CESTODES General characteristics 1. Flat and Ribbon Like 2. Hermaphroditic 3. 5 parts a. SCOLEX b. NECK c.

IMMATURE  New segments which do not yet contain fully developed internal structures d. MATURE  Larger than immature and found in the middle of the chain  May contain either one or two sets of both male and female reproductive organs e. GRAVID / RIPE  Terminal portion of the strobili which are usually filled with eggs enclosed in the uterus 4. Uterus serves as an important diagnostic feature 5. NO GIT; food is absorbed VIA TEGUMENT 6. Adult tapeworm inhabits the small intestines 7. Infection with adult tapeworm is always accomplished via the Oral Route TWO MAIN ORDERS 1. Pseudophyllidea – fake / false 2. Cyclophyllidea

Similar Eggs: Taenia Spp. And Echinostoma Spp.

Diphyllobothrium Latum
(False Tapeworm) COMMON NAME: Broad Fish Tapeworm HABITAT: Small Intestines 1ST IH: Cyclops / Copepods (Crustaceans in water) 2ND IH: Fresh fish (Salmon, Trout and Pike) Infective Stage: Plerocercoid / Sparganum Larva Diagnostic Stage: Immature, Operculated Egg MOT: Ingestion of plerocercoid larva from raw or half-cooked fish MOA: Sucks intestinal mucosa FINAL HOST: Man, Dog, Cat LENGTH / STROBILA: 3-10 meters DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex    Spoon or Spatulate Unarmed 2 deep bothria (SULA) o Sucking grooves

Mature Segment  Dark colored ROSETTE FORMATION of the HIGHLY COILED UTERUS Rosette: Flower Shaped

Larval Stage  Elongated and spindle shaped

000. Worm competes with the infected host for Vitamin B12 consumption o Leads to BOTHRIOCEPHALUS ANEMIA or TAPEWORM PERNICIOUS ANEMIA o Hyperchromic anemia 2. Intestinal Obstruction 3. Antibiotics and Anti-inflammatory drugs Taenia solium COMMON NAME: Pork Tapeworm . Plerocercoid Larva o Infective stage o Found in the 2nd IH PATHOLOGY 1.000 eggs/day Oval Conical Operculum Knob like thickening opposite the operculum Immature DIAGNOSIS    Recovery of characteristic eggs from stool Recovery of mature segment o Rapid Slide Test Conc. Tech: Sedimentation Treatment: Praziquantel SPARGANOSIS     Ingestion of cyclops plerocercoid IH: CYCLOPS AH: MAN No calcification LIFE CYCLE 1. Chalky  Pseudo-segmented Eggs      1. Procercoid Larva o Spindle like solid body with cephalic invagination o Found inside the 1st IH 3. Toxemia due to the waste products excreted SYMPTOMS   Nausea Vomiting In the muscle fibers   Death of larva: infection Presence of larva: Inflammation In muscles  Swollen intramuscular nodules which can contain Chylous Oxalate Sparganum mansonii  can migrate to the eyes and vital organs In the eyes     ocular sparganosis spirometra intense pain edema of eyelids Prevention: Boil drinking water Treatment: Surgery to remove worm. Coracidium o Ciliated larva o Motile o Orange / red-orange o Larval stage inside the egg o Comes out and enters the 1st IH 2.

HABITAT: small intestines FH: Man IH: Pigs. o Apolysis in chains (3-4) DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex    GLOBULAR 4 cuplike suckers ARMED ROSTELLUM o Double rows of 25-30 large and small hooks o Dagger shaped or Arabian ponlards PATHOLOGY/SYMPTOMS 1. Vague abdominal pain 2. Hogs Disease: Pork Tapeworm Infection Infective Stage:  Cysticercus cellulosae (Bladder Worm) Mature Segment     SQUARE Ovary: 2. # of cysticercus larva ii. OVA 7-15 main lateral branches Dendritic or FINGERLIKE Length: 2-4m *an infected person can only have around 4-7 worms inside. lobed Testes: follicular Uterus: BLIND GOLF CLUB shaped Larval Stage    Cysticercus cellulosae In muscle Milky white Diagnostic Stage: characteristic spherical egg with thick striated embryophore  Rapid or gravid segment MOT    Cysticercus cellulosae from raw or half cooked pork Ingestion of embryonated egg AUTOINFECTION by regurgitation of the proglottids in the GIT by REVERSE PERISTALSIS which releases the eggs and gains entrance in the peripheral circulation carried to the different parts of the body Gravid Segment   Eggs     Spherical with Radial Striation Thick brown striated embryophore surrounding a hexacanth embryo Oncosphere with 6 hooklets Reported as TAENIA SPP. Muscular pain and atrophy – Cysticercus Cellulosae  Cysticercosis in man o Degree depends on: i. Site and kind of organ infected Neurocysticercosis o Hysteria or general paralysos Muscular involvement o Malfunction and pain   . Voracious appetite 3. Mechanical irritation due to attachment of scolex 4.

