Side Breakfall SquattingStart

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Figure 3-59: Side Breakfall SquattingStrike

Figure 3-60: Side Breakfall SquattingFinish

STANDING 42. Place the hands as in the squatting position, but in front of the body to form a wheel (see Figures 3-61 to 3-63). Tuck the head as in the squatting position, and take a pace forward with the right leg. In the same motion lower the upper body, placing the hand on the ground inside the right foot. Throw the left leg over the body, forcing the roll over the right shoulder and ending in a left break fall.

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Figure 3-61: SideBreakfall StandingStart

Figure 3-62: SideBreakfall StandingMid-point

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Figure 3-63: SideBreakfall StandingFinish

43. Once rolls from the standing position have been practiced the movement will become instinctive. Remember that the right roll is executed on the right foot and the left roll on the left foot. In training it is important to consider the height of obstacles presented to the student, making them progressively higher, but no obstacle should be higher than the waist.

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CHAPTER 4 STRIKING TECHNIQUES AND COUNTERS 1. In close quarter combat many parts of the body can serve as weapons. Strikes can be delivered with the hands, feet, and, in some instances, other parts of the body. Strikes can only become effective and powerful weapons when strengthened through proper training. Soldiers must know how to execute strikes effectively. SECTION 1 LONG RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES KICKING THEORY 2. Kicks are the natural long-range weapons of the soldier. They enable the soldier to strike at targets from a distance, without compromising his defensive stance. 3. Kicks can be used offensively and defensively. They can be used for one powerful strike or, in combination with other striking surfaces, to strike two or more of the opponents vulnerable points. 4. Kicks should not be delivered above waist level unless the opponent is on the ground or bent forward. The higher a kick is thrown, the greater probability it will be grabbed and the intended offensive strike neutralized. A kick must always be executed with maximum speed, but at the same time contain enough power to cause damage to the intended target area. Power is achieved through keeping the supporting leg bent, and thrusting the hip and upper body forward toward the intended striking surface. 5. The primary targets for kicks are the knees, groin, femoral nerve, peroneal nerve, tibial nerve and shins. If the opponent is on the ground the soldier can aim for the head, spine, kidneys, ribs and stomach; the soldier can also stomp on hands and other limbs. These are the primary targets because of their susceptibility to serious and immediate damage. As an example it takes approximately 25 kilograms of pressure to break the knee joint. Any soldier regardless of size can generate the required amount of force. The groin is similarly vulnerable, as there are no surrounding muscles and a strike here is excruciatingly painful. 6. The soldier must assess the distance to the target and the surrounding environment before using kicks. If the target is too close the soldier must use techniques that apply at that range, or the technique may be jammed or trapped. If the target is out of range the soldier can combine a shifting or stepping technique combined with the kick. Also, if the environment is cluttered with debris and other objects, the soldier must maintain a balanced stance and not strike with kicking techniques. 7. Kicks can be executed from either the lead or rear leg depending on the circumstances. Since the back leg is the more powerful of the two, it is the one most commonly used. After executing the kick the leg must be immediately re-chambered (see paragraph 12) and a stable stance readopted.
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BALANCE 8. When kicking, balance is of primary importance, as body weight is supported by only one leg. This situation is aggravated at the instant the foot hits the target by the strong counter shock of the kick. To counteract this shock, tighten the ankle of the supporting leg. Attempt to absorb the shock with the ankle, knee and hip of the supporting leg, and keep the upper body well balanced and perpendicular to the ground. 9. To achieve maximum effect, kick with the whole body instead of with the leg alone. Pushing the hips forward during the kick helps achieve this. 10. Be sure to re-chamber the kicking foot quickly after completing the kick. This prevents the opponent from catching it or sweeping your supporting leg. As soon as the foot is withdrawn, it must be ready for the next attack. The soldier must carry his hands in the fighting stance to ensure he has protection and that the hands are in position to strike. METHODS OF DELIVERY 11. There are two basic methods for delivering a leg strike. The first is the snap kick, a snapping and swinging movement of the foot. The second is the thrust kick, straightening the knee and thrusting the foot outward and toward the target. CHAMBERING THE LEG 12. Regardless of the type of kick to be executed the first action is chambering the leg. Bend the knee of the kicking leg to its maximum extent. Begin by raising the knee of the kicking leg as high as possible and bending the knee fully. This action is an important preliminary to kicking. Practice lifting the knee also helps accustom the body to balancing on one leg, and aids in learning the first part of the correct course of a kicking foot. 13. Part of the reason for bending the knee fully is to keep the weight of the kicking leg as close as possible to the trunk. The kick has greater power if the leg is initially close to the body. By bending the knee fully, better leverage is obtained for a quick and powerful kick. 14. During the kick, keep the supporting leg steady, with the knee slightly bent. If the knee is bent too much, the leg muscle will have some difficulty supporting the body. The knee and ankle will be loose, and it will be difficult to kick effectively. Be sure to bend the knee only slightly, lean the leg slightly forward, tense the muscles of the leg, and keep the sole of the foot firmly on the ground. SNAP KICK 15. The snap kick can be delivered with the front or rear leg. Deliver the snap kick with a strong snapping motion, beginning from the chambered position. The foot describes almost a half circle during the kick.
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16. In the snap kick (see Figures 4-1 to 4-5) balance is often poor because of the restricted base provided by the supporting foot, and because the power of the kick is usually directed upward. Return as quickly as possible to the fighting stance. Maximum speed is essential executing the snap kick. A slow snap kick not only fails to create a powerful attack, but also results in an unbalanced position and leaves the soldier vulnerable to foot traps. 17. To deliver the snap kick, chamber the leg, then quickly and powerfully tense the muscles at the front of the thigh. This tension drives the foot outward. Strike the target with the toe of the boot or top of the foot. When the leg is fully extended, relax the muscles at the front of the thigh and tense those at the back to re-chamber the leg. 18. The kick from beginning to end is smooth, and there is no noticeable pause at the moment of impact. This is because the muscles at the back of the thigh are stretched as the leg is extended outward. A sudden release of tension in the front thigh muscles will immediately cause those at the back to contract, automatically withdrawing the foot.

Figure 4-1: Snap Kick Front LegStep 1

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Figure 4-2: Snap Kick Front LegStep 2

Figure 4-3: Snap Kick Front LegStep 3

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Figure 4-4: Snap Kick Front LegStep 4

Figure 4-5: Snap Kick Front LegStep 5

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Figure 4-6: Snap Kick Rear LegStep 1

Figure 4-7: Snap Kick Rear LegStep 2

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Figure 4-8: Snap Kick Rear LegStep 3

Figure 4-9: Snap Kick Rear LegStep 4

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Figure 4-10: Snap Kick Rear LegStep 5

ROUNDHOUSE KICK 19. The roundhouse kick (see Figures 4-11 to 4-13) is normally executed with the rear leg and targets either the side of the knee, the peroneal nerve, or the femoral nerve. 20. Turn the lead foot outward, transferring the weight to the lead foot, and rotate the hips, swinging the rear leg forward in a low arc to strike with the toe of the boot, the instep, or the shin. 21. The motion of the rear leg is a dead leg swing. The snapping motion of the leg is generated by the rotation of the hips and not the extension of the knee.

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Figure 4-11: Roundhouse Kick

Figure 4-12: Roundhouse KickStep 1

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Figure 4-13: Roundhouse KickStep 2

THRUST KICKS 22. From the chambered position, a thrust kick can be aimed to the front or to the side. It can be used to strike targets from shin to waist high on a standing opponent. 23. The foot travels the most direct course to the target. Keep the movement light and fast at the start of the kick, but concentrate maximum power through the cutting edge of the heel at the moment of impact. 24. A successful thrust kick depends on correct distancing and timing. If the foot hits the target too soon or too late, the resulting reaction will push the foot back toward the kicker instead of striking the target. This negative reaction is greatest when the foot hits the target with the leg already fully extended but improperly focused. FRONT THRUST KICK 25. With the front thrust kick (see Figures 4-14 to 4-17) the centre of gravity falls within the base area of the supporting foot. This results in good balance and power from the forward momentum of the body. 26. The leg is chambered and draws upward like the snap kick, however the hips drive forward and the leg thrusts directly toward the target, striking with the ball of the foot. 27. If the centre of gravity falls outside the base area of the supporting foot, good balance is still possible. Forward body momentum can strengthen your kick. The foot can easily snap outward and upward toward the target. Moreover, kicking range is extended. 28. After striking the target, place the kicking foot on the ground in front of the supporting

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foot, thereby easily maintaining balance. If necessary, it is also possible to return the kicking foot to its initial position on the ground without balance displacement.

Figure 4-14: Front Thrust KickStep 1

Figure 4-15: Front Thrust KickStep 2

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Figure 4-16: Front Thrust KickStep 3

Figure 4-17: Front Thrust KickStep 4

SIDE THRUST KICK 29. The side thrust kick (see Figures 4-18 to 4-21) is effective striking from the shin to the waist. It is a flexible technique that can attack in any direction, quickly delivering a powerful

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kick that can be combined with movement techniques to close the distance. The striking surface is the outside cutting edge of the heel. 30. Chamber the kicking leg and rotate the hips toward the target.

31. Thrust the foot of the kicking leg directly toward the target. Simultaneously turn the foot of the supporting leg so the heel points to the target, and extend the hips to generate power.

Figure 4-18: Side Thrust KickStep 1

Figure 4-19: Side Thrust KickStep 2

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Figure 4-20: Side Thrust KickStep 3

Figure 4-21: Side Thrust KickStep 4

BACK KICK 32. The back kick (see Figures 4-22 to 4-25) is a thrust kick used to strike an opponent advancing from the rear. The striking surface is the heel. Target areas are the pelvic area immediately above the groin or the knees.
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33. To execute a back kick chamber the leg. Look over the shoulder on the same side as the leg you intend to strike with. Keeping the knees as close together as possible, kick out to the rear in a straight line using the hips to generate power. Bend slightly at the waist. Re-chamber the kicking leg and turn to face your opponent. Immediately re-adopt the fighting stance. It is important that your supporting knee remains bent.

Figure 4-22: Back KickStep 1

Figure 4-23: Back KickStep 2

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Figure 4-24: Back KickStep 3

Figure 4-25: Back KickStep 4

SECTION 2 MID-RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES 34. Hand Strikes. Hand strikes may be thrown during any close quarter combat. Most people resort to various forms of hand strikes because they are a natural reaction to a threat. The purpose of hand strikes is to stun the opponent or to set him up for a follow-up or finishing technique. Hand strikes can be delivered in many variations and combinations, including fists,
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knife and ridge hands, heel of the palm, and hammer fist strikes to back hands. When striking with the hand care must be taken selecting the type of strike compared to the type of target. For example, soldiers should punch only soft tissue areas of the opponent, since striking something harder than the hand, like the skull, risks injury. A well-placed punch, however, maximizes the opponents damage while minimizing the risk of injury to the soldier. 35. Power Generation. Effective use of natural strength in any confrontation is important, but muscle strength alone will accomplish very little. Power is achieved by combining maximum force at the moment of impact with use of the entire weight of the body projected through the striking surface to transfer energy to the target. Concentration of force also depends greatly on the speed with which the technique is executed. The ultimate goal is to deliver a blow with maximum speed and with maximum body weight behind the striking surface. 36. There is very little power in the striking arm alone, thus legs, hips, and shoulders must all be used at once to create the power necessary to cause damage and incapacitate the opponent. The hips have a critical effect on any striking technique; body mass must be moved forward or backward in a straight line, and using the hips is the most effective way to transfer that mass to a target. Power and speed is attained as follows (see Figure 4-26): a. b. c. The calf and thigh muscles on the back of the leg tense and force the hips forward. The hips are then violently rotated forward. Simultaneously power is transferred through the abdominal area to the chest and the shoulder is thrust forward, the striking arm remaining closely aligned with the shoulder on a straight path to the target. The opposite shoulder is forced back thereby retracting the lead hand toward the hips.

Figure 4-26: Power Generation

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37. Muscular Tension. It is crucial when executing hand strikes that the soldier stay relaxed. The natural tendency in any fight is to tense up, which results in rapid fatigue and decreased power. If the soldier remains relaxed during close quarter combat greater speed and power will be generated. At the point of impact, clench the muscles to cause damage to the opponent and avoid injury to the wrist and hand. 38. Hit, Strike and Follow-through. A strike must be delivered so that the striking surface hits, remains on target, and follows through to cause maximum energy transfer. Strikes must be executed so they drive through the target. Strikes on the opponent should occur with the arm slightly bent, so that the arm extends as it moves through the target. Energy transfer is complete once all forward momentum has stopped. The striking surface must then be drawn back to the chambered position. 39. Movement. Movement puts the soldier in the proper position to attack and provides protection. All forms of movement can be used for striking, and the direction will depend on the angle of attack, position of the opponent, and exposed vulnerable points. 40. Telegraphing. Telegraphing a strike occurs when body movement warns the opponent of the intention to attack. Staying relaxed helps to reduce telegraphing. Often, an untrained fighter telegraphs his intentions by drawing the hands back, changing facial expression, tensing neck muscles, or twitching. These movements, however small, immediately indicate an attack is about to happen. An opponent who is a trained fighter may be able to evade or counter the attack. An opponent who is untrained may still be able to minimize the effect of an attack. Note however that the soldier can also use these types of telegraphing movements to deceive an opponent and create openings. PUNCHES 41. Punches generally are hand strikes delivered with a close fist, singly or with other strikes. They can be executed using both the forward and rear hand, at mid- and close range. STRAIGHT PUNCH 42. The straight punch is executed by the forward or lead hand. It is a fast punch designed to keep distance from the opponent and to set up more powerful techniques. A straight punch conceals movement and allows the soldier to close with the opponent. Straight punches should strike soft tissue areas, however if the soldier strikes the head alternate hand strikes should be used. 43. To execute the straight punch (see Figures 4-27 to 4-30) drive the lead hand directly to the target using the full extension of the arm, while rotating the palm down. Release all unnecessary tension from the arm and hand at the start of the technique, but concentrate the power of the body and tense the muscles at the moment of impact.

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44. Power for this technique is generated by slight forward rotation of the hip and rotation of the striking arm. The rear hand pulls back tight to the body to assist this rotation, but stays high to protect the head.

Figure 4-27: Straight PunchStep 1

Figure 4-28: Straight PunchStep 2

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Figure 4-29: Straight PunchStep 3

Figure 4-30: Straight PunchStep 4

REVERSE PUNCH 45. The reverse punch is delivered with the rear hand. It is a powerful punch intended to cause maximum damage to the opponent. Power for this technique is generated from the coordinated movement of all parts of the body.
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46. To execute the reverse punch (see Figures 4-31 to 4-34) tense the muscles of the legs and straighten the rear leg, which rotates the hips and upper body toward the target. The rear hand drives straight out toward the target, rotating the palm down to nearly full extension. Shift the body weight to the lead leg while pushing off the rear foot. Strike the target with the two striking knuckles, striking and driving through the opponent, then immediately retract the arm to the fighting stance.

Figure 4-31: Reverse PunchStep 1

Figure 4-32: Reverse PunchStep 2

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Figure 4-33: Reverse PunchStep 3

Figure 4-34: Reverse PunchStep 4

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LUNGE PUNCH 47. The lunge punch is delivered at the end of a forward step. In moving forward the centre of gravity shifts and the momentum of the body provides additional force, resulting in a powerful blow. 48. To execute the lunge punch (see Figures 4-35 to 4-38) step forward with the rear foot, which now becomes the lead foot in the fighting stance. At the same time, strike the target with the forward hand, rotating the forward hip slightly to generate power. Thus if the step forward is with the right foot, strike with the right hand. 49. If you fail to step forward quickly, the opponent may anticipate your attack and apply a counter, or sweep your advancing foot to cause balance displacement. To prevent this, push the hips forward by driving the supporting foot hard against the ground as you move ahead. Keep the hips low and level. Do not raise the heel of the advancing foot, but slide it over the ground, moving forward as smoothly and rapidly as possible. The strike must be executed immediately on placing the forward foot.

Figure 4-35: Lunge PunchStep 1

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Figure 4-36: Lunge PunchStep 2

Figure 4-37: Lunge PunchStep 3

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Figure 4-38: Lunge PunchStep 4

HEEL PALM STRIKES 50. Heel palm strikes are powerful and flexible strikes that are suitable for both soft and hard targets. This technique can be delivered straight forward or from the opponents outside, and can be used at both mid- and close range. The main targets for this strike are the brachial plexus, chin and occipital nerve. 51. To execute a heel palm strike (see Figures 4-39 and 4-40) bend the wrist of the striking hand at a 90 degree angle. From this point the strike is delivered in the same manner as a punch, or, in the case of a brachial strike, as a straight-arm swing.

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Figure 4-39: Heel Palm Strike

Figure 4-40: Heel Palm Strike

HAMMER FIST 52. Striking with the hammer fist concentrates power through a small part of the hand which, transferred to the target, can have a devastating effect. The striking surface of the hammer fist is the meaty portion of the hand below the little finger, which handles the shock of striking well
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and is a good surface against hard targets. This technique is effective for cutting through a target, and can be delivered downward, like striking with a hammer, to a target behind the soldier. The main targets for this strike are the suprascapular nerve, median nerve, radial nerve, occipital nerve, nose, brachial nerve, and groin. 53. To execute the hammer fist (see Figures 4-41 and 4-42) make a fist and bend the arm at approximately a 45 to 90 degree angle. At the same time, rotate the hip and shoulder of the hand being used rearward. 54. Thrust the fist forward at the opponent while rotating the hip and shoulder forward. Rotate the wrist so the hammer fist strikes the opponent.

Figure 4-41: Hammer Fist

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Figure 4-42: Hammer Fist

KNIFE HAND/RIDGEHAND 55. The knife hand is one of the most versatile and devastating strikes, and can be executed with either hand. The striking surface is the cutting edge of the hand, which is the meaty portion of the hand below the little finger extending to the top of the wrist. The striking surface is narrow, allowing strikes on the neck between an opponents body armour and helmet. The knife hand strike is executed from one of three angles, either outside, inside or downward. The execution of the ridge hand is the same as the knife hand, however, the hand is positioned with the knuckles upward and the wrist bent, forming a straight line from the bottom knuckle of the thumb to the elbow. The striking surface is the bottom knuckle of the thumb to the wrist. 56. Execute a knife hand (see Figures 4-43 to 4-45) by extending and joining the fingers of the striking hand, placing the thumb next to the forefinger. Retract the striking hand, at the same time rotating the hips. Thrust the knife hand forward to the target while rotating the hip and shoulder to generate power.

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Figure 4-43: Outside Knife Hand

Figure 4-44: Outside Ridge Hand

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Figure 4-45: Downward Knife Hand

SECTION 3 CLOSE RANGE TECHNIQUES HEAD BUTT 57. The head can be used as a close range weapon. Striking surfaces are the top of the forehead or the back of the head. This technique is very effective, especially when wearing a helmet. This technique must be delivered with a tensed neck, and power must be generated from the torso and not the neck alone. For this strike to be effective the soldier must ensure that the target is braced so it absorbs maximum force. UPPERCUT 58. The uppercut is a powerful close range punch originating below the opponents line of vision. It is executed with the hand in an upward motion, traveling up the centreline of the opponents body. It is delivered in close and can be followed by other striking techniques. The target area is the opponents jaw. This technique can render the opponent unconscious, cause extensive damage to the neck, or sever the tongue. 59. To execute the uppercut (see Figures 4-46 to 4-48) bend the arms, rotating the palms inward. The distance the arms bend depends on the range to the target. Rotate the hips and shoulders forcefully toward the opponent, thrusting the fist straight up toward the opponents chin or jaw. Strike the target with the two fixed knuckles of the fist and immediately re-adopt the fighting stance.

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Figure 4-46: Upper CutStep 1

Figure 4-47: Upper CutStep 2

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Figure 4-48: Upper CutStep 3

HOOK 60. The hook is a powerful close range technique which attacks the opponent to the outside, targeting the head, ribs or kidneys. 61. To execute the hook (see Figures 4-49 and 4-50) drive the arm in a hooking motion toward the target, keeping the elbow bent while forcefully rotating the hips to generate power. Use the power from the hips and not the arm. The arm should be held firmly at the appropriate height with a 90 degree bend. 62. Strike the opponent with the fixed knuckles of the fist. Continue rotating the hips and shoulders, driving through the target. Immediately re-adopt the fighting stance.

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Figure 4-49: Hook PunchStep 1

Figure 4-50: Hook PunchStep 2

EYE GOUGE 63. The eye gouge is used to attack an opponents eyes, blinding him to set up other techniques. The striking surface is the tips of the fingers or thumbs, delivered with either hand.

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64. To execute the eye gouge (see Figure 4-51) extend the striking hand with the fingers slightly spread apart and bent to allow entry in to the eye sockets. With the palm of the hand down, thrust the striking hand forward in to the opponents eyes. Aim the hand at the opponents nose level so the fingers or thumb slide naturally in to the grooves of the opponents eye sockets.

Figure 4-51: Eye Gouge

ELBOW STRIKES 65. The elbow is a powerful weapon that can strike targets from various angles at close range. Elbow strikes work on two planes, the vertical and horizontal. The striking surface is 5 centimetres above or below the point of the elbow, depending on the angle of delivery and the direction of the target. Elbow strikes can be executed from either arm while standing or on the ground. The elbow is the second hardest striking surface of the body and is an excellent weapon for striking hard targets. VERTICAL ELBOW STRIKES 66. To execute the vertical elbow strike upward (see Figure 4-52) bend the elbow of the rear hand, keeping the fist close to the body. Thrust the elbow vertically upward toward the opponent while rotating the rear arm, shoulder and hip forward to generate power. Strike the opponent with the forearm 5 centimetres below the point of the elbow. The target for this strike is the jaw. 67. To execute a vertical elbow strike downward (see Figure 4-53) straighten the striking arm so the elbow is elevated to approximately eye level. Drive the arm down bending the elbow, keeping it close to the body, while dropping the body weight to generate power. Strike the target

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with the triceps 5 centimetres above the point of the elbow. The main targets for this strike are the back of the neck or suprascapular. 68. To execute the vertical elbow strike rearward (see Figure 4-54) fully extend the striking arm forward, palm down. Drive the striking arm straight back, keeping it close to the body while simultaneously rotating the hand palm down. Use the rotation of the hips and upper body to generate power for this strike. The main targets for this strike are the vulnerable points of the torso. 69. To execute the vertical elbow strike rear upward (see Figure 4-55) start in the same manner as the rearward strike. On driving the arm backward the opposite shoulder drops forward and the striking elbow is directed up toward the opponents head. The striking surface is 5 centimetres above the elbow. This strike targets the jaw and throat area. To employ this technique space has to be created so the arm will move easily between the soldier and his opponent.

Figure 4-52: Vertical ElbowStrike Upward

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Figure 4-53: Vertical ElbowStrike Downward

Figure 4-54: Vertical ElbowStrike Rearward

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Figure 4-55: Vertical Elbow StrikeRear Upward

HORIZONTAL ELBOW STRIKES 70. To execute a horizontal elbow strike forward (see Figure 4-56) tuck the fist of the striking arm near the chest, with the palm facing down. Drive the elbow of the striking arm forward toward the target with the forearm parallel to the ground. Strike the opponent with the forearm 5 centimetres below the point of the elbow. The hips generate power similar to a straight or reverse punch. 71. To execute the horizontal elbow strike rearward (see Figure 4-57) tuck the fist of the striking arm near the chest with the palm facing down. At the same time, rotate the shoulder and hip of the arm being used forward. Drive the elbow of the striking arm horizontally rearward toward the target. The forearm is parallel to the ground and the hand drives toward the direction of the attack. Rotate the hip and shoulder of the arm being used backward to generate power. The targets for this strike are the head, neck and vulnerable points on the torso.

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Figure 4-56: Horizontal ElbowStrike Forward

Figure 4-57: Horizontal ElbowStrike Rearward

KNEE STRIKES 72. Knee strikes are a close range technique. The knee can be delivered forward and in a roundhouse fashion. It is effective in clinch situations and as an entry technique in counter attacking. The knee generates power at short range, and its effectiveness is increased when
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striking a braced target or a target pulled toward the knee. The power for knee strikes is generated from rotating the hips or driving them upward. Due to the close proximity of combatants knee strikes are delivered from the rear leg, and the soldier may have to step back with the striking leg to strike with power. The main striking surface for the knee is 5 centimetres above the knee on the thigh. Its main targets are the legs, groin, hips or, if the opponent is bent over or on the ground, the torso and head area. FORWARD KNEE STRIKE 73. To execute the forward knee strike (see Figures 4-58 and 4-59) drive the leg forward to the chambered position and continue using the hip to drive the knee forward and upward in to the target. As the leg drives forward pull the opponent in. This strike can be delivered from the escort position (see Chapter 6, paragraph 12).

