Mechanics

of Solids

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Applied

Mechanics

of Solids

Allan F. Bower

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.iniii iii 9/9/09 7:24:30 PM

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Bower, Allan F.

Applied mechanics of solids / author, Allan F. Bower.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-4398-0247-2 (hardcover : alk. paper)

1. Mechanics, Applied. 2. Solids. 3. Elasticity. 4. Strength of materials. I. Title.

TA405.B676 2010

620.1’05--dc22 2009026764

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at

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and the CRC Press Web site at

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TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.iniv iv 9/9/09 7:24:30 PM

v

Contents

Preface, xxiii

Author, xxv

CHAPTER 1

◾

Overview of Solid Mechanics 1

1.1 DEFINING A PROBLEM IN SOLID MECHANICS 2

1.1.1 Deciding What to Calculate 3

1.1.2 Defning the Geometry of the Solid 4

1.1.3 Defning Loading 5

1.1.4 Deciding What Physics to Include in the Model 6

1.1.5 Defning Material Behavior 7

1.1.6 A Representative Initial Value Problem in Solid Mechanics 10

1.1.7 Choosing a Method of Analysis 11

CHAPTER 2

◾

Governing Equations 13

2.1 MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF SHAPE CHANGES IN SOLIDS 13

2.1.1 Displacement and Velocity Fields 13

2.1.2 Displacement Gradient and Deformation Gradient Tensors 14

2.1.3 Deformation Gradient Resulting from Two Successive

Deformations 18

2.1.4 Te Jacobian of the Deformation Gradient 19

2.1.5 Lagrange Strain Tensor 20

2.1.6 Eulerian Strain Tensor 22

2.1.7 Infnitesimal Strain Tensor 22

2.1.8 Engineering Shear Strains 24

2.1.9 Decomposition of Infnitesimal Strain into Volumetric and

Deviatoric Parts 24

2.1.10 Infnitesimal Rotation Tensor 25

2.1.11 Principal Values and Directions of the Infnitesimal

Strain Tensor 26

2.1.12 Cauchy–Green Deformation Tensors 27

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vi ◾ Contents

2.1.13 Rotation Tensor and Lef and Right Stretch Tensors 27

2.1.14 Principal Stretches 29

2.1.15 Generalized Strain Measures 30

2.1.16 Te Velocity Gradient 31

2.1.17 Stretch Rate and Spin Tensors 32

2.1.18 Infnitesimal Strain Rate and Rotation Rate 33

2.1.19 Other Deformation Rate Measures 33

2.1.20 Strain Equations of Compatibility for Infnitesimal Strains 34

2.2 MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF INTERNAL FORCES IN SOLIDS 38

2.2.1 Surface Traction and Internal Body Force 38

2.2.2 Traction Acting on Planes within a Solid 40

2.2.3 Cauchy (True) Stress Tensor 43

2.2.4 Other Stress Measures: Kirchhof, Nominal, and Material Stress

Tensors 44

2.2.5 Stress Measures for Infnitesimal Deformations 47

2.2.6 Principal Stresses and Directions 47

2.2.7 Hydrostatic, Deviatoric, and von Mises Efective Stress 48

2.2.8 Stresses near an External Surface or Edge: Boundary Conditions

on Stresses 49

2.3 EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND EQUILIBRIUM FOR

DEFORMABLE SOLIDS 49

2.3.1 Linear Momentum Balance in Terms of Cauchy Stress 49

2.3.2 Angular Momentum Balance in Terms of Cauchy Stress 51

2.3.3 Equations of Motion in Terms of Other Stress Measures 53

2.4 WORK DONE BY STRESSES: PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK 54

2.4.1 Work Done by Cauchy Stresses 54

2.4.2 Rate of Mechanical Work in Terms of Other Stress Measures 56

2.4.3 Rate of Mechanical Work for Infnitesimal Deformations 57

2.4.4 Te Principle of Virtual Work 58

2.4.5 Te Virtual Work Equation in Terms of Other Stress Measures 61

2.4.6 Te Virtual Work Equation for Infnitesimal Deformations 62

CHAPTER 3

◾

Constitutive Models: Relations between Stress and Strain 65

3.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS 66

3.1.1 Termodynamic Restrictions 66

3.1.2 Objectivity 66

3.1.3 Drucker Stability 67

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Contents ◾ vii

3.2 LINEAR ELASTIC MATERIAL BEHAVIOR 69

3.2.1 Isotropic, Linear Elastic Material Behavior 69

3.2.2 Stress–Strain Relations for Isotropic, Linear Elastic Materials:

Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and the Termal Expansion

Coem cient 70

3.2.3 Reduced Stress–Strain Equations for Plane Deformation of

Isotropic Solids 72

3.2.4 Representative Values for Density and Elastic Constants of

Isotropic Solids 73

3.2.5 Other Elastic Constants: Bulk, Shear, and Lame Modulus 74

3.2.6 Physical Interpretation of Elastic Constants for Isotropic Solids 75

3.2.7 Strain Energy Density for Isotropic Solids 75

3.2.8 Stress–Strain Relation for a General Anisotropic Linear Elastic

Material: Elastic Stifness and Compliance Tensors 76

3.2.9 Physical Interpretation of the Anisotropic Elastic Constants 78

3.2.10 Strain Energy Density for Anisotropic, Linear Elastic Solids 79

3.2.11 Basis Change Formulas for Anisotropic Elastic Constants 79

3.2.12 Te Efect of Material Symmetry on Stress–Strain Relations

for Anisotropic Materials 81

3.2.13 Stress–Strain Relations for Linear Elastic Orthotropic Materials 82

3.2.14 Stress–Strain Relations for Linear Elastic Transversely Isotropic

Material 83

3.2.15 Representative Values for Elastic Constants of Transversely

Isotropic Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals 85

3.2.16 Linear Elastic Stress–Strain Relations for Cubic Materials 85

3.2.17 Representative Values for Elastic Properties of Cubic Crystals

and Compounds 87

3.3 HYPOELASTICITY: ELASTIC MATERIALS WITH A NONLINEAR

STRESS–STRAIN RELATION UNDER SMALL DEFORMATION 87

3.4 GENERALIZED HOOKE’S LAW: ELASTIC MATERIALS SUBJECTED

TO SMALL STRETCHES BUT LARGE ROTATIONS 91

3.5 HYPERELASTICITY: TIME-INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOR OF RUBBERS

AND FOAMS SUBJECTED TO LARGE STRAINS 93

3.5.1 Deformation Measures Used in Finite Elasticity 95

3.5.2 Stress Measures Used in Finite Elasticity 96

3.5.3 Calculating Stress–Strain Relations from the Strain Energy

Density 97

3.5.4 A Note on Perfectly Incompressible Materials 99

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viii ◾ Contents

3.5.5 Specifc Forms of the Strain Energy Density 100

3.5.6 Calibrating Nonlinear Elasticity Models 102

3.5.7 Representative Values of Material Properties for Rubbers 103

3.6 LINEAR VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS: TIME-DEPENDENT

BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS AT SMALL STRAINS 103

3.6.1 Features of the Small Strain Rate-Dependent Response of Polymers 104

3.6.2 General Constitutive Equations for Linear Viscoelastic Solids 109

3.6.3 Spring–Damper Approximations to the Relaxation Modulus 110

3.6.4 Prony Series Representation for the Relaxation Modulus 112

3.6.5 Calibrating the Constitutive Laws for Linear

Viscoelastic Solids 112

3.6.6 Representative Values for Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers 113

3.7 SMALL STRAIN, RATE-INDEPENDENT PLASTICITY: METALS LOADED

BEYOND YIELD 113

3.7.1 Features of the Inelastic Response of Metals 115

3.7.2 Decomposition of Strain into Elastic and Plastic Parts 118

3.7.3 Yield Criteria 118

3.7.4 Graphical Representation of the Yield Surface 119

3.7.5 Strain Hardening Laws 120

