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Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using g FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

Federal Aviation Administration

Presented to: Concrete Airport Pavement Workshop Right Choice, Choice Right Now Atlanta, Georgia Presented by: Navneet Garg, Ph.D. Date: November 4 4, 2009

2010 FAA Worldwide Airport Technology T Transfer f Conference C f


Next Generation of Airport Technology

Sponsored By: -FAA -AAAE


Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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Federal Aviation Administration

Information on Disk
1 1. FAA C Computer t P Programs
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. FAARFIELD 1.3 LEDFAA 1.3 FEAFAA 1.4 BAKFAA COMFAA 2.0 & Equivalent Traffic Spreadsheet ProFAA 150/5320-6E Airport Pavement Design & Evaluation 150/5320-6D: Airport Pavement Design & Evaluation (CANCELLED) 150/5335-5A: Standardized Method of Reporting Airport Pavement Strength PCN 150/5370 10D Standards 150/5370-10D: St d d for f Specifying S if i Construction C t ti of f Airports Ai t 150/5370-11A: Use of Nondestructive Testing in the Evaluation of Airport Pavements 150/5380-9: Guidelines and Procedures for Measuring Airfield Pavement Roughness

2 2.

Advisory Circulars
i. ii. iii. i iv. v. vi.

3. 4.

Presentations Contact List


Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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Federal Aviation Administration

Federal Aviation Administration


Airport Technology R&D Program
Research conducted at the FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic City, NJ, USA. Sponsor: FAA Office of Airport Safety and Standards, Washington, DC. (AAS-100) Provide support for development of FAA pavement standards (Advisory Circulars). http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/ htt // i tt h t f /

Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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Location of FAA Technical Center

Philadelphia Washington

New York

FAA Technical Center Atlantic City, New Jersey

* Outline map of USA used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.

Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF)


FACTS: Fully enclosed facility for accelerated l t d traffic t ffi testing t ti of f airport pavements. Full-scale pavement structures and d landing l di gear loads l d with ith programmed wander. Opened in 1999. Total construction contract was $21M.
$14M from FAA $7M from Boeing Co. under FAA/Boeing CRDA.

Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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NAPTF Test Pavement Layout

Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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NAPTF Construction Cycle (CC)

Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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FAARFIELD What Is It?


Federal Aviation Administration Rigid and Flexible te at e Iterative Elastic y Layered Design
FAARFIELD is the new FAA airport pavement thickness design program. FAARFIELD supersedes LEDFAA 1.3 as the standard design g procedure p in FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5320-6E. Officially released September 30, 2009.

Concrete Airfield Pavement Design Using FAARFIELD for Rigid Overlays

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FAA Legacy Design Procedures vs. LEDFAA 1 1.3 3


AC 150/5320-6D (Chapters ( p 3 - 4) ) Traffic Model
All traffic converted to equivalent departures of design aircraft Westergaards solution for rigid pavements Boussinesq model used to p ESWL for flexible compute CBR equation with alpha factor (flexible) Apply percent of thickness to g for 5000 basic design coverages (rigid) Design nomographs (spreadsheet implementation also available)

LEDFAA 1.3

CDF (Cumulative Damage Factor) accounts for mixed traffic Layered elastic analysis (LEAF) for flexible and rigid

Structural Response Models Thickness Design Method

Failure model relates coverages to structural failure to a suitable response: subgrade strain (flexible) or concrete stress (rigid). Desktop computer program

Implementation

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FAA Legacy Design Procedures vs. FAARFIELD


AC 150/5320-6D (Chapters ( p 3 - 4) ) Traffic Model
All traffic converted to equivalent departures of design aircraft Westergaards solution for rigid pavements Boussinesq model used to p ESWL for flexible compute CBR equation with alpha factor (flexible) Apply percent of thickness to g for 5000 basic design coverages (rigid) Design nomographs (spreadsheet implementation also available)

FAARFIELD 1.3

CDF (Cumulative Damage Factor) accounts for mixed traffic Layered elastic analysis (LEAF) for flexible. 3D finite element for rigid. Failure model relates coverages to structural failure to a suitable response: subgrade strain (flexible) or concrete stress (rigid). Desktop computer program Visual Studio 2005

Structural Response Models Thickness Design Method

Implementation

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FAARFIELD Technical Background


