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Date

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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.


Checked
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' on CD

Page

03-Sep-2013

chg

1999 BCA for RCC

101

Revision

Job No

IDEALISED STRUCTURE and FORCE DIAGRAMS

R68

DESIGN STATUS:

VALID

L in e L o a d L G K , L Q K in k N / m

WARNING :
Passive pressure should
only be considered if it
can be guaranteed that
there will be no future
excavation in front of
the wall.

X
S u r c h a r g e S G K , S Q K in k N / m

TW
H

W A TE R

L P

H n

H P

T b

L W

L E

H W

L S

L L

B 1

B N

DIMENSIONS (mm)
H=
3200
B=
2750
Hw =
100
BI =
1000
Hp =
200
BN =
0
Hn =
0
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
N/mm
gm =
fcu =
35
N/mm
gm =
fy =
460
cover to tension steel =
Max allowable design surface crack width (W) =
Concrete density =
SOIL PROPERTIES
Design angle of int'l friction of retained mat'l () =
Design cohesion of retained mat'l (C ) =
Density of retained mat'l (q ) =
Submerged Density of retained mat'l (qs ) =
Design angle of int'l friction of base mat'l (b) =
Design cohesion of base material (Cb ) =
Density of base material (qb ) =
Allowable gross ground bearing pressure (GBP) =
LOADINGS

Surcharge load -- live (SQK) =


Surcharge load -- dead (SGK) =
Line load -- live (LQK) =
Line load -- dead (LGK) =
Distance of line load from wall (X) =

LATERAL FORCES (unfactored)

PE =
PS(GK) =
PS(QK) =
PL(GK) =
PL(QK) =
PW =
Total
PP =

Ka =
Kp =
Kpc =
Kac =

TN
B

Tw =
Tb =
TN =

250
400
0

1.5
1.05
50
0.3
24

concrete
steel
mm
mm
kN/m

30
0
20
13.33
20
10
10
200

degree
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
degree
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

10
10
15
20
1000

kN/m

0.33
2.04
2.86
1.15

[ default ka = (1-SIN )/(1+SIN )0.33


]
=
[ default kp = (1+SIN b)/(1-SIN b)
2.04] =
[ default kpc = 2kp0.5 ] =
2.86
[ 2ka0.5 ]

Wall Geometry

kN/m
kN/m
mm

(Only granular backfil considered, "C" = zero)


[default=2/3*q (only apply when Hw
13.33
>0) ] =
ASSUMPTIONS

a) Wall friction is zero


b) Minimum active earth pressure = 0.25qH
c) Granular backfill
d)Does not include check of rotational slide/slope failure
e)Does not include effect of seepage of ground
water beneath the wall.
f)Does not include deflection check of wall due to
lateral earth pressures
h) Design not intended for walls over 3.0 m high

Force

Lever arm

Moment about TOE

gf

Fult

Mult

(kN)
34.12
10.67
10.67
6.67
5.00

(m)
LE = 1.067
LS = 1.60
LS = 1.60
LL = 2.36
LL = 2.36

(kNm)
36.41
17.07
17.07
15.74
11.80

1.40
1.40
1.60
1.40
1.60

(kN)
47.77
14.93
17.07
9.33
8.00

(kNm)
50.97
23.89
27.31
22.03
18.89

0.00

1.40

0.05

LW = 0.03

67.17

-6.12

98.09

(LP-HN) = 0.10

-0.60

1.00

0.07

0.00

97.17

143.10

-6.12

-0.60

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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986


Checked etc. Revision
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' on CD

chg

1999 BCA for RCC

EXTERNAL STABILITY
OVERTURNING about TOE
(using overall factor of safety instead of partial safety factor)
Overturning
Moments

Lateral FORCE (kN)

PE =
PS(GK) =
PS(QK) =
PL(GK) =
PL(QK) =
PW =
P =
Pp =

34.12
10.67
10.67
6.67
5.00
0.05

Lever arm (m)