3.7.6 Plastic Flow Law 122

3.7.7 Elastic Unloading Condition 126

3.7.8 Complete Incremental Stress–Strain Relations for a

Rate-Independent Elastic–Plastic Solid 126

3.7.9 Typical Values for Yield Stress of Polycrystalline Metals 129

3.7.10 Perspectives on Plastic Constitutive Equations: Principle of

Maximum Plastic Resistance 129

3.7.11 Perspectives on Plastic Constitutive Equations: Drucker’s Postulate 131

3.7.12 Microscopic Perspectives on Plastic Flow in Metals 132

3.8 SMALL STRAIN VISCOPLASTICITY: CREEP AND HIGH STRAIN RATE

DEFORMATION OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS 135

3.8.1 Features of Creep Behavior 135

3.8.2 Features of High Strain Rate Behavior 137

3.8.3 Small Strain, Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations 137

3.8.4 Representative Values of Parameters for Viscoplastic Models of

Creeping Solids 142

3.8.5 Representative Values of Parameters for Viscoplastic Models of

High Strain Rate Deformation 142

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Contents ◾ ix

3.9 LARGE STRAIN, RATE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY 143

3.9.1 Kinematics of Finite Strain Plasticity 143

3.9.2 Stress Measures for Finite Deformation Plasticity 145

3.9.3 Elastic Stress–Strain Relation for Finite Strain Plasticity 146

3.9.4 Plastic Constitutive Law for Finite Strain Viscoplasticity 147

3.10 LARGE STRAIN VISCOELASTICITY 148

3.10.1 Kinematics for Finite Strain Viscoelasticity 148

3.10.2 Stress Measures for Finite Strain Viscoelasticity 150

3.10.3 Relation among Stress, Deformation Measures, and Strain

Energy Density 150

3.10.4 Strain Relaxation 151

3.10.5 Representative Values for Material Parameters in a Finite Strain

Viscoelastic Model 152

3.11 CRITICAL STATE MODELS FOR SOILS 152

3.11.1 Features of the Behavior of Soils 152

3.11.2 Constitutive Equations for Cam-Clay 153

3.11.3 Application of the Critical State Equations to Simple 2D Loading 160

3.11.4 Typical Values of Material Properties for Soils 161

3.12 CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR METAL SINGLE CRYSTALS 161

3.12.1 Review of Some Important Concepts from Crystallography 162

3.12.2 Features of Plastic Flow in Single Crystals 166

3.12.3 Kinematic Descriptions Used in Constitutive Models

of Single Crystals 171

3.12.4 Stress Measures Used in Crystal Plasticity 173

3.12.5 Elastic Stress–Strain Relation Used in Crystal Plasticity 174

3.12.6 Plastic Stress–Strain Relation Used in Crystal Plasticity 174

3.12.7 Representative Values for Plastic Properties of Single Crystals 176

3.13 CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR CONTACTING SURFACES AND

INTERFACES IN SOLIDS 176

3.13.1 Cohesive Zone Models of Interfaces 176

3.13.2 Models of Contact and Friction between Surfaces 182

CHAPTER 4

◾

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems 193

4.1 AXIALLY AND SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC SOLUTIONS TO

QUASI-STATIC LINEAR ELASTIC PROBLEMS 193

4.1.1 Summary of Governing Equations of Linear Elasticity in Cartesian

Components 193

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4.1.2 Simplifed Equations for Spherically Symmetric Linear Elasticity

Problems 194

4.1.3 General Solution to the Spherically Symmetric Linear Elasticity

Problem 197

4.1.4 Pressurized Hollow Sphere 197

4.1.5 Gravitating Sphere 199

4.1.6 Sphere with Steady-State Heat Flow 200

4.1.7 Simplifed Equations for Axially Symmetric Linear Elasticity

Problems 202

4.1.8 General Solution to the Axisymmetric Boundary Value Problem 205

4.1.9 Long (Generalized Plane Strain) Cylinder Subjected to Internal and

External Pressure 206

4.1.10 Spinning Circular Plate 208

4.1.11 Stresses Induced by an Interference Fit between Two Cylinders 209

4.2 AXIALLY AND SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC SOLUTIONS TO

QUASI-STATIC ELASTIC–PLASTIC PROBLEMS 211

4.2.1 Summary of Governing Equations 212

4.2.2 Simplifed Equations for Spherically Symmetric Problems 213

4.2.3 Elastic Perfectly Plastic Hollow Sphere Subjected to Monotonically

Increasing Internal Pressure 215

4.2.4 Elastic Perfectly Plastic Hollow Sphere Subjected to Cyclic

Internal Pressure 219

4.2.5 Simplifed Equations for Plane Strain Axially Symmetric Elastic-

Perfectly Plastic Solids 223

4.2.6 Long (Plane Strain) Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure 226

4.3 SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC SOLUTION TO QUASI-STATIC LARGE

STRAIN ELASTICITY PROBLEMS 229

4.3.1 Summary of Governing Equations of Finite Elasticity in Cartesian

Components 229

4.3.2 Simplifed Equations for Incompressible Spherically Symmetric

Solids 230

4.3.3 Pressurized Hollow Sphere Made from an Incompressible Rubber 232

4.4 SIMPLE DYNAMIC SOLUTIONS FOR LINEAR ELASTIC MATERIALS 236

4.4.1 Surface Subjected to Time-Varying Normal Pressure 236

4.4.2 Surface Subjected to Time-Varying Shear Traction 239

4.4.3 One-Dimensional Bar Subjected to End Loading 239

4.4.4 Plane Waves in an Infnite Solid 240

4.4.5 Summary of Wave Speeds in Isotropic Elastic Solids 241

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Contents ◾ xi

4.4.6 Refection of Waves Traveling Normal to a Free Surface 242

4.4.7 Refection and Transmission of Waves Normal to an Interface 243

4.4.8 Simple Example Involving Plane Wave Propagation: Plate Impact

Experiment 245

CHAPTER 5

◾

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids 249

5.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES 250

5.1.1 Summary of the Governing Equations of Linear Elasticity 250

5.1.2 Alternative Form of the Governing Equations: Navier Equation 251

5.1.3 Superposition and Linearity of Solutions 251

5.1.4 Uniqueness and Existence of Solutions to the Linear Elasticity

Equations 252

5.1.5 Saint-Venant’s Principle 252

5.2 AIRY FUNCTION SOLUTION TO PLANE STRESS AND STRAIN

STATIC LINEAR ELASTIC PROBLEMS 255

5.2.1 Airy Solution in Rectangular Coordinates 256

5.2.2 Demonstration Tat the Airy Solution Satisfes the Governing

Equations 257

5.2.3 Airy Solution in Cylindrical-Polar Coordinates 259

5.2.4 Airy Function Solution to the End-Loaded Cantilever 260

5.2.5 2D Line Load Acting Perpendicular to the Surface of an Infnite

Solid 262

5.2.6 2D Line Load Acting Parallel to the Surface of an Infnite Solid 264

5.2.7 Arbitrary Pressure Acting on a Flat Surface 265

5.2.8 Uniform Normal Pressure Acting on a Strip 266

5.2.9 Stresses near the Tip of a Crack 266

5.3 COMPLEX VARIABLE SOLUTION TO PLANE STRAIN STATIC

LINEAR ELASTIC PROBLEMS 267

5.3.1 Complex Variable Solutions to Elasticity Problems 268

5.3.2 Demonstration Tat the Complex Variable Solution Satisfes the

Governing Equations 270

5.3.3 Complex Variable Solution for a Line Force in an Infnite Solid

(Plane Strain Deformation) 272

5.3.4 Complex Variable Solution for an Edge Dislocation in an Infnite

Solid 274

5.3.5 Cylindrical Hole in an Infnite Solid under Remote Loading 277

5.3.6 Crack in an Infnite Elastic Solid under Remote Loading 278

5.3.7 Fields near the Tip of a Crack on Bimaterial Interface 280

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5.3.8 Frictionless Rigid Flat Indenter in Contact with a Half-Space 283