Figure 4-58: Knee Strike to the HeadStep 1

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Figure 4-59: Knee Strike to the HeadStep 2

HORIZONTAL KNEE STRIKE 74. The horizontal knee strike (see Figure 4-60) is executed with the leg generally parallel to the ground, using the hips to generate power. Its main target is the peroneal nerve. The striking surface is the front of the leg, slightly above or below the knee. The leg is delivered in a similar fashion as a roundhouse kick, however the lower portion of the leg is retracted.

Figure 4-60: Horizontal Knee Strike

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STOMP KICK 75. Stomp kicks target the opponents limbs, torso and head. It is effective when counter attacking, or when your opponent is on the ground. The stomp kick is delivered from an upright and balanced stance, and can be executed from either foot. The striking surface is the cutting edge of the heel. 76. To execute the stomp kick (see Figure 4-61) chamber the leg, then drive the heel down to the target by straightening the leg and pushing the hips slightly forward. The foot must be positioned with the toes curled back so the cutting surface of the heel strikes the target. Keep the supporting leg slightly bent at the knee to assist balance and power generation.

Figure 4-61: Stomp Kick

SECTION 4 DEFENSIVE AND COUNTER-ATTACK TECHNIQUES 77. In close quarter combat soldiers will instinctively react defensively to threats. In order to effectively block and counter techniques, soldiers need to take defensive action based on such instinctive reactions. 78. Against striking attacks two forms of defensive techniques are employed, parrying and blocking. Parrying techniques are soft blocks executed from an open hand to parry or trap the strike. Blocks are used to absorb the shock of an attack through the muscles of the body. Both parrying and blocking can be combined with movement to bring the soldier off the line of attack or to assist in absorbing the shock. With both defensive techniques the soldier is in a position to counter-attack, and must do so immediately to gain the advantage.

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79. When parrying a technique the soldier needs to move the attack offline, i.e. to a point where the opponents technique will not strike the soldier. This is done by parrying with the hands or arms and rotating the body. Taking an attack offline is of the utmost importance when dealing with an armed opponent. CLOSING THE DISTANCE 80. In any close quarter combat the soldier has to close the distance to the opponent to neutralize or control him. Once the distance to the opponent has been closed throws, takedowns, chokes or other techniques can be used. When closing with the opponent the soldier can either work to the opponents inside or outside positions. A key factor in closing the distance is the type of attacks that the soldier must defend against. If the technique is delivered from the outside, such as a hook punch or wild punch, the soldier can close as the strike is being delivered. However, if the strikes are coming hard and fast inside the soldier has close the distance in the brief pauses between strikes. When closing the soldier must be prepared to deal with other threats. LEAD AND REAR HAND PARRIES 81. The lead and rear hand parries are employed against attacks that are moving directly toward the soldier, and can be used with the hand in its normal position or rotated to the outside. These techniques allow the soldier to take multiple hand strikes offline quickly and close the distance, or move to the opponents outside. 82. To execute the parry (see Figures 4-62 to 4-65) use the hand which is the mirror image of the opponents strike, i.e. if the opponent strikes with his right hand parry with the left hand. Parry by rotating the shoulders and hips in the direction of the punch, using either an open or closed hand to deflect the opponents strike laterally or downward, to the point where the attack is taken offline. Both elbows remain close to the body.

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Figure 4-62: Inside Lead Hand Parry

Figure 4-63: Inside Rear Hand Parry

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Figure 4-64: Outside Lead Hand Parry

Figure 4-65: Outside Rear Hand Parry

HOOK BLOCK 83. The hook block is used to counter a hook punch. To execute the block (see Figures 4-66 and 4-67) bend the blocking arm so that the hand and wrist are against the side of the head, the elbow is pointing at the opponent, and the upper arm is parallel to the ground.
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Figure 4-66: Hook Block(Front View)

Figure 4-67: Hook Block(Side View)

HIGH GUARD 84. The high guard is used to defend against high roundhouse kicks delivered from waist to head height, uppercuts, and elbow strikes. The high guard (see Figure 4-68) is executed by bringing the hands and elbows close together, forming a triangle to absorb the impact, and by
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pivoting the body in to the direction of the attack. The blocking surface is the bottom of the forearm.

Figure 4-68: High Guard

LOWER BLOCK 85. The lower block defends against kicks delivered in a straight-line. To execute the block (see Figure 4-69) chamber the blocking arm so the hand is positioned by the opposite shoulder and the elbow is close to the centre of the chest. Drive the blocking arm down at a 45 degree angle from the body, using the outside of the forearm to deflect the strike to the outside.

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Figure 4-69: Lower Block

LEG BLOCK 86. The leg block is used to block low kicks, and leaves the hands in a position to protect the head and to counter punch. To execute the block (see Figure 4-70) chamber the leg on the attacking side with the toe pointing downward. Absorb the kick on the outside of the calf.

Figure 4-70: Leg Block

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DOUBLE HIGH BLOCKS 87. The double high block is used to close with the opponent, driving him back and causing balance displacement. This block is executed when the opponent attacks from the outside with a swinging attack like a hook punch or a baseball bat style swing. There are various hand positions used depending on the type of attack and the reaction time available. This technique must be combined with forward movement to hit the opponent hard and absorb the shock of attack. This technique protects the jaw and throat, using the hands and keeping the chin down. 88. To execute double high block option 1 (see Figures 4-71 and 4-72) shift or step forward, bending the lead arm as per the hook block. The other arm is positioned across the front of the face, with the hand on the opposite biceps protecting the chin. The points of the elbow should target the throat and the opponents upper arm.

Figure 4-71: Double High Block 1

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Figure 4-72: Double High Block 1

89. To execute double high block option 2 (see Figures 4-73 and 4-74) shift or step forward, bringing both arms up and over the opponents shoulder. This is done if reaction time is very short. Once the technique is complete quickly gain control of the opponents head.

Figure 4-73: Double High Block 2

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Figure 4-74: Double High Block 2

90. To execute double high block option 3 (see Figures 4-75 and 4-76) shift or step forward, bringing the lead arm up and over the opponents shoulder. The opposite hand is used to strike the opponents eyes, or to grab or strike the throat.

Figure 4-75: Double High Block 3

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Figure 4-76: Double High Block 3

DEFENCE AGAINST HEAD BUTTS 91. The head butt can be countered by keeping the head in tight to the opponents head, reducing the space required to execute the technique.

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CHAPTER 5 CHOKES AND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS/CHOKES All techniques in this chapter are described for a right-handed soldier. However, all techniques can be executed from either side.

WARNING

Never apply a choke for more than 5 seconds during training or practice the technique at full speed. Close supervision of all trainees is necessary to maintain safety. 1. A properly applied choke may render an opponent unconscious in as little as 5 to 12 seconds. Chokes may be used by anyone regardless of size or gender. Chokes do not take great strength as the weight of the opponent is used to the soldiers advantage. SECTION 1 CHOKES 2. There are two types of chokes, air and blood. An air choke prevents air from reaching the lungs, while a blood choke affects blood flow to the brain. Both result in unconsciousness and death if applied long enough. AIR CHOKE 3. An air choke applies pressure to the opponents trachea (windpipe), preventing air from reaching the lungs. This choke also causes a high degree of pain. An air choke results in unconsciousness in 2 to 3 minutes. Due to the length of time required, this is not the ideal technique to immobilize an opponent quickly. 4. The air choke also has the potential to create an adrenalin rush in the opponent, which can trigger the sympathetic nervous system to activate the flight or fight response. Adrenalin secretion in the body enhances pain tolerance and increases strength. This causes a survival stress phenomenon, where the opponent has the perception of being choked to death but is still able to endure high levels of pain. 5. Air chokes are considered deadly force and will only be applied at Level 5 of the continuum of force (see Chapter 1 paragraph 6). BLOOD CHOKE 6. A blood choke applies forearm/wrist and bicep/deltoid pressure to the sides of the neck. Control is established by blood body compression and may result in unconsciousness in 5 to 10 seconds. Death may result when pressure is maintained for a longer period.
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7. Blood choke control is gained through venous compression. The internal jugular vein lies parallel to the carotid artery and transports blood from the brain to the heart for reoxygenation. Both jugular veins are connected to the superior vena cava system, the network of vessels that bring blood back to the right side of the heart. Arteries, which are thicker and tougher, are much more difficult to compress than veins, which are thinner. Venous compression results in congestion of the blood bodies in the head and neck, and causes blood to pool in the brain. 8. Blood chokes have less injury potential than air chokes, however the side choke is the only choke that will be applied at Level 4 of the continuum of force. (As mentioned earlier, all air chokes are Level 5 techniques.) GRIPS 9. There are two basic grips used in chokes and holds. The type of hold and individual preference determines the method used. The main grip employed for chokes is the four-finger grip (see Figure 5-1), however if the soldier has sweaty hands or a weak grip a three-finger grip can be used. The three-finger grip can be applied two ways (see Figures 5-2 and 5-3), either hooking the pinkie finger between the middle and index finger, or hooking the thumb between the middle and index finger.

Figure 5-1: Four-finger Grip

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Figure 5-2: Three-finger GripVersion 1

Figure 5-3: Three-finger GripVersion 2

FRONT CHOKE 10. The front choke (see Figure 5-4) is a blood choke executed facing the opponent, either standing or on the ground. Grasp the opponents collar on both sides, with the middle knuckles of the fingers touching the carotid artery on both sides of the neck. Using the collar for leverage, pivot the hands toward the centre of the neck while drawing the elbows in. Use the thumbs to apply additional pressure to the opponents windpipe.
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Figure 5-4: Front Choke

CROSS COLLAR CHOKE 11. The cross collar choke (see Figures 5-5 to 5-7) is a blood choke using the opponents shirt collar as a mechanical means to apply pressure. This technique is best applied when the opponent is braced against a wall or the ground. Place the right hand in a thumb out grip as far back as possible inside the opponents right collar. Bend the opponent slightly forward, using a distraction technique if necessary, placing the left arm under the right arm and the hand inside the opponents collar. Once the hands are secure in the collar the forearms will form an X. To apply pressure pull the elbows of both hands down to the hips, simultaneously rotating the forearms so the thumbs of both hands turn in against the neck. The soldier must also step back to increase pressure and avoid counter strikes.

Figure 5-5: Cross Collar ChokeStep 1

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Figure 5-6: Cross Collar ChokeStep 2

Figure 5-7: Cross Collar ChokeStep 3

TRACHEA CHOKE 12. The trachea choke (see Figure 5-8) is an air choke designed to destroy the opponents windpipe. Grip the opponents windpipe in an all round grasp. To apply pressure squeeze the windpipe as hard as possible, simultaneously twisting the neck. For this choke the target must be braced. 13. An alternate grip can also be used to apply pressure to the throat (see figure 5-10). Place the thumb high against the trachea and reach around the neck, pushing the fingers as far back as possible, then squeeze thumb and fingers together.

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Figure 5-8: Trachea Choke

Figure 5-9: Trachea Choke Alternate Grip

REAR CHOKES 14. Rear chokes are applied approaching the opponent from tactical position 3. They can be applied either as a blood choke or air choke. This form of choke is effective for sentry removal. In all cases the soldier must keep his hands tight to the neck on the initial application so the opponent does not have a chance to react before the grip is fully applied. The soldier must also step back to use an opponents weight against him, while applying forward pressure with the
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shoulders. When fighting a taller opponent step on the back of his leg to lower his centre of gravity just before the arms encircle the neck. REAR CHOKE 1 15. Rear choke 1 (see Figures 5-10 to 5-12) is an air choke. Approach the opponent from tactical position 3. Place the left hand around the left side of the opponents head, keeping it close to the neck. Slip the hand in front of the throat, with the bony portion of the forearm against the trachea. Simultaneously, reach with the right hand across the right shoulder, grasping the left hand in a four-finger grip with the right palm up, and the right forearm positioned vertically against the opponents back. Tightly position the head against the opponents head. 16. To apply pressure pull the left hand back in to the throat, assisted by the right hand. As the pressure is applied, the left hand rotates or scoops up to a thumbs up position, causing greater pressure and increasing the pain. Step back to arc the opponents back, then drop him to the ground. Once on the ground place maximum weight on the back of the opponents head.

Figure 5-10: Rear Choke 1Step 1

Figure 5-11: Rear Choke 1Step 2

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Figure 5-12: Rear Choke 1Side View

REAR CHOKE 2 17. Rear choke 2 (see Figures 5-13 and 5-14) is a blood choke. Approach the opponent from tactical position 3. Place the left hand around the left side of the opponents head, keeping it close to the neck. Slip the arm around the neck until the elbow is in line with the point of the opponents chin. Simultaneously, reach with the right hand across the right shoulder, grasping the left hand in a four-finger grip with the right palm up, and the right forearm positioned vertically against the opponents back. Tightly position the head against the opponents head. 18. Apply pressure with the biceps and forearm on both sides of the neck, pulling the left hand in with the right hand and drawing the right arm in.

Figure 5-13: Rear Choke 2Step 1

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Figure 5-14: Rear Choke 2Step 2

REAR CHOKE 3 19. Rear choke 3 (see Figures 5-15 and 5-16) is a blood choke. Approach the opponent from tactical position 3. Rear choke 3 uses a figure four hold with the arms. Position the left arm as described for rear choke 2. To apply the figure four hold position the right arm on the right shoulder of the opponent and with the left hand grasp the right bicep. Then place the right hand on the back of the opponents head near the top of the skull. 20. To apply pressure force the opponents head forward and down with the right arm, assisted by the head, and squeeze both elbows together.

Figure 5-15: Rear Choke 3Step 1

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Figure 5-16: Rear Choke 3Step 2

SIDE CHOKE NOTE The side choke is the only choke used at level 4 of the continuum of force 21. The side choke is a blood choke, but differs from previous chokes in that pressure is only applied to one side of the opponents neck. This technique is flexible, as the soldier can apply it quickly from any tactical position and various ground positions. It is particularly effective as an enhanced pain compliance technique in situations where deadly force is not authorized. This choke easily controls the opponent, using varying degrees of effort as follows: a. b. c. Level 2 side control, but no compression; Level 3 mechanical compression until pain forces opponent compliance; and Level 4 compression which causes unconsciousness.

22. To apply this technique from tactical position 2 (see Figures 5-17 to 5-20) forcefully drive the right arm under the opponents right arm and across his chest. Execute a brachial stun and end with the inside of the wrist just below the right angle of the jaw. This movement will place the opponents arm straight above his head. The right elbow should be centred on the opponents sternum and the palm of the hand should be down. The left hand is then brought palm up to grasp the right wrist. The head is then placed against the back of the opponents head, neck or shoulder. 23. To apply pressure lock the head in position and push down on the sternum with the right elbow, simultaneously rotating the bony portion of the forearm against the neck, pulling the right hand across and down at a 45 degree angle. Then take the opponent to the ground by stepping back with the left leg and dropping to the right knee.

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24. Once resistance has stopped place the opponent face down and move to a rear tactical position (see chapter 6). When this technique has been used and the opponent is unconscious the soldier must adopt tactical position 2 with only one knee on the opponents back. Control is essential since the opponent will regain consciousness within 5 to 30 seconds. Once revived he may not realize what has happened or that he were unconscious, and may attempt to resume the fight.

Figure 5-17: Side ChokeStep 1

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Figure 5-18: Side ChokeStep 2

Figure 5-19: Side ChokeStep 3

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Figure 5-20: Side ChokeStep 4

25. To apply this technique from the inside position use a distraction, e.g. a kick to the shin or knee. Then using the left arm drive the opponents right arm up, clearing the path to tactical position 2. While moving to tactical position 2 the right arm encircles the opponents neck and the right shoulder is driven up to pin the opponents arm. From this point apply the choke as previously described. GUILLOTINE CHOKE 26. The guillotine choke is an air choke. It starts from a front headlock position (see Figures 5-21 and 5-22). With the opponents head on the right side of the body, and the right arm forming the headlock, place the hardened portion of the forearm against the opponents throat and either grab the right hand in a four-finger grip or grasp the wrist in an overhand grasp. 27. To apply pressure snap the opponents head to the centre of the chest and stand up, pushing the hips forward slightly. This pushes the opponents chin to the chest. The arms then pull up against the throat and the right hand rotates to a palm down position.

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Figure 5-21: Guillotine ChokeStep 1

Figure 5-22: Guillotine ChokeStep 2

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SECTION 2 COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS 28. In most close quarter combat an opponents attack will either begin or end in a basic hold. The soldier must possess the skills to counter these attacks. A systematic, five stage approach is used to deal with this threat. Even though the opponent may cease his attack during any part of the attack, continue the counter-attack until the opponent is controlled or neutralized. The five stages to the counter-attack are: a. Assessment. Recognize the threat and determine the response. At this stage the opponent may still be closing with the soldier, who should be looking for signs that indicate intent, or the soldier may be decisively engaged. Entry. Launch the attack with techniques to distract the opponent to create space/openings. Also strike the opponents vulnerable points to cause damage and gain the advantage. Establish Control. Use throws, takedowns and holds. This stage is complete once the opponent is under control. Follow-up. Use further strikes to subdue the opponent, or apply holds or locks. Re-assessment. Continue to maintain control of the opponent and monitor the surrounding area, e.g. remain alert for concealed weapons, counter-attacks, or further opponents that must be dealt with.

b.

c. d. e.

29. A counter-attack is simply a combination of all the techniques the soldier knows. The soldier must react instinctively and never give up. Successful application of these techniques means that the soldier can deal with the threat and walk away. FOLLOW-UP TECHNIQUES 30. Ideally the soldier will end in control with his opponent at his feet. Depending on the situation the soldier will now control the opponent from a rear tactical position and secure him, or carry out further offensive action to destroy him. 31. The soldier has various follow-up options: a. b. c. d. hand strike to the groin, throat and head; kicks and stomps to the limbs, ribs, spine and head; strikes or locks applied to the shoulder, elbow, wrist and fingers, to the point of joint destruction; and chokes or weapons techniques to kill the opponent.

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HEADLOCKS 32. The headlock is a very common attack and can take many forms, whether standing or on the ground. This hold may also be combined with striking techniques. In many situations the opponent will hit hard causing balance displacement. The soldier can easily counteract this by stepping forward to tactical position 2. SIDE HEAD LOCK 33. To counter a side headlock (see Figures 5-23 to 5-30) enter with a ridgehand strike to the groin, with either or both hands. Trap the opponents wrist with an overhand grasp with the right hand. Reach up with the left hand and deliver multiple occipital strikes. The left hand then swings around and grasps the face, with the thumb on the hypoglossal nerve and the middle finger against the infra orbital nerve. 34. Then stand up, forcing the hips forward to arc the opponents back to the point of balance displacement. Further softening techniques to the groin or solar plexus can be applied. Next execute a hammer fist to the throat or brachial plexus strike while forcing the opponents head back. Simultaneously with the strike step back with the left leg, taking the opponent to the ground. Circle backward as the opponent drops, so that once on the ground the opponent will be at the soldiers feet and in position for follow-up techniques.

Figure 5-23: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 1

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Figure 5-24: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 2

Figure 5-25: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 3

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Figure 5-26: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 4

Figure 5-27: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 5

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Figure 5-28: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 6

Figure 5-29: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 7

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Figure 5-30: Counter to Side HeadlockStep 8

SIDE HEADLOCK WITH PUNCHING 35. To counter a side headlock with punching (see Figures 5-31 to 5-38) turn the forehead in to the opponent and reach across with both hands, grabbing the shoulder of the punching arm. Slide both hands downward, trapping and squeezing the tricep. The left hand then releases the arm and delivers multiple occipital strikes. From this point carry on as described for the side headlock.

Figure 5-31: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 1

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Figure 5-32: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 2

Figure 5-33: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 3

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Figure 5-34: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 4

Figure 5-35: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 5

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Figure 5-36: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 6

Figure 5-37: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 7

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Figure 5-38: Counter to Punching Side HeadlockStep 8

FRONT HEADLOCK 36. To counter a front headlock (see Figures 5-39 to 5-41) grasp the opponents forearm with the outside hand to prevent a choke. Then enter with a right ridgehand strike to the groin, immediately followed with an elbow strike to the head. Step through with the right foot and stand straight up in to the opponents arm, maintaining control of the opponents wrist. From here the hold will be broken but the soldier will still not have total control, so must continue to fight and gain control.

Figure 5-39: Counter to Front HeadlockStep 1

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Figure 5-40: Counter to Front HeadlockStep 2

Figure 5-41: Counter to Front HeadlockStep 3

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BEAR HUGS 37. The bear hug is a basic hold where the opponent has a two-hand grasp around the body. This can be either from the front or rear, with the grip over or under the arms. In many cases the opponent will drive in hard and lift the soldier. If this occurs target the opponents legs, striking with the boot heels or knees. OVERHAND REAR BEAR HUG 38. To counter an overhand rear bear hug (see Figures 5-42 to 5-47) immediately drop the centre of gravity by widening the stance with the left leg. Drive up, attempting a head butt and/or a foot stomp. Shoot the arms straight out and up, shrugging the shoulders. This will bring the opponents arms up and over the soldiers shoulders, creating space. Once the opening is there deliver elbow strikes to the abdomen and hammer fists to the groin. Then execute a hip throw and follow-up techniques.

Figure 5-42: Counter to an Overhand Bear Hug

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Figure 5-43: Counter to an Overhand Bear HugStep 1

Figure 5-44: Counter to an Overhand Bear HugStep 2

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Figure 5-45: Counter to an Overhand Bear HugStep 3

Figure 5-46: Counter to an Overhand Bear HugStep 4

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Figure 5-47: Counter to an Overhand Bear HugStep 5

UNDERHAND REAR BEAR HUG 39. To counter an underhand rear bear hug (see Figures 5-48 to 5-51) immediately drop the centre of gravity by widening the stance with the left leg. Deliver an elbow strike to the opponents head with the right hand, then immediately pivot to the left, striking with the elbow. Continue until a blow has been delivered and the opponent is stunned. From here, wrap the right arm around the opponents head, grab the triceps with the left arm, step in, and execute a head throw. Once the opponent is on the ground execute follow-up techniques.

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Figure 5-48: Counter to Underhand Bear HugStep 1

Figure 5-49: Counter to Underhand Bear HugStep 2

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Figure 5-50: Counter to Underhand Bear HugStep 3

Figure 5-51: Counter to Underhand Bear HugStep 4

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FRONT OVERHAND BEAR HUG 40. To counter a front overhand bear hug (see Figures 5-52 to 5-55) execute a head butt. Grab the opponents hips and execute a knee strike to the groin. Shifting to the left, execute a leg sweep takedown.

Figure 5-52: Counter to Front Overhand Bear HugStep 1

Figure 5-53: Counter to Front Overhand Bear HugStep 2

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Figure 5-54: Counter to Front Overhand Bear HugStep 3

Figure 5-55: Counter to Front Overhand Bear HugStep 4

FRONT UNDER HAND BEAR HUG 41. To counter a front underhand bear hug use the same technique as the overhand counter, or the option described in paragraph 42. 42. For an optional counter (see Figures 5-56 to 5-59) enter with heel palm strikes to the ears or brachial plexus. Follow with an ocular strike with the thumb of the left hand to force the opponents head back as far as possible, and with the right hand execute a hammer fist strike to the throat. Simultaneously hook the left leg behind the opponents legs causing a takedown. Continue to force back on the opponents head so it strikes the ground first. Unhook the left leg

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before the opponent hits the ground to prevent injury. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques.

Figure 5-56: Counter to Front Underhand Bear HugStep 1

Figure 5-57: Counter to Front Underhand Bear HugStep 2

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Figure 5-58: Counter to Front Underhand Bear HugStep 3

Figure 5-59: Counter to Front Underhand Bear HugStep 4

FULL NELSON 43. The full nelson is a common wrestling move where the opponent brings both arms under the soldiers arms and clasps his hands behind the head. With this hold the soldier has to work fast to counter the technique, as a skilled opponent can apply a choke or break the neck.

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COUNTERS TO FULL NELSON 44. As soon as the soldier feels the opponents arms coming under his, drop the centre of gravity while driving the elbows to the hips and the head and shoulders back (see Figures 5-60 to 5-62). Now turn to the right to face the opponent, and deliver elbow and knee strikes. To gain control use a leg sweep takedown or a turning throw. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques.

Figure 5-60: Counter to Full NelsonStep 1

Figure 5-61: Counter to Full NelsonStep 2

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Figure 5-62: Counter to Full NelsonStep 3

COUNTERS TO WRIST GRABS 45. In low intensity situations quite often the soldier will have to deal with an opponent attempting to grab an arm with either a single or double hand grab. The thumb is the weakest part of the hand and is easily defeated. To counter any wrist grab the soldier works his arm in to the opponents thumb. ONE-HANDED WRIST GRAB 46. To counter the one-handed wrist grab (see Figures 5-63 and 5-64) drive the forearm upward toward the opponents thumb. This will work regardless of how the opponent grabs.

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Figure 5-63: One-handed Wrist Grab

Figure 5-64: Counter to a One-handed Wrist Grab

LOW TWO-HANDED WRIST GRAB 47. To counter a low two-handed wrist grab (see Figures 5-65 to 5-67) reach between the opponents hands, grabbing the trapped hand and working up toward the thumbs.

