Key Quality Terminology

Quality – 'Fitness for purpose' The quality of a statistical product can be defined as the fitness for purpose of that product. More specifically, it is the fitness for purpose with regards the following dimensions: relevance, accuracy, timeliness and punctuality, accessibility and clarity, comparability, and coherence. Quality Management – 'encompassing approach to quality work' Quality management provides the organisation with an encompassing approach to quality work. It focuses on the full statistical process, and aims to improve quality and coordinate quality initiatives. It also encourages and promotes a culture of continuous improvement, selfassessment and quality reviews.

For the purposes of this work, 'quality management' includes:
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the Principles governing our work, as set out in the UK Code of Practice for Official Statistics the coordination of ongoing quality initiatives that ensure we are Code compliant (e.g. quality reporting, evaluation activities, etc) work that builds on existing standards and best practice the measurement, monitoring and management of data quality on a day to day basis auditing of statistical processes ensuring that all staff are sufficiently equipped to produce quality outputs (e.g. that appropriate training and guidance exist) promoting a culture of systematic quality improvement work

Quality Reviews Reviews may be internal or external and cover the processes or outputs of official statistics, or both. Review is part of the cycle of improvement and aims to identify areas for further examination and improvement. Reviews are a way to audit compliance with the Code of Practice Principles. Quality Assurance – 'anticipating and avoiding problems' Quality assurance covers all procedures focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled, and anticipating problems. It requires processes and systems in place that are planned and tested to perform under all conditions, and to self-correct or flag

Quality control is used to measure actual performance. The suspect values would then be looked at manually which would lead to quality improvements over time. Quality Control – 'responding to observed problems' Quality control is directed only at what can be measured and judged acceptable or not. data capture and editing.problems under exceptions. and including triangulations for consistency checking.g. providing clear routing so that all relevant questions are asked (and not others). Statistical example Quality assurance is about creating evidence that errors have not slipped through. which informs quality management on where to improve quality assurance so that the causes are mitigated and the process overall improved. thus it only focuses on accuracy. For example. if measurement is not possible. and where the task is repetitive and manual. Quality control is most commonly applied at the process stage of a survey to work that is typically performed by persons with various levels of training and ability. measuring the response rate to a survey should lead to investigation of reasons for 'missingness' which might suggest an alternative delivery or incentive to reply. therefore. to get it right first time. reduce or limit the occurrence of errors in a statistical product and. . compare it to standards and act on the difference. Quality control checks might be applied at the data capture and validation stages where automated checks compare new values to previous ones and throw out those that look suspect. Process quality measures might be applied to certain processes as a quality control check (e. Statistical examples Quality control is best used to define the quality of the process and identify causes of failure. then quality control cannot be performed. For example. allowing a survey manager to react where values are dropping. Values would be compared back to those previously obtained from applying the measure. The goal of quality assurance is to prevent. editing hit rates or response rates). providing 'other' boxes so that exceptional answers will not be forced into mis-codings. testing survey questions to demonstrate that interviewers and respondents understand the concepts and vocabulary. It therefore applies to activities such as coding.

Quality Glossary/ Quality Terminology .

(For detailed descriptions of these plans. A specific plan that indicates the sampling sizes and the associated acceptance or non acceptance criteria to be used. When a continuing series of lots is considered. this involves reference to a continuous scale of some kind. double. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship and eliminate the annual rating or merit system 13. is the limit of a satisfactory level (AQL) process average The criteria that a system or component must satisfy in order to be Acceptance criteria accepted by a user. the numerical magnitude of a characteristic is measured and recorded for each inspected unit. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone 14. M. 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services 2. or other authorized entity. In Attributes sampling. which was first defined by J. There are two typeso Attributes sampling and variable sampling.W. In variables sampling. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality 4. and targets for the work force 11. a quality level that. multiple. the presence or absence of a Acceptance sampling characteristic is noted in each of the units inspected. Adopt the new philosophy 3. exhortations. Break down barriers between staff areas 10. and sequential sampling plans. Acceptance sampling chain. Statistics--Vocabulary and Symbols--Statistical Quality Control. production. that is.) Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system . double. Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force and numerical goals for management 12. Inspection of a sample from a lot to decide whether to accept or not accept that lot. Juran in 1950. there are single. for Acceptable quality the purposes of sampling inspection. Adopt and institute leadership 14 Points 8. for example. and skip-lot sampling plans. End the practice of awarding business on price alone. Edward Deming's 14 management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity 1. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. minimize total cost by working with a single supplier 5. customer. Institute training on the job 7. sequential. In variables sampling. and service 6. see the standard ANSI/ISO/ASQC 3534-2. there are plan single. Eliminate slogans. In attributes sampling. A term referring to the Pareto principle. Drive out fear 9. The principle suggests that most effects come from 80-20 relatively few causes. instead. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning.

. allocation of resources. Quality management includes strategic planning. or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the client. and other technical activities that must be implemented to ensure that the results of the work performed will satisfy the stated performance criteria. Generally used to establish intra-laboratory or analyst-specific precision and bias or to assess the performance of all or a portion of the measurement system. reporting. accountability. item. The QAPP components are divided into four classes: 1) Project Management. Quality System . Quality Assurance Program Description/Plan .The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to meet the stated or implied needs and expectations of the user. and quality improvement to ensure that a process. 3) Assessment/Oversight. operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality. Quality Assurance (QA) .An uncontaminated sample matrix spiked with known amounts of analytes from a source independent of the calibration standards. and assessing all activities conducted. 2) Measurement/Data Acquisition. providing protection against "out of control" conditions and ensuring the results are of acceptable quality. and the required interfaces for those planning.. implementing. planning.Quality . principles. and other systematic activities (e. objectives.That aspect of the overall management system of the organization that determines and implements the quality policy. implementation. Quality Control (QC) . and assessment) pertaining to the quality system.A formal document describing in comprehensive detail the necessary quality assurance (QA). implementation.An integrated system of management activities involving planning. the lines of authority. item. implementing.The overall system of technical activities that measures the attributes and performance of a process. and services.A structured and documented management system describing the policies.A formal document that describes the quality system in terms of the organization's structure. the functional responsibilities of management and staff.A management program for improving the quality of operations. and implementation plan of an organization for ensuring quality in its work processes. Quality Improvement . or service against defined standards to verify that they meet the stated requirements established by the customer. Quality Management . Requirements for preparing QAPPs can be found in EPA QA/R-5. Quality Management Plan (QMP) . quality control (QC). Such management programs generally entail a formal mechanism for encouraging worker recommendations with timely management evaluation and feedback or implementation.(see Quality Management Plan) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) . responsibilities. The system of activities and checks used to ensure that measurement systems are maintained within prescribed limits.g. assessment. Quality Control (QC) Sample . organizational authority. The quality system provides the framework for planning. products (items). and 4) Data Validation and Usability.

and assessing work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC). .

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