5.3.9 Frictionless Parabolic (Cylindrical) Indenter in Contact with a

Half-Space 284

5.3.10 Line Contact between Two Nonconformal Frictionless Elastic

Solids 286

5.3.11 Sliding Contact between Two Rough Elastic Cylinders 287

5.3.12 Dislocation near the Surface of a Half-Space 289

5.4 SOLUTIONS TO 3D STATIC PROBLEMS IN LINEAR ELASTICITY 290

5.4.1 Papkovich Neuber Potential Representations for 3D Solutions

for Isotropic Solids 290

5.4.2 Demonstration Tat the Papkovich Neuber Solution Satisfes the

Governing Equations 291

5.4.3 Point Force in an Infnite Solid 292

5.4.4 Point Force Normal to the Surface of an Infnite Half-Space 293

5.4.5 Point Force Tangent to the Surface of an Infnite Half-Space 293

5.4.6 Te Eshelby Inclusion Problem 294

5.4.7 Elastically Mismatched Ellipsoidal Inclusion in an Infnite Solid

Subjected to Remote Stress 299

5.4.8 Spherical Cavity in an Infnite Solid Subjected to Remote Stress 300

5.4.9 Flat-Ended Cylindrical Indenter in Contact with an Elastic

Half-Space 302

5.4.10 Frictionless Contact between Two Elastic Spheres 304

5.4.11 Contact Area, Pressure, Stifness, and Elastic Limit for General

Nonconformal Contacts 306

5.4.12 Load Displacement–Contact Area Relations for Arbitrarily Shaped

Axisymmetric Contacts 308

5.5 SOLUTIONS TO GENERALIZED PLANE PROBLEMS FOR

ANISOTROPIC LINEAR ELASTIC SOLIDS 310

5.5.1 Governing Equations of Elasticity for Anisotropic Solids 310

5.5.2 Stroh Representation for Fields in Anisotropic Solids 312

5.5.3 Demonstration Tat the Stroh Representation Satisfes the

Governing Equations 314

5.5.4 Stroh Eigenvalues and Anisotropy Matrices for Cubic Materials 316

5.5.5 Degenerate Materials 317

5.5.6 Fundamental Elasticity Matrix 317

5.5.7 Orthogonal Properties of Stroh Matrices A and B 318

5.5.8 Barnett–Lothe Tensors and the Impedance Tensor 319

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Contents ◾ xiii

5.5.9 Useful Properties of Matrices in Anisotropic Elasticity 320

5.5.10 Basis Change Formulas for Matrices Used in Anisotropic Elasticity 321

5.5.11 Barnett–Lothe Integrals 323

5.5.12 Stroh Representation for a State of Uniform Stress 325

5.5.13 Line Load and Dislocation in an Infnite Anisotropic Solid 327

5.5.14 Line Load and Dislocation below the Surface of an Anisotropic

Half-Space 329

5.6 SOLUTIONS TO DYNAMIC PROBLEMS FOR ISOTROPIC

LINEAR ELASTIC SOLIDS 330

5.6.1 Love Potentials for Dynamic Solutions for Isotropic Solids 330

5.6.2 Pressure Suddenly Applied to the Surface of a Spherical Cavity

in an Infnite Solid 331

5.6.3 Rayleigh Waves 333

5.6.4 Love Waves 335

5.6.5 Elastic Waves in Waveguides 337

5.7 ENERGY METHODS FOR SOLVING STATIC LINEAR ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS 339

5.7.1 Defnition of the Potential Energy of a Linear Elastic Solid under

Static Loading 339

5.7.2 Principle of Stationary and Minimum Potential Energy 341

5.7.3 Uniaxial Compression of a Cylinder Solved by Energy Methods 344

5.7.4 Variational Derivation of the Beam Equations 346

5.7.5 Energy Methods for Calculating Stifness 350

5.8 RECIPROCAL THEOREM AND APPLICATIONS 352

5.8.1 Statement and Proof of the Reciprocal Teorem 352

5.8.2 Simple Example Using the Reciprocal Teorem 353

5.8.3 Formulas Relating Internal and Boundary Values of Field

Quantities 355

5.8.4 Classical Solutions for Displacement and Stress Induced

by a 3D Dislocation Loop in an Infnite Solid 356

5.9 ENERGETICS OF DISLOCATIONS IN ELASTIC SOLIDS 359

5.9.1 Classical Solution for Potential Energy of an Isolated Dislocation

Loop in an Infnite Solid 359

5.9.2 Nonsingular Dislocation Teory 362

5.9.3 Energy of a Dislocation Loop in a Stressed, Finite Elastic Solid 365

5.9.4 Energy of Two Interacting Dislocation Loops 369

5.9.5 Driving Force for Dislocation Motion: Peach–Koehler Formula 370

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5.10 RAYLEIGH–RITZ METHOD FOR ESTIMATING NATURAL

FREQUENCY OF AN ELASTIC SOLID 375

5.10.1 Mode Shapes and Natural Frequencies; Orthogonality of Mode

Shapes and Rayleigh’s Principle 375

5.10.2 Estimate of Natural Frequency of Vibration for a Beam Using

Rayleigh–Ritz Method 379

CHAPTER 6

◾

Solutions for Plastic Solids 381

6.1 SLIP-LINE FIELD THEORY 381

6.1.1 Interpreting a Slip-Line Field 382

6.1.2 Derivation of the Slip-Line Field Method 386

6.1.3 Examples of Slip-Line Field Solutions to Boundary Value

Problems 392

6.2 BOUNDING THEOREMS IN PLASTICITY AND THEIR

APPLICATIONS 398

6.2.1 Defnition of the Plastic Dissipation 399

6.2.2 Principle of Minimum Plastic Dissipation 401

6.2.3 Upper Bound Plastic Collapse Teorem 404

6.2.4 Examples of Applications of the Upper Bound Teorem 405

6.2.5 Lower Bound Plastic Collapse Teorem 410

6.2.6 Examples of Applications of the Lower Bound Plastic Collapse

Teorem 411

6.2.7 Lower Bound Shakedown Teorem 412

6.2.8 Examples of Applications of the Lower Bound Shakedown

Teorem 415

6.2.9 Upper Bound Shakedown Teorem 417

6.2.10 Examples of Applications of the Upper Bound Shakedown

Teorem 419

CHAPTER 7

◾

Finite Element Analysis: An Introduction 423

7.1 A GUIDE TO USING FINITE ELEMENT SOFTWARE 423

7.1.1 Finite Element Mesh for a 2D or 3D Component 425

7.1.2 Nodes and Elements in a Mesh 428

7.1.3 Special Elements: Beams, Plates, Shells, and Truss Elements 432

7.1.4 Material Behavior 434

7.1.5 Boundary Conditions 435

7.1.6 Constraints 438

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Contents ◾ xv

7.1.7 Contacting Surfaces and Interfaces 439

7.1.8 Initial Conditions and External Fields 441

7.1.9 Solution Procedures and Time Increments 441

7.1.10 Output 445

7.1.11 Units in Finite Element Computations 446

7.1.12 Using Dimensional Analysis to Simplify FEA 447

7.1.13 Simplifying FEA by Scaling the Governing Equations 449

7.1.14 Dimensional Analysis: Closing Remarks 451

7.2 A SIMPLE FINITE ELEMENT PROGRAM 451

7.2.1 Finite Element Mesh and Element Connectivity 452

7.2.2 Global Displacement Vector 453

7.2.3 Element Interpolation Functions 453

7.2.4 Element Strains, Stresses, and Strain Energy Density 454

7.2.5 Element Stifness Matrix 455

7.2.6 Global Stifness Matrix 456

7.2.7 Boundary Loading 459

7.2.8 Global Residual Force Vector 461

7.2.9 Minimizing the Potential Energy 461

7.2.10 Eliminating Prescribed Displacements 462

7.2.11 Solution 463

7.2.12 Postprocessing 463

7.2.13 Example FEA Code 464

CHAPTER 8

◾

Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Implementation 467

8.1 GENERALIZED FEM FOR STATIC LINEAR ELASTICITY 468

8.1.1 Review of the Principle of Virtual Work 468

8.1.2 Integral (Weak) Form of the Governing Equations of Linear

Elasticity 469

8.1.3 Interpolating the Displacement Field and the Virtual Velocity Field 470

8.1.4 Finite Element Equations 472

8.1.5 Simple 1D Implementation of the FEM 472

8.1.6 Summary of the 1D Finite Element Procedure 476

8.1.7 Example FEM Code and Solution 477

8.1.8 Extending the 1D FEM to 2D and 3D 480

8.1.9 Interpolation Functions for 2D Elements 481

8.1.10 Interpolation Functions for 3D Elements 481

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8.1.11 Volume Integrals for Stifness and Force in Terms of Normalized

Coordinates 482

8.1.12 Numerical Integration Schemes for 2D and 3D Elements 485

8.1.13 Summary of Formulas for Element Stifness and Force Matrices 486

8.1.14 Sample 2D/3D Linear Elastostatic FEM Code 486

8.2 THE FEM FOR DYNAMIC LINEAR ELASTICITY 490

8.2.1 Review of the Governing Equations of Dynamic Linear Elasticity 490

8.2.2 Expressing the Governing Equations Using the Principle

of Virtual Work 491

8.2.3 Finite Element Equations of Motion for Linear Elastic Solids 491

8.2.4 Newmark Time Integration for Elastodynamics 493

8.2.5 1D Implementation of a Newmark Scheme 495

8.2.6 Example 1D Dynamic FEM Code and Solution 497

8.2.7 Lumped Mass Matrices 499

8.2.8 Example 2D and 3D Dynamic Linear Elastic Code and Solution 501

8.2.9 Modal Method of Time Integration 501

8.2.10 Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes 502

8.2.11 Example 1D Code with Modal Dynamics 503

8.2.12 Example 2D and 3D FEM Code to Compute Mode Shapes

and Natural Frequencies 505

8.3 FEM FOR NONLINEAR (HYPOELASTIC) MATERIALS 505

8.3.1 Summary of Governing Equations 505

8.3.2 Governing Equations in Terms of the Virtual Work Principle 507

8.3.3 Finite Element Equations 507

8.3.4 Solving the Finite Element Equations Using Newton–Raphson

Iteration 509

8.3.5 Tangent Moduli for the Hypoelastic Solid 510

8.3.6 Summary of the Newton–Raphson Procedure for Hypoelastic

Solids 511

8.3.7 What to Do if the Newton–Raphson Iterations Do Not Converge 511

8.3.8 Variations on Newton–Raphson Iteration 512

8.3.9 Example Hypoelastic FEM Code 512

8.4 FEM FOR LARGE DEFORMATIONS: HYPERELASTIC MATERIALS 514

8.4.1 Summary of Governing Equations 514

8.4.2 Governing Equations in Terms of the Principle of Virtual Work 515

8.4.3 Finite Element Equations 515

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.inxvi xvi 9/9/09 7:24:34 PM

Contents ◾ xvii

8.4.4 Solution Using Consistent Newton–Raphson Iteration 517

8.4.5 Tangent Stifness for the Neo-Hookean Material 519

8.4.6 Evaluating the Boundary Traction Integrals 520

8.4.7 Example Hyperelastic Finite Element Code 521

8.5 THE FEM FOR VISCOPLASTICITY 522

8.5.1 Summary of Governing Equations 522

8.5.2 Governing Equations in Terms of the Virtual Work Principle 523

8.5.3 Finite Element Equations 524

8.5.4 Integrating the Plastic Stress–Strain Law 525

8.5.5 Material Tangent 527

8.5.6 Solution Using Consistent Newton–Raphson Iteration 528

8.5.7 Example Small Strain Plastic FEM Code 529

8.6 ADVANCED ELEMENT FORMULATIONS: INCOMPATIBLE MODES,

REDUCED INTEGRATION, AND HYBRID ELEMENTS 530

8.6.1 Shear Locking and Incompatible Mode Elements 531

8.6.2 Volumetric Locking and Reduced Integration Elements 533

8.6.3 Hybrid Elements for Modeling Near-Incompressible Materials 541

8.7 LIST OF EXAMPLE FEA PROGRAMS AND INPUT FILES 544

CHAPTER 9

◾

Modeling Material Failure 547

9.1 SUMMARY OF MECHANISMS OF FRACTURE AND FATIGUE

UNDER STATIC AND CYCLIC LOADING 548

9.1.1 Failure under Monotonic Loading 548

9.1.2 Failure under Cyclic Loading 550

9.2 STRESS- AND STRAIN-BASED FRACTURE AND FATIGUE

CRITERIA 553

9.2.1 Stress-Based Failure Criteria for Brittle Solids and Composites 553

9.2.2 Probabilistic Design Methods for Brittle Fracture

(Weibull Statistics) 556

9.2.3 Static Fatigue Criterion for Brittle Materials 557

9.2.4 Constitutive Laws for Crushing Failure of Brittle Materials 558

9.2.5 Ductile Fracture Criteria 559

9.2.6 Ductile Failure by Strain Localization 562

9.2.7 Criteria for Failure by High Cycle Fatigue under Constant

Amplitude Cyclic Loading 564

9.2.8 Criteria for Failure by Low Cycle Fatigue 565

9.2.9 Criteria for Failure under Variable Amplitude Cyclic Loading 566

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xviii ◾ Contents

9.3 MODELING FAILURE BY CRACK GROWTH: LINEAR ELASTIC

FRACTURE MECHANICS 567

9.3.1 Crack Tip Fields in an Isotropic, Linear Elastic Solid 567

9.3.2 Assumptions and Application of Phenomenological Linear Elastic

Fracture Mechanics 569

9.3.3 Calculating Stress Intensity Factors 572

9.3.4 Calculating Stress Intensity Factors Using FEA 578

9.3.5 Measuring Fracture Toughness 580

9.3.6 Typical Values for Fracture Toughness 581

9.3.7 Stable Tearing: K

r

Curves and Crack Stability 581

9.3.8 Mixed-Mode Fracture Criteria 584

9.3.9 Static Fatigue Crack Growth 584

9.3.10 Cyclic Fatigue Crack Growth 586

9.3.11 Finding Cracks in Structures 587

9.4 ENERGY METHODS IN FRACTURE MECHANICS 588

9.4.1 Defnition of Crack Tip Energy Release Rate for Cracks in Linear

Elastic Solids 588

9.4.2 Energy Release Rate as a Fracture Criterion 589

9.4.3 Relation between Energy Release Rate and Stress Intensity Factor 589

9.4.4 Relation between Energy Release Rate and Compliance 591

9.4.5 Calculating Stress Intensity Factors Using Compliance 592

9.4.6 Integral Expressions for Energy Flux to a Crack Tip 593

9.4.7 Rice’s J Integral 596

9.4.8 Calculating Energy Release Rates Using the J Integral 598

9.5 PLASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS 599

9.5.1 Dugdale–Barenblatt Cohesive Zone Model of Yield at a

Crack Tip 599

9.5.2 Hutchinson–Rice–Rosengren Crack Tip Fields for Stationary

Crack in a Power Law Hardening Solid 601

9.5.3 Plastic Fracture Mechanics Based on J 605

9.6 LINEAR ELASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS OF INTERFACES 607

9.6.1 Crack Tip Fields for a Crack on an Interface 607

9.6.2 Phenomenological Teory of Interface Fracture 610

9.6.3 Stress Intensity Factors for Some Interface Cracks 612

9.6.4 Crack Path Selection 613

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.inxviii xviii 9/9/09 7:24:34 PM