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Figure 5-65: Low Two-handed Wrist Grab

Figure 5-66: Counter to a Low Two-handed GrabStep 1

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Figure 5-67: Counter to a Low Two-handed GrabStep 2

HIGH TWO-HANDED WRIST GRAB 48. To counter a high two-handed wrist grab (see Figures 5-68 to 5-70) reach between your opponents hands, grabbing your hand and pulling downward.

Figure 5-68: High Two-handed Wrist Grab

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Figure 5-69: Counter to a High Two-handed Wrist GrabStep 1

Figure 5-70: Counter to a High Two-handed Wrist GrabStep 2

SECTION 3 COUNTERS TO CHOKES 49. In close quarter combat a determined attacker will attempt a choke to kill or neutralize the soldier. If the opponent correctly applies a choke the soldier will quickly loose consciousness. Even if a choke is executed improperly it results in a hold where the opponent has control, denying the soldier the ability to attack. Soldiers must escape chokes to regain the tactical advantage. 50. A choke causes unconsciousness quickly. The first priority for the soldier is to protect the throat. Immediately drop the chin to the chest to prevent the opponents arm from encircling the neck, simultaneously using the hands to reach up and secure the opponents choking arm. COUNTERS TO REAR CHOKES 51. Depending on the situation there are many options to counter rear chokes. The following paragraphs describe three counter-attack variations.
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52. With counter 1, at the moment the opponents arm encircles the neck drop the chin and grasp the choking arm with both hands (see Figures 5-71 to 5-73). Violently pull the opponent forward and thrust upward with the hips, immediately executing a shoulder throw to the side where the opponent attempted to apply the choke. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. 53. Smaller soldiers may find it easier to execute the throw by dropping the knee on the side they are throwing to.

Figure 5-71: Rear Choke Counter 1Step 1

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Figure 5-72: Rear Choke Counter 1Step 2

Figure 5-73: Rear Choke Counter 1Step 3

54. For counter 2, tuck the chin and grab the arm with both hands (see Figures 5-74 to 5-76). Turn in to the opponent, delivering elbow strikes to the chest, then knife hand strikes to the groin. Step back with the left leg, moving to tactical position 2 and pulling the opponents arm in. Once in tactical position 2 deal with the threat in the same manner as a side headlock. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques

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Figure 5-74: Rear Choke Counter 2Step 1

Figure 5-75: Rear Choke Counter 2Step 2

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Figure 5-76: Rear Choke Counter 2Step 3

55. Counter 3 applies to a rear choke where the opponent is dragging the soldier or has stepped back to apply further pressure (see Figures 5-77 to 5-80). Immediately drop the chin and grab the arm with both hands. Step back and to the outside of the side the choke is being applied on to a pronounced fighting stance, while attempting to drop the upper body forward. From this position drive the body as hard as possible to the outside, adopting a pronounced fighting stance facing the opposite direction, simultaneously pulling the opponents arm to the chest while bending forward slightly. Then execute a turning throw; pulling in on the trapped arm and bending at the waist will assist the throw. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. 56. If the soldier is unable to execute the turning throw, strike with a ridgehand to the groin, then the brachial plexus, while simultaneously executing a leg sweep takedown.

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Figure 5-77: Rear Choke Counter 3Step 1

Figure 5-78: Rear Choke Counter 3Step 2

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Figure 5-79: Rear Choke Counter 3Step 3

Figure 5-80: Rear Choke Counter 3Step 4

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COUNTER TO FRONT CHOKES OR GRABS 57. In many situations an opponent will grab the soldier with one or two hands, either by the throat or by using clothing and equipment. If an opponent has executed a grab or choke he are within arms reach. At this distance use long range striking techniques to enter in to the counter and break the hold, then close the distance with strikes, gain control, apply follow-up techniques, and re-assess the situation. The techniques described in the following paragraphs demonstrate some basic options. COUNTER TO FRONT CHOKES OR GRABSONE HAND 58. To counter a one handed front choke (see Figures 5-81 to 5-83) grab the opponents choking hand with the right hand. Keep the opponents hand in to the chest. Bend the left arm so the tricep is parallel to the ground, and place it on the opponents forearm as close to the wrist as possible. Turning the body to the right and stepping back with the right leg, turn the opponents wrist so the pinkie is up, simultaneously applying downward pressure with the arm against the forearm. This will cause a wrist pinch and pain compliance. The soldier can then take the wrist to a reverse wristlock, and apply appropriate follow-up techniques.

Figure 5-81: Counter One-hand ChokeStep 1

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Figure 5-82: Counter One-hand ChokeStep 2

Figure 5-83: Counter One-hand ChokeStep 3

COUNTER TO FRONT CHOKESTWO HANDS 59. When an opponent lunges in and attacks the throat an instinctive reaction is to grab the hands. To apply this as a counter (see Figures 5-84 and 5-85) grab the opponents hands/wrists with both hands, pulling them apart to the outside in a plucking motion. This prevents the
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opponent from applying the choke further. Immediately counter attack. Execute a snap kick to the groin or a shin kick. Close the distance and strike with the elbows and knees. From this entry gain control, follow up and re-assess.

Figure 5-84: Front Two-handed Choke

Figure 5-85: Front Two-handed Choke Counter (Plucking)

COUNTER TO A TWO HAND OR CROSS COLLAR CHOKE 60. This technique can be applied for either a two hand or cross-collar choke. This is also an effective counter if the opponent is pushing backward or bracing the soldier against a wall. To apply this counter (see Figures 5-86 to 5-89) immediately stop your rearward momentum by turning the body back and to the right, stepping back with the right foot and driving the left arm straight up. Brace the opponents upper arm with the right arm, driving the left elbow down on
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to the opponents upper arm. Depending on the angle of the opponents arm this may break the arm, but will at least help drop the opponents centre of gravity. Deliver hammer fist strikes to the temple, brachial or face. Finally turn back to the opponent, close the distance, gain control, follow up, and re-assess. 61. If braced against a wall the soldier will not be able to step back. In this case drive the left side of the body forward and in to position.

Figure 5-86: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1Step 1

Figure 5-87: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1Step 2

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Figure 5-88: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1Step 3

Figure 5-89: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1Step 4

62. Another counter to the two-handed front choke or grab is to violently execute a palm heel strike to the opponents chest upon first contact, and follow it up with other techniques such as a snap kick to the groin, or a roundhouse kick to the peronial nerve.

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CHAPTER 6 NON-LETHAL TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The Canadian Armys involvement in operations other than war has greatly increased. These operations require skills that span the spectrum of conflict and the continuum of force described in Chapter 1. 2. How force is applied may affect a missions success or lead to unnecessary loss of human life, damage to property, destruction of natural resources, or alienation of the local and international public. Therefore commanders at all levels must be provided with clear direction and orders that control the use of force. This direction is based on Canadian law, international law, the law of armed conflict (LOAC), the inherent right of self-defence, and rules of engagement (ROE). 3. Canadian Forces personnel are always entitled to use force, up to and including deadly force, in self-defence, defence of Canadian Forces personnel and Canadian Forces units in peace, conflict or war. In some circumstances, even in times of peace, Canadian Forces personnel may be entitled to protect others and, in some international operations, property. 4. ROE are orders and direction originating from the Chief of Defence Staff regarding the use of force in peacetime, periods of tension, and armed conflict. They are lawful commands designed to remove any legal or semantic ambiguity that could lead commanders or troops under their command to violate national or coalition policy by inadvertently under reacting or overreacting to an action by foreign forces. Military, political, diplomatic, and legal factors are all reviewed when considering ROE. ROE can also be used to provide direction on when force can be used to protect larger national interests, defend against larger scale attacks on an operational or strategic level, or protect other foreign forces or non-military individuals. ROE will be tailored for each operation and may change as the tactical, operational or political situation dictates. 5. Although there may be formal guidelines for the use of force on operations, they will not cover all situations. When the appropriate action is unclear the use of force by commanders and soldiers must be guided by their professional ethos and the law of armed conflict. 6. Soldiers may be required to use force in operations other than war for numerous reasons, e.g. in self-defence, to defend or protect others, or to protect property. Note that everyone authorized to use force is responsible for any excess force used. In fact, in some cases use of force without causing injury can be excessive force. Soldiers must apply reasonable force, based on the following: a. b. the threat; the level of resistance compared to the level of control;

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c. d.

severity of the incident; and attempts to evade or escape.

7. The techniques used during these operations are basic close quarter combat skills. The sections that follow describe the levels of the continuum of force and how these basic skills are adjusted to fit each level in order to meet the following requirements: a. b. c. Tactically Effective. The soldier requires skills to deal with common threats, which work during motor skill deterioration. Legally Accepted. These skills must be applied within the continuum of force. The soldier must be justified in using force and the force must be reasonable. Minimum Injury Potential. The soldier must control resistant actions with techniques that have minimal chance of long-term injury. SECTION 2 LEVEL 1 COMPLIANT 8. At Level 1 the opponent complies with verbal commands. In many cases the soldier will be dealing with local civilians and military personnel on a daily basis. Most people will cooperate and obey instructions: Simple verbal commands used with firmness and courtesy will be sufficient to control most situations. Soldiers who are overly aggressive however may antagonize a subject, causing verbal non-compliance and unnecessarily escalating the level of resistance. 9. If this occurs the soldier establishes initial contact with the opponent. In order to respond appropriately the soldier must assess and evaluate the opponents temperament and intent in order to respond, as follows: a. Temperament. The opponents emotional state can be inferred from physical behaviour such as yelling, crying, nervousness, uneasiness, calmness, cheerfulness, aggressiveness, etc. Intent. The opponents likely actions can be inferred from physical behaviour that is more action oriented, e.g. running, striking, carrying or employing a weapon, or reaching for an object. Intent can also be inferred from the opponents clothing or equipment. Assessing Temperament and Intent. The soldiers response depends on evaluation and analysis of relevant information. The opponents temperament and intent is part of this analysis: (1) The soldier constantly assesses the temperament and intent of every person he comes in contact with.

b.

c.

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(2) (3) (4)

This assessment becomes more focused when something unusual or out of the ordinary is observed. Temperament and intent must be assessed very quickly to determine the threat a subject poses and initiate a motor response. Throughout any situation there must be constant evaluation and analysis of the situation. Soldiers must maintain a reactionary gap and adjust motor responses as necessary. SECTION 3 LEVEL 2 PASSIVE RESISTANT

10. At Level 2 the opponent demonstrates verbal non-compliance. There will be no immediate danger of physical harm to either the opponent or soldier, however the soldier must be prepared to deal with a higher level of resistance. 11. Physical force does not have to be used immediately if the opponent offers verbal noncompliance. The techniques applied at this level are the bridge between verbal commands and physical force. To counter resistant behaviour, the soldier applies contact controls as follows: a. Contact controls are verbal or physical techniques which do not employ the principles of resistance control, rather they psychologically intimidate the opponent in order to eliminate resistant behaviour and re-establish cooperation. Contact controls include the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) repeating verbal commands in a more forceful manner; warning the opponent of the consequences of failing to cooperate; assuming a more authoritative posture, position and stance; requesting assistance if the opponent continues to be uncooperative; and physical contact controls, i.e. the escort position and head controls, such as bracing the head prior to a pain compliance technique.

b.

ESCORT POSITION 12. The escort position is the primary method of moving a detained opponent. Proper positioning is important in order to control the opponent and place the soldier in a position to deal with the two common types of resistance. If the soldier is carrying a weapon the weapon side should be kept close to the opponent, as it will be behind him and less vulnerable. If possible the soldier should not have a personal weapon, with security being provided by another armed soldier.

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13. To apply the escort position (see Figure 6-1) approach the opponent from tactical position 2. Maintain an overall view of the opponent and do not focus solely on the arm. The hands are kept high, and after closing the reactionary gap place both hands on the opponents triceps to prevent him striking with the arm. The left arm maintains contact with the triceps and the right hand slides down the opponents arm, grasping the notch on the wrist in an all round grasp with the thumb and middle finger. The left shoulder is kept in close to the opponents right shoulder and the arm is pulled down across the front of the body, with the opponents right hand against the soldiers waist.

Figure 6-1: Escort Position

HEAD CONTROL POSITION 14. The head control position (see Figures 6-2 and 6-3) is used to control a kneeling or seated opponent. It is also used to move the opponent to a standing position. Approach from tactical position 2 or 3. Move in to a deep fighting stance with the feet, the left arm reaching around to secure the opponents jaw. The opponents head is pulled tightly in to the soldiers chest, with the right hand positioned to apply nerve touch pressure.

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Figure 6-2: Head Control Position

Figure 6-3: Head Control Position

SECTION 4 LEVEL 3 ACTIVE RESISTANT 15. At Level 3 the opponent first demonstrates physical resistance. The opponent does not attack the soldier, but continues to defy verbal commands. The soldier can also encounter opponents pulling away, shouting, struggling, barricading themselves in a vehicle or room, or attempting to flee.
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16. At this level the physical threat to the soldier is still low, and compliance techniques are used. The principles of controlling resistance (see Chapter 1 paragraph 7) are used, applying close quarter combat techniques as follows: a. b. c. compliance techniques; soft-hand striking techniques; and non-lethal chemical weapons (on order).

COMPLIANCE TECHNIQUES 17. Compliance techniques are physical force against an opponent to gain compliance using: a. b. c. pressure points; joint manipulation; and restraint techniques.

18. Pressure points achieve pain compliance by applying pressure to a nerve. There are two methods of applying pressure point control: a. b. touch pressure; and striking techniques (used at Level 4).

19. Touch pressure is the application most likely used at Level 3 to control low levels of resistance, but it can also be used at higher levels if the soldier is close to the opponent. To apply pressure the soldier follows these five steps (see Chapter 2 Section 3): a. b. c. d. e. stabilize the target; apply pressure/counter-pressure; apply pressure with fingertip; loud repetitive verbal commands; and alleviate pressure when pain compliance is achieved.

20. Joint manipulation is used to initiate pain compliance to gain control of the opponent. This involves applying pressure to joints (elbows, wrist, shoulder, knee, ankle, and fingers) in two ways: a. In the opposite direction to which the joint bends. Joints such as knees and elbows only bend in one direction, and when pressure is applied in the opposite direction, pain compliance can be achieved.
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b.

Beyond the point where the joint stops naturally in its range of motion.

21. Since each joint has a breaking point, pressure must be applied slowly and steadily until pain compliance is achieved. Continued pressure will break the joint, unnecessarily escalating the level of force. Joint manipulation also uses the principle of balance displacement. 22. Restraint techniques are designed to temporarily restrict an opponents mobility in order to control and/or transport him. Depending on the operation soldiers may be equipped with handcuffs or with flexi-cuffs. WRISTLOCKS 23. Wristlocks are joint manipulation techniques that can be applied a number of ways to achieve pain compliance or balance displacement. Wristlocks exert pressure beyond the normal range of motion. They can be applied when an opponent attempts to grab, or to initiate control over an opponent. Wristlocks can be applied to transport opponents who have demonstrated resistance from the escort position, or to take an opponent to the ground and in to the rear control position (see paragraph 47). BASIC WRISTLOCK 24. The basic wristlock (see Figures 6-4 and 6-5) is applied when the opponent attempts to grab or reaches for the soldier. If the opponent grabs with the right hand apply the technique with the left hand. Grasp the opponents hand to the thumb side, the fingers grabbing the meaty portion under the opponents thumb. Place the thumb against the back of the opponents hand so it is between the middle knuckles. 25. The fingers are used to anchor the hand so leverage can be applied to twist and bend the joint to the outside. Pressure is exerted downward with the thumb across the knuckle line to bend the opponents wrist. The hand is rotated to the outside twisting the joint. Shift in to the opponent to keep the hand close to the body to gain leverage and control.

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Figure 6-4: Basic Wristlock

Figure 6-5: Basic Wristlock

REVERSE WRISTLOCK 26. A reverse wristlock (see Figures 6-6 and 6-7) is executed by grabbing the opponents right hand with your right hand. Place the palm on the back of the opponents hand, wrapping
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the fingers across the fleshy part of the palm below the little finger. Twist the opponents hand to the inside, pivoting the body inward and rotating the elbow up on to the forearm while holding the hand tight to the chest.

Figure 6-6: Reverse Wristlock

Figure 6-7: Reverse Wristlock

ESCORT POSITION RESISTANCE 27. There are two common forms of resistance encountered when escorting an opponent: a. b. arm curl resistance, where the opponent curls the arm toward the chest in an attempt to escape; and straight-arm lockout, where the opponent locks the elbow and attempts to pull away.

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COME-ALONG WRISTLOCK 28. To counter arm curl resistance in the escort position apply the come-along wristlock (see Figures 6-8 to 6-13). On meeting resistance immediately turn in to the opponent and with the outside leg apply a knee strike to the peroneal nerve as a distraction. Then shoot the left hand between the opponents upper arm and body, grasping the top of the hand and forcing downward, tucking the opponents arm under the armpit and locking the elbow in to the side of the body. The outside hand assists in forcing the opponents arm in to the side of the body. To apply pressure the soldiers index knuckle must be directly over the opponents index knuckle.

Figure 6-8: Come-along Wristlock

Figure 6-9: Come-along Wristlock

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Figure 6-10: Come-along Wristlock

Figure 6-11: Come-along Wristlock

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Figure 6-12: Come-along Wristlock

Figure 6-13: Come-along Wristlock

29. The come-along wristlock can also be applied to a resistant opponent already in the basic or reverse wristlock. To apply this from the basic wristlock (see Figures 6-14 and 6-15) augment your grip using the right hand to provide greater control. Maintain pressure with the right hand and pivot the body to tactical position 2. Release the left hand and quickly reach under the opponents arm from behind, gripping the hand so that the index knuckles cover each other. To gain control, apply downward pressure on the opponents wrist.

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Figure 6-14: Basic to Come-along Wristlock

Figure 6-15: Basic to Come-along Wristlock

30. To apply the come-along wristlock from the reverse wristlock (see Figures 6-16 to 6-18) the left hand maintains pressure on the opponents hand. The right hand strikes in a thumb up manner to the inside of the opponents elbow, causing it to bend and rotate inward. Force the

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opponents elbow in to the side of the body, simultaneously rotating the hand up in to the comealong.

Figure 6-16: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock

Figure 6-17: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock

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Figure 6-18: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock

STRAIGHT-ARM BAR TAKEDOWN 31. To counter the straight-arm lockout in the escort position apply the straight-arm bar takedown (see Figures 6-19 to 6-22). Immediately turn in and deliver a knee strike with the outside leg to distract the opponent. Pull the opponents arm down across the front of the body, with the hand brought to the soldiers waist. The bony portion of the wrist applies pressure down and across the triceps. Simultaneously step back with the leg that executed the knee strike, pivot 180 degrees and drop to the inside knee, taking the opponent to the ground.

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Figure 6-19: Straight-arm Bar Takedown

Figure 6-20: Straight-arm Bar Takedown

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Figure 6-21: Straight-arm Bar Takedown

Figure 6-22: Straight-arm Bar Takedown

NON-LETHAL RESTRAINT TECHNIQUES 32. In some operations it may be necessary to temporarily restrict an opponents mobility with mechanical devices. Non-lethal restraints may be used to control an opponent during transport or prevent further resistant behaviour. Restraints may also be used to control a large number of opponents. There are two means to restrain an opponent, handcuffs and flexi-cuffs.

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33.

When applying restraints the soldier will encounter three types of opponent: a. Totally cooperative, the most common type of opponent, where the soldier meets no resistance. An opponent could however turn uncooperative and resist at any moment. Potentially uncooperative, the most dangerous type of opponent to restrain, since the soldier has to close the reactionary gap and will not normally meet resistance until first contact with the opponent. A potentially uncooperative opponent will normally be either intoxicated or experienced in dealing with authorities. Totally uncooperative, for which there is no effective method of restraint. With this type of opponent the soldier must first gain control, then apply restraints.

b.

c.

34. When applying handcuffs a high level of control can be achieved by applying the following restraint techniques: a. Approach to Contact. Always assume that the opponent will be uncooperative. Therefore the reactionary gap must be maintained until both cuffs are secure. The first cuff is applied from the edge of the reactionary gap. Control on Contact. In many cases the opponent will react as the soldier applies the first cuff so it is important to gain control immediately on contact. This is achieved using the double push method with handcuffs, or applying a thumb lock and finger lock with flexi cuffs. Speed in Application. To prevent resistance move quickly to apply both cuffs, securing them in less than 3 seconds.

b.

c.

35. Handcuff Maintenance. Handcuffs should be maintained at least weekly. Common failures and remedies with handcuffs are: a. b. c. cuffs fail to unlockuse another key since yours may be damaged; single bar will not rotate smoothly through double baruse the single bar on the other cuff to pry apart the damaged double bar; and single bar will not rotate smoothly through ratchetclean and oil (note that some brands of handcuffs do not rotate smoothly).

HANDCUFF GRIP 36. The most fundamental and critical aspect of handcuffing is the grip. Prior to closing with the opponent position the handcuffs in a pistol grip, with an all round grip on the chain so that the right hand forms a pistol grip supporting the top cuff (see Figure 6-23). The bottom cuff is turned in at a 45 degree angle to ensure easy application of the cuff. The double bar of the top

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cuff is loaded toward the palm and the lower cuff double bar is loaded in either direction depending on soldier preference. This is known as the chambered position. 37. Soldiers with large hands can use a modified grip, keeping the index finger pointed forward (see Figure 6-24).

Figure 6-23: Handcuff Grip

Figure 6-24: Handcuff Grip (modified)

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STANDING HANDCUFFING 38. To handcuff an opponent in the standing position (see Figures 6-25 to 6-29) first direct the opponent to the standing handcuffing position. Have the opponent put his hands above his head, so that any clothing on the upper body is raised in order to check for weapons on the opponents waist. Then have the opponent turn 360 degrees, stopping him at tactical position 2. 39. Then direct the opponent to spread his feet apart and point the toes outward, placing his hands out to the side with the palms back, bending forward at the waist, and looking away from the soldier. Then have the opponent bring his hands back to a position where they are directly in line with the approach to contact. 40. Now chamber the cuffs and approach from tactical position 2, maintaining an overall view of the opponent. 41. To apply the first cuff position it so that the single bar is in line with the notch on the outside of the opponents wrist. The opposite hand grasps the opponents thumb, pushing toward the single bar of the upper cuff while simultaneously pushing the cuff toward the other hand. The cuff must go on oval to oval. At this point it is not important if the cuff closes and locks. 42. Once the first cuff is applied rotate the opponents thumb upward and the cuff down. This action will force the opposite arm up. Move the hand to the small of the back. Release the thumb lock and grasp the opponents left hand with either the fingers or the thumb. Rotate the hand inward so the thumb is up and position it to apply the second cuff. The second hand can be cuffed either upward or downward depending on how the lower cuff was chambered. 43. Once both cuffs are applied secure and check for tightness. To do this, place the little finger between the cuff and the opponents wrist. When the tactical situation permits, the handcuffs should be double locked to prevent injury to the opponent or the possibility of escape.

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Figure 6-25: Standing Handcuffing

Figure 6-26: Standing Handcuffing

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Figure 6-27: Standing Handcuffing

Figure 6-28: Standing Handcuffing

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Figure 6-29: Standing Handcuffing

KNEELING HANDCUFFING 44. To handcuff an opponent in the kneeling position have him move to his knees, one leg at a time, crossing the ankles and sitting on them (see Figure 6-30). If the opponent is unable to do this have him place his toes pointing directly to the rear (see Figure 6-31). The handcuffing procedure is the same as for standing except the second cuff should be top loaded, since this assists maintaining balance while applying the second cuff.

Figure 6-30: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 1

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Figure 6-31: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 2

PRONE HANDCUFFING 45. To handcuff an opponent in the prone position (see Figures 6-32 to 6-35) have him adopt the prone position with the feet apart and flat, and the head turned away. The arms should be straight out and palms up. 46. Approach from tactical position 2 and apply the first cuff. Then move to tactical position 1, by shifting forward to drop the opponents arm to the ground and then bringing it back up once in position. This will put the opponent in a position where he cannot roll toward the soldier. The cuff does not have to lock. 47. Now move to the rear control position and direct the opponent to bring his free hand to the small of his back. Then place this hand in the second cuff using a finger lock.

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Figure 6-32: Prone Handcuffing

Figure 6-33: Prone Handcuffing

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Figure 6-34: Prone Handcuffing

Figure 6-35: Prone Handcuffing

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REAR CONTROL POSITION 48. The rear control position is used to gain control of non-compliant opponents when encountering resistance during transport or handcuffing. 49. When the opponent is on the ground face down the soldier steps in from tactical position 1. The right foot is placed by the head and the knee is positioned between the shoulder blades (see Figure 6-36). The left foot is then placed against the side of the body and the knee is placed across the back. The knees are kept close together and the hands control the arm with a reverse wristlock. 50. This position can be modified so that the left knee is positioned by the side of the opponents body (see Figure 6-37). This technique is used if the soldier has difficulty with the first application. This position is also used if the opponent was rendered unconscious or nonlethal chemical weapons have been employed.