Computer program for desktop PCs. P Program preserves the th look l k and d feel f l of LEDFAA 1.3. Major changes are internal. Main program drives three subprograms:
LEAF (layered elastic analysis) NIKE3D (3D finite element analysis) INGRID (3D mesh generation)

NIKE3D and INGRID information:


Modified for FAARFIELD by y the FAA Distributed in compiled form under a software sharing agreement with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

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FAARFIELD 1.3 Key Differences from LEDFAA 1 1.3 3


Rigid Pavements/Overlays
Slab edge stresses are no now comp computed ted directl directly using sing 3D 3D-FEM. FEM Completely revised rigid pavement failure model. Rewrote and improved rigid overlay design procedures.

Flexible Pavements/Overlays
Automatic base thickness design. Improved Pass-to-Coverage ratio computation routine. Supports HMA overlay design on rubblized PCC base.

General
Upgrade to MS Visual Basic 2005 programming environment. Aircraft library y updated. p New function allows user to export design data to XML. Improved formatting for Notes. All user options collected on one Options screen.
Federal Aviation Administration

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FAARFIELD 1.3
Pavement thickness is now computed for constant tire contact area.
Changing the airplane gross weight causes the tire pressure to be adjusted to maintain the contact area.

E External t l aircraft i ft lib library in i XML format. f t Displays CDF values graphically. Enhanced Airplane Data window now displays gear coordinates. base Support for PCC over rubblized base. Aircraft changed to Airplane(s).
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Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF)


Sums the damage contributed from each aircraft not from equivalent q aircraft. CDF = (ni /Ni), where:
ni = actual passes of individual aircraft i Ni = allowable p passes of individual aircraft i

When CDF = 1, design life is exhausted. In FAARFIELD (and LEDFAA 1.3):


The gear location and wander are considered separately for each aircraft in the total mix. CDF is calculated for each 25.4 cm (10 inch) wide strip over a total 20.83 m (820 inch) width. Miners Mi rule l t to sum d damage f for each h strip. ti

Must input the fleet mix, NOT equivalent departures of design aircraft.
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Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF)


Difference in Gear Location Damage from Airplane A Damage from Airplane B

CDF

25.4 cm (10 in.)


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Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF)


25.4 cm (10 in.) Total Damage g

CDF

Damage from Airplane A

Damage from Airplane B

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Large Airplane Traffic Mix Gear Locations


B-777-200 B-747-400 A 330 A-330 B-767-200 A-300-B2 B-757 B-727 B-737-400 MD-83 MD-90-30 DC-9-50 DW 100,000 Regional Jet 700 Regional Jet 200 DW 45,000 DW 30,000 SW 30 30,000 000

Runway Cente erline .


0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300

325

350

375

400

Distance From Centerline (in)

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FAARFIELD CDF Graphical Display

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Remember - in FAARFIELD

Use the entire traffic mix!

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FAARFIELD System/Software Requirements


Minimum Windows 2000 600 MHz Pentium III processor 256 MB memory 200 MB of available space on hard drive. Users of older operating p g systems y may require a one-time installation of the .NET Framework (free download from Microsoft). Microsoft) Recommended Windows XP 2 GHz Pentium IV processor 512 MB memory Users of older operating systems may require a one-time installation of the .NET Framework (free download from Microsoft).

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Running FAARFIELD:
Program Windows and Linkage
NOTES
Additional Section Information and Detailed Output Data

STARTUP
Control and Organization

OPTIONS
Set User Options and Tolerances

Export XML

STRUCTURE
Structure Data Input and Design

AIRCRAFT
Aircraft Load and Traffic Data Input

AIRCRAFT DATA
View Landing Gear Geometry, Load, and Tire Pressure

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FAARFIELD Input Requirements

Structure Window
For each structural layer:
Material type (FAA specification) Layer Thickness Modulus or R-value (if applicable)

Ai l Airplane Window Wi d
Select airplane from library. For each airplane in the mix:
Aircraft Name Gross Taxi Weight Annual departures and percent annual growth if applicable

There are built-in restrictions on the layer types, including relative position and layer properties. For subgrade, can enter CBR or k and FAARFIELD will convert to E.

Enter data for all airplanes in the mix.