Contents ◾ xix

CHAPTER 10

◾

Solutions for Rods, Beams, Membranes, Plates, and Shells 615

10.1 PRELIMINARIES: DYADIC NOTATION FOR VECTORS AND

TENSORS 616

10.2 MOTION AND DEFORMATION OF SLENDER RODS 617

10.2.1 Variables Characterizing the Geometry of a Rod’s Cross

Section 617

10.2.2 Coordinate Systems and Variables Characterizing the

Deformation of a Rod 618

10.2.3 Additional Deformation Measures and Useful Kinematic

Relations 620

10.2.4 Approximating the Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration

in a Rod 624

10.2.5 Approximating the Deformation Gradient 625

10.2.6 Other Strain Measures 626

10.2.7 Kinematics of Rods Tat Are Bent and Twisted in the Unstressed

State 628

10.2.8 Representation of Forces and Moments in Slender Rods 630

10.2.9 Equations of Motion and Boundary Conditions 631

10.2.10 Constitutive Equations Relating Forces to Deformation Measures

in Elastic Rods 636

10.2.11 Strain Energy of an Elastic Rod 639

10.3 SIMPLIFIED VERSIONS OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF

DEFORMABLE RODS 641

10.3.1 Stretched Flexible String with Small Transverse Defections 641

10.3.2 Straight Elastic Beam with Small Defections and No Axial

Force (Euler–Bernoulli Beam Teory) 642

10.3.3 Straight Elastic Beam with Small Transverse Defections and

Signifcant Axial Force 643

10.4 EXACT SOLUTIONS TO SIMPLE PROBLEMS INVOLVING

ELASTIC RODS 644

10.4.1 Free Vibration of a Straight Beam without Axial Force 645

10.4.2 Buckling of a Column Subjected to Gravitational Loading 648

10.4.3 Post-Buckled Shape of an Initially Straight Rod Subjected to

End Trust 650

10.4.4 Rod Bent and Twisted into a Helix 653

10.4.5 Helical Spring 655

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xx ◾ Contents

10.5 MOTION AND DEFORMATION OF THIN SHELLS:

GENERAL THEORY 657

10.5.1 Coordinate Systems and Variables Characterizing Deformation

of Shells 657

10.5.2 Vectors and Tensor Components in Nonorthogonal Bases:

Covariant and Contravariant Components 659

10.5.3 Additional Deformation Measures and Kinematic Relations 660

10.5.4 Approximating the Displacement and Velocity Field 664

10.5.5 Approximating the Deformation Gradient 665

10.5.6 Other Deformation Measures 666

10.5.7 Representation of Forces and Moments in Shells 667

10.5.8 Equations of Motion and Boundary Conditions 670

10.5.9 Constitutive Equations Relating Forces to Deformation

Measures in Elastic Shells 678

10.5.10 Strain Energy and Kinetic Energy of an Elastic Shell 680

10.6 SIMPLIFIED VERSIONS OF GENERAL SHELL THEORY: FLAT PLATES

AND MEMBRANES 681

10.6.1 Flat Plates with Small Out-of-Plane Defections and Negligible

In-Plane Loading 681

10.6.2 Flat Plates with Small Out-of-Plane Defections and Signifcant

In-Plane Loading 684

10.6.3 Flat Plates with Small In-Plane and Large Transverse Defections

(von Karman Teory) 686

10.6.4 Stretched, Flat Membrane with Small Out-of-Plane Defections 688

10.6.5 Membrane Equations in Cylindrical-Polar Coordinates 689

10.7 SOLUTIONS TO SIMPLE PROBLEMS INVOLVING MEMBRANES,

PLATES, AND SHELLS 692

10.7.1 Tin Circular Plate Bent by Pressure Applied to One Face 692

10.7.2 Vibration Modes and Natural Frequencies for a Circular

Membrane 694

10.7.3 Estimate for the Fundamental Frequency of Vibration of a

Simply Supported Rectangular Flat Plate 696

10.7.4 Bending Induced by Inelastic Strain in a Tin Film on a

Substrate 697

10.7.5 Bending of a Circular Plate Caused by a Trough-Tickness

Temperature Gradient 700

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Contents ◾ xxi

10.7.6 Buckling of a Cylindrical Shell Subjected to Axial Loading 703

10.7.7 Torsion of an Open-Walled Circular Cylinder 705

10.7.8 Membrane Shell Teory Analysis of a Spherical Dome under

Gravitational Loading 708

Appendix A: Review of Vectors and Matrices 711

Appendix B: Introduction to Tensors and Their Properties 729

Appendix C: Index Notation for Vector and Tensor Operations 741

Appendix D: Vectors and Tensor Operations in Polar Coordinates 749

Appendix E: Miscellaneous Derivations 765

References 771

Index 775

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.inxxi xxi 9/9/09 7:24:35 PM

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xxiii

Preface

Ronald Rivlin, a pioneer in the feld of nonlinear elasticity, was asked once whether he

intended to write a treatise on his feld. “Why should I write a book?” he replied. “People

write books to learn a subject. I already know it.”

Tis book is the result of a similar process. Some 15 years ago, I joined the faculty in the

solid mechanics group in the Division of Engineering at Brown University. I am a proud

graduate of an institution that considers inhaling the air once breathed by Isaac Newton

to be more educational than taking graduate courses. Consequently, I started at Brown

with lungs and head flled with erudite air but knowing far less about solid mechanics than

the students in my classes. I have spent the intervening years attempting to remedy this

situation, principally by eavesdropping on the conversations of my colleagues, who are all

genuine and highly respected experts in solid mechanics. Tis book summarizes what I

have learned.

Solid mechanics is a venerable feld, with a history that spans nearly 200 years. It has

been revolutionized within the past two decades by the advent of cheap and powerful

computer sofware and hardware that can be used to solve virtually any problem. Tese

changes have had two main consequences. First, courses in solid mechanics are replacing

classical mathematical methods of analysis with computer simulations. Second, graduates

from other disciplines, with little background in solid mechanics, are increasingly using

highly sophisticated computer simulations to perform stress analysis and require an intro-

duction to the subject.

Tis text is intended to meet this need. It includes a concise summary of all the main

topics in classical solid mechanics but is written with a view to providing the background

needed to solve problems using computer simulations. Practitioners must understand the

fundamental principles on which these computer simulations are based, particularly con-

stitutive equations and failure criteria, as well as the mathematical descriptions of defor-

mation and internal forces that are used in these models. Tey need to know how to set up

properly posed boundary and initial value problems: studying simple analytical solutions

can be very helpful to see how this is done. In addition, computer simulations can all too

easily make meaningless predictions if they are not used properly. People who use com-

puter simulations can usually avoid these problems if they understand the algorithms that

are implemented in the code and if they can identify physically meaningless predictions.