cattle. lobed Uterus: Club shaped Testes: Folicular TREATMENT   Recovery of scolex praziquantel PREVENTION      Treat infected individual PSWD Proper meat inspection Cook meat well Personal hygiene Larval Stage   Cysticercus bovis Milky white Gravid Segment  15-20 main lateral branches (DICHOTOMOUS OR TREE LIKE UTERINE BRANCH) Taenia saginata COMMON NAME: beef tapeworm HABITAT: small intestines FH: Man IH: Cow. Carabao Infective Stage: Cysticercus bovis (not adaptable to human body) Diagnostic Stage: Eggs   Spherical Thick brown striated embryophore surrounding a hexacanth PATHOLOGY   Intestinal Obstruction Systemic Intoxication due to the worm waste products .  o Myositis – fibrosis and necrosis Heart o Tachycardia Ocular involvement o Tenderness o Ocular disturbance   Embryonated egg Gravid or ripe segment MOT: ingestion of cysticercus bovis from improperly cooked beef Length: 4-10m (25m) DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex    CUIBOIDAL 4 cuplike suckers UNARMED DIAGNOSIS  Recovery of Characteristic egg or Mature segment in stool o Sedimentation X-ray or CT Scan Muscle biopsy Rapid Slide Test / Slide Compression Technique    Mature Segment     SQUARE Ovary: 1.

Indistinguishable from Saginata FH: PIG Previously names Asian Taenia Saginata SYMPTOMS        Epigastric pain – peptic ulcer like Hunger Weakness Weight loss Nervousness Voracious appetite Nocturnal movement – severe embarrassment Hymenolepis nana COMMON NAME: Dwarf Tapeworm (Smallest tapeworm) HABITAT: Small Intestines. Upper 2/3 of Ileum FH: Man IH:    Flour beetles – Tenebrio molitos Fleas – Ctenocephalides canis / felis o Human: Pulex irritans Cockroaches – Xenopsylla cheopsis o Blatella orientalis o German: Periplaneta DIAGNOSIS   Recovery of eggs from feces o Stool exam Rapid slide test / Slide Compression Technique o Exam of gravid segment STS  TREATMENT  Praziquantel americana Infective Stage   Direct: embryonated egg Indirect: Cysticercoid larva PREVENTION    PSWD Avoid eating raw or half cooked beef Cook beef well at least 57C Diagnostic Stage: recovery of characteristic egg in feces MOT   Direct: Ingestion of eggs through food and water Indirect: Accidental ingestion of cysticercoid larva from infected arthropods o Fleas.  Solitario Disease – Only 1 worm Biosmosis o Worm absorbs food eaten by the host Taenia saginata taiwanensis     Most recent spp. flour or rice beetles *MEAT/PORK WITH CC – measely pork/beef *CC can not develop into adult in the human .

cockroaches and meal moths Mature Segment   Testes. nana SYMPTOMS   Diarrhea irritable Gravid Segment  Uterus is sac like filled with eggs DIAGNOSIS  Recovery of characteristic eggs in feces Eggs  CIRCULAR . straight line Larger than H. straight line Gravid Segment   Hollow uterus filled with eggs Detached and disintegrated in the intestines to release eggs Infective Stage: Cysticercoid Larva Diagnostic Stage: Characteristic Egg MOT: Ingestion of cysticercoid larva from infected arthropod hosts Length: 60mm Eggs      SUBSPHERICAL or OBLONG Thin Outer Shell. 3.Length: 25-40mm DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex      SUBGLOBULAR 4 cuplike suckers ARMED Retractable Rostellum Single row of 20-30 Y hooklets  Recovery of mature segment TREATMENT  Praziquantel Hymenolepis diminuta COMMON NAME: Rat Tapeworm HABITAT: Small intestine of rats and man FH: RATS IH:   Flour moths and beetles Fleas. Ovoid Ovary: 1. Thick Inner Shell With BIPOLAR THICKENING 4-8 POLAR FILAMENTS With oncosphere DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex    KNOB SHAPED 4 cuplike suckers Rudimentary UNARMED rostellum PATHOLOGY   In light infections: asymptomatic Toxemia due to the metabolites of the worm Mature Segment    Testes: 3. Ovoid Ovary: 1.