Figure 6-36: Rear Control Position

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Figure 6-37: Rear Control Position (modified)

FLEXI-CUFFS 51. There may be times when handcuffs are not issued or suitable for operations but the soldier must still restrain opponents. Flexi-cuffs are an alternate means for securing opponents. To apply the cuff the soldier prepares them and loops one cuff over the arm, the second cuff to the inside with the draw tabs up (see Figure 6-38). The flexi-cuff is applied right arm to right arm.

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Figure 6-38: Flexi-cuff Position

52. Direct the opponent to the position to apply the cuff. Ideally, flexi-cuffs are applied in the kneeling or prone position to maintain control (see Figures 6-39 to 6-41). Approach from tactical position 2, and step on the foot for added control. Grab three of the opponents fingers (middle to little finger), then slide the cuff on to the opponents arm, ensuring his index finger and thumb are tucked in. 53. Once the first cuff is applied tighten the cuff (depending on the make of cuff) and then reach across the opponent if in the kneeling position to grab the second hand in a thumb lock and take it to the small of the opponents back. In the prone position use verbal commands to have the opponent bring the second hand back. The second cuff is then applied and secured.

Figure 6-39: Applying Flexi-cuffs

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Figure 6-40: Applying Flexi-cuffs

Figure 6-41: Applying Flexi-cuffs

STANDING AND ESCORTING A RESTRAINED OPPONENT 54. To bring a restrained opponent from the prone to a standing position, place the hand closest to his head in to the crook of the elbow and the other hand behind the neck. Assist the opponent in to the sitting position, rotating him away from you. Have the opponent then bend the leg closest to you and, maintaining the grip on the arm and neck, assist the opponent to the standing position.

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55. Escorting a restrained opponent is done from tactical position 2. Grasp the opponents elbow with the outside hand, the back of opponents hand with the inside hand, and apply a come-along wristlock (see Figure 6-42).

Figure 6-42: Handcuff Escort Position

RESTRAINT REMOVAL 56. When removing restraints from an opponent control must be maintained as once free the opponent may attack the soldier. On removal of the first cuff instruct the opponent to place his hand on his head. Then move to tactical position 2 with the opponents arm full extended. Maintain the grip on the handcuffs and ensure that the first cuff is locked, as it can serve as an edged weapon. When removing the second cuff the soldiers hand must be in position to immediately put pressure on the opponents wrist, the position being determined by whether the key hole is up or down (see Figures 6-43 and 6-44). When removing Flexi Cuffs the same techniques are followed however cuffs are cut.

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Figure 6-43: Keyhole Up

Figure 6-44: Keyhole Down

SOFT HAND STRIKING TECHNIQUES 57. Soft hand striking techniques are used to control resistant behaviour by creating a distraction, e.g. a knee strike to the peroneal nerve. They may also include balance displacement techniques like the compression takedown or head tear down. NON-LETHAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS 58. Non-lethal chemical weapons can be an effective compliance tool when used properly. At Level 3 these weapons will be deployed on order, e.g. during crowd control or against barricaded opponents. This weapon will be covered in detail in Level 4.

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SECTION 5 LEVEL 4 ASSAULT 59. At Level 4 the opponent may physically attack the soldier, but does not use a weapon. The opponent may strike, kick, wrestle or bite. The soldier uses defensive tactics to defeat the attack, re-establish control, and maintain it once compliance is achieved. Soldiers must work quickly to stop the assault to restore control, protect participants from injury, and prevent the situation escalating to one which requires deadly force. Defensive tactics include the following: a. b. c. d. e. defensive techniques; striking techniques; enhanced pain compliance techniques; non-lethal chemical weapons; and impact weapon techniques.

DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUES 60. An assaulting opponent may quickly attack the soldier to try to gain advantage. Soldiers must be prepared to defend themselves as they will be reacting rather than acting. Defensive techniques include parrying and blocking techniques, and also counters to chokes and common attacks. If an opponent is able to apply any hold on the soldier apply a counter to control the opponent, taking him to the ground and to a rear control position. STRIKING TECHNIQUES 61. In order to gain control of an assaulting opponent it may be necessary to employ striking techniques. The soldier applies strikes that are aimed at nerve pressure points to stun the opponent or cause temporary motor dysfunction. Strikes must be delivered with 100% speed and power. 62. The following striking techniques focus on an assaulting opponent: a. Heel palm/ridge hand brachial strike to stun the opponent. This effectively stops his forward momentum, and also controls standing grappling situations. Strike from the outside of the opponent, aiming for the side of the neck directly below the ear. Knife-edge brachial strike to stun the opponent. This technique is normally applied after blocking an attack or in a standing grappling situation. It is delivered to the inside, striking for the brachial plexus. Hammer fist suprascapular stun to stun the opponent and also cause motor dysfunction to the arm on the side struck. This technique is applied from tactical
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position 3 when an opponent is grabbing someone else. Approach from behind and strike the opponent in the suprascapular in a hammer style strike. d. Heel palm/straight and reverse punch to stun, distract and cause balance displacement to the opponent. These effectively stop an assaulting opponents forward momentum and set up further control techniques. The primary target for these techniques is the upper body, but the head is a secondary target. The heel palm strike is particularly effective for striking the head, as it has lower injury potential for both the soldier and opponent. Roundhouse kick to cause motor dysfunction to the leg and also stun the opponent. The primary target is the peroneal nerve, the secondary target being the femoral nerve. This technique allows the soldier to strike at long range. Front snap kick to cause motor dysfunction to the leg and also stun the opponent. The primary target is the lower shin. This technique can be used at long or midrange to stop an opponents forward momentum. Knee strike to cause motor dysfunction of the affected leg and to stun the opponent it can also be used as a distraction technique. The primary target is the peroneal nerve, the secondary target being the femoral nerve. This technique effectively stops an opponents forward momentum and any resistance in the escort position.

e.

f.

g.

ENHANCED PAIN COMPLIANCE TECHNIQUES 63. An opponent may initiate an assault after the soldier has applied a technique at a lower level of the continuum of force, e.g. when placed in a reverse wristlock. If the opponent demonstrates a higher level of resistance apply a technique to counter that resistance and continue to escalate as required to gain control. 64. Enhanced pain compliance techniques take the affected joint to the point where the opponent submits or the joint is broken. The side choke is also classed as an enhanced pain compliance technique. BASIC WRISTLOCK TAKEDOWN 65. The basic wristlock takedown (see Figures 6-45 to 6-50) is used to take an assaulting opponent to the ground once a basic wristlock is applied. Pressure is applied to the wrist by pulling the opponents wrist in with your left hand and applying pressure to the back of the hand with your right. Then step back pulling the opponent toward you and to the ground. Maintain pressure on the wrist when the opponent is on the ground. 66. With this technique the opponent will either land on his stomach or on his back, as some opponents will attempt to roll out of the wristlock. If the opponent lands on his stomach rotate the hand to a reverse wristlock and move to the rear control position.
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67. If the opponent lands on his back roll him on to his stomach by rotating the fingers toward the head, simultaneously shifting in the same direction. Once the opponent is on his stomach rotate the fingers in the opposite direction, in to a reverse wristlock, and place him in the rear control position.

Figure 6-45: Basic Wristlock Takedown

Figure 6-46: Basic Wristlock Takedown

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Figure 6-47: Basic Wristlock Takedown

Figure 6-48: Basic Wristlock Takedown

Figure 6-49: Basic Wristlock Takedown

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Figure 6-50: Basic Wristlock Takedown

REVERSE WRISTLOCK TAKEDOWN 68. The reverse wristlock takedown (see Figures 6-51 to 6-54) is used to take an opponent to the ground once a reverse wristlock is applied. The soldiers weight is applied against the back of the opponents arm to cause balance displacement, then dropping the soldiers weight to cause the takedown. 69. From the reverse wristlock pivot in against the opponent, placing the left arm over the opponents extended arm, ensuring the armpit is above the opponents elbow. Then kick out the left leg and drop straight down to a seated position, applying pressure to the arm and keeping your weight across the opponents back.

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Figure 6-51: Reverse Wristlock Takedown

Figure 6-52: Reverse Wristlock Takedown

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Figure 6-53: Reverse Wristlock Takedown

Figure 6-54: Reverse Wristlock Takedown

SIDE CHOKE 70. The side choke is an effective enhanced pain compliance technique. It is flexible, as it can be applied from all tactical position and from ground fighting positions. It also allows varying levels of control to be applied as follows: a. b. c. Level 1side control but no compression; Level 2mechanical compression until pain forces opponent compliance; and Level 3compression which causes unconsciousness.

71. Note that the side choke is the only choke that can be applied at Level 4. For further detail on applying this choke see Chapter 5 paragraphs 21 to 25.

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IRON WRISTLOCK TAKEDOWN 72. Resistance during handcuffing usually occurs upon first contact, i.e. when the first cuff is applied. If the opponent resists while being cuffed from either the standing or kneeling positions apply the iron wristlock takedown (see Figures 6-55 and 6-56). 73. On immediately feeling resistance step back in the direction of approach. Maintaining the wristlock with the first cuff, sharply pull the opponents arm downward, forcing the opponent in to the prone position. From here move to the rear control position.

Figure 6-55: Iron Wristlock Takedown

Figure 6-56: Iron Wristlock Takedown

FINGER LOCK TAKEDOWN 74. If the soldier is using flexi-cuffs and meets resistance, apply a finger lock takedown to control the opponent (see Figures 6-57 and 6-58). Place the left hand on the back of the

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opponents triceps, applying pressure to straighten the arm, while the right hand applies pressure to the finger lock, forcing the fingers down and toward the opponents head.

Figure 6-57: Finger Lock Takedown

Figure 6-58: Finger Lock Takedown

NON-LETHAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS 75. Non-lethal chemical weapons are designed to control resistant behaviour. They are deployed as an intermediate weapon at Level 4 of the continuum of force. This weapon is usually not a response to an immediate deadly force assault, but is used to resolve situations with

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non-lethal means. Non-lethal chemical weapons may also be deployed on order to control resistive behaviour at lower levels of the continuum of force. AGENT CHARACTERISTICS 76. There are several effective agents for controlling resistant behaviour. Depending on the type of operation being conducted the soldier may use various non-lethal chemical weapons. Currently the main agent used is Oleoresin Capsicum (OC), commonly known as pepper spray, but CS and CN may also be available. 77. The characteristics of CS agent are: a. b. c. d. e. 78. classified as an irritant; white crystalline solid which activates in the presence of moisture; irritates the eyes and damp areas of the body, including the respiratory tract; used worldwide as a tactical option for crowd management, but is not used as an incapacitant; and reaction time 20 to 30 seconds.

The characteristics of CN agent are: a. b. c. d. e. classified as an irritant; trade name Mace; tearing agent which produces burning, itching and nausea; used primarily for crowd management; and reaction time 2 to5 seconds.

79.

The characteristics of OC agent are described in paragraphs 81 and 82.

OLEORESIN CAPSICUM (OC) SPRAY 80. OC spray provides the soldier an intermediate weapon to control resistant behaviour without having to resort to impact weapons or deadly force. During certain CF operations OC spray may be issued as defensive equipment for self-protection. ROE for the mission or specific situation governs its use, which is strictly controlled. Note the following: a. The courts have upheld use of force models that include OC spray use, recognizing it as a humane force option compared to other use of force options.

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b.

Courts have also ruled against those that use OC spray maliciously, negligently, or to punish an opponent. Soldiers using OC spray contradictory to ROE or SOPs could face disciplinary action/charges. OC spray is a prohibited weapon and must be controlled and stored appropriately. Anyone found in possession of OC spray in Canada or abroad other than when on duty and authorized to use it could face disciplinary action/charges.

c.

81. 82.

Once trained in OC spray use the soldier must re-qualify annually. OC spray has the following physiological effects: a. b. c. d. e. f. burning all exposed skin; burning and uncomfortable inflammation of mucus membranes, eyes and nose; burning, inflammation and constriction of the throat and esophagus; involuntary closing of the eyes; reaction time 1 to 2 seconds; and normal lasting effect on an opponent 30 to 45 minutes.

83.

OC has the following psychological effects: a. b. intense panic (short shallow breaths); and loss of will to fight.

84. OC is effective controlling persons under the influence of drugs and alcohol, the mentally ill, and animals. 85. OC Aerosol Projectors. OC aerosol projectors consist of the following components: a. b. c. d. e. f. pressure tight canister; liquid formulation ( to of the internal volume); nitrogen propellant gas (the remaining volume); self-enclosing valve and actuator (control button); dip tube; and nozzle.

86. Only issued projectors and canisters will be used. Prior to use the projector must be shaken to ensure effective delivery. Each projector has a serial number and is effective for four
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years. Currently there is no method to determine the exact amount of OC remaining in the projector (canisters can be weighed to measure content). Each canister consists of 90% inactive ingredient and 10% active ingredient: a. active ingredient: (1) (2) b. 3 to 3.5% OC; and 96.5 to 97% distilled water; and

inactive ingredient (1) (2) (3) 60% distilled water; 35% denatured (non isopolical) alcohol; and 5% nitrogen propellant compressed gas, which is safe for humans and the environment.

87.

The effective range will depend on the type of projector being used, as follows: a. b. c. d. Marks 3, 4 and 5. Minimum range .91 metre, maximum range 3.65 to 4.57 metres. Mark 6. Minimum .91 metre, maximum 3 to 3.65 metres. Mark 9. Minimum 1.82 metres, maximum 3 to 4.57 metres. Marks 21 and 46. Minimum 4.57 metres, maximum 7.62 to 9.14 metres.

88.

Tactical Employment. OC spray is employed tactically as follows: a. b. c. Use the element of surprise. Advise opponent(s) that continued resistive behaviour will be countered. Access OC projector. The projector can be carried in either hand, but it is recommended that the soldier not employ it using his dominant hand, as this will keep that hand free for quick personal weapon access. The control button is actuated with either the thumb or index finger. Aim for the forehead (OC must hit the eyes to be 100% effective) using two to 1 second bursts. Use one of the following spray patterns: (1) (2) (3) criss cross; serpentine; circle;
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(4) (5) e. f. g.

low to high; and side to side.

Beware of cross contamination. Factor in the minimum and maximum ranges described at paragraph 85. The projector should never be deployed upside down, Ensure that the nozzle is toward the opponent.

89. Special Considerations. Soldiers must be aware of the following when employing OC spray: a. b. Avoid the hypodermic needle effect, i.e. spray is too concentrated when released within the minimum safety distance and there is the potential for eye injuries. Avoid over-contamination, i.e. more than two bursts, or bursts longer than to 1 second, which is excessive force. If the OC spray fails to have an effect the soldier can escalate to a higher level of control. Do not use on infants or elderly persons. Do not use on opponents with known respiratory problems.

c. d.

90. First Aid and Decontamination. As soon as an opponent is sprayed communicate to him using firm clear commands not to move and to comply. Inform him that failure to do so will be considered further resistant behaviour and that further action may be taken. If the opponent is cooperative apply restraints. If the opponent is not cooperative take him to the ground and then apply restraints. 91. Decontamination starts only after the opponent has been controlled.

92. Once an opponent has been contaminated it is the soldiers responsibility to ensure his safety and well being. Opponents must be controlled immediately to prevent further injury to themselves or other persons. Note that contaminated opponents must not be left face down in a prone position. 93. To decontaminate an opponent: a. b. Expose opponent to fresh air. Flush opponents eyes with uncontaminated cool water until vision is restored, or transport to the nearest medical facility if the opponent requires medical attention or has a serious reaction to OC spray. Ensure medical personnel are informed of the decontamination procedures undertaken and provide OC spray data sheet. Have medical personnel remove contact lenses if worn.

c.

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d. e. f. g.

If possible have the opponent shower and issue clean clothing. Observe opponent at 15 minute intervals for 1 hour to ensure there is no permanent damage. Do not apply creams, salve, or oil. Record all decontamination efforts and time intervals on a formal report.

94. Counter-OC Tactics. If a soldier is contaminated or cross-contaminated the primary concern is weapons retention. The soldier must remain calm, maintain an offensive mindset, and remember that anything that can be done with sight can be done without it. If an opponent is attacking and attempting to disarm the soldier this is a deadly force situation. 95. After weapon retention, determine a plan. All defensive tactics can be executed while visually impaired, however the soldier may have to escalate the level of control to deal with the threat. 96. As soon as possible start decontamination procedures. Immediately after being sprayed blink rapidly the eyes until vision is restored. Use a palm up shielding method and evasion to avoid being sprayed. NON-LETHAL IMPACT WEAPONS 97. Non-lethal impact weapons are used to control assaults intended to seriously injure the soldier. Impact weapons can be used defensively, offensively, or as a restraining device. 98. The impact weapon is an intermediate weapon that can be employed at Level 4 or 5 on the continuum of force. Soldiers employ non-lethal impact weapons in the following situations: a. b. c. d. when empty hand control techniques fail; when the soldier believes empty hand techniques would be ineffective; as a means to cause temporary motor dysfunction, not permanent injury; and when deadly force is not justified.

99. Non-lethal baton techniques employ the 10 angles of attack (see Chapter 7 paragraph 2), however the main angles used are 1, 2, 3 and 4. In non-lethal situations the target areas vary, since striking the head or bony portions of the body is considered deadly force. 100. Offensively the primary striking area for non-lethal baton strikes is the peroneal nerve pressure point (see Figure 6-59). The secondary target is the femoral nerve pressure point (see Figure 6-60). Defensively the soldier uses the weapon to block hand strikes and grabs, targeting the radial or ulna nerve pressure points (see Figures 6-61 and 6-62).

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Figure 6-59: Peroneal Strike

Figure 6-60: Femoral Strike

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Figure 6-61: Radial Strike

Figure 6-62: Ulna Strike

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AUGMENTED REAR ARM BAR 101. The augmented rear arm bar is used to restrain an opponent (see Figures 6-63 to 6-66). Use the right hand to run the baton up under the opponents left armpit, parallel to the ground. With the right foot step 45 degrees to the left of the opponents tactical position 2, dropping the handle of the baton down so that you are forearm to forearm with the opponent. Drive the right hand forward and up to bend the opponents arm up behind the back. Continue to move around to tactical position 2, continuing to apply pressure to the forearm. With the left hand grasp the top of the baton; to apply pressure pull up on the handle of the baton, at the same time pushing down on the top. With the left hand grab the opponents triceps or shoulder. Continue exerting downward pressure with the right forearm while pulling back on the shoulder or arm with the left hand. This places the opponent in a position of control for transport. To take the opponent to the ground step on the back of the left calf to take him to his knees and then drop him forward to the rear control position.

Figure 6-63: Augmented Rear Arm Bar

Figure 6-64: Augmented Rear Arm Bar

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Figure 6-65: Augmented Rear Arm Bar

Figure 6-66: Augmented Rear Arm Bar

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SECTION 6 LEVEL 5 DEADLY FORCE ASSAULT 102. At the fifth and final level of the continuum of force the opponent usually has a weapon and will either kill or seriously injure the soldier or other personnel if he is not brought under control. Note the following: a. While guns and knives are the most obvious weapons, improvised weapons such as pipes, chains, hazardous materials, or any tool that can be used as a bludgeon or cutting instrument may pose a lethal threat. Any physical confrontation in which no weapon is involved, but the soldier is in fear of imminent death or grievous bodily harm, constitutes authorization to apply deadly force.

b.

103. Deadly Force. Deadly force is force used to cause death or grievous bodily harm, or force which a reasonable and prudent person would consider likely to create a substantial risk of causing death or grievous bodily harm. Note the following: a. Deadly force is only employed as a last resort and only after all lesser means of force have failed to produce the intended result, or if circumstances prevent the use of lesser means. Soldiers authorized to carry weapons in the performance of their duties will use only the minimum amount of force necessary to reach their objective.

b.

104. Deadly force is most often applied by the soldier using small arms. Deadly force may also include close quarter combat, e.g. use of impact or edged weapons, or strikes to vulnerable points of the body. 105. Circumstances for using Deadly Force. Deadly force is justified only under conditions of extreme necessity, as a last resort, when lesser means have failed or can not reasonably be employed, and only under one or more of the following circumstances: a. b. c. d. e. in self defence; in defence of other CF personnel and CF units; in some circumstances, for the protection of others; in some circumstances, to protect property; and in accordance with a lawful order.

106. Criteria for using Deadly Force. To use deadly force the following criteria should be present: a. Weapon. The opponent must possess a weapon that if employed would result in death or grievous bodily harm to the soldier or others. Alternatively, the
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opponent has the physical means to commit an assault that would result in death or grievous bodily injury to the soldier or others. b. Intent. The opponent must demonstrate the intent to commit the assault. This can be indicated by a statement of intent to inflict injury, damage or other hostile act, but can also be indicated by the brandishing of a weapon in deadly manner. Delivery System. The opponent must have an unobstructed way to bring the weapon to bear on the soldier or other personnel.

c.

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CHAPTER 7 EDGED AND IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Soldiers must be able to attack and defend against a variety of weapons. As well as fighting with a rifle and bayonet the soldier must make effective use of edged and impact weapons, and understand that any object can be employed as a weapon or as a means of defence. ANGLES OF ATTACK

Figure 7-1a: Right-handed SoldierAngles of Attack

Figure 7-1b: Left handed SoldierAngles of Attack

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2. Angles of attack apply with all weapons. Edged weapons include knives and machetes, and impact weapons include sticks, clubs, batons, and weapons of opportunity. Angles of attack (see Figure 7-1) are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. angle 1 cuts down at 45 degrees across the opponent from the outside; angle 2 cuts down at 45 degrees across the opponent from the inside; angle 3 cuts across the opponent horizontally from the outside; angle 4 cuts across the opponent horizontally from the inside; angle 5 is a forward thrust to the opponents body from eye to groin level, with the fingers downward; angle 6 is a reverse thrust to the opponents body from eye to groin level, with the fingers upward; angle 7 cuts up at 45 degrees across the opponent from the outside; angle 8 cuts up at 45 degrees across the opponent from the inside; angle 9 cuts vertically straight up the opponent; and angle 10 cuts vertically straight down the opponent SECTION 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF KNIFE FIGHTING 3. Edged weapons can cause serious damage and massive trauma, which will stop an opponent. A knife or bayonet, properly employed, is a deadly weapon. It can be used for offensive tasks to silence sentries, or in defensive situations where the soldier is unable to employ his weapon. The soldier must have the mindset that these are effective tools, and he must be aggressive and attack straight to the opponents vulnerable areas. Very rarely will a soldier face a similarly armed opponent. 4. Grips. There are two types of grips used in knife fighting. Both grips are an all round grasp of the handle, maintained with a firm grip to prevent the shock of hitting the target knocking the knife from the soldiers hand. When using a knife with no guard, or an improvised edged weapon, the soldier must place the thumb on the top of the weapon to prevent the hand sliding on to the blade. The two grips used in knife fighting are: a. b. Hammer Grip (see Figure 7-2). The blade of the weapon is up, and the grip is an all round grasp of the handle with the thumb and forefinger against the guard. Ice Pick Grip (see Figure 7-3). The blade of the weapon is down, and the grip is an all round grasp of the handle with the little finger against the guard.

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Figure 7-2: Hammer Grip

Figure 7-3: Ice Pick Grip

5. Stance. The soldier uses the fighting stance as the foundation from which all knife attacks and techniques are initiated. The lead hand forms a vertical shield to parry the opponents strikes and protect the ribs, throat and head. The right hand is lowered so the point of the blade is pointing directly at the opponent. When fighting an opponent armed with a knife the stance should be altered so the knife is in the lead hand in a position to parry the opponents knife strikes.

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Figure 7-4: Knife Fighting Stance

6.

Principles. The basic principles of knife fighting are: a. Execute movements with the knife blade within a box covering the central torso, i.e. shoulder- width across from the neck down to the waistline. This is fundamental, because the opponent has a greater chance of blocking an attack if the blade is brought wide in a sweeping movement. Close with the opponent, coming straight to the target. Move the knife in straight lines. Point the knife forward and toward the opponent.

b. c. d.