An ability to read and learn from the classical literature on linear elasticity, plasticity, and

structural mechanics is invaluable to develop the intuition required to identify such mean-

ingless predictions.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.inxxiii xxiii 9/9/09 7:24:35 PM

xxiv ◾ Preface

Te book could be used as the primary textbook for one or more courses on solid

mechanics at the senior undergraduate or introductory graduate level and also provides a

fairly complete reference for practicing engineers and scientists. It is not, however, intended

as a “canned” course that an instructor would follow chapter by chapter; faculty teach-

ing solid mechanics are invariably experts in the feld, who have their own view on what

should be taught and how. Instead, chapters, and even subsections within chapters, have

been designed as self-contained modules to allow instructors to combine topics as they

see ft. For example, I have used the text as the sole reference in (1) a senior year under-

graduate course in solid mechanics for mechanical and civil engineers, and (2) classes in

a two-semester sequence of graduate courses (for MSc and PhD students) on continuum

mechanics and applied solid mechanics as part of Brown’s PhD program.

I have also used the book as the primary text (but supplemented by additional spe-

cialized texts) to teach plasticity, fracture mechanics, linear elasticity, and fnite element

programming.

Tis text began as a series of short lecture notes for my students and has inherited many

of the features of these notes. In my experience, few people read textbooks. Instructors

are too busy and already know the material, and students tend to fip through books in

desperation looking for the answer to a problem. I have written the book with this situa-

tion in mind: chapters, and even individual sections within chapters, are as self-contained

as possible. Ofen, the solution to a problem is presented before its derivation. I have also

tried to present derivations in the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture. I hope this

format will be useful not only to instructors and students, but also to practicing engineers

and scientists who need a quick review of some aspect of solid mechanics.

A companion Web site is available at http://solidmechanics.org (note the .org extension,

not .com). It includes a searchable electronic version of the text, over 400 practice prob-

lems, and demonstration of fnite element codes in MAPLE

and MATLAB

.*

I am very grateful to readers who have pointed out errors on this Web site. Teir eforts

have reduced the number of errors in this book, but have not probably eliminated them

altogether. Readers fnding errors are encouraged to use the form provided on the Web site

to correct them.

Allan F. Bower

Providence, RI

*

MATLAB is a registered trademark of Te MathWorks, Inc. For product information, please contact:

Te MathWorks, Inc.

3 Apple Hill Drive

Natick, MA 01760-2098 USA

Tel: (508) 647-7000

Fax: (508) 647-7001

E-mail: info@mathworks.com

Web: http://www.mathworks.com

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.inxxiv xxiv 9/9/09 7:24:35 PM

xxv

Author

Allan Bower is a professor of engineering at Brown University, where he teaches in the

undergraduate mechanical engineering program and the graduate program in mechanics

of solids. He earned undergraduate and graduate degrees from the University of Cambridge

and spent a short period on the faculty at Cambridge before joining Brown in 1992. His

research involves developing and using computer simulations to model deformation and

failure in materials. Applications of interest include modeling wear, plasticity, and contact

fatigue between contacting surfaces; fracture in composites and ceramics; and mechanical

failure processes in microelectronic circuits.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C000.inxxv xxv 9/9/09 7:24:36 PM

This page intentionally left blank

1

1

Overview of Solid Mechanics

Solid mechanics is a collection of physical laws, mathematical techniques, and computer

algorithms that can be used to predict the behavior of a solid material that is subjected to

mechanical or thermal loading. Te feld has a wide range of applications, including the

following:

1. Geomechanics: Modeling the shape of planets, tectonics, and earthquake prediction

2. Civil engineering: Designing structures or soil foundations

3. Mechanical engineering: Designing load-bearing components for vehicles, engines,

or turbines for power generation and transmission, as well as appliances

4. Manufacturing engineering: Designing processes (such as machining) for forming

metals and polymers

5. Biomechanics: Designing implants and medical devices, as well as modeling stress

driven phenomena controlling cellular and molecular processes

6. Materials science: Designing composites, alloy microstructures, thin flms, and

developing techniques for processing materials

7. Microelectronics: Designing failure-resistant packaging and interconnects for micro-

electronic circuits

8. Nanotechnology: Modeling stress-driven self-assembly on surfaces, manufacturing

processes such as nano-imprinting, and modeling atomic-force microscope/sample

interactions

Tis chapter describes how solid mechanics can be used to solve practical problems.

Te remainder of the book contains a more detailed description of the physical laws that

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in1 1 9/9/09 7:24:57 PM

2 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

govern deformation and failure in solids, as well as the mathematical and computational

methods that are used to solve problems involving deformable solids:

Chapter 2 covers the mathematical description of shape changes and internal forces

in solids.

Chapter 3 discusses constitutive laws that are used to relate shape changes to internal

forces.

Chapter 4 contains analytical solutions to a series of simple problems involving

deformable solids.

Chapter 5 provides a short summary of analytical techniques and solutions for linear

elastic solids.

Chapter 6 describes analytical techniques and solutions for plastically deforming

solids.

Chapter 7 gives an introduction to fnite element analysis, focusing on using com-

mercial sofware.

Chapter 8 expands on the implementation of the fnite element method.

Chapter 9 describes how to use solid mechanics to model material failure.

Chapter 10 discusses solids with special geometries (rods, beams, membranes, plates,

and shells).

Solid mechanics is incomprehensible without some background in vectors, tensors, and

index notation. Tese topics are reviewed briefy in the appendices.

1.1 DEFINING A PROBLEM IN SOLID MECHANICS

Regardless of the application, the general steps in setting up a problem in solid mechanics

are always the same:

1. Decide on the goal of the problem and desired information.

2. Identify the geometry of the solid to be modeled.

3. Determine the loading applied to the solid.

4. Decide what physics must be included in the model.

5. Choose (and calibrate) a constitutive law that describes the behavior of the material.

6. Choose a method of analysis.

7. Solve the problem.

Each step in the process is discussed in more detail below.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in2 2 9/9/09 7:24:58 PM

Overview of Solid Mechanics ◾ 3

1.1.1 Deciding What to Calculate

Tis question seems rather silly, but at some point in their careers, most engineers have

been asked by their manager, “Why don’t you just set up a fnite element model of our

(crank-case, airframe, material, etc.) so we can stop it from (corroding, fatiguing, fractur-

ing, etc.)?” If you fnd yourself in this situation, you are doomed. Models can certainly be

helpful in preventing failure, but, unless you have a very clear idea of why the failure is

occurring, you won’t know what to model.

Here is a list of things that can be calculated accurately using solid mechanics:

1. Te deformed shape of a structure or component subjected to mechanical, thermal,

or electrical loading

2. Te forces required to cause a particular shape change

3. Te stifness of a structure or component

4. Te internal forces (stresses) in a structure or component

5. Te critical forces that lead to failure by structural instability (buckling)

6. Natural frequencies of vibration for a structure or component

In addition, solid mechanics can be used to model a variety of failure mechanisms.