LE =
LS =
LS =
LL =
LL =
LW =

Moment (kNm)

1.07
1.60
1.60
2.36
2.36
0.03

36.40
17.07
17.07
15.74
11.80
0.00

R68

STABILITY CHECKS :

OK

F.O.S = 1.50
LOADING OPTION
(select critical load combination)
EARTH
PS(GK)
PS(QK)
PL(GK)

PL(QK)
PW

67.17

-6.12

(LP-HN) = 0.10

-0.60

Warning:

Mo = 97.48

Restoring
Moments

Vertical FORCE (kN)

Wall =
Base =
Nib =
Earth =
Water =
Surcharge =
Line load =
V =

Lever arm (m)

Moment (kNm)

1.13
1.38
0.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.25

18.90
36.30
0.00
168.00
0.00
60.00
78.75
Mr = 361.95

16.80
26.40
0.00
84.00
0.00
30.00
35.00
192.20

Factor of Safety, Mr / Mo =
SLIDING

102
Job No

(using overall factor of safety instead of partial safety factor)


Sum of LATERAL FORCES, P =

67.17

Under some
conditions,surcharge &
line loads may have
stabilising effects on the
structure, and it is
recommended that
stability checks should
also be carried out
without these loads.

3.71

> 1.50

F.O.S =

1.50

OK

kN
Red'n factor for passive force = 1.00

PASSIVE FORCE, Pp x Reduction factor (1) =


-6.12 kN
BASE FRICTION ( V TANb + B Cb ) = -97.46 kN
Sum of FORCES RESISTING SLIDING, Pr = -103.58 kN

Factor of Safety, Pr / P =

1.54

> 1.50

OK

Taking moments about centre of base (anticlockwise "+") :


GROUND BEARING FAILURE
Vertical FORCES (kN) Lever arm (m)

Wall =
Base =
Nib =
Earth =
Water =
Surcharge=
Line load =
V =

16.80
26.40
0.00
84.00
0.00
30.00
35.00
192.20

0.25
0.00
1.38
-0.63
-0.63
-0.63
-0.88

BEARING PRESSURE (KN/m)

Moment (kNm)

2.75
50

4.20
0.00
0.00
-52.50
0.00
-18.75
-30.63
Mv = -97.68

Moment due to LATERAL FORCES, Mo =

97.48

kNm

Resultant Moment, M = Mv + Mo =

-0.20

kNm

Eccentricity from base centre, M / V =


Therefore, MAXIMUM Gross Bearing Pressure (GRP) =

0.00
70

m
kN/m

0.00

100

< 200

OK

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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986


Checked etc. Revision
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' on CD

chg

1999 BCA for RCC

R68

OUTER BASE ( per metre length )


gf =
V ult =
M ult =

1.46
86.79
53.64

BS8110

(default = ult mt / non-factored mt.1.46


)=
kN
kNm
(TENSION - BOTTOM FACE)

BOTTOM REINFORCEMENT :

reference

520
12
200
565

mm2
mm
mm
mm2

d=
z=
As' =
Mres =

344
326.80
0
80.96

mm
mm
mm2
kNm

> 53.64

OK

100 As/bd =
vc =
Vres =

0.16%
0.40
138.35

N/mm2
kN

> 86.79

OK

3.5.5.2

mm

< 0.30

OK

App. B.2

Min. As =

f=

centres =
Asprov =
MOMENT of RESISTANCE :

SHEAR RESISTANCE:

104
Job No

Table 3.25

< 762
> 520

OK
OK

3.12.11.2.7(b)

3.4.4.4

Table 3.8

CHECK CRACK WIDTH IN ACCORDANCE WITH BS8007 :

X=
Acr =

68.49
108.61

em = -0.00076

mm
mm

W=

-0.18

BS8007

INNER BASE ( per metre length )