7. Target Areas. During any confrontation the parts of the opponents body that are exposed or readily accessible will vary. The aim in knife fighting is to attack the bodys soft,

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vital target areas that are readily accessible, i.e. the face, sides and front of the neck, lower abdomen, and groin. Target areas should be engaged as follows: a. Throat. Attack the throat with thrusts and slashes. The thrust is the most effective attack. If the knife is driven in to the base of the throat just below the Adams apple the jugular vein will be cut, or, if driven in to the side of the neck, the carotid artery will be cut. In either case the opponent will die within a few seconds from loss of blood. When slashing to the throat target the same areas, the side of the neck being the most accessible. Stomach. A thrust combined with a slash to the stomach produces shock. The opponent will be stunned and unable to defend. This produces an opening to deliver a killing blow. A deep wound to the stomach causes death if the wound is unattended. Heart. A thrust to the heart causes almost instant death. This spot is difficult to hit however because of the protecting ribs, but a hard thrust will usually slip off a rib and penetrate the heart. Wrist. A slash to the wrist will sever the radial artery, which is slightly less than 1 centimetre below the skin. Unconsciousness results in about 30 seconds, and death within 2 minutes. This is an excellent attack if the opponent attempts to grab. Upper Arm. A slash to the upper arm just above the inside of the elbow cuts the brachial artery, which is just over 1 centimetre below the skin. Unconsciousness occurs in about 15 seconds, and death within 2 minutes. Leg. A slash or stab to the inside of the leg near the groin severs the femoral artery causing severe bleeding. Damage to the large muscle groups will reduce the opponents base and mobility, creating openings for follow-up attacks. Kidney. Attacking the kidneys is effective for removing a sentry. Thrust the knife in to the opponents kidney, simultaneously grabbing the mouth and nose. Force the blade back and forth to create further injury. Attacking the kidneys produces immediate shock and internal hemorrhaging, quickly followed by death.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

8. Movement. Ideally the soldier should move in a 360 degree circle around the opponent. This allows access to different target areas. Avoid being directly in front of the opponent, who can then rely on his forward momentum to seize the tactical advantage. If facing an opponent, move in 45 degree increments to either side. This helps avoid an opponents strikes and places the soldier in a good position to attack.

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SECTION 3 KNIFE FIGHTING TECHNIQUES SLASHING TECHNIQUES 9. Slashing techniques are used to close with an opponent. They distract the opponent and cause damage. Target the opponents limbs to reduce his ability to strike and to create openings. VERTICAL SLASHING TECHNIQUE 10. The vertical slash follows a line straight down through the target with either an ice pick or hammer grip (see Figure 7-5). Thrust the knife hand out and bring the knife straight down on the opponent from angle 10. This strike commonly targets the subclavian artery when taking out sentries.

Figure 7-5: Vertical Slash

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OUTSIDE SLASHING TECHNIQUES 11. The outside slash follows a straight line in a forehand stroke, across the target areas of the body, from angles 1, 3 or 7 (see Figures 7-6 to 7-8): a. b. c. d. extend the knife hand while simultaneously rotating the palm up until the knife blade makes contact with the opponent; snap or rotate the wrist through the slashing motion to maximize contact with the opponent; drag the knife across the opponents body in a forehand stroke; and end the movement with the forearm against the body and the knife at the opposite hip, with its blade oriented toward the opponent.

Figure 7-6: Outside Slash(Start)

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Figure 7-7: Outside Slash(Mid-point)

Figure 7-8: Outside Slash(Finish)

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INSIDE SLASHING TECHNIQUES 12. The inside slash is a follow up to a forward attack. It allows for both a secondary attack and re-adopting the fighting stance. The inside slash follows a straight line in a backhand stroke, across the target areas of the body, from angle 2, 4 or 8 (see Figures 7-9 to 7-11): a. b. c. extend the knife hand while simultaneously rotating the palm down until the knife blade makes contact with the opponent; snap or rotate the wrist through the slashing motion to maximize contact with the opponent; and drag the knife across the opponents body, in a backhand stroke, maintaining contact on the opponents body with the blade.

Figure 7-9: Inside SlashStart

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Figure 7-10: Inside SlashMid-point

Figure 7-11: Inside SlashFinish

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THRUSTING TECHNIQUES 13. The primary objective of knife fighting is to stab the opponent to cause damage and trauma. This is done with a thrusting technique on angle 5 or 6. Thrusting techniques are more effective than slashing because of the damage they inflict. They are delivered either with a forward or reverse strike, and can be used with either the hammer or ice pick grip. Thrusting techniques can be used on their own or combined with slashing. FORWARD THRUST 14. The forward thrust follows a straight line in to the opponents neck (high angle 5) or abdominal region (low angle 5) (see Figures 7-12 and 7-13): a. b. c. thrust the knife hand, palm down, toward the target, stabbing the blade in to the opponent; rotate the palm up once the knife is inserted to twist the blade; and extract the knife in a slashing motion.

Figure 7-12: Forward ThrustStep 1

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Figure 7-13: Forward ThrustStep 2

REVERSE THRUST 15. The reverse thrust is a follow-up to a forward attack. It allows for both a secondary attack and re-adopting the fighting stance. The reverse thrust follows a horizontal line straight in to the opponent from either a high or low angle 6 (see Figures 7-14 and 7-15): a. b. c. with the knife hand held to the left side of the body, palm up, thrust the knife hand forward, stabbing the blade in to the opponent; rotate the palm down once the knife is inserted to twist the blade; and extract the knife in a slashing motion.

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Figure 7-14: Reverse ThrustStep 1

Figure 7-15: Reverse ThrustStep 2

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SECTION 4 FUNDAMENTALS OF IMPACT WEAPONS 16. In many close quarter combats soldiers will employ impact weapons. They may employ extendable or riot batons during aid of the civil power or peace support operations. On the battlefield, impact weapons are readily available to a soldier who has lost his weapon. In combat, impact weapon techniques can be used with a stick, club, broken rifle, entrenching tool, or even a web belt. 17. Grips. There are two common grips for impact weapons, a one hand or two hand grip. For the one-hand grip (see Figure 7-16), grasp the weapon about 5 centimetres from the base. For the two-hand grip (see Figure 7-17), grasp the weapon with both hands about 5 centimetres from either end, the thumbs pointing in to the centre, or use an alternate grip with the thumbs in the same direction.

Figure 7-16: One-hand Grip

Figure 7-17: Two-hand Grip

18. Stance. The basic fighting stance is the foundation for impact weapon techniques (see Figure 7-18). The free hand is a vertical shield that protects the ribs or the head and neck, allowing the soldier to parry the opponents attacks. Depending on the weight of the weapon it should be held approximately shoulder height.

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Figure 7-18: Stance One-hand Grip

19. Movement. Movement during impact weapon techniques is the same as for other close combat techniques. Ideally, the soldier moves in a 360 degree circle around the opponent to access different target areas and to gain tactical advantage. SECTION 5 IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES STRIKES 20. Strikes are intended to inflict as much damage on the opponent as possible. Striking techniques are executed using the basic angles of attack, and apply to weapons of opportunity such as a stick, tent pole, broken rifle, entrenching tool, or pipe. When striking with an impact weapon the soldier cuts through the target. The hand must maintain a firm grip on the weapon and the forward knuckles follow the angle of attack in a cutting motion. OVERHAND STRIKE 21. An overhand strike follows a vertical plane straight down the opponents centreline on angle 10 using a one-hand grip (see Figures 7-17 to 7-21): a. bend the arm, extending the weapon back over the shoulder;

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b. c. d.

rotate the forearm straight down off the elbow to bring the weapon down on the opponent; rotate the hips and shoulders forcefully toward the opponent; and follow through by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body.

Figure 7-19: One-hand Vertical Strike(Down) Step 1

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Figure 7-20: One-hand Vertical Strike(Down) Step 2

Figure 7-21: One-hand Vertical Strike(Down) Step 3

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UNDERHAND STRIKE 22. An underhand strike follows a vertical plane straight up through the opponent on angle 9 using a one-hand grip (see Figures 7-22 to 7-24): a. b. c. following an inside strike, rotate the forearm and drop the shoulder slightly; rotating the hips and shoulders upward, force the weapon upward through the opponent; and follow through by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body.

Figure 7-22: Underhand strikeStep 1

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Figure 7-23: Underhand StrikeStep 2

Figure 7-24: Underhand StrikeStep 3

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OUTSIDE STRIKE 23. The outside strike follows a straight line in a forehand stroke across the target areas of the body on angles 1, 3 or 7 (see Figures 7-25 to 7-27): a. b. bend the weapon arm, with the elbow extending to the outside and the weapon extended over the shoulder; rotate the forearm to the inside, bringing the weapon down on to the opponent, while at the same time forcefully rotating the hips and shoulders toward the opponent; and follow through allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body.

c.

Figure 7-25: Outside StrikeStep 1

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Figure 7-26: Outside StrikeStep 2

Figure 7-27: Outside StrikeStep 3

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INSIDE STRIKE 24. The inside strike may be a follow-up technique to a forward strike. It allows both a secondary attack and re-adoption of a fighting stance. The inside strike follows a straight line in a backhand stroke across the target areas of the body on angle 2, 4 or 8 (see Figures 7-28 to 7-30): a. b. bend the weapon arm with the hand near the opposite shoulder, extending the weapon over the opposite shoulder; rotate the forearm down to the outside bringing the weapon down on the opponent, while at the same time stepping forward and rotating the hips and shoulders toward the opponent; and follow through by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body.

c.

Figure 7-28: Inside StrikeStep 1

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Figure 7-29: Inside StrikeStep 2

Figure 7-30: Inside StrikeStep 3

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FORWARD THRUST 25. The forward thrust follows a horizontal plane directly in to the opponent on either a high or low angle 5 or 6 (see Figures 7-31 to 7-34): a. b. from the fighting stance draw the weapon back to a position where it can be thrust in a straight line toward the opponent; and retract the weapon and follow up.

Figure 7-31: Forward Thrust Angle 5Step 1

Figure 7-32: Forward Thrust Angle 5Step 2

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Figure 7-33: Forward Thrust Angle 6Step 1

Figure 7-34: Forward Thrust Angle 6Step 2

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FORWARD TWO-HAND THRUST 26. The forward two-hand thrust follows a horizontal plane directly in to the opponent on a high or low angle 5 (see Figures 7-35 to 7-37): a. b. adopt a two-hand grip; and shift forward, extending both arms directly to the target to thrust the end of the weapon in to the opponent.

Figure 7-35: Forward Two-hand ThrustStep 1

Figure 7-36: Forward Two-hand ThrustStep 2

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Figure 7-37: Forward Two-hand ThrustStep 3

SECTION 6 BLOCKING TECHNIQUES 27. A block is used to stop or deflect an attack and allow follow-up attacks. Blocks can be executed with either a one-hand or two-hand grip. With a one-hand grip blocks are executed along all angles of attack. Blocking with impact weapons can also be used against opponents using empty hand techniques. UPPER BLOCK 28. The upper block is used against an overhand angle 10 attack (see Figure 7-38): a. b. c. d. raise the weapon above the head horizontally to block the blow; place the meaty part of the forearm or the open palm behind the weapon to assist in absorbing the blow; keep the weapon perpendicular to the opponents striking surface to absorb the impact; and bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the impact.

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Figure 7-38: Upper Block

LOW BLOCK 29. The low block is used to stop an underhand strike directed at the lower abdomen, groin, or torso from an angle 9 attack (see Figure 7-39): a. b. c. d. e. lower the weapon to just below the groin; place the weapon horizontally; with the meaty part of the forearm or the open palm reinforce the weapon to assist in absorbing the impact; bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the impact; and arc the body slightly backward from the waist.

Figure 7-39: Low Block

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MIDDLE BLOCK 30. The middle block can be executed to the left, right, or middle of the torso, depending on the angle the attack is coming from (see Figure 7-40): a. b. c. d. thrust the weapon vertically in the direction of the attack; if the attack is coming from the outside rotate the hips and shoulders in the direction of the attack; place the meaty part of the forearm or the open palm behind the weapon to assist in absorbing the impact; and keep the weapon perpendicular to the opponents striking surface to absorb the impact.

Figure 7-40: Middle Block

SECTION 7 DEFENCE AGAINST WEAPONS 31. If engaged by an opponent armed with an edged or impact weapon the soldier must establish and maintain an offensive mindset. The soldier must not be concerned with getting hurt but must attack the opponent and gain the advantage. 32. Weapon Disarming Theory. Remember when faced with an armed opponent to fight the weapon, as it poses the greatest threat. Do not, however, focus just on the weapon but also observe the opponents entire body. Once control of the weapon is gained attack the opponent wielding it. The basic principles of weapon defence are as follows: a. Fight the Weapon. Do not attack in a manner that will compromise defence, but maintain a reactionary gap until ready to strike, and then attack the weapon hand.

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b. c. d.

Do not relinquish Control of the Weapon. Once the soldier has the weapon controlled do not allow the opponent to use that weapon again. Disarm the Opponent. Use techniques to force the weapon from the opponent and to a position where the soldier has control. Follow-up Techniques. Once the opponent is controlled use further techniques to neutralize the opponent. For example, if you disarm an opponent with a firearm the weapon may not have been loaded, so apply striking techniques with the weapon before attempting to fire it.

33. Disarming Edged Weapons. When unarmed and defending against an opponent armed with an edged weapon, use anything at hand to assist in defence and to improvise. Maintain a reactionary gap by placing obstacles in the opponents path, or use webbing, helmet or anything else to extend your reach and distance. Only as a last resort should you attempt to disarm with empty hand techniques. Other basic principles are as follows: a. b. c. expect to get cut, accept it, and deal with it; establish and maintain an offensive mindset (act, dont react); and gain control of the weapon, and never relinquish it.

34. Reactionary Gap. Due to the speed with which an edged weapon can be employed and the speed an opponent can cover ground, it takes a reactionary gap of about 7 metres for the soldier to draw a pistol and fire two rounds at a charging opponent. DEFENCE AGAINST OVERHEAD STRIKE 35. To disarm an opponent attacking on angle 10 execute the following technique (see Figures 7-41 to 7-45): a. b. c. Shift left forward to the outside of the weapon hand. Parry with both hands using the opponents momentum to force the weapon down and stick it in the leg or groin. If the knife sticks in to the opponent, reach behind with the left hand, grab the handle between the legs, and lift while forcing the head down with the right hand. Take the opponent to the ground and apply follow-up techniques. If the knife does not stick, maintain a grip on the knife hand, and bring it forward and execute a basic wristlock takedown. Drive the elbow in to the ground, snapping the wrist, and apply follow-up techniques.

d.

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e.

If the knife fails to stick and travels too far rearward to apply a basic wristlock effectively, immediately apply a reverse wristlock and a snap kick to the opponents face.

Figure 7-41: Angle 10 Attack

Figure 7-42: Two-handed Soft Block

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Figure 7-43: Counter to Angle Knife Sticks

Figure 7-44: Counter to Angle 10Step 1 Knife Does Not Stick

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Figure 7-45: Counter to Angle 10Step 2 Knife Does Not Stick

COUNTER TO FORWARD THRUST 36. To disarm an opponent executing a high or low thrust on angle 5 or 6 apply the following technique (see Figures 7-46 to 7-49): a. b. Shift forward and to the outside of the opponents attack, and execute a soft open hand parry to the outside of the attacking arm. Trap the opponents wrist with the right hand and pull it in to the body. Step in with the left foot and drop weight on the elbow to bar the arm and lower the opponents centre of gravity. Stepping back, executing a basic wristlock takedown, drive the elbow in to the ground, breaking the wrist, and apply follow-up techniques.

c.

Figure 7-46: Soft Open Hand Block

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Figure 7-47: Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 1

Figure 7-48: Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 2

Figure 7-49: Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 3

COUNTER TO AN INSIDE SLASH 37. To disarm an opponent executing an inside slash from angle 2, 4 or 8 apply the following technique (see Figures 7-50 to 7-53):

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a. b.

Shift forward and to the outside of the opponents attack, and execute a soft open hand block to the outside of the opponents attacking arm. Trap the opponents wrist with the right hand and pull it in to the body. Step in with the left foot and drop weight on the elbow to bar the arm and lower the opponents centre of gravity. Stepping back, execute a basic wristlock takedown and drive the elbow to the ground, breaking the wrist, and apply follow-up techniques.

c.

Figure 7-50: Counter to Inside SlashStep 1

Figure 7-51: Counter to Inside SlashStep 2

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Figure 7-52: Counter to Inside SlashStep 3

Figure 7-53: Counter to Inside SlashStep 4

COUNTER TO AN UNDER HAND ATTACK 38. To disarm an opponent coming at angle 9 execute the following technique (see Figures 754 to 7-56): a. b. Thrust the hips back to arc the back forward, and with the hands together and thumbs crossed execute a two-handed block trapping the knife hand. With the right hand, grab the back of the knife hand, while the left hand maintains the hold on the wrist. Execute a basic wristlock takedown (see Figures 7-21 and 7-22). Stepping back, execute a basic wristlock takedown and drive the elbow to the ground, breaking the wrist, and apply follow-up techniques.

c.

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Figure 7-54: Counter to Underhand AttackStep 1

Figure 7-55: Counter to Underhand AttackStep 2

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Figure 7-56: Counter to Underhand AttackStep 3

COUNTER TO OUTSIDE SLASH 39. To disarm an opponent executing an outside slash on angle 1, 3 or 7 apply the following technique (see Figures 7-57 to 7-60): a. b. c. d. e. execute a two-handed soft block to the attacking arm; using the momentum of the attacking arm, force the arm across the front while bending forward; maintaining contact, rotate the hand close to the opponent to an overhand grip on the wrist; rotate the other hand over the back of the opponents hand and execute a basic wristlock takedown; and apply follow up techniques.

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Figure 7-57: Counter to Outside SlashStep 1

Figure 7-58: Counter to Outside SlashStep 2

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Figure 7-59: Counter to Outside SlashStep 3

Figure 7-60: Counter to Outside SlashStep 4

DEFENCE AGAINST KNIFE HELD TO THE THROATFRONT 40. The soldier may be faced with an opponent who is pressing a knife against the throat and is using the opposite hand for further control. If the opponent is in this position, with the knife in the right hand and pressed against the left side of the soldiers throat, counter by securing the opponents knife hand with both hands, forcing the knife from the throat (see Figures 7-61 to 7-64). Bring the knife down, attempting to slash the opponents arm, and then apply a basic wristlock takedown and follow-up techniques.

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Figure 7-61: Knife on Left Side

Figure 7-62: Knife on Left SideStep 1

Figure 7-63: Knife on Left SideStep 2

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Figure 7-64: Knife on Left SideStep 3

41. If the knife is on the right side of the soldiers neck, counter by trapping the weapon with both hands, forcing the knife away from the neck (see Figures 7-65 to 7-67). Force the weapon down to a position where a basic wristlock takedown can be applied, attempting to slash the other arm on the way down, then apply follow-up techniques.

Figure 7-65: Knife on Right Side

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Figure 7-66: Knife on Right SideStep 1

Figure 7-67: Knife on Right SideStep 2

DEFENCE AGAINST KNIFE HELD TO THE THROATREAR 42. If the opponent is holding the soldier from behind with a knife against the throat counter with the right hand, striking the opponents elbow to force the knife away from the throat (see Figures 7-68 to 7-71). Simultaneously grasp the opponents knife hand with the left hand to gain control. Rotate to the right and grasp the opponents forearm with the right hand, then force the opponents arm back while simultaneously forcing him back to execute a takedown. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. (Note: for this technique the opponents elbow must be far enough forward to reach it.)

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Figure 7-68: Knife From Rear

Figure 7-69: Knife From RearStep 1

Figure 7-70: Knife From RearStep 2

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Figure 7-71: Knife From RearStep 3

DEFENCE AGAINST IMPACT WEAPONS 43. When an opponent is armed with an impact weapon it extends his range. The striking surface of the impact weapon is the tip, and it is at this point where the most power is generated. Thus the closer the soldier is to the opponent, the less power the strike will have. So to defend against this the soldier must move quickly to close the distance. 44. To counter impact weapons attempt to employ improvised weapons. If this is not possible use empty hand blocking and parrying techniques to close the distance. Once at close range employ strikes, throws and takedowns to gain control of the opponent. Finally apply appropriate follow-up techniques. DEFENCE AGAINST FIREARMS 45. An unarmed soldier faced with a firearm must wait until the weapon is within arms reach before attempting to disarm an opponent. Disarming a rifle can be done at mid- or close range, when the opponent is in front of or behind the soldier. With a pistol disarming must be done at close range; although a pistol can be disarmed when held to the rear it is recommended that the soldier wait until the opponent is positioned to the front. 46. Where an armed opponent will not let a soldier close the distance, e.g. by repositioning himself, the soldier must play on any situation to entice the opponent to close the distance.

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47. Initially, for any disarm, parry the weapon and turn the body so the weapon is taken off line, or to a position that even if fired the round would not strike the soldier. The soldier should also maintain contact with the weapon to assist in gaining control. DEFENCE AGAINST PISTOLS 48. This technique is used when the soldier is unarmed against an opponent to the front armed with a pistol. Parry against the trigger finger. Striking to the wrist may cause the pistol to fire due to an involuntary hand reflex. To execute this technique it is essential to draw the opponent to close range and wait for a distraction before striking (see Figures 7-72 to 7-75): a. If the pistol is in the opponents right hand parry with the right hand, if in the left hand parry with the left. If the opponent has a two hand grip note which hand controls the pistol. Pivot the body and simultaneously bring the parrying hand across the body and parry the weapon off line. Immediately bring the other hand up and strike and grasp the back of the opponents hand. At this point the soldier will have control of the weapon, and if the opponent attempts to pull the weapon back the soldier maintains control and keeps the weapon off line. The pistol is rotated upward, then quickly and violently pulled down, tearing the pistol from the opponents hand. If the soldier maintains his grip on the hands the opponent can be taken to the ground. Once you have control of the pistol, strike with the weapon and move out of the opponents reach.

b.

c.

Figure 7-72: Disarming PistolStep 1

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Figure 7-73: Disarming PistolStep 2

Figure 7-74: Disarming PistolStep 3

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Figure 7-75: Disarming PistolStep 4

DEFENCE AGAINST RIFLES 49. To defend against an opponent armed with a rifle two disarming techniques are possible, one working to the inside (the side of the rifle the opponent is on), the other working to the outside. Whether the rifle is to the front or the rear the soldier can use either of these techniques. The only difference is the side the soldier moves to. RIFLE TO THE FRONT 50. As with the pistol, when you are unarmed and confronted with a rifle to the front it is essential to draw the opponent within striking range and wait for a distraction before striking. To execute this technique (see Figures 7-76 to 7-81): a. b. c. d. parry left or right and grasp the barrel, simultaneously turning the body off line by pivoting on the ball of the foot on the side executing the parry; shift in with the foot on the side of the parrying hand, and keeping the hand clear of the muzzle grasp the barrel or handguards with the opposite hand; with the parrying hand execute an elbow strike to the opponents head and then grasp the small of the butt in an overhand grasp; if you are to the inside, pull up on the butt and push down on the barrel, while simultaneously stepping back with the foot on the parrying side, tearing the rifle from the opponents grasp; if you are to the outside, push down on the butt while pulling up on the barrel;
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f.

once you have control of the rifle, step in and strike with the weapon.

Figure 7-76: Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 1

Figure 7-77: Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 2

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Figure 7-78: Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 3

Figure 7-79: Disarming Rifle to Front(Inside) Step 4

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Figure 7-80: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside)

Figure 7-81: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside)

RIFLE TO THE REAR 51. Draw the opponent to within striking distance and wait for a distraction, then execute the following technique: a. note the height of the rifle;

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b.

if the rifle is at shoulder height (see figures 7-82 to 7-84), pivot the body on the heel of the foot on the parrying side and the ball of the other foot, and parry and grasp the rifle; step in and execute an elbow strike with the opposite arm and grasp the small of the butt in an overhand grasp; tear the weapon from the opponents hand (as with a rifle to the front working either to the inside or the outside); and if the rifle is in the small of the back, pivot and execute a lower block (see Figures 7-85 and 7-86).

c. d. e.

Figure 7-82: Disarming Rifle to Rear Shoulder Height

Figure 7-83: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Parry)

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Figure 7-84: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Elbow Strike)

Figure 7-85: Disarming Rifle to Rear Small of the Back

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Figure 7-86: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Lower Block)

SECTION 8 WEAPON RETENTION TECHNIQUES 52. It is essential that soldiers be alert to their surroundings. There may be times when an opponent tries to take the soldiers weapon. To avoid a prolonged struggle the soldier must understand and apply weapon retention techniques. The following techniques are employed in non-lethal situations. The following principles apply to weapon retention techniques: a. b. c. Secure. Grab the weapon to prevent the opponent taking it. Strike. Use striking techniques or pain compliance techniques to release the opponents grip. Separate. Increase the distance from the threat.

RIFLE HAND GUARD GRAB 53. If the opponent uses an overhand grasp to seize the rifle hand guards execute the following technique (see Figures 7-87 to 7-89): a. b. c. trap the closest finger(s) with the thumb so the opponent cannot release his grasp; apply bone pressure to the finger to initiate pain compliance; and rotate the barrel to place it across the opponents forearm and apply downward pressure, similar to a wristlock.

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Figure 7-87: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards)

Figure 7-88: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 1

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Figure 7-89: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 2

RIFLE MUZZLE OR HAND GUARD GRAB 54. If the opponent grabs the rifle muzzle or hand guard apply the following technique (see Figures 7-90 to 7-92): a. b. force the weapon upward at a 45 degree angle to the outside; and violently force the weapon downward and separate it from the opponent.