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FAARFIELD Job Files (JOB.xml)


Job files in FAARFIELD 1.3 are in XML format This is a different format than format. previous job files in LEDFAA. FAARFIELD looks for old job files in the working directory and automatically converts them to the new XML format.
After reading, the old job files are moved to a subdirectory of the working directory called old job files. old_job_files All subsequent changes are written to the JOB.xml y The old j job files are not changed. g files only.
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Structural Models in FAARFIELD 1.3


Both layered elastic (LEAF) and d 3D-FEM 3D FEM (NIKE3D) are used in FAARFIELD. Flexible pavement design
LEAF is used for all structural computations. For flexible, no advantage to using 3D 3D-FEM. FEM
2a q E1, 1 E2, 2 E3, 3 h1 h2

Rigid pavement design


LEAF is used to generate a preliminary thickness thickness. Final iterations are done using 3D-FEM.

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3D-FEM Rigid Pavement Mesh


Displayed Using NikePlot Utility
Model includes 1 or 2 slabs (i.e., base PCC and overlay)

Multiple Base Layers

Not Visible to the g Design g User During

Subgrade (Infinite Elements)

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3D-FEM Stress Response

Stress yy Contours Displayed Using NikePlot

3D-FEM 3D FEM responses are not visible to the user during design.
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Traffic Mix for This Example


Annual Departures 1 000 1,000 800 600 500 200 % Annual Growth 0 0 0 0 0

No. 1 2 3 4 5

Name RegionalJet-200 RegionalJet 200 RegionalJet-700 Canadair-CL-215 DC-3 DC 3 Gulfstream-G-V

Gross Wt., lbs 47 450 47,450 72,500 33,000 26 900 26,900 90,900

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New Rigid Example Set-Up

Create a new section in job PROJECT by dragging section N Ri id in NewRigid i Samples S l to PROJECT.

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New Rigid Pavement Design Example


Pavement Structure:
PCC Slab, P-501, R = 710 psi Cement-Treated Base, P-304, 6 inches thick Crushed Aggregate Base, P-209, 8 inches thick Subgrade k = 100 pci

Traffic T ffi Mi Mix:


5-Aircraft Mix includes (less than 100,000 lbs)

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Change Pavement Structure

In Structure window window, click on Modify Structure

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Change Pavement Structure


Click R to 710 psi

Change base layer to CTB, P-304, 6 in Change P-209 layer thickness to 8 in Change subgrade k to 100 pci Click End Modify

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Change Pavement Structure

Click Save Save Structure Structure

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Add Airplane List

Click on Clear List to clear the sample airplanes from the design list list.

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Add Airplane List

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Run Design
During g the design g process, the Design Running clock will appear. For rigid designs, the design will normally take a few minutes. Dont Don t interrupt the process. The screen display will change with each iteration.

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New Rigid Pavement - Final Design

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FAARFIELD Overlay Design


HMA Overlays on Flexible Pavement
Same as designing a new flexible pavement, except the design layer is the HMA overlay.

PCC CC Overlays O e ays o on Flexible e b e Pavement a e e t


Same principle as new rigid design.

HMA Overlays on Rigid Pavement PCC Overlays on Rigid Pavement


More complex than new rigid pavement design. Both slabs (base PCC and overlay) deteriorate with applied traffic. Stresses are computed for both slabs. E-modulus of the base slab is a function of reduced SCI. Subroutines were completely p y rewritten for FAARFIELD.
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FAARFIELD Overlay Design PCC on Rigid Overlays


Fully bonded overlays
Treat as a new rigid pavement design. Thickness of overlay slab is hoverlay = hdesign hexist.

Unbonded U b d d overlay l
Bond breaker or leveling course is used.

Partially bonded overlay


No longer a standard design in AC 150/5320-6E. Default in FAARFIELD is off. May be enabled from the Options window, but displays a Non Standard Structure message.
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FAARFIELD Overlay Design Required Inputs


Existing rigid pavement condition is characterized by the Structural Condition Index (SCI). SCI derived from PCI as determined by ASTM D 5340 Airport Pavement Condition Index Surveys. The new AC gives guidance on SCI. SCI is i computed t d using i only l structural t t l components t from f the th PCI survey. SCI = 80, FAA definition of structural failure (50% of slabs with ) structural crack) For existing pavements with structural damage (SCI < 100)
The user inputs a value of SCI for the existing pavement. The range of allowable values depends on the overlay type:
Rigid on Rigid Overlays: SCI 40100 40 100 Flexible on Rigid Overlays: SCI 67100 (was 50-100)

The Help file gives approximate formulas for relating SCI to Cr and Cb factors in earlier method.
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FAARFIELD PCC Unbonded Overlay Design Structural Condition Index (SCI)


Rigid Pavement Distress Types Used to Calculate SCI
Distress Corner Break Longitudinal/Transverse/Diagonal Cracking Shattered Slab Shrinkage Cracks (cracking partial width of slab)* SpallingJoint SpallingCorner Severity Level Low, Medium, High Low Medium Low, Medium, High Low, Medium, High Low Low, Medium, High Low, Medium, High

* Used only to describe a load-induced crack that extends only part of the way across a slab. The SCI does not include conventional shrinkage cracks due to curing or other non load-related problems.

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Cumulative Damage Factor Used (CDFU)


For existing pavements where SCI=100 (no structural distress):
There is no visible distress contributing to reduction in SCI (no structural distress types) types). However However, some pavement life has been consumed by the applied traffic. The amount of pavement life consumed is the percent CDF Used (%CDFU). Need to estimate a value of %CDFU. The Help file gives guidance on estimating %CDFU using the Life key.
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Cumulative Damage Factor Used (CDFU)


CDFU defines the amount of structural life used. For structures with aggregate base:

LU = number of years of operation of the existing pavement until overlay LD = design life of the existing pavement in years

FAARFIELD modifies this relationship for stabilized subbases to reflect improved performance.

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Example


Existing PCC structure will receive a P-501 PCC overlay to support additional traffic.
Assume R for new concrete = 700 psi.

Existing Pavement Structure:


PCC Slab, 10 in, R = 710 psi SCI = 100. Estimate %CDFU from traffic history. Cement C t Treated T t d Base, B P-304, P 304 6 i in Crushed Aggregate Base, P-209, 8 in Subgrade k = 100 pci

Design Traffic Mix:


Use same traffic mix as in the new rigid pavement design example example.
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Estimate %CDFU (Example)


Assume the following traffic mix was applied to the existing pavement:
No. 1 2 3 4 5 Name RegionalJet-200 RegionalJet-700 Canadair-CL-215 DC-3 G lf t Gulfstream-G-V GV Gross Wt., lbs 47,450 72,500 33,000 26,900 90 900 90,900 Annual Departures 1,000 800 600 500 200 % Annual Growth 0 0 0 0 0

Assume that at the time of the overlay the pavement will have been in operation 12 years.
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Procedure to Estimate %CDFU


Input the original pavement structure. Estimate the annual traffic applied to the existing pavement up to the time of the overlay. overlay Set Design Life to the number of years the pavement will have been in operation at the time of the overlay. Assume that at the time of the overlay the pavement will have been i operation in ti 12 years. Run Life to obtain %CDFU.
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Estimate %CDFU (Example)

In the Structure window, change the design life to the number b of f years that th t the pavement will have been in service at the time of overlay y (12 years in this example.) Click End Modify y

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Estimate %CDFU (Example)

Click Life to run Life. The calculated %CDFU will appear pp on the Structure window, at the lower left of the pavement section. %CDFU = 84.83 (Say 85%).

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Change Structure


In the Structure window, click Modify Structure.

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Change Structure


Click Add/Delete Layer. Select the PCC surface layer by clicking on it with the mouse. In the dialog box select Add and box, click OK. A new PCC surface layer appears.

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Change Structure


You must change the top layer to an overlay. Click on the L Layer Material M t i l box. b In the Layer Type Selection Box, select Overlay Fully Unbonded and click OK.

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Change Structure


In the upper right corner of the Structure window:
- Change Design Life to 20 years (standard). - Change SCI to 100. - Change Ch %CDFU t to 85.

Change R (overlay) to 700 psi. Click End Modify.

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Change Structure


Click Save Structure. Click Airplane to go to the Airplane window window.

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Change Airplane List

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PCC on Rigid Overlay Change Airplane List


Click Save List

Click Back to return to the Structure window.

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Run Overlay Design

Click Design Structure to run the overlay design.

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Example: PCC on Rigid Overlay Final Design

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http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/

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