SUNNY SIDE UP FRIED EGG APPEARANCE MOT: oral ingestion of cysticercoid larva (cerocysts) Length: 10-70cm DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex    GLOBULAR o Glove shaped 4 cuplike suckers ARMED o 1-7 circlets of spines o Rose thorn shaped hooks/spines o Apically armed More spines: older PATHOLOGY  Generally asymptomatic SYMPTOMS    Minimal symptoms Diarrhea GI disturbance DIAGNOSIS  Recovery of characteristic eggs in stool  TREATMENT  Praziquantel Mature Segment   Reproductive organs 2 genital pore (double set of reproductive organs) Dipyllidium caninum COMMON NAME: Dog tapeworm Double pored tapeworm o Two sets of genital pores HABITAT: small intestines of dogs FH: Dogs. IH: Ctenocephalides canis (Dog Flea)    Gravid Segment  Melon seed / Pumpkin seed shaped proglottids Eggs   8-15 spherical eggs enclosed in pockets Thin shelled Ctenocephalides felis (Cat fleas) Pulex irritans (Man flea) Infective Stage: cysticercoid larva in arthropods Diagnostic Stage: recovery of egg pockets PATHOLOGY  Minimal symptoms DIAGNOSIS  Recovery of characteristic eggs in feces . thin inner shell Bipolar thickening WITHOUT polar filaments FRIED EGG. Wild Canine Spp.   Thick outer shell.

Goats. hogs.TREATMENT  Praziquantel + Niclosamide Gravid Segment  Filled with 200-400 egg capsules with spindle shaped eggs PREVENTION     Annual deworming of domesticated pets Proper hygiene of domesticated pets Kissing of dogs is discharged for children Regular insecticidal spraying Eggs  Hexacanth embryo enclosed in two membranes o Outer elongated o Inner spherical PATHOLOGY   Usually asymptomatic Children below 3 years old are usually infected Railletina garrisoni COMMON NAME: Rice Grain Tapeworm HABITAT: small intestines of rats/man FH: Rats / Cockroaches IH: Flour Beetles (Tribollum confusum) Infective Stage: Cysticercoid larva Diagnostic Stage: recovery of eggs in feces  Rice grain segments in stool (motile) MOT: Accidental ingestion of infected arthropods with cysticercoids larva Length: 60cm DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex    SUBGLOBULAR 4 comma shaped cuplike suckers ARMED o 2 rows or 90-140 alternating hammer shaped hooks DIAGNOSIS  Slide compression technique TREATMENT  Praziquantel PREVENTION  Rodent control 1st reported: 1911 – garrison 1931 – Tubangui Echinococcus granulosus    Shortest but deadliest Fluid causes anaphylactic shock 4 segments only COMMON NAME: Hydatid worm HABITAT: Small Intestines FH: Dogs IH: Sheeps. horses Disease: Hydatid worm infection / Echinocochiasis . Cats.

round.Infective Stage   Hydatid cyst Embryonated egg 3 TYPES OF CYSTS 1. Osseous Cysts  Attached to the bone  Big: bone fracture 3. egg 12-15 lateral branches with eggs  .2cc of sterile hydatid fluid o Result: 5cm diameter of redness after 20 minutes  Bentonite Flocculation Test Serologic TREATMENT  Surgical resection of cyst in operable cysts Inoperable Sites MOT: Ingestion of the egg through food and water Length: 3-6mm DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Scolex    PYRIFORM 4 cuplike suckers ARMED o 30-60 hooks Mature Segment    Ovary: 2. Osseous cysts  Bone fractures 5. Unilocular Cysts  Lower forms of animals Diagnostic Stage  Hydatid cyst o Hydatid sand  Broad capsules  Scolices  Daughter cysts  Hydatid fluid  protoscolices PATHOLOGY 1. Physical burden  As the cyst grows in size  Liver: heaviness 4. Metastasis 6. Depends on the site of location of hydatid cyst  Liver: Liver malfunction  LungsL respiratory problems 2. Rupture of cysts  Anaphylactic shock: hydatid fluid DIAGNOSIS  Cansoni’s Test – intradermal test o 0. Alveolar Cysts  Alveolar multilocular  Vital/visceral organs 2. irregular Testes: Pyriform Uterus: mid-line tube (median) Larval Stage  Invaginated and evaginated scolices Gravid Segment  Eggs  Identical to Taenia Spp. Pressure to the organ involved  Malfunction of organs 3.

o PAIR INTERVENTION  Puncture  Aspiration  Injection  Reabsorption PREVENTION     Deworming of dogs Burn carcasses of sheep / dogs Avoid eating raw vegetables Avoid drinking stagnant water Echinococcus multilocularis   Very similar in all aspect Same morphology except o With scolex and 2 or 3 more IMMATURE segments IH: field mouse o Tundra Mouse  Echinococcus vogeli   Very similar in all aspects IH: wild dogs RAPID SLIDE TEST / SLIDE COMPRESSION TEST       2 slides Forceps Petri dish / watch glass Filter paper o Remove excess mucous Motility: tumbling Reagent: NSS .

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