Figure 7-90: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards)

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Figure 7-91: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 1

Figure 7-92: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 2

BUTT STROKES 55. Striking with the rifle butt can control or ward off an attacker. Use the edge of the butt to strike the inside or outside of the thighs (see Figures 7-93 and 7-94): a. b. an inside butt strike targets the femoral nerve; an outside butt strike targets the peroneal nerve; and

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c.

if a strike to one side of the thigh misses, follow back through with a strike to the other side.

Figure 7-93: Butt Stroke Femoral Nerve

Figure 7-94: Butt Stroke Peroneal Nerve

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OFF-BALANCE TECHNIQUES 56. Off-balance techniques are used to throw an opponent to the ground to retain possession of the rifle. 57. If the opponent grabs the rifle and pushes, do not push back. Move with the opponents momentum by stepping back, pivoting and forcing the rifle butt in to the opponents shoulder or head (see Figures 7-95 and 7-96). Throw him to the ground and separate him from the rifle.

Figure 7-95: Opponent Pushes Rifle

Figure 7-96: Opponent Pushes Rifle

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58. If the opponent grabs the rifle and pulls, step on the foot and push forward to off-balance him and drive him to ground (see Figures 7-97 to 7-99).

Figure 7-97: Opponent Pulls Rifle

Figure 7-98: Opponent Pulls RifleStep 1

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Figure 7-99: Opponent Pulls RifleStep 2

HOLSTERED PISTOL WITH OPPONENT TO THE FRONT 59. If the opponent goes for the holstered pistol from the front, trap the hand with the pistol side hand, lowering the centre of gravity and using the full body weight to execute a lateral forearm strike to the opponents forearm (see Figures 7-100 to 7-102).

Figure 7-100: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol

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Figure 7-101: Opponent Grabs Holstered PistolStep 1

Figure 7-102: Opponent Grabs Holstered PistolStep 2

HOLSTERED PISTOL WITH OPPONENT TO THE REAR 60. If the opponent attempts to grab the holstered pistol from behind, reach across the body with the left hand and trap the hand(s) on the holster. With the right arm execute either a hammer fist or elbow strike to the opponents head (see Figures 7-103 to 7-105).

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Figure 7-103: Opponent to the Rear

Figure 7-104: Opponent to the RearStep 1

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Figure 7-105: Opponent to the RearStep 2

DRAWN PISTOL TO THE FRONT 61. If the opponent grabs the drawn pistol to the front, execute a lateral forearm strike to the opponents wrist(s) and continue forcing the hand(s) downward, while simultaneously drawing the pistol hand rearward until the grip on the pistol is broken (see Figures 7-106 to 7-108).

Figure 7-106: Pistol to the Front

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Figure 7-107: Pistol to the FrontStep 1

Figure 7-108: Pistol to the FrontStep 2

SECTION 9 IMPROVISED WEAPONS 62. In close quarter combat the unarmed soldier must improvise weapons. Virtually any object can be used, e.g. throwing dirt in the opponents face to impair his vision, or smashing his head with a rock or helmet. Be ruthless and use whatever means are available to win the fight. The following are some examples of what can be used: a. b. An entrenching tool can be used to block, slash and thrust at the opponent. Tent poles and spikes can be used to block, strike, and thrust at the opponent.

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c.

Battlefield debris can be used to cut, slash, and stab at the opponent. Other types of debris such as shovels, axe handles, boards, metal pipes, or broken rifles can also be used to strike. A helmet can be used to strike the opponent on an unprotected area of the body like the head or face. Pens and pencils can be used to stab the eyes, the face and stomach

d. e.

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CHAPTER 8 SENTRY REMOVAL SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. In wartime a soldier may have to remove a sentry silently. To avoid detection approach using a low crouch, advancing from the rear slowly and deliberately. Place each foot silently on the ground toe to heel, and do not cross the feet. Your normal fighting stance determines which foot leads, and the lead hand should be free, ready to strike and cover the opponents mouth and nose. Look toward the sentrys head, as this is where movement will originate. However, avoid looking directly at the back of the head as the sentry may sense that someone is watching. Use peripheral vision to detect movement. 2. The sentry will do everything possible to cry out or escape, thus must be silenced quickly and brutally, as this is a life or death struggle. There must be no hesitation and split second timing is necessary. The soldier must close aggressively, and then strike swiftly and silently. To silence a sentry, place the hand over the mouth and nose and twist the head outwards exposing the neck; ensure the head is forced in to your shoulder, pulling the opponent off balance. 3. If the sentry is tall, step on the back of his knee so that the opponent will drop to a level which makes it easier to kill silently. As the sentry falls back, control the fall of both the sentry and any weapons he may have by stepping back with the lead foot, dropping to the knee, and easing the sentry down to a sitting position, where follow up techniques are easily executed. SECTION 2 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A KNIFE 4. The knife is the weapon of choice for sentry removal as it kills quickly and silently. Both the hammer and ice pick grip can be employed. There are several ways to kill a sentry with a knife or bayonet. THE THROAT 5. Attacking the sentrys throat is the preferred method as it severs the windpipe and silences the sentry. Execute the attack as follows (see Figures 8-1 to 8-3): a. b. c. d. close the distance; cup the left hand over the mouth and nose, forcing back the head to expose the throat; thrust the knife in to the side of the neck behind the windpipe and slash outward to severe the windpipe; and silently lower the sentry to the ground.

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Figure 8-1: Close the Distance

Figure 8-2: ThroatStep 1

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Figure 8-3: ThroatStep 2

SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY 6. The subclavian artery is located 5 centimetres below the surface between the collarbone and the shoulder blade. Attack by thrusting the knife in from above using an ice pick grip (see Figures 8-4 and 8-5). Once the thrust is made, the knife should slash to create maximum damage and ensure that the subclavian artery is in fact severed. The blade is then withdrawn, slashing and enlarging the cut to maximize blood loss. Bleeding to this wound cannot be stopped without surgery, thus the sentry will loose consciousness quickly and die.

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Figure 8-4: Subclavian ArteryStep 1

Figure 8-5: Subclavian ArteryStep 2

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THE KIDNEY 7. To attack the kidney thrust the knife in while simultaneously grabbing the sentrys mouth and nose (see Figure 8-6). Withdraw the blade, slashing and enlarging the wound. Cut the windpipe to ensure silence. A thrust to the kidney will cause great shock and internal hemorrhaging, resulting in death. It is unlikely that the sentry will be able to utter more than a gasp before death. In both subclavian artery and kidney attacks, the soldier may place the free hand on the neck of the sentry and squeeze the windpipe, twisting and crushing the larynx.

Figure 8-6: Kidney

SECTION 3 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A GARROTTE 8. A garrotte is used for strangulation or to sever the neck. It is constructed of any strong material that is thin and pliable. Wire is commonly used as it can decapitate the sentry. A bootlace is also effective. 9. It is recommended that the garrotte have handles on each end to improve grip and to avoid injuring the soldiers hand. GARROTTE FROM THE REAR 10. To garrotte a sentry from the rear (see Figures 8-7 to 8-10) approach in a fighting stance with the loop of the garrotte over the rear hand. Throw the garrotte over the sentrys head so it is around the neck. Pivot 180 degrees back to back with the sentry to form a loop in the garrotte. Pull the garrotte so the sentrys neck is held tightly and arc your back. Drop the centre of gravity below the sentrys and pull forcefully while driving the legs up for a shoulder throw. At this point the sentrys head may be decapitated. If the sentry flips over, continue to apply pressure until unconsciousness or death. Note that this technique is not a silent sentry takeout.
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Figure 8-7: Stalking the Sentry

Figure 8-8: Garrotte from the RearStep 1

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Figure 8-9: Garrotte from the RearStep 2

Figure 8-10: Garrotte from the RearStep 3

GARROTTE TO THE FRONT 11. If while approaching from the rear the sentry turns to face you drive forward violently with both hands so the garrotte crosses the throat (see Figures 8-11 to 8-14). Reach behind the back so that the hands come together in a bear hug, then pull downward, stepping behind one of
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the sentrys legs, and take him to the ground. Your hands are now under the sentrys back with the garrotte across the throat. Pull downward with the hands until the sentry ceases to struggle.

Figure 8-11: Stalking the Sentry

Figure 8-12: Garrotte to the FrontStep 1

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Figure 8-13: Garrotte to the FrontStep 2

Figure 8-14: Garrotte to the FrontSide View

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SECTION 4 NECK BREAKS 12. Another method of sentry removal is the neck break. The neck is susceptible to damage from all angles, however it requires strength and commitment to break an opponents spinal column. HELMET NECK BREAK 13. To execute the helmet neck break (see Figures 8-15 to 8-17) use the opponents helmet as a weapon to create leverage. Grab the opposite shoulder with the left hand, with the forearm on the back of the sentrys neck, simultaneously grabbing the rim of the sentrys helmet with the right hand. Then pull the helmet up and back with great force. Your forearm drives the opponents shoulders forward and acts as a lever to break the neck.

Figure 8-15: Helmet Neck BreakStep 1

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Figure 8-16: Helmet Neck BreakStep 2

Figure 8-17: Helmet Neck BreakStep 3

HELMET SMASH 14. If while executing a helmet neck break the sentrys helmet is undone or the strap breaks, smash the head repeatedly until the sentry is eliminated (see Figures 8-18 to 8-21).

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Figure 8-18: Helmet Smash

Figure 8-19: Helmet SmashStep 1

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Figure 8-20: Helmet SmashStep 2

Figure 8-21: Helmet SmashStep 3

NECK BREAK FROM REAR 15. To neck break while approaching from the rear strike the jaw with the right hand, drive the sentrys head fully to the left, and immediately wrap the head with both arms in a bear hug (see Figures 8-22 to 8-25). To break the neck pull the sentry back off balance and kick your legs out, dropping all your body weight down on the back of his head.

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Figure 8-22: Neck Break from Rear

Figure 8-23: Neck Break from RearStep 1

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Figure 8-24: Neck Break from RearStep 2

Figure 8-25: Neck Break from RearStep 3

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NECK BREAK KNEELING OPPONENT 16. To neck break a kneeling sentry (see Figures 8-26 to 8-28): a. b. c. d. close the distance; if the opponent has a weapon, control it with the right hand; reach around the opponents head with the left arm and apply a reverse headlock; and drive the hips up in one swift motion to break the neck.

Figure 8-26: Stalking the Enemy

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Figure 8-27: Neck Break KneelingStep 1

Figure 8-28: Neck Break KneelingStep 2

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SECTION 5 TAKEDOWNS REAR TAKEDOWN 17. A sentry may be quickly taken out by a double leg takedown from behind (see Figures 829 to 8-31). The sentry falls forward and strikes his head on the ground. Quickly move up the body, placing the knee in the small of the back, and execute a neck break. This technique is effective against a tall sentry.

Figure 8-29: Stalking the Sentry

Figure 8-30: Rear TakedownStep 1

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Figure 8-31: Rear TakedownStep 2

CROTCH TAKEDOWN 18. To execute the crotch takedown grasp the collar with the lead hand at the back of the neck, reaching between the legs with the other hand to grasp the crotch or belt (see Figures 8-32 to 8-34). Push forward on the neck while pulling up and to the rear at the crotch, lifting the sentry off the ground. Once the sentry is taken down, move up the body and execute a neck break. This technique is not as effective against a taller sentry.

Figure 8-32: Crotch TakedownStep 1

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Figure 8-33: Crotch TakedownStep 2

Figure 8-34: Crotch TakedownStep 3

SECTION 6 CHOKES 19. Any of the chokeholds covered in Chapter 5 can be employed against a sentry. Chokes can be used a prisoner must be taken while minimizing noise. To ensure that the sentry does not cry out a choke that restricts the windpipe needs to be applied. 20. Chokes may be used to cause unconsciousness, or, if pressure is maintained long enough or the choke is used to break the neck, to kill the sentry.

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CHAPTER 9 RIFLE BAYONET FIGHTING TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Close quarter combat is a weapon-based system, in that every infantry soldier is issued a rifle and bayonet as his primary tools to destroy an opponent at close quarters. Bayonet fighting skills are warfighting techniques every soldier must master. Training to perfect these techniques develops skill, confidence, and aggressiveness executing all movements. 2. The bayonet is an offensive weapon that must be used aggressively. Any hesitation, delay or useless movement may be fatal. The soldier must attack violently until the opponent is neutralized. Weakness must be detected and exploited. Speed is essential, whether to defend, counter-attack, or attack, and, ultimately, kill the opponent. 3. Although all parts of the body may be a target, the face and throat are most vulnerable because a person will react instinctively to protect them. This often leaves other parts of the body, such as the chest, abdomen, groin and limbs, vulnerable and unprotected. SECTION 2 BAYONET TECHNIQUES REST 4. The rest position is used in training. At the command rest, the soldier places the butt of the rifle between the feet and holds the weapon vertically, with the hands on top of the hand guards (see Figure 9-1).

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Figure 9-1: Rest

ON GUARD 5. On the command on guard the soldier adopts the fighting stance. The weapon is positioned so the side of the butt is against the right hip at approximately 45 degrees, one hand on the hand guard, the other on the small of the butt. The soldier leans forward slightly with the weight evenly distributed (see Figure 9-2).

Figure 9-2: On Guard

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THRUST 6. The thrust is the primary attacking technique. It is executed from the on guard position about 1.5 metres from the opponent. The thrust is directed against a vulnerable point of the body such as the throat, face, abdomen, or chest. Hold the weapon firmly and, extending both arms, thrust the bayonet in to the target area (see Figure 9-3). Put the weight of the body behind the thrust by shifting or stepping forward when thrusting. The thrust is usually executed when advancing, and can originate off either foot.

Figure 9-3: Thrust

LEFT AND RIGHT PARRY 7. The parry is a defensive movement used to deflect the opponents weapon and create openings. From the on guard position, strike the opponents weapon violently to deflect it either left or right (see Figures 9-4 to 9-9). Avoid over-extending. The parry should be immediately followed up with an attack.

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Figure 9-4: On Guard

Figure 9-5: Left Parry

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Figure 9-6: Left Parry

Figure 9-7: On Guard

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Figure 9-8: Right Parry

Figure 9-9: Right Parry

HORIZONTAL BUTT STROKE 8. To execute a horizontal butt stroke step forward from the on guard position with the rear foot, forcing the rifle butt up and forward across the front of the body, aiming it horizontally at the opponents head or upper body, with your full weight behind the blow (see Figures 9-10 and 9-11). A butt stroke executed correctly will likely stun the opponent, and must be followed with a slash, thrust or ground point.

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Figure 9-10: Left Parry

Figure 9-11: Horizontal Butt Stroke

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VERTICAL BUTT STROKE 9. The vertical butt stroke is executed from the on guard or crouching position. Step forward with the rear foot, forcing the rifle butt up in a vertical arc toward the opponents groin, solar plexus, or chin, with your entire weight behind the blow. Continue to attack if required.

Figure 9-12: On Guard

Figure 9-13: Vertical Butt Stroke

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SMASH 10. The smash may be used when the opponent is backing away to avoid a vertical butt stroke. Hold the rifle slightly higher than shoulder height, with the butt forward and the pistol grip up (see Figure 9-14). Force the body forward driving the rifle butt straight in to the opponents face. This technique may also be used following a failed horizontal butt stroke; in this case the rifle is kept in a horizontal position.

Figure 9-14: Smash

SLASH 11. The slash is used to cut the opponent open using the knife-edge of the bayonet, and is an effective follow-up to a smash. Extend the left arm while stepping forward, and drive the weapon down diagonally across the body, striking the opponent between the head and shoulder (see Figures 9-15 to 9-17).

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Figure 9-15: Slash (Start)

Figure 9-16: Slash (Mid-point)

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Figure 9-17: Slash (Finish)

GROUND POINT 12. The ground point is used to finish off the opponent once on the ground. The bayonet is pointed down to the target. Draw the rifle butt upward then violently thrust downward, driving the point of the bayonet in to the exposed chest or throat of the opponent (see Figures 9-18 to 920). To extract the bayonet, pull the rifle straight back until the blade is out. After sticking the bayonet in to an opponent on the ground it may be necessary to place one foot on the chest to extract the bayonet or, in extreme cases, to fire a round in to the chest.

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Figure 9-18: Ground Point (Start)

Figure 9-19: Ground Point (Mid-point)

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Figure 9-20: Bayonet Extraction (Finish)

HIGH BLOCK 13. The high block is effective against a high or low vertical attack. Violently extend the arms upward about 45 degrees from the body (see Figure 9-21). Use the centre of the weapon to strike the opponents weapon on its downward motion, bending the elbows slightly to absorb the impact. Enough force should be used to throw the opponent off balance and follow up with an offensive technique.

Figure 9-21: High Block

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LOW BLOCK 14. The low block is effective block against a vertical butt stroke. Violently extend the arms downward about 45 degrees from the body (see Figure 9-22). Use the centre part of the rifle to strike the opponents rifle on its upward motion, bending the elbows slightly to absorb the impact.

Figure 9-22: Low Block

MIDDLE BLOCK 15. The middle block is effective against a horizontal butt stroke. For a right handed firer to counter a butt stroke from the left (see Figure 9-23), drive the rifle butt downward, simultaneously pivoting the body to the left to strike the opponents rifle with the centre part of the rifle. To counter a butt stroke from the right (see Figure 9-24), pivot the body violently to the right, simultaneously forcing the weapon to the right to strike the opponents rifle with the centre part of the rifle. (For left handed soldiers these movements would be reversed.).

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Figure 9-23: Middle Block

Figure 9-24: Middle Block

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COMBINATIONS

NOTE FOR TRAINING PURPOSES: All combinations should end with the soldier in the on guard position. Combinations ending with a vertical/horizontal butt stroke or a smash should finish with the soldier executing a slash in to the on guard position. Combinations should be executed on the attack, with the soldier stepping forward with each movement (unless using a static dummy). 16. Left/Right Parry Thrust. The aim of the parry is to ward off the opponents weapon and create an opening. This is followed immediately by a thrust to the face or throat. 17. Left/Right ParryHorizontal Butt StrokeGround Point. The aim of the parry is to ward off the opponents weapon and create an opening. This is followed by a horizontal butt strike in a continuous movement. The butt stroke is aimed at the opponents head, and the ground point is immediately driven in to the fallen and stunned opponent. 18. Thrust following a Failed Attack. If the opponent retreats to avoid the thrust slightly bend the lead arm, move the rear foot forward, and execute another thrust. A series of thrusts can be executed until the opponent is struck or off balance and thus vulnerable to another technique. 19. ThrustVertical Butt Stroke. If a thrust is directed at the opponents head but passes over it, bend the lead arm slightly, push forward off the rear foot and bring the butt upward in a short vertical arc. Aim the butt at the opponents groin or solar plexus. 20. ThrustHorizontal Butt Stroke. If a thrust has been executed to either side of the opponent, or if it has been dodged, instead of returning to the defensive push forward off the rear foot and bring the butt across in a wide horizontal arc. 21. Butt StrokeSmash. If a butt stroke misses the opponent continue until the rifle is in position to execute a smash, then push forward off the rear foot and aim the rifle butt at the opponents face or throat with as much force as possible. MULTIPLE OPPONENTS 22. The soldier may face more than one opponent, or in some cases will have an opponent out numbered. The following are simple strategies for dealing with these situations.

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OFFENSIVE STRATEGY 23. Two against One. Both soldiers advance together, one soldier engaging the opponent while the other soldier aggressively attacks the opponents open flank (see Figure 9-25). 24. Three against Two. The soldiers advance together, the two on the outside engaging the opponents, while the middle soldier attacking each opponents open flank (see Figures 9-26 and 9-27)).

Figures 9-25: Two against One

Figure 9-26: Three against TwoStep 1

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Figure 9-27: Three against TwoStep 2

DEFENSIVE STRATEGY 25. One against Two. A soldier attacked by two opponents must immediately move to a flanking position, using the first attacker as a shield to prevent the second moving closer (see Figure 9-28). Once the first threat is taken out, the soldier moves to the second opponent.

Figure 9-28: One against Two

26. Two against Three. If three opponents attack two soldiers, move immediately to the flanks, forcing the outside opponents in to the centre opponent (see Figures 9-29 to 9-31). Once an outside threat has been eliminated that soldier attacks the centre opponent.

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Figure 9-29: Two against Three Step 1

Figure 9-30: Two against Three Step 2

Figure 9-31: Two against Three Step 3

27.

SECTION 3 BAYONET TRAINING There are two main methods used for bayonet training: a. The rifle with bayonet, used against dummies and/or practice targets spaced on the terrain to simulate combat.

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b.

The pugil stick, which increases realism by introducing blocking, movements, feinting and counter-attacking against an armed opponent. This is the ideal method to sharpen reflexes and increase aggressiveness.

28. Bayonet fighting must not be taught as a drill. It is a quick, instinctive skill with each situation likely to demand variations in technique. Soldiers must be encouraged to develop a style to suit their size and build. BAYONET OBSTACLE COURSES 29. Bayonet training is conducted throughout all close quarter combat training, initially during the close quarter combat basic course, continuing at unit level, and then progressing to instructor training. For bayonet training there are basic, intermediate and advanced bayonet obstacle courses: a. Basic Bayonet Obstacle Course. This is the introduction to bayonet training. The lanes consist of thrust targets, ground point targets, and targets where the soldier must parry left and right, then deliver a thrust. The soldier first advances at the walk and then progresses to a run. The aim is for the soldier to advance and deliver the techniques without changing the pace or stopping. Intermediate Bayonet Obstacle Course. At this level the soldier covers intermediate bayonet techniques advancing through the range at the walk. The soldier is then put through a series of exercises simulating battlefield tasks, i.e. fire and movement, or basic obstacles to fatigue the soldier prior to reaching the first target. Once at the targets the soldier attacks with combinations at the double. The emphasis at this level is for the soldier to develop proper techniques and combat fitness. Advanced Bayonet Obstacle Course. This level is conducted under realistic conditions. The soldier first advances to the course using fire and movement, and must negotiate an obstacle course constructed of field fortifications interspersed with bayonet targets. All techniques are done at the double. Soldiers must be briefed to engage all targets as they come to them, using all techniques taught at the basic and intermediate level. Where possible the soldier should advance at fire team level. This training can also be enhanced using pyrotechnics and smoke.

b.

c.

30. Bayonet training can also be conducted during live field firing ranges during the final stages of the assault. BAYONET TARGETS 31. To ensure successful training the soldier must have suitable targets. Properly constructed targets will reduce damage to the rifle/bayonet and target frames, and injuries to the soldier. Targets can be permanent or portable.

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32. Three types of targets, the scaffold, gallows and ground target, are used during bayonet training: a. Scaffold. This target is used for thrusts and smashes, and can be equipped with a device for parrying techniques (see Figure 9-32). The frame supports a target constructed from bags filled with foam rubber, tires or figure 12 targets. Gallows. This target is used for thrusts, butt strokes, slashes, smashes and parries. The target hangs from the gallows, and can be equipped with a weapon to facilitate parrying techniques (see Figure 9-33). It is constructed of stuffed mannequins using old uniforms or coveralls. Tires can also be used as a target. Ground Targets. This target is used for ground points, and consists of foam filled bags or sandbags (see Figure 9-34).

b.

c.

Figure 9-32: Scaffold Target

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Figure 9-33: Gallows Target

Figure 9-34: Ground Target

CONDUCT OF BAYONET OBSTACLE COURSES 33. Conduct of a bayonet obstacle course will vary depending on the level of training and the available training facilities. The following points deal with basic conduct and safety:

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a.

The instructor must instil aggressiveness and determination. Everything is done at the double except when instructed otherwise. Instructors must not penalize soldiers for small technical faults. Before beginning the practice identify control measures and words of command. Whistle blasts should be used to cease activity. During any practice when soldiers are required to pass one anther they do so at the high port and to the left of each other, i.e. right shoulder to right shoulder. Soldiers pass targets to the left. They return to the start position by moving to the right of the targets. Left-handed soldiers are always in the right hand lane. Lateral spacing between targets must be a minimum of 3 metres. Targets should be spaced 3 to 5 metres in line. Portable targets can be positioned in pairs by placing the second target 1 metre behind and to the left of the first target. To prevent accidents ensure all targets are placed in the same manner. Soldiers are dressed in fighting order and wear combat gloves to protect the hands. Instructors should be in position to observe each soldiers individual actions.

b. c. d. e.

f. g.