Failure predictions are more dim cult, however, because the physics of failure can only be

modeled using approximate constitutive equations. Tese mathematical relationships must

be calibrated experimentally and do not always perfectly characterize the failure mecha-

nism. Nevertheless, there are well-established procedures for each of the following:

1. Predicting the critical loads to cause fracture in a brittle or ductile solid containing a

crack

2. Predicting the fatigue life of a component under cyclic loading

3. Predicting the rate of growth of a stress-corrosion crack in a component

4. Predicting the creep life of a component

5. Finding the length of a crack that a component can contain and still withstand fatigue

or fracture

6. Predicting the wear rate of a surface under contact loading

7. Predicting the fretting or contact fatigue life of a surface

Solid mechanics is increasingly being used for applications other than structural and

mechanical engineering design. Tese are active research areas, and some are better devel-

oped than others. Applications include the following:

1. Calculating the properties (e.g., elastic modulus, yield stress, stress-strain curve,

fracture toughness, etc.) of a composite material in terms of those of its constituents

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in3 3 9/9/09 7:24:58 PM

4 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2. Predicting the infuence of the microstructure (e.g., texture, grain structure,

dispersoids, etc.) on the mechanical properties of metals such as modulus, yield

stress, strain hardening, etc.

3. Modeling the physics of failure in materials, including fracture, fatigue, plasticity,

and wear, and using the models to design failure resistant materials

4. Modeling materials processing, including casting and solidifcation, alloy heat treat-

ments, and thin-flm and surface-coating deposition (e.g., by sputtering, vapor depo-

sition, or electroplating)

5. Modeling biological phenomena and processes, such as bone growth, cell mobility,

cell wall/particle interactions, and bacterial mobility

1.1.2 Deﬁning the Geometry of the Solid

Again, this step seems rather obvious: surely the shape of the solid is always known? True,

but it is usually not obvious how much of the component to model and at what level of

detail. For example, in a crash simulation, must the entire vehicle be modelled, or just the

front part? Should the engine block be included? Te driver? Te cell phone that distracted

the driver into crashing in the frst place?

At the other extreme, it is ofen not obvious how much geometrical detail needs to

be included in a computation. If you model a component, do you need to include every

geometrical feature (such as bolt holes, cutouts, chamfers, etc.)? Te following guidelines

might be helpful:

1. For modeling brittle fracture, fatigue failure, or for calculating critical loads required

to initiate plastic fow in a component, it is very important to model the geometry in

great detail, because geometrical features can lead to stress concentrations that initi-

ate damage.

2. For modeling creep damage, large-scale plastic deformation (e.g., metal forming)

or vibration analysis, geometrical details are less important. Geometrical features

with dimensions under 10% of the macroscopic cross section can generally be

neglected.

3. Geometrical features ofen only infuence local stresses: they do not have much

infuence far away. Saint Venant’s principle, which will be discussed in more detail

in Chapter 5, suggests that a geometrical feature with characteristic dimension L

(e.g., the dimension of a hole in the solid) will infuence stresses over a region with

dimension around 3L surrounding the feature. In other words, if you are interested

in the stress state at a particular point in an elastic solid, you don’t need to worry

about geometrical features that are far from the region of interest. Strictly speaking,

Saint Venants’ principle only applies to elastic solids, although it can usually also be

applied to plastic solids that strain harden.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in4 4 9/9/09 7:24:58 PM

Overview of Solid Mechanics ◾ 5

As a general rule, it is best to start with the simplest possible model and see what it predicts.

If the simplest model answers your question, you’re done. If not, the results can serve as a

guide in refning the calculation.

1.1.3 Deﬁning Loading

Tere are six ways that mechanical loads can be induced in a solid:

1. Te boundaries can be subjected to a prescribed displacement or motion.

2. Te boundaries can be subjected to a distribution of pressure normal to the surface

or frictional traction tangent to the surface, as shown in Figure 1.1.

3. A boundary may be subjected to a combination of displacement and traction

(“mixed”) boundary conditions; for example, you could prescribe horizontal dis-

placements, together with the vertical traction, at some point on the boundary.

4. Te interior of the solid can be subjected to gravitational or electromagnetic body forces.

5. Te solid can contact another solid or, in some cases, can contact itself.

6. Stresses can be induced by nonuniform thermal expansion in the solid or some other

materials process such as phase transformation that causes the solid to change its shape.

When specifying boundary conditions, you must follow these rules:

1. In a three-dimensional (3D) analysis, you must specify three components of either

displacement (u

1

,u

2

,u

3

) or traction (t

1

,t

2

,t

3

) (but not both) at each point on the bound-

ary. You can mix these: so for example, you could prescribe (u

1

,t

2

,t

3

) or (u

1

,u

2

,t

3

), but

exactly three components must always be prescribed. Tis rule also applies to free

surfaces, where the tractions are prescribed to be zero.

2. Similarly, in a two-dimensional (2D) analysis, you must prescribe two components of

displacement or traction at each point on the boundary.

3. If you are solving a static problem with only tractions prescribed on the boundary,

you must ensure that the total external force and moment acting on the solid sum to

zero (otherwise, a static equilibrium solution cannot exist).

e

1

t

1

t

2

e

2

FIGURE 1.1 Tractions acting on the boundary of a solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in5 5 9/9/09 7:24:59 PM

6 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

In practice, it can be surprisingly dim cult to fnd out exactly what the loading on your

system looks like. For example, earthquake loading on a building can be modeled as a pre-

scribed acceleration of the building’s base, but what acceleration should you apply? Pressure

loading usually arises from wind or fuid forces, but you might need to do some sophisticated

calculations just to identify these forces. In the case of contact loading, you’ll need to be able

to estimate friction coem cients. For nanoscale or biological applications, you may also need

to model attractive forces between the two contacting surfaces. Here, standards are help-

ful. For example, building codes regulate civil engineernig structures, the National Highway

Tram c Safety Administration specifes design requirements for vehicles, and so on.

You can also avoid the need to fnd exactly what loading a structure will experience in

service by simply calculating the critical loads that will lead to failure or the fatigue life

as a function of loading. In this case, some other unfortunate engineer will have to decide

whether or not the failure loads are acceptable.

1.1.4 Deciding What Physics to Include in the Model

Tere are four decisions to make here:

1. Do you need to calculate additional feld quantities, such as temperature, electric or

magnetic felds, or mass/fuid difusion through the solid? Temperature is the most

common additional feld quantity. Here are some rough guidelines that will help you

to decide whether to account for heating efects.

Te stress induced by temperature variation in a component can be estimated from

the formula σ = E(αT)

max

− (αT)

min

), where E is the Young’s modulus of the material, α

is its thermal expansion coem cient, and T is temperature. Te symbols (αT)

max

,(αT)

min

denote the maximum and minimum values of the product αT in the component. You

need to account for temperature variations if σ is a signifcant fraction of the stress

induced by mechanical loading.

2. To decide whether you need to do a transient heat conduction analysis; note that the

temperature rise at a distance r from a point source of heat of intensity

Q

in an inf-

nite solid is ∆T Q r t r =

erfc ( / )/ ( ) 2 4 α πκ , where erfc( ) denotes the complementary

error function, κ is the material’s thermal conductivity, and χ = κ/(ρc

p

) is its thermal

difusivity, with ρ the mass density and c

p

the specifc heat capacity. Tis equation

suggests that a solid with dimension L will reach its steady-state temperature in time

t ≈ 25L

2

/χ. If the timescale of interest in your problem is signifcantly larger than this

and heat fux is constant, you can use the steady-state temperature distribution. If

not, you must account for transients.

Finally, to decide whether you need to account for heat generated by plastic ow,

note that the rate of heat generation per unit volume is of order

q

Y

p

=σ ε , where σ

Y

is

the material yield stress, and

ε

p

is the plastic strain rate. Te temperature rise attrib-

utable to rapid (adiabatic) plastic heating is thus of order ΔT = σ

Y

Δε

p

/(ρc

p

), where Δε

p

is the strain increment applied to the material.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in6 6 9/9/09 7:24:59 PM

Overview of Solid Mechanics ◾ 7

3. Do you need to do a dynamic analysis or a static analysis? Here are some rough guide-

lines that will help you to decide. Te speed of a shear wave propagating through an

elastic solid is c = µ ρ / , where ρ is the mass density of the solid, and μ is its shear

modulus. Te time taken for a wave to propagate across a component with size L is of

order t = L/c. In many cases, stresses decay to their static values afer about 10L/c. If

the loading applied to the component does not change signifcantly during this time

period, a quasi-static computation (possibly including accelerations as body forces)

should sum ce.