V ult =
M ult =

81.20
89.46

kN
kNm

(TENSION - TOP FACE)


520
16
150
1340

mm2
mm
mm
mm2

d=
z=
As' =
Mres =

342
323.22
0
189.80

mm
mm
mm2
kNm

> 89.46

OK

100 As/bd =
vc =
Vres =

0.39%
0.54
184.02

N/mm2
kN

> 81.20

OK

Min. As =
f=
centres =
Asprov =

TOP REINFORCEMENT :

MOMENT RESISTANCE :

SHEAR RESISTANCE:

CHECK CRACK WIDTH wrt BS8007 :

X=
Acr =

99.03
86.81

mm
mm

Table 3.25

< 766
> 520

OK
OK

3.4.4.4

Table 3.8

(Temperature and shrinkage effects not included)


em = 0.000222
W=
0.05
mm
< 0.30
OK

REINFORCEMENT SUMMARY for BASE

TOP (DESIGN)
BOTTOM (DESIGN)
TRANSVERSE

Type

Centers

As

Min. As

T
T
T

mm
16
12
12

mm
150
200
200

mm2
1340
565
565

mm2
520
520
520

3.12.11.2.7(b)

OK
OK
OK

3.5.5.2

BS8007
App. B.2

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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986


Checked etc. Revision
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' on CD

chg

1999 BCA for RCC

Job No

R68

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF REINFORCEMENT


No.

Type

Dia

Length

Unit Wt

Weight

WALL

VERTICAL - External face


VERTICAL - Internal face
TRANSVERSE (Ext.& Int.)

6
9
30

T
T
T

10
16
10

2880
2928
1000

0.617
1.578
0.617

10.65
41.59
18.50

BASE

TOP (MAIN)
BOTTOM (MAIN)
TRANSVERSE ( T & B )
WALL STARTERS (Ext.)
WALL STARTERS (Int.)

7
6
28
6
9

T
T
T
T
T

16
12
12
10
16

2878
2846
1000
1125
1365

1.578
0.888
0.888
0.617
1.578

31.80
15.16
24.86
4.16
19.39

NIB

(assume same reinforcement as wall)


INTERNAL FACE (MAIN)
6
EXTERNAL FACE (MAIN)
9
TRANSVERSE (EXT.+ INT.)
2

T
T
T

10
16
10

80
128
1000

0.617
1.578
0.617

0.30
1.82
1.23

SUMMARY

Approx total reinforcement per metre length of wall (kg)

105

169.5

Project
Location

Diagrams

Spreadsheets to BS 8110etc
DATA FOR DIAGRAMS I
Grid line 1
RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.sheet 1 of 2
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' on CD

Made by rc

1999 BCA for RCC

Job No R68
Date 3-Sep-13

DESIGN STATUS: VALID

IF(ABS(ECCY)>B/1000/2,"BEARING FAIL",IF(ABS(ECCY)>(B/1000)/6,(2*VL)/(3*((B/1000)/2-ABS(ECCY))),(VL/(B/1000)*(1+(6*ABS(ECCY))/(B/1000)))))

IF(ECCY>(B/1000)/6,IF(XX>(B/1000/2-ECCY)*3,0,(((B/1000/2-ECCY)*3-XX)/((B/1000/2-ECCY)*3))*BP),((VL/(B/1000)*(1-(6*ECCY)/(B/1000))))+(B/1000-XX)/(B/1000)*(BP-(VL/(B/1000)*(1(6*ECCY)/(B/1000)))))
2.75