SECTION 4 PUGIL STICK TRAINING 34. Pugil stick training is the most realistic method of teaching bayonet fighting. It gives the soldier an adversary who thinks, responds and takes corrective action, and who moves, retreats, dodges, etc. The soldier must learn to remain vigilant and react instantly. A timid soldier will quickly become tired of being beaten and will counter-attack. As soon as the soldier becomes aware of the advantages of attack over defence, the soldier becomes self-confident and moves aggressively. 35. Pugil stick bouts are an excellent method of improving physical fitness. The soldier must put forth maximum effort during bouts that can last as long as 2 minutes. In order to obtain full benefit from these bouts proper training, protective equipment, supervision and safety are required. 36. It is important that the soldier be fully trained before participating in pugil stick bouts. Lack of technique and knowledge will make a soldier ineffective and increase the risk of sustaining injuries. PUGIL TRAINING SAFETY 37. Pugil stick training simulates rifle and bayonet fighting so that effective but safe training can be conducted. Pugil stick training is the only full contact training provided to close quarter combat trainees. It teaches the soldier to function when faced with stress and violence, and to

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deliver a blow and take a blow. It also provides physical and mental skills vital to success on the battlefield. 38. B-GL-381-001/TS-000 Training Safety directs that individuals who have had hernias, frequent headaches, previous brain concussions, recent teeth extractions or current lacerations containing stitches be excluded from pugil stick training for safety reasons. A soldier meeting any of the following criteria will be excluded from pugil stick training: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. light duties; restricted to wearing running shoes; participation in pugil stick training within the last 7 days; blow to the head within the last 7 days; frequent headaches; concussion within the last 6 months; history of hernias; dental surgery within the last 48 hours; staples or stitches; severe shoulder or head injury within the last 5 years; taking prescription drugs which may adversely affect performance during training; ear infection or sinus infection; and broken bone within the last 6 months.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT 39. The instructor must inspect all equipment to ensure serviceability. In addition, all equipment must fit the soldier and be properly adjusted. Combat uniform is worn, with sleeves rolled down to prevent friction burns. Combat boots are mandatory, as they provide better protection and support during quick turns and manoeuvring. The following equipment must be worn during pugil stick bouts: a. The football helmet has foam rubber wrapped around the bottom of the face cage. It must fit the head without rocking back and forth, or obstructing the soldiers view if struck on top of the head. The helmet must not pivot when struck on the side.

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b.

The neck roll prevents whiplash if the soldier is struck in the head, supports the head and protects the neck from blows. The tied end of the roll should be on the front of the soldiers neck; The chest protector must cover the chest and abdomen to approximately belt level. All straps must be in place and fastened. Both new and old style fragmentation vests can be worn as a substitute, but must be completely done up. Groin protection must be in good condition and fit firmly against the body. The protector must be worn outside of clothing and incorporate a pad around the hips. Females wear the male protection in order to protect the hips, or units can purchase a female groin protector. Gloves are either hockey or lacrosse style. They must be in good condition. Gloves must be worn if the pugil sticks do not have built in hand protection. The mouthpiece is worn on the upper teeth, or covers both the upper and lower teeth. It must be form fitted to the individual to prevent it being swallowed. Pugil sticks must be in good condition and well padded. Do not use sticks that are broken or cracked. Padding must be properly fastened and have no tears. The ends of the stick must not be loose fitting. (To construct a pugil stick see paragraph 52.)

c.

d.

e. f. g.

SAFETY PERSONNEL 40. Instructors running pugil bouts must be qualified Close Quarter Combat Instructors. One instructor is necessary for each bout. For safety, it is better to have two instructors judging a bout because each instructor can fully observe one fighter. The best position for observation is to the right of a fighter. This allows the instructor to see the fighters facial expression and body movement. The instructors position must not interfere with the fight. Instructors supervising bouts must understand their value and limitations. They must be alert for the unexpected, and if in doubt, the bout must be stopped immediately to prevent injury. GENERAL CONDUCT 41. Pugil training periods should be organized as follows: a. b. c. d. e. safety inspection and kit issue; briefing; warm-up; review; pugil stick drills (give and take);
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f. g.

pugil bouts; and debriefing.

SAFETY INSPECTION AND KIT ISSUE 42. Before fitting equipment soldiers must be inspected by the instructor. Once the inspection is complete, soldiers should be issued the kit described in paragraph 39. Instructors must ensure that all equipment fits properly. The instructor should look for the following during the inspection: a. b. c. d. BRIEFING 43. Before bouts commence the officer/senior non-commissioned officer conducting the training briefs all assisting staff and trainees. WARM-UP 44. Commencing a pugil fighting session with a proper warm-up is necessary to prevent injury. The initial warm-up for any session should commence with light exercise to increase blood flow, then progress to stretching to increase flexibility. Once soldiers are stretched they should go through a series of conditioning exercises, such as push-ups, crunches, leg raises, squats, lunges, ankle raises, or any other exercise which will further warm-up and strengthen the major muscle groups of the body. REVIEW 45. The review should immediately follow the warm-up. It should focus on and further develop basic skills, including basic movements done individually and in combination, incorporating movement in all directions. During the review soldiers practice individually and not against an opponent. PUGIL STICK DRILLS 46. For pugil stick drills soldiers will be paired with a partner and form in two ranks facing each other. The instructor will designate attackers and defenders. He then designates the
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contact lenses or glasses removed (contacts may be worn if the soldiers vision is such that it would be detrimental to fight without them); false teeth removed; nothing worn around the neck; and nothing in pockets or attached to belts.

Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques

technique the attackers are to execute and the technique defenders are to use to counter the attack. This part of the lesson should start with basic techniques, such as a straight thrust countered with a parry left and right, and then progress to combination techniques. PUGIL BOUTS 47. Following drills the trainees will conduct pugil bouts. Rules governing pugil bouts are as follows: a. Before the Bout. Soldiers are paired according to height, weight and gender (where possible). They must be fully briefed on safety and the conduct of the bout. Starting the Bout. The instructor designate two fighters, who move in to the centre of the mats facing each other approximately 2 metres apart and adopt the rest position. The instructor starts the bout with the word of command ON GUARD. The soldiers adopt this position and then, when given the command FIGHT, attack. Stopping the Bout. There are only two reasons for stopping a bout, either delivery of a scoring blow or an unsafe condition. The instructor or assistant instructor may stop the bout any time an unsafe condition is observed. The instructor will be equipped with a whistle, the primary signal for stopping the bout. The word of command STOP may also be used. Scoring Blows. A scoring blow is an offensive technique delivered to an opponents vulnerable area with sufficient force and precision to be considered a disabling or killing blow. Scoring blows are not judged solely on the degree of force with which they were delivered, but on the accuracy and technique employed. A scoring blow is defined as: (1) (2) (3) (4) A straight thrust with the blade end of the weapon (red end of the pugil stick) to the opponents face mask, throat or chest protector. A slash to the side of the opponents helmet (below the ear) or neck with the red end of the pugil stick. A heavy blow to the opponents head with an authorized technique, e.g. a butt stroke or smash using the butt (blue end) of the pugil stick. When a scoring blow is delivered, the instructor blows the whistle to stop the bout. If both fighters are fit to continue and no unsafe condition exists, the instructor restarts the bout.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Unsafe Conditions. A bout will be stopped immediately an unsafe condition exists. An unsafe condition exists when:

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(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) f.

soldier is unable to defend; soldier loses balance and falls down on one or both knees; soldier falls down completely; soldier demonstrates instability (e.g. buckling at the knees); soldier loses muscular tension in the neck and the head snaps back or to one side; soldier appears disoriented; soldier looses control of the pugil stick; equipment falls off; or soldier fails to apply proper techniques.

If any of these conditions occur: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The instructor, assistant instructor or anyone supervising training will stop the bout. He will then check the soldiers condition. Ensure the soldier is alert and responsive, both verbally and physically. Question the soldier to ensure comprehension and coherent responses. Ensure speech is not slurred, and that eyes are focused and not dazed or glazed. Ensure legs are not wobbly or shaky.

g.

The pugil stick is not to be used as a baseball bat, and will be held the same as the rifle. Soldiers will only use authorized techniques or face expulsion from the bout and subsequent disciplinary action. After the Bout. Soldiers will be debriefed. The instructor should discuss the good and bad points of each soldiers techniques, including how to improve weak areas. The instructor then commences subsequent bouts. Other Considerations. Instructors should note the following points: (1) (2) Competition among groups of soldiers is authorized as long as it does not overshadow training objectives or compromise safety procedures. Safety and proper technique are paramount. Safety is more important than competition.

h.

i.

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(3) (4)

The instructor must have a whistle to control bouts. A stretcher, first aid kit and safety vehicle must be in location.

INSTRUCTOR SUPERVISION 48. An instructor supervising pugil stick training must understand its value and limitations. It is the instructors responsibility to ensure safety, and he must be prepared for the unexpected. If in doubt, stop the bout. As with all close quarter combat training much emphasis must be placed on the individuals level of combat fitness. At the end of each lesson the soldier should be physically tired. Due to the nature of this training injuries may occur, whether serious or otherwise, and the instructor must deal with them as they arise in the most appropriate manner. Soldiers undertaking training must have any injuries checked by proper medical authorities. 49. Instructors must provide a positive training environment. Designating a winner only undermines this positive training environment. Provide positive feedback to both soldiers, and ensure soldiers who experience difficulty receive the appropriate feedback to correct their shortcomings. SECOND IMPACT SYNDROME 50. Second impact syndrome (SIS) occurs when a second blow to the head produces a second concussion less than 1 week after a previous concussion (i.e. before recovery from the first concussion). SIS causes rapid brain swelling and can cause death. Therefore there must be a minimum of 7 days between pugil stick bouts to reduce the risk of severe injury resulting from SIS. The 7 day separation between pugil bouts significantly reduces the possibility of injury, particularly in someone who may have suffered a brain injury or concussion but shows no symptoms. Any soldier who experiences headaches or the following symptoms after training must be examined by appropriate medical personnel: a. b. c. d. e. f. blurred vision; ringing in ears; dilation of pupils; slurred speech; bleeding from ears and mouth; or swelling or any unnatural discolouration in head or neck.

51. A soldier who has exhibited these symptoms must not be allowed to participate in pugil stick training or any other activity where a heavy blow might be sustained for a minimum of 7 days after the headache or other symptoms have subsided.

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PUGIL STICK CONSTRUCTION 52. The material required to construct a pugil stick is described at Figure 9-35. To provide better protection, the stick handle can be covered with foam rubber, leaving enough room for the hands. Light sticks can be made heavier by rolling rubber from an inner tube around the central part of the stick under the layer of foam rubber. To construct a pugil stick: a. b. Cut the stick to the required dimensions (see figure 9-35). Spread a sheet of foam rubber 1.27 centimetres thick, 12.7 centimetres wide and 1.22 metres long on a flat surface, and roll it as tightly as possible. Place one of these rolled sheets at each end of the stick. Apply rubber cement on the contact surface as the sheet is rolled on. To prepare the end of the stick representing the bayonet, spread a sheet of plastic foam 1.27 centimetres thick, 29.21centimetres wide and 3.66 metres long on a flat surface. Apply rubber cement on the contact surfaces and roll it as tightly as possible around the pod formed by the small roll of plastic foam covering the end of stick, which was applied in step b. Attach the roll with elastic bands and let dry at least 24 hours. To make the part of the stick that represents the rifle butt, cut a sheet of foam rubber, decreasing in width as shown in Figures 9-35 and 9-36. Make two canvas bags 15.2 centimetres in diameter and 35.6 centimetres long. Use the stitching method shown in Figures 9-35and 9-36. Place the canvas bag on the end of the stick using an adjustable sleeve such as No 28 sheet metal. Slide the canvas cover and metal sleeve on to the end of the stick. Once the cover is properly seated remove the metal sleeve. Attach the canvas bag to the stick using staples and remove excess canvas. Cover the staples with cardboard, then wrap tightly with gun tape.

c.

d. e. f.

g.

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Figure 9-35: Pugil Stick Construction and Materials

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Figure 9-36: Pugil Stick Construction

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CHAPTER 10 GROUND FIGHTING SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. During close quarter combat soldiers should avoid fighting on the ground, as the battlefield may be covered with debris and, more importantly, they may have to deal with multiple opponents. Many close quarter combats however will include fighting on the ground. In any ground-fighting situation the soldiers main priority is to fight his way back up to his feet. 2. When engaging an opponent on the ground the soldier must first gain control using a strong ground fighting position, thus gaining a dominating body position. He can then neutralize the opponent through striking techniques and joint destruction techniques. Once this has been achieved the soldier must get to his feet and deal with other threats. 3. The intent of ground fighting is not to force the opponent to submit but to control or destroy him. The soldier must use techniques which destroy the target joint to finish the opponent. Fighting at this range also presents the problem of concealed weapons draws, due to the close proximity of the combatants. The soldier must always monitor or control the hands of the opponent to prevent him using weapons. SECTION 2 GROUND FIGHTING POSITIONS MOUNT POSITION 4. The mount position (see Figure 10-1) is used when the opponent is on his back, with the soldier on top, legs straddling the opponents body. This is an offensive position as soldiers are in a good position to control the opponent and to execute striking and control techniques.

Figure 10-1: Mount Position

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GUARD POSITION 5. The guard position is a defensive ground position. With the soldier on his back this allows him to control the opponent and launch offensive techniques. The guard position (see Figure 10-2) is executed with the soldier on his back and the opponent between his legs. Try to keep the opponent down and in close to prevent striking. If unable to do this the hips can be extended to create space. .

Figure 10-2: Guard Position

CROSS MOUNT 6. The cross mount is an effective position for gaining control of an opponent. When on top this position is effective for striking and for control techniques. In many cases this position is easily countered so once you have have initially engaged the opponent work to the mount position. Place the elbows on the ground, one in the notch created by the opponents head and shoulder, the other near the ribs (see Figure 10-3). The leg closest to the opponents head should be straight and the other bent so that the knee is near the opponents hip. The chest should be centred on the opponents chest, and your weight should be kept as low as possible.

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Figure 10-3: Cross Mount

SIDE MOUNT 7. The side mount is used when a soldiers opponent is on his side and the soldier is mounted on top. In this position it is easy for the soldier to be pulled forward and off balance. To counter this keep the center of gravity low, by placing a leg as a post in front of the opponent at waist level and in tight to the body (see Figure 10-4). The other leg is placed behind the opponent, flat on the outside of the leg, with the soldiers weight placed back and down. Keep the upper body close to the opponents side.

Figure 10-4: Side Mount

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SECTION 3 DEFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING MOUNT REVERSAL 8. If an opponent mounts the soldier the position must be reversed to prevent the opponent from gaining control or striking (see figures 10-5 to 10-9). If the opponent is in tight to the soldier, space must be created by driving the hips straight up and striking with the elbows in to the opponents legs. Use the momentum of the elbow strikes to slide back to a position where the opponent is located over the soldiers centre of gravity. 9. Once space has been created trap the opponents arm, drawing it in close. Also trap the opponents leg, using the leg on the side to which the reversal will be executed. The soldiers other leg must be drawn in as close to the body as possible, and the opposite arm is drawn in and placed on the opponents chest. 10. To execute the reversal, drive the hips up at a 45 degree angle, while the posted leg simultaneously sweeps the hooked leg across in the opposite direction. The hand that is pulling the opponent in continues to do so while the other hand pushes.

Figure 10-5: Top Mount ReversalStep 1

Figure 10-6 Top Mount ReversalStep 2

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Figure 10-7 Top Mount ReversalStep 3

Figure 10-8: Top Mount ReversalStep 4

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Figure 10-9: Top Mount ReversalStep 5

GUARD REVERSAL 11. The guard reversal is used when in the guard in order to escape to the mount (see Figures 10-10 to 10-12). To begin, shift to one side and create enough space to place one shin across the opponents waist, keeping the other leg out and positioned by the opponents waist. Hold the opponents arm in to the side to which the reversal will be executed to prevent the opponent regaining balance once the reversal has commenced. Make a scissor motion with the legs to sweep the opponent. Roll with the opponent to adopt the mount.

Figure 10-10: Guard Position

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Figure 10-11: Guard ReversalStep 1

Figure 10-12: Guard ReversalStep 2

REVERSAL FROM CROSS-MOUNT 12. When being held in the cross-mount the position must be reversed quickly as the opponent has many offensive options. The following paragraphs describe three variations of cross mount reversals. The soldier must decide which one best suits the situation. 13. For the first option (see Figures 10-13 and 10-14), work the hands under the opponent and then drive the hips up and at 45 degree angle, bridging toward the opponent while simultaneously pushing the opponent in that direction. Quickly work to the fighting stance, as control will not have been gained.

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Figure 10-13: Cross-mount Reversal 1Step 1

Figure 10-14: Cross-mount Reversal 1Step 2

14. For the second option (see Figures 10-15 to 10-18), avoid turning away from the opponent as this will present your back to him and offer him more offensive options. In this reversal, turns toward the opponent and wrap the leg closest to the head with both arms. Pulling on this leg, rotate the body around until in line with the opponent. Once in position, pull in with the arms and drive the shoulder in to the opponents centre of gravity, executing a single leg takedown to the opponents guard.

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Figure 10-15: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 1

Figure 10-16: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 2

Figure 10-17: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 3

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Figure 10-18: Cross-mount Reversal 2Step 4

15. For the third option execute a technique known as shrimping (see Figures 10-19 to 10-22). Turn in to the opponent and brace the opponents leg closest to the head with a hand placed in the area of the knee. Then extend the arm and force the body away from the opponent, simultaneously drawing the closest leg to the ground under the opponent and adopting the guard position. This technique can also be used to reverse the mount position.

Figure 10-19: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 1

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Figure 10-20: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 2

Figure 10-21: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 3

Figure 10-22: Cross-mount Reversal 3Step 4

ESCAPING THE GUARD 16. The guard is used to defend when on the back as it affords protection and also allows offensive techniques. A soldier held in an opponents guard should work to a dominating body position. The following paragraphs describe two variations used to escape the guard.

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17. To execute the first option (see Figures 10-23 and 10-24) grab the area of the opponents belt with both hands. At the same time position one knee up against the centre of the opponents buttocks. Apply pressure to the opponents thigh by forcing the points of the elbows down the inside of the opponents legs. Once the opponent has released the lock on the legs either pass under the leg and move to cross-mount, or force the opponents leg to the ground and pass over top to the mount.

Figure 10-23: Guard Pass 1Step 1

Figure 10-24: Guard Pass 1Step 2

18. To execute the second option (see Figure 10-25) again place both hands in the area of the opponents belt. With a leg in close to the centre of the opponents buttocks, keep the knee in place and force the body back by straightening the arms, using the back to break the hold. Then pass to either the side mount or mount.

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Figure 10-25: Guard Pass 2

SECTION 4 OFFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING TECHNIQUES ARMBAR FROM TOP MOUNT 19. An opponent on his back will extend his arms to choke or grab the soldier who is in the mount. To counter this place the hands so one is inside on the chest while the other works outside around the arm to be trapped, so the hands end up one on top of the other (see Figures 10-26 to 10-29). Thrust down on the chest to cause a chest compression (not to be done in training), or with one hand on the chest strike the face with the other. Rotate a leg over the opponents head, simultaneously trapping the arm. Your legs should now be locked in place over the opponents chest and face. Now drop back to the side armbar position, pulling in with the leg crossing the chest and pushing with the leg over the head, keeping both knees close together. The arms control the opponents extended arm, pulling it to the chest while simultaneously lifting the hips to apply pressure to the elbow joint. If the opponent attempts to bite the leg, bounce the leg off the opponents head until compliance is achieved. 20. In confined space, this technique can be applied without dropping back off the opponent, but thrusting the hips forward and pulling the arm back once the leg is in place around the opponents head (see Figures 10-30 to 10-34). 21. Both these methods can be applied from the standing position, by stepping over the opponent, sitting on the elbow, and pulling the hand to the chest or dropping back to the ground.

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Figure 10-26: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 1

Figure 10-27: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 2

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Figure 10-28: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 3

Figure 10-29: Armbar from Top Mount 1Step 4

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Figure 10-30: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 1

Figure 10-31: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 2

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Figure 10-32: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 3

Figure 10-33: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 4

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Figure 10-34: Armbar from Top Mount 2Step 5

COUNTER TO A FRONT ARMBAR 22. To counter a front armbar, as the opponent grabs the arm rotate the wrist and grasp the opposite hand in an overhand grip. As the opponent grabs the arm rotate your wrist and grasp your hand in an overhand grip. When the opponent attempts to complete the arm bar by rolling backwards, roll through to the guard position. ARMBARS FROM THE GUARD 23. To execute an armbar from the guard, when an opponent attempts a choke or straightarm, cross the arms and trap the opponents arms, applying pressure with the elbows and forearms (see Figures 10-35 to 10-38). Next strike the opponents jaw with the right hand, pushing the opponent to the left, and simultaneously drive the right heel in to the opponents hip to create space. Move the upper body to the left and hips to the right, simultaneously bringing both legs up to the right side of the body. The right leg is positioned to hook the head and neck. Exert downward pressure to roll the opponent on to his back, placing him in the side armbar position and applying pressure to the left arm.

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Figure 10-35: Armbar from Guard 1Step 1

Figure 10-36: Armbar from Guard 1Step 2

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Figure 10-37: Armbar from Guard 1Step 3

Figure 10-38: Armbar from Guard 1Step 4

24. If the opponent drops his body so the right leg cannot be positioned by the opponents head then change the target arm to achieve an armbar. 25. To execute a guard armbar variation (see Figures 10-39 to 10-42), where the opponent has countered the attack, change the target arm, placing the opponents right arm against the left side of the chest, rolling to the right and leaning back. Bring the left leg from the hip around above the arm, extending the leg to kick the jaw and continue to a straight leg extension. It is critical that the opponents arm be positioned so the elbow is up, the arm being held tight to the chest when extending the leg to ensure maximum effect.
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Figure 10-39: Armbar from Guard 2Step 1

Figure 10-40: Armbar from Guard 2Step 2

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Figure 10-41: Armbar from Guard 2Step 3

Figure 10-42: Armbar from Guard 2Step 4

STRAIGHT ARMBAR 26. The straight armbar can be applied in either the cross-mount or top mount. To apply the straight-armbar trap the opponents arm out to the side of the body (see Figures 10-43 to 10-45). Place the arm closest to the head under the opponents arm directly above the elbow, and grab your forearm. The arm closest to the body reaches out and traps the inside of the opponents wrist so the palm is up. Then apply pressure on the opponents wrist, simultaneously using the forearm to raise the arm closest to the head upward to put pressure on the elbow.

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Figure 10-43: Straight ArmbarStep 1

Figure 10-44: Straight ArmbarStep 2

Figure 10-45: Straight ArmbarStep 3

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FIGURE 4 ARMBAR 27. The figure 4 armbar can be applied from top mount or cross mount (see Figures 10-46 to 10-48). To apply a figure 4 armbar pin the opponents wrist with the arm closest to the head. Then move the other arm under the opponents tricep, grab the wrist, and slide the elbow down to the opponents side. To finish, pin the wrist and lift up on the elbow.

Figure 10-46: Figure 4 ArmbarStep 1

Figure 10-47: Figure 4 ArmbarStep 1

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Figure 10-48: Figure 4 ArmbarStep 1

SHOULDER RIP 28. The shoulder rip is applied when an opponent pulls the arm and elbow close to the head to defend against the figure 4 armbar. Maintain the figure 4 grip and place the head to the outside of the opponents arm (see Figures 10-49 and 10-50). To apply pressure force the head toward the opponent and the hand away from the opponent.

Figure 10-49: Shoulder RipStep 1

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Figure 10-50: Shoulder RipStep 2

SECTION 5 GROUND FIGHTING CHOKES 29. The priority in ground fighting is to get back to the feet as quickly as possible. At times soldiers will be able to end a ground fight quickly by executing a choke. Chokes applied during ground fighting are the same as those used for standing positions. The following paragraphs describe minor differences when chokes are applied on the ground. REAR CHOKES 30. Any rear choke can be used on the ground. When an opponent is in a rear choke work to a position where the opponent will not escape. Once the choke is secured place the legs around the opponent, hooking both legs between the opponents legs (see Figures 10-51 and 10-52). Once in this position arc the back to apply greater pressure to the opponents neck.

Figure 10-51: Rear Choke on the GroundStep 1

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Figure 10-52: Rear Choke on the GroundStep 2

GROUND FIGHTING SIDE CHOKE 31. The ground fighting side choke is a vascular choke applied from the guard or mount position, whether the opponent is on top or bottom. The ground fighting side choke is particularly effective when the opponent raises his arms and places them on the soldiers chest or throat. To execute this technique use the left hand to parry the opponents right arm inboard, i.e. to the inside of the opponents reach (see Figures 10-53 to 10-55). Bring the right arm underneath the opponents arm and up around the front of the neck. Keep the fingers extended, place the back of the blade edge of the forearm against the opponents neck just below the ear, and apply venous pressure down and at a 45 degree angle. 32. If in the mount position dismount to a position beside the opponent. The feet are then moved around in a clockwise direction to increase pressure. 33. If in the guard position, or if the opponent has top mount, and the opponent is attempting to choke the soldier, first parry the arms inboard and apply the choke, then reverse the position and move to the opponents side.

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Figure 10-53: Top Mount

Figure 10-54: Side ChokeStep 1

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Figure 10-55: Side ChokeStep 2

CROSS COLLAR CHOKES 34. There are various ways to apply cross collar chokes on the ground depending on the physque and dress of the opponent. The following paragraphs describe three positions for hand placement: 35. For the first choke, insert one hand (with fingers in) in to the back of the opponents collar and grip it (see Figure 10-56). Then insert the other hand in to the collar on the opposite side. The forearms should be crossed. To apply pressure pull the elbows to the waist and rotate the hands so the thumbs are against the neck. This choke can be executed from the guard or mount position.