Te stress induced by acceleration (e.g., in a rotating component) is of order Lρa,

where L is the approximate size of the component, ρ is its mass density, and a is the

magnitude of the acceleration. If this stress is negligible compared with other forces

applied to the solid, it can be neglected. If not, it should be included (as a body force

if wave propagation can be neglected).

4. Are you solving a coupled uid/solid interaction problem? Tese situations arise in

aeroelasticity (design of fexible aircraf wings or helicopter rotor blades, or very long

bridges), ofshore structures, pipelines, or fuid containers. In these applications, the

fuid fow has a high Reynold’s number (so fuid forces are dominated by inertial

efects). Coupled problems are also very common in biomedical applications, such

as blood fow or cellular mechanics. In these applications, the Reynold’s number for

the fuid fow is much lower, and fuid forces are dominated by viscous efects. Several

analysis techniques are available for solving such coupled fuid/structure interaction

problems but are beyond the scope of this book.

1.1.5 Deﬁning Material Behavior

Choosing the right equations to describe material behavior is the most critical part of

setting up a solid mechanics calculation. Using the wrong model, or inaccurate material

properties, will always invalidate your predictions. Here are a few of your choices, with

suggested applications:

1. Isotropic linear elasticity (familiar in one dimension as σ = Eε): Tis constitutive

law is useful for polycrystalline metals, ceramics, glasses, and polymers undergoing

small deformations and subjected to low loads (less than the material yield stress).

Only two material constants are required to characterize the material, and accurate

values for these constants are readily available.

2. Anisotropic linear elasticity: Tis model is similar to isotropic linear elasticity but

models materials that are stifer in some directions than others. It is useful for rein-

forced composites, wood, and single crystals of metals and ceramics. At least three,

and up to 21, material properties must be determined to characterize an anisotropic

material. Material data are accurate and readily available. Isotropic or anisotropic lin-

ear elasticity may be applied to the vast majority of engineering design calculations,

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in7 7 9/9/09 7:24:59 PM

8 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

in which components cannot safely exceed yield. It can be used for defection calcula-

tions, fatigue analysis, and vibration analysis.

3. Hyperelasticity: Tese models are used for rubber and foams, which can sustain

huge, reversible shape changes. Tere are several models from which to choose. Te

simplest model is the incompressible neo-Hookean solid, which, in uniaxial stress,

has a true stress-true strain relation given by σ = C(exp(2ε) − 1/exp(ε)). It has only a

single material constant. More complex models have several parameters, and it may

be dim cult to fnd values of these parameters for your material in the published lit-

erature. Experimental calibration will almost certainly be required.

4. Viscoelasticity: Tis model is used for materials that exhibit a gradual increase in

strain when loaded at constant stress (with stress rate-strain rate ε σ σ = / E+η ) or

that show hysteresis during cyclic loading (with stress rate-strain rate of form

σ ε λε = + E

). It is usually used to model polymeric materials, polymer-based com-

posites, and biological tissue and can also model slow creep in amorphous solids

such as glass. Constitutive equations contain at least three parameters and usually

many more. Material behavior varies widely between materials and is highly tem-

perature dependent. Experimental calibration will almost certainly be required to

obtain accurate predictions.

5. Rate-independent metal plasticity: Tis model is used to calculate permanent

deformation in metals loaded above their yield point. A wide range of models are

available. Te simplest is a rigid perfectly plastic solid, which changes its shape only if

loaded above its yield stress, σ

Y

, and then deforms at constant stress. An elastic per-

fectly plastic solid deforms according to linear elastic equations when loaded below

the yield stress but deforms at constant stress if yield is exceeded. Tese models can

predict energy dissipation in a crash analysis or calculate tool forces in a metal-cut-

ting operation, for example. Data for material yield stress are readily available but

are sensitive to material processing and microstructure and so should be used with

caution. More sophisticated models describe strain hardening in some way (the

change in the yield stress of the solid with plastic deformation). Tese equations are

used in modeling ductile fracture, low cycle fatigue (in which the material is repeat-

edly plastically deformed), and when predicting residual stresses and springback in

metal forming operations. Finally, the most sophisticated plasticity models attempt

to track the development of microstructure or damage in the metal. For example, the

Gurson plasticity law models the nucleation and growth of voids in a metal and is

widely used to simulate ductile fracture. Such models typically have a large number

of parameters and can difer widely in their predictions. Tey must be very carefully

chosen and calibrated to obtain accurate results.

6. Viscoplasticity: Similar in structure to metal plasticity, these models account for

the tendency of the fow stress of a metal to increase when deformed at high strain

rates. Tey are used in modeling high-speed machining, for example, or in applica-

tions involving explosive shock loading. Viscoplastic constitutive equations are also

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in8 8 9/9/09 7:25:00 PM

Overview of Solid Mechanics ◾ 9

used to model creep, the steady accumulation of plastic strain in a metal when loaded

below its yield stress and subjected to high temperatures. Te simplest viscoplastic

constitutive law has only two parameters: uniaxial strain rate versus stress response

of the form

ε σ = A

n

. More complex models account for elastic deformation and

strain hardening. Data for the simple models is quite easy to fnd, but more sophisti-

cated and accurate models must be calibrated experimentally.

7. Crystal plasticity: Tese models are used for calculating anisotropic plastic fow in

a single crystal of a metal. Tey are mostly used in materials science calculations and

in modeling some metal-forming processes. Tese models are still under develop-

ment because material data are not easily found and are laborious and expensive to

measure.

8. Strain gradient plasticity: Tis formulation was developed in the past 5–10 years to

model the behavior of very small volumes of a metal (less than 100 μm). Typically,

small volumes of metal are stronger than bulk samples. Tese models are still under

development, are dim cult to calibrate, and do not always work well.

9. Discrete dislocation plasticity: Currently used for research only, this technique

models plastic fow in very small volumes of material by tracking the nucleation,

motion, and annihiliation of individual dislocations in the solid. Discrete dislocation

plasticity models contain a large number of material parameters that are dim cult to

calibrate.

10. Critical state plasticity (cam-clay): Tis model is used for soils, whose behavior

depends on moisture content. It is somewhat similar in structure to the metal

plasticity model, except that the yield strength of a soil is highly pressure depen-

dent (increases with compressive pressure). Simple models contain only three or

four material parameters, which can be calibrated quite accurately.

11. Pressure-dependent viscoplasticity: Tis model is similar to critical state plastic-

ity, in that they both account for changes in fow stress of a material with confning

pressure. It is used to model granular materials and some polymers and composite

materials (typically in modeling processes such as extrusion or drawing).

12. Concrete models: Tey are intended to model the crushing (in compression) or frac-

ture (in tension) of concrete (obviously!). Te mathematical structure resembles that

of pressure-depend ent plasticity.

13. Atomistic models: Tey replace traditional stress-strain laws with a direct calcula-

tion of stress-strain behavior using embedded atomic scale simulations. Te atomic

scale computations use empirical potentials to model atom interactions or may

approximate the Schrodinger wave equation directly. Techniques include the “quasi-

continuum” method and the coupled atomistic-discrete dislocation method. Teir

advantage is that they capture the physics of material behavior extremely accurately;

their disadvantage is that they currently can only model extremely small material

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in9 9 9/9/09 7:25:00 PM

10 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

volumes (approximately 20–