KN/M^2

1 70.05
0 70.05
3
BEARING PRESSURE
DIAGRAM
0.275 70.05
3
0.55 70.05
3
M
0.825 70.05
3
0
5
1.1 70.05
3
0.00
1.375 70.05
3
1.65 70.05
3
50.00
1.925 70.05
3
2.2 70.05
3
100.00
2.475 70.05
3
2.75 70.05
3
2.75 0.00
0
IF(ECCY<0,B/1000-B/1000/50*B24,B/1000/50*B24)
69.93
0 2.75 69.734
BEARING PRESSURE DIAGRAM
1 2.70 69.740
2 2.64 69.746
M
3 2.59 69.753
4 2.53 69.759
2.75
0.00
50
5 2.48 69.765
6 2.42 69.772
7 2.37 69.778
8 2.31 69.784
9 2.26 69.790
10 2.20 69.797
11 2.15 69.803
100
12 2.09 69.809
13 2.04 69.816
14 1.98 69.822
15 1.93 69.828
16 1.87 69.834
70.05
17 1.82 69.841
BP
0
70.048
18 1.76 69.847
BPE
1
70.048
19 1.71 69.853
BPI
1.25 70.048
20 1.65 69.860
BPZ
2.75 70.048
21 1.60 69.866
22 1.54 69.872
23 1.49 69.878
24 1.43 69.885
25 1.38 69.891
26 1.32 69.897
27 1.27 69.903
28 1.21 69.910
29 1.16 69.916
30 1.10 69.922
31 1.05 69.929
32 0.99 69.935
33 0.94 69.941
34 0.88 69.947
35 0.83 69.954
36 0.77 69.960
37 0.72 69.966
38 0.66 69.973
39 0.61 69.979
40 0.55 69.985
41 0.50 69.991
42 0.44 69.998
43 0.39 70.004
44 0.33 70.010
45 0.28 70.017
46 0.22 70.023
47 0.17 70.029
48 0.11 70.035
49 0.06 70.042
50 0.00 70.048
KN/M^2

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Page 5

69.734
69.740
69.746
69.753
69.759
69.765
69.772
69.778
69.784
69.790
69.797
69.803
69.809
69.816
69.822
69.828
69.834
69.841
69.847
69.853
69.860
69.866
69.872
69.878
69.885
69.891
69.897
69.903
69.910
69.916
69.922
69.929
69.935
69.941
69.947
69.954
69.960
69.966
69.973
69.979
69.985
69.991
69.998
70.004
70.010
70.017
70.023
70.029
70.035
70.042
70.048

0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

3.835 4.209
3.836 3.999
3.836 3.788
3.836 3.577
3.837 3.367
3.837 3.156
3.837 2.945
3.838 2.734
3.838 2.524
3.838 2.313
3.839 2.102
3.839 1.891
3.840 1.680
3.840 1.469
3.840 1.258
3.841 1.047
3.841 0.835
3.841 0.624
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
69.089 43.517

0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

3.835
3.836
3.836
3.836
3.837
3.837
3.837
3.838
3.838
3.838
3.839
3.839
3.840
3.840
3.840
3.841
3.841
3.841
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
69.089

0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.055
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

3.835
3.836
3.836
3.836
3.837
3.837
3.837
3.838
3.838
3.838
3.839
3.839
3.840
3.840
3.840
3.841
3.841
3.841
3.842
3.842
3.842
3.843
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
84.458

Diagrams

Spreadsheets to BS 8110etc
DATA FOR DIAGRAMS II
Grid line 1
RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.sheet 1 of 2
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' on CD

0
400
400
3200
3200
400
400
0
0
0
0
0
0

3200

2750

ULT. MT (KNM)

MOMENT
DIAGRAM
50
100

150

0.00

0.56

1.12

1.68

2.24

2.80

WALL GEOMETRY
4000

3000

2000

1000

0
4000

0
0
1000
1000
1250
1250
2750
2750
0
0
0
0
0

0.00
0.06
0.11
0.17
0.22
0.28
0.34
0.39
0.45
0.50
0.56
0.62
0.67
0.73
0.78
0.84
0.90
0.95
1.01
1.06
1.12
1.18
1.23
1.29
1.34
1.40
1.46
1.51
1.57
1.62
1.68
1.74
1.79
1.85
1.90
1.96
2.02
2.07
2.13
2.18
2.24
2.30
2.35
2.41
2.46
2.52
2.58
2.63
2.69
2.74
2.80