Figure 10-56: Cross Collar Choke Fingers in

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36. The second choke has a thumb in grip, and the hands are positioned at the front of the neck (see figure 10-57). To apply pressure, force the elbows to the ground and the forearms against the opponents throat. This choke is applied from the mount position.

Figure 10-57: Cross Collar Choke Thumbs in

37. For the third choke grab the front of the opponents collar with fingers in (see Figure 10-58). The second hand grabs lower on the opponents shirt in to the opposite collar. To apply pressure force the arm across the throat to the ground while pulling the other arm down to the waist. This choke is executed from the mount position.

Figure 10-58: Cross Collar Choke

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SECTION 6 GROUND COUNTER TECHNIQUES COUNTER TO REAR CHOKE (ATTEMPTED) 38. If the opponent attempts to place a rear choke the soldier must counter before the choke is fully applied. If the opponent places his legs around the soldier and locks them, but does not have his hands around the neck, quickly counter by grabbing the opponents upper foot with both hands (see Figures 10-59 to 10-61). To break the hold pull in on the foot, simultaneously applying pressure down on to the inside of the opponents shin with the elbow.

Figure 10-59: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)Step 1

Figure 10-60: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)Step 2

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Figure 10-61: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)Step 3

COUNTER TO REAR CHOKE (APPLIED) 39. Once the rear choke is fully applied, act swiftly and violently by reaching back and attempting to drive the thumb in to the opponents eye (see Figures 10-62 to 10-66). Then grab the choking arm and tuck the chin, violently pivot the hips and drive them in to the opponents groin, and turn in to the choking arm (do not roll off the opponent). Maintaining the grip on the choking arm, violently roll back in the other direction. As you roll off the opponent pull the choking arm back, slip the head under, and apply a rear armbar or any other follow-up technique.

Figure 10-62: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 1

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Figure 10-63: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 2

Figure 10-64: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 3

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Figure 10-65: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 4

Figure 10-66: Counter to Rear Choke AppliedStep 5

SECTION 7 GROUND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS SIDE HEADLOCK FROM THE KNEES 40. The side headlock from the knees starts from a standing side headlock (see Figures 10-67 to 10-70). When the soldier executes the entry technique the opponent drops to the knees. From this point, reach across the opponent and grip the far side knee and ankle. Then pull the arms toward the body, simultaneously pushing with the shoulders. Once the opponent is off balance move to the side mount. 41. If the opponent still maintains the hold, apply stunning techniques, striking the opponents head on the ground. To break the hold, form a frame placing the outside of the forearm against the opponents brachial plexus. Then apply pressure down and toward the head,
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forcing it back. If done correctly the opponent will extend the arm which applied the headlock. Now apply follow-up techniques, e.g. a wristlock or arm bar.

Figure 10-67: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 1

Figure 10-68: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 2

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Figure 10-69: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 3

Figure 10-70: Side Headlock from the KneesStep 4

GROUND SIDE HEADLOCK 42. If the opponent has taken the soldier to ground using a headlock immediately brace the opponents hips with both arms extended (see Figures 10-71 to 10-73). This prevents the opponent from moving backward and denying the soldier space. Once in this position deliver knee strikes to the opponents back. Then strike with a heel palm to the occipital nerve to distract the opponent. Now form a frame with the arms and push the opponent away to create space. 43. Bring the leg closest to the opponents head around and place it against the head. Extend the leg forcing the opponent away. Simultaneously pivot around to the side mount. If the opponent still maintains the headlock apply stunning techniques and follow up as for the side headlock from the knees. If the opponent disengages stand and adopt the fighting stance.

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Figure 10-71: Ground Side Headlock

Figure 10-72: Ground Side HeadlockStep 1

Figure 10-73: Ground Side HeadlockStep 2

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RECOVERING FROM A GROUND POSITION 44. To recover from a ground position, place your dominant hand flat on the ground behind you (see Figures 10-74 to 10-76). The opposite hand is bent and the foot is placed flat on the ground, with the forearm resting on the knee. Distributing the weight evenly, raise your buttocks off the ground and draw your dominant leg back between the hand on the floor and the planted foot. Stand up and adopt the fighting stance.

Figure 10-74: Recovering from the Ground PositionStep 1

Figure 10-75: Recovering from the Ground PositionStep 2

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Figure 10-76: Recovering from the Ground PositionStep 3

DEFENSIVE GROUND POSITION 45. There may be times when the soldier is knocked to the ground while the opponent remains standing and continues to attack. In this case the soldier sits in position with the legs chambered and pivots toward the threat using the arms (see Figures 10-77 and 10-78). If the opponent is moving too fast to pivot in this manner roll on the same side as the direction of movement. In both cases keep the legs in to prevent stomps or leg bars, and work to your feet as soon as possible.

Figure 10-77: Defensive Ground Position 1

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Figure 10-78: Defensive Ground Position 2

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CHAPTER 11 TRAINING TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Professional instruction is the key to successful close quarter combat training. To demonstrate and practically apply the skills described in this manual instructors must be physically fit and highly proficient. Confidence, enthusiasm, aggression and technical expertise are essential. Instructors must continually work to improve their technique, review available training media, and seek additional training opportunities in order to develop new and challenging ways to teach close quarter combat. 2. Instructors must teach the techniques demonstrated in this manual and not their own styles. The techniques in this manual are proven techniques, meet use of force tactical requirements, and are legally and medically acceptable. 3. Formal close quarter combat training is conducted in two blocks, the Basic Close Quarter Combat Course and the Advanced Close Quarter Combat Course for instructors. Training during the Basic Course covers the fundamental techniques, such as stances and movement, striking techniques, bayonet training and use of force. Continuation training at unit level should focus on these fundamentals but also incorporate further use of force training; training with impact weapons, knives and OC spray; ground fighting; and combat fitness training. In order to teach the Basic Course and conduct unit training the instructor is trained on the Advanced Course to instruct all techniques in this manual. Instructors at the COE will instruct the Advanced Course. SECTION 2 INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES 4. Diligent effort is needed to perfect the various techniques to a level where the instructor can apply them instinctively and teach them to others safely. The essential requirements for planning and conducting effective close quarter combat training are as follows: a. Seek efficiency with minimum effort. Continually strive to reduce all unnecessary explanations, movement and activity. Streamline training without compromising content, efficiency or safety. Stress cooperation and technique. Promote suppleness and controlled aggression. Reinforce the details of each technique and provide positive feedback when warranted. Use humour to motivate soldiers but do not degrade or insult soldiers, especially those who are having difficulty.

b. c.

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d.

Ensure all training aids are in good repair and that you have sufficient numbers to cover the soldiers in the class. Ensure the training area is well maintained and free from dangerous obstructions. Ensure demonstrations are well rehearsed and never conducted with more than 50% speed and power. Ensure assistant instructors know what is being covered and that they know the techniques. Enforce discipline and professional conduct from all soldiers.

e.

f.

TRAINING SAFETY 5. When training close quarter combat certain safety techniques must be strictly adhered to. Instructors must make every effort to ensure training is conducted within specified safety guidelines and with the proper protective equipment. Our greatest resource is our soldiers so we must constantly strive to keep them safe. The following safety precautions must be followed: a. A qualified instructor must supervise all training. The ratio is one instructor/assistant instructor (who must also be qualified instructors) for every 10 student pairs (20 students). Intentional striking of an individual by another, and horseplay, are prohibited. Students must be made aware of the specific technique to be practiced before it is executed. Only simulated strikes to vital points, such as the head, neck, and groin area, are executed. Soldiers may use light blows to other areas but must exercise caution at all times. When practicing knife and bayonet techniques ensure that scabbards are firmly attached and, except when on the bayonet range, are taped on. Ensure fingers are not placed in trigger guards. Approved safety equipment must be used. A first aid kit and stretcher must be available and at least one person qualified standard first aid must be present during all training sessions and demonstrations. Instructors must also understand local casualty evacuation procedures. Ensure there is adequate space between soldiers when they are practicing techniques (an area approximately 2 to 3 metres square is required per partner pair). Ensure soldiers empty their pockets, and remove all jewellery, ID disks, dentures and, if possible, glasses. Fingernails must be trimmed and clean, and clothing clean and unsoiled. Students must have mouth guards for appropriate lessons.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f. g. h.

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i.

A signal must be established to indicate to the partner when to stop the pressure in grappling, pain compliance and choking techniques (e.g. tapping the partner, tapping the mats, or a verbal command). During all sparring bouts instructors should have a whistle to control training. Make sure soldiers warm up and cool down before and after practical application. The instructor must inspect the area to be used to ensure that it is suitable (e.g. outside areas clear of rocks and other debris, and all required safety equipment in place). All injuries must be reported as soon as possible after they occur. The instructor must inspect all medical chits prior to commencing all classes.

j. k. l.

m. n.

TRAINING AREAS 6. The training area used depends on the type of training to be conducted. Striking techniques, bayonet and pugil training can be conducted outdoors in areas of soft footing (sand or grass). Training which includes throws, takedowns, sentry removals, etc should be conducted on a mat. 7. The size of the training area depends on the size of the class. It should be large enough to provide an area approximately 2 to 3 metres square per student pair. When training is to be conducted outdoors the instructor must ensure that the area is clear of natural objects and debris which may cause injury. TRAINING METHODOLOGY 8. Instructors must motivate and instil confidence in their students. This can be achieved through the following methods: a. b. c. Demonstrating a need for the skill. Why is it essential for the soldier to have this skill? The skill must be attainable. The soldiers skill sets must work under stress and must be easily learned. The soldier must have a positive training experience. Soldiers will always question the validity of the techniques taught. Ensure that techniques are practiced under intermediate conditions so that the soldier faces an opponent that offers resistance. The soldier must have a positive field experience. Advanced training conducted realistically and under field conditions will add to the soldiers

d.

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confidence in his abilities and techniques, and will demonstrate to the instructor those soldiers who require remedial training. STAGES OF PRACTICE 9. Staged training is very important. The skills taught during close quarter combat training are unlike any other skill that the soldier learns in the military, because he is trying to influence the physical behaviour of another potentially or totally uncooperative human at close quarters. These skills must be taught such that the soldier practices the movement in stages, progresses to practice the complete movement, and then completes training in simulated operational conditions. The stages of practice are as follows: a. Basic. The instructor introduces the skill to the soldier. The technique should be broken into components, and all components must be practiced separately and successively. At this stage the skill should be practiced slowly without any simulated resistance. Intermediate. The soldier practices the skill as a response to a specific type of resistance. This should occupy most of the time practicing the technique. Training at this stage should be restricted to no more than 50% full speed and power to allow the soldier to tie together the separate components. Advanced. This final stage of practice must only be conducted with proper safety equipment and supervision. Advanced training is full speed scenario based training to test the soldiers ability to respond to a specific level of resistance.

b.

c.

CONDUCT OF TRAINING 10. Training at units or on formal courses is conducted the same way, breaking down each lesson as follows: a. b. Safety inspection. Prior to commencing any training soldiers must be checked to ensure pockets are empty and all jewellery is removed. Warm-up. Start with light aerobic activity to increase the heart rate and circulation. The warm-up then progresses to stretching techniques with specific focus on the muscle groups that will have the largest output during that period. The warm-up should conclude with body hardening techniques, e.g. push-ups, situps, crunches, leg raises, squats, and lunges. Review. Confirm previously taught techniques, in a manner that leads directly from the warm-up to the techniques to be practiced/confirmed. Lesson introduction. Describe the what, why, where of the lesson and issue any pertinent safety/control details.

c. d.

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e.

Main body. Introduce the technique with an explanation and demonstration. During the explanation cover where the technique fits in the continuum of force, striking surface, concentration of power, target area, and effects on the opponent. Demonstrations are conducted at 50% speed and power. If possible break the technique into components, soldiers practicing each part separately until their instructors are satisfied with their performance. Once the complete movement has been taught soldiers practice the technique at the intermediate stage. During a 40 minute period the instructor will be able to teach approximately two techniques and ensure adequate practice, so that the soldier leaves the lesson with a good understanding of the technique. For more complicated techniques, the instructor should break the technique down in to stages prior to demonstrating the complete movement. This gives the instructor maximum control of the class. Conclusion. Conduct the end lesson confirmation as a fluid practice. The student however should have to demonstrate or react to a number of techniques. The instructor then restates his lesson objectives, re-motivates the class, and packs up any equipment used during the period. Cool-down. Soldiers should undergo light activity to lower their heart rates and then stretching techniques (cool-down provides the soldier the most benefit from stretching).

f.

g.

CONDUCT OF WARM-UP AND COOL DOWN EXERCISES 11. Given the intense physical activity and high potential for injury it is important that soldiers be warmed up at the commencement of training and cooled down once training is complete. A warm-up should prepare the soldier both physically and mentally. A cool down helps to prevent injury, and stretching at this time will provide greater muscle flexibility. The following points are specific to each activity: a. warm-up activity should be applicable to the upcoming lesson, including light aerobic activity to increase the heart rate and blood flow to the muscles, stretching exercises, and body hardening exercises; and cool-downs should include light aerobic activity to control heart rate and then stretching exercises.

b.

BODY HARDENING EXERCISES 12. Body hardening exercises are essential to reduce close quarter combat injuries. The Army Fitness Manual (B-GL-382-003/PT-001) describes many exercises that may be incorporated in a close quarter combat warm-up. Some additional body hardening exercises are: a. Neck Exercise 1. Laying flat on your back, hands on the chest, raise your head and repeatedly look left and right.

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b.

Neck Exercise 2. Laying flat on your back, hands on the chest, raise your head approximately 5 centimetres. From this position repeatedly bring your chin to your chest and back to the start position. Bridging. Lay flat on your back, knees bent and feet flat on the floor (see Figure 11-1). From this position lift your hips, arc your back and rotate your body on to one of your shoulders. Thrust your arms outward to simulate throwing an opponent from you (used in ground fighting counter to cross mount). Repeatedly alternate sides.

c.

Figure 11-1: Bridging

d.

Sprawl Drill. From a fighting stance, drop down with the arms fully extended and feet apart, arcing the back with hips down and head up (see Figure 11-2). From this position use your legs to thrust yourself back up to a fighting stance (used as a counter to single or double leg takedowns).

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Figure 11-2: Sprawl Drill

e.

Mountain Climbers. From a sprinters stance with your head up, alternate bending the knees and bringing the feet as close to the hands as possible (see Figures 11-3 and 11-4).

Figure 11-3: Mountain Climbers

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Figure 11-4: Mountain Climbers

f.

Iron Cross. Lay flat on your back with arms fully extended to the side (see Figures 11-5 and 11-6). Rotate your hips to the left, bending the right knee and bringing it over the body towards your left elbow. Alternate from side to side (used as part of the counter to ground fighting rear chokes).

Figure 11-5: Iron Cross

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Figure 11-6: Iron Cross

g.

Shrimping Drill. Lay on your side in the shrimping position, knees tight to the chest (see Figures 11-7 to 11-9). From this position thrust your hips forward and arc your back Roll to the opposite side and repeat the process (used in the counter to the ground fighting cross mount).

Figure 11-7: Shrimping Drill

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Figure 11-8: Shrimping Drill

Figure 11-9: Shrimping Drill

h.

Do to the burn time of the ATP system any exercise that incorporates explosive power is an excellent close quarter combat training tool. Some of these exercises are push-ups where you clap your hands, burpies, or medicine ball exercises.

SECTION 3 PROTECTIVE TRAINING EQUIPMENT 13. Protective training equipment is a valuable aid for developing close quarter combat skills and combat fitness. This equipment permits realistic training and develops powerful, speedy techniques. It also enhances soldier safety while training. Training equipment consists of sparring equipment and striking equipment. 14. Sparring equipment is required for all forms of sparring and consists of different categories of equipment depending on the training being conducted. For pugil fighting the

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soldier will require a higher degree of protection than with other techniques. The mandatory equipment for pugil training is described in Chapter 9 (paragraph 39). 15. When conducting other forms of sparring the soldier must wear appropriate equipment, as follows: a. When sparring involving striking techniques the soldier wears head protection that provides a face shield and remains in place when hit, a mouth guard properly formed, chest protection, gloves with an open palm to allow grabbing, external groin protection, and leg protection that protects the shin and the top of the foot. Soldiers must only wear light shoes when sparring, rather than combat boots. If weapons sparring with sticks or knives the soldier must wear eye protection. Knives must be rubber with a flexible blade. Sticks must be a padded training stick with a soft tip. When grappling the soldier must wear a mouth guard and groin protection. When conducting bouts with throwing techniques the soldier must not wear any equipment, e.g. web gear, that may cause injury if the soldier falls on it.

b.

c. d.

16. Striking equipment is used during training to provide a target for the soldier. There are various types of pads which are well suited to this type of training. a. Heavy Bags are good for all forms of striking techniques. The best is the Muay Thai bag, which is long enough for both head strikes and low kicks to the leg area. Bag weight should be at least 68 kilograms. Kick pads are large pads for kicking and require a partner. The soldier holding the bag must put his arm through the handles and place the free hand on top of the target. The target must also be kept in tight to the body to prevent injury to both soldiers. Focus mitts are good for hand and elbow techniques delivered at full power. They may also be used for knee and kicking techniques delivered with light power. Muay Thai pads are heavy pads that cover both forearms. They can be used like focus mitts but are well suited for full powered kicks. The soldier holding the pads must ensure he is properly braced to absorb the power of kicking techniques. Grappling dummies are life-sized stuffed dummies used to practice throws and takedowns, ground striking, and submission techniques. Mats are a basic safety item for all techniques. They should be firm enough to support stand-up techniques, but provide enough shock absorption for throws and takedowns.

b.

c.

d.

e. f.

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g.

Crash Mats are thick mats used on top of regular mats to practice throwing and takedown techniques while maintaining safety. Mats should be approximately 3 metres by 3 metres, and at least 45 centimetres thick. Hand wraps must be used to prevent damage to the hand when striking heavy bags and hard pads.

h.

SECTION 4 SPARRING 17. Sparring is an important part of close quarter combat training as it allows the soldier to practice techniques under advanced conditions, with a partner who is also trying to influence the situation. Training at this level produces certain reactions within each soldier. Soldiers must learn to focus on the techniques, and work through conditions where motor skills deteriorate under combat conditions. An overall concern in sparring is soldier safety, thus the instructor must strictly control training to prevent injury and ensure a positive training experience. Soldiers must also have the safety equipment required for the training being conducted. When conducting bouts with striking the soldiers must not strike with full contact, since the emphasis is on control.

NOTE Instructors will not allow or conduct any full contact bouts. The focus for this training is control and the development of technique. Instructors will be held accountable for injuries incurred during unauthorized training. 18. Advanced training can take different forms from basic sparring to protective suit training to scenario based training. Training at this level must be progressive as many soldiers have not been involved in any form of fighting, and even fewer have been involved in situations where their life was at stake. The following progressive steps of sparring will help to condition soldiers to combat stress situations: a. Protective Suit Training. The instructor wears a protective suit and the soldier has basic sparring gear. On commencing the bout the instructor attacks the soldier, who has to take control of the situation and get the instructor into a position of control. Remember that this is a training tool and the instructor must not let ego get in the way. Aggressor-Defender Bouts. This training is conducted with either pugil training equipment or empty hand. Matches should be timed. The instructor designates one soldier as the defender and the other as the aggressor. On commencing the bout the aggressor attacks the defender, and at a set time roles are reversed without stopping the bout (e.g. in a 60 second bout switches would be made every 15 seconds). The instructor must designate the command word used for the switch. This type of training is beneficial for the soldier, who only has to focus on one aspect of the fight. This allows him to gain confidence in the techniques

b.

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covered without being overloaded. Calling the switch without stopping the bout allows the defender to immediately go to the attack. c. Standard Bout. This type of bout can be used for pugil fighting, striking techniques, throws and grappling. The soldier faces off with one or more opponents, all wearing the appropriate protective equipment. At this level the soldier employs the techniques taught with light contact. The instructor must designate techniques which are not allowed, e.g. suplex throws and heel hooks, or any techniques that will cause serious injury. When conducting multiple opponent bouts the instructor must maintain control and designate killing blows on opponents as they occur. Scenario Training. Soldiers should be at an advanced level before undertaking this training. The soldier wears operational equipment and has to complete an operational task, e.g. taking control of an opponent or fighting through an obstacle course. At this level the soldiers level of combat fitness should be tested, and he should be tired by the time the fight is reached. Instructors should wear a protective suit or other suitable targets should be used. At this stage the soldier can also be subjected to OC spray and/or have to fight through various tasks.

d.

PROTECTIVE SUIT TRAINING 19. Protective suits provide realistic scenario based training by allowing soldiers to strike targets that would normally be off limits. When training with the protective suit units can conduct exercises that escalate through the continuum of force. 20. Only qualified close quarter combat instructors wear the protective suit when conducting this training. Soldiers participating in the exercise wear other protective operational equipment as indicated in the exercise scenario. 21. Safety considerations working with protective suits are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. all equipment must be properly fitted and secured; only light force is permitted to the head, throat, neck and spine, and repeated or deflected strikes must be avoided; moderate force can be applied to the groin, chest, legs and other vital areas; strikes to the joints and to unpadded exposed areas must be avoided; penetration of the face cage must be avoided, and individuals must wear protective glasses in mesh face cages and during inert OC spray exercises; and the suit is never to be used with live weapons, i.e. batons, OC spray, rifles and pistols.

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22. No protective suit will provide the instructor 100% protection. The instructor must understand how much force can be applied relative to the target and use the following techniques to further protect himself in the suit: a. b. c. d. e. f. stay loose; do not become rigid or lock joints; avoid planting weight against mats or walls; do not become braced or immobilized; avoid absorbing and stepping into strikes; and incorporate rolling movements.

MULTIPLE OPPONENTS 23. Many times soldiers will have to deal with situations where they are out numbered. Soldiers must be physically as well as physiologically prepared to deal with this problem. A group with superior numbers will believe they will be able to achieve an easy victory. This belief must be challenged immediately. Soldiers must deal quickly and decisively with these situations to prevent becoming tired or injured, or making mistakes. Deal with multiple opponents as follows: a. The first priority is to attack the leader or physically strongest of the group. This opponent must be dealt with eventually, but by attacking right away the soldier gains two important advantages: (1) psychologically, since the group looks to this individual as its leader as the strongest member, if the soldier neutralizes this target the other members of the group will second guess their abilities and situation; and physically, the soldier will be fresh and physically stronger, and dealing with the opponent in a decisive manner will set the tone of the engagement.

(2)

b.

Secondly, the soldier must use the environment to gain advantage. Obstacles must be used to channel the opponent, and opponents used to block other opponents, by lining them up to one side. This allows the soldier to focus his effort in one direction. Once an opponent has been neutralized use him against other opponents. Finally, soldiers fighting for their lives must use any and all weapons against their opponents to ensure their survival.

c.

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TRAINING DRILLS 24. Training drills allow soldiers to practice and improve their technique in order to condition their responses to stress stimuli and help to improve their level of combat fitness. Drills are flexible: they can focus on individual techniques or combinations, at all ranges, for a set number of repetitions or a timed duration, or can be keyed by a partner assisting with the drill. Drills can be used to confirm techniques during lessons, for warm-ups/combat conditioning, or as part of unit training. Following are some general training drills: a. Sequence Training (Give and Take Drills). Pairs are given a sequence of actions and reactions, and work back and forth changing roles after each technique (e.g. punching/counter-punching drills). This is also effective when using weapons. A baton/stick pair can for example attack on designated angles, such as a number 1 angle, come back on the number 6 angle, then follow through with a third strike on a pre-designated angle (this drill works through all the angles of attack, but the first two angles used for the drill are numbers 1 and 6). Timed Drills. Having soldiers execute techniques over a set period is an excellent way to increase combat fitness. The instructor designates one or several techniques, and the soldier executes them for a set time. The instructor can also designate if the soldier should be hitting for speed or power. Focus Pad Drills. Focus mitts are an excellent way to develop hand techniques, and can also be used for light kicking and knee strikes. These pads are good for combination techniques at all ranges, however the partner holding the pad must know the techniques in order to position the pads properly. Circuit Training. In order both to practice and build combat fitness a close quarter combat technique circuit can be set up. Regular circuit training stands can be intermixed if desired. Shark Bait. In this drill a soldier stands in a circle formed by opponents. Each opponent is numbered and given a specific form of attack by the instructor. The instructor then calls a number and the designated opponent attacks the soldier in the centre of the ring with the pre-designated attack. The soldier must counter the attack and gain control of the opponent.

b.

c.

d.

e.

TACTICAL POSITIONING 25. The tactical positioning model (see Figure 11-10) is designed primarily to assist instructors as a teaching aid, and will be referred to throughout the manual. This model is used by the instructor as a means to position trainees for class control, but more importantly to explain angles of approach and attack.

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Figure 11-10: Tactical Positioning

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