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The force acting on a vibrating object is usually external to the system and independent of the motion. However, there are systems in which the exciting force is a function of the motion variables (displacement, velocity or acceleration) and thus varies with the motion it produces (called coupling). Friction-induced vibration (in vehicle clutches and brakes, vehicle-bridge interaction) and flow-induced vibration (circular wood saws, CDs, DVDs, in machining, fluid-conveying pipelines) are examples of self-excited vibration Example 1: a mass supported by a spring is carried by a moving belt through friction.
x m v0

The friction coefficient at the mass and belt interface is a function of the relative velocity between the mass and the belt as

gradiant (>0)

The equation of motion of the mass is

+ kx = mg = 0 [1 ( x v 0 )]mg = 0 (1 +v0 )mg + 0mgx m x

0 + kx = 0 (1 + m x mgx v0 ) mg

negative damping causing (initially) divergent vibration

v . and hence relative velocity x As vibration grows, velocity x This causes the friction coefficient to decrease (see m v curve) and then vibration decreases. This cycle of increasing and decreasing vibration repeats itself forever (unless there is structural damping). The moving belt can sustain vibration selfexcited vibration.

Example 2: a solid oscillating in a fluid can interact with the fluid and produce interesting behaviour. The relative airflow against the oscillating solid modifies the velocity vector and thus the lift and drag force acting on the solid.

k V x Consider a long cylinder of length l supported by a spring k and a damper c. d

The equation of vertical motion of the cylinder in the flow is

+ cx + kx = f (t ) m x

The lift force f is

f (t ) = 1 V 2 dlC L 2

Which term varies with time on the right ? efault.asp?sQuery=vortex%20shedding

Karman Vortices shedding occurs in Re=[60, 5000]

Due to vibration of the cylinder, the lift coefficient is no longer a constant because of shedding of vortices. It may be expressed as

C L = CL0 sin t



for cylinder)

2 ksV d
Vd > 1000



is the Strouhal number. For

Re =

ks 0.21 .

So when
V = d 2 ks k d = n m 2 ks

the cylinder vibrates violently (in resonance) in the flow. When flow velocity becomes high enough, the flow becomes turbulent, and the lift force becomes random. Flutter is a phenomenon of self-excited vibration.


A rigid wing attached to a rigid support through a spring


Vertical motion:
+ kx = L cos D sin m x



2 C 2 )lcC L = (V 2 + x 2 )lc L (V + x 2 2
x = arctan( ) V x V cos 1 2 V 2 V2 +x


2 C 2 )lc D (V + x 2

= 0

Assume small displacement so that

tan =


+ kx = m x

+ m x

2 dCL dC V lc[ ( 0 ) cos D ( 0 ) sin ] 2 d d dC dC dC = V 2lc[ L 0 ( L + D 0 ) ] 2 d d d

dC dC D dC + kx = V 2lc L 0 Vlc( L + 0 ) x 2 d d 2 d

Torsional vibration (assuming centre of gravity and aerodynamic centre coincide):

+ K = Le + M ( me 2 + I )

where the pitching moment

2 2 dC V lc CM = V 2 lc L (0 + ) 2 2 d dC M M = V 2lc 2CM = V 2 lc 2 (0 + ) 2 2 d

The above equation becomes

+ [ K V 2lc ( dC L e + dC M c )] = V 2lc( dC L e + dC M c )] ( me 2 + I ) 0 2 d d 2 d d

The static divergence speed is

Vdiv = 2K


dCL dCM e+ c) d d

for a symmetric aerofoil

Vdiv = 2K dC lc L e d

The high the

, the greater speed capacity the aircraft has.