WALL (M)

UTM= 107.34
107.34
0.00
0
0.06
0.023
0.11
0.092
0.17
0.207
0.22
0.368
0.28
0.5749
0.34
0.8279
0.39
1.1269
0.45
1.4718
0.50
1.8628
0.56
2.2997
0.62
2.7827
0.67
3.3116
0.73
3.8865
0.78
4.5075
0.84
5.1899
0.90
6.8735
0.95
8.6031
1.01
10.379
1.06
12.2
1.12
14.068
1.18
15.981
1.23
17.941
1.29
19.946
1.34
21.998
1.40
24.096
1.46
26.239
1.51
28.471
1.57
30.924
1.62
33.454
1.68
36.063
1.74
38.753
1.79
41.525
1.85
44.38
1.90
47.321
1.96
50.349
2.02
53.466
2.07
56.673
2.13
59.973
2.18
63.365
2.24
66.854
2.30
70.439
2.35
74.122
2.41
77.906
2.46
81.792
2.52
85.781
2.58
89.875
2.63
94.076
2.69
98.386
2.74
102.81
2.80
107.34

3000

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

24.39
13.07
9.80
13.067
13.07
0.00

2000

MTE=
MTLG=
MTLQ=
MTSG=
MTSQ=
MTW=

YY= 2.8

1999 BCA for RCC

1000

Location

WALL (mm)

Project

BASE ( mm)

Page 6

Made by rc

Job No R68
Date 3-Sep-13

Project
Location

Spreadsheets to BS 8110etc
Grid line 1

CRACK WIDTH CALCULATIONS

RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.


Made

Originated from 'RCC62.xls' on CD

WALL
MR=
As/bd=
X=
Ic=
STS=
ST1=
ST2=
Acr=
W=

em=

MR=
AsBB/bd=
X=
Ic=
STS=
ST1=
ST2=
Acr=
W=

em=

15.06
MIN SPACING=
0.008
MSBB=
75.21
MSBT=
472134280
0.0014
0.0020
0.0004066
77.265761
0.29
0.0016
15.06
0.0016
68.49
753352434
0.0008
0.0010
0.0017635
108.61239
-0.18
-0.0008

MR=
AsBB/bd=
X=
Ic=
STS=
ST1=
ST2=
Acr=
W=

em=

1999 BCA for RCC

220
762
766

ASreq = 1444
ASBBreq =0.01
ASBTreq 631.76
=

15.06
0.0039
99.03
1.515E+09
0.0007
0.0009
0.0006953
86.810337
0.05
0.0002

Page 7

by rc

Job No R68
Date 3-Sep-13

fs = 275.31Asprov%= 0.8378
fs = 0.0054Asprov%= 0.1644
fs = 144.54Asprov%= 0.3919

Notes

Disclaimer
All advice or information from the British Cement Association and/or Reinforced Concrete Council is intended
will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application.
(including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by the BCA,
subcontractors, suppliers or advisors. Users should note that all BCA software and publications are subject
time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.

This spreadsheet should be used in compliance with the accompanying publication 'Spreadsheets for concre
8110 and EC2' available from British Cement Association, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berkshire RG45 6YS
Status of spreadsheet
Public release version.
Revision history RCC62 Retaining Wall.xls

Date

Version

Action

Size (kB)

06-Aug-99

RCC62 v1.0

First public release.


Includes b version comments

398

Page 8

Notes

Page 9

Notes

d Concrete Council is intended for those who


lity for its use and application. No liability
ation is accepted by the BCA, RCC or their
and publications are subject to revision from
st version.

ation 'Spreadsheets for concrete design to BS


owthorne, Berkshire RG45 6YS.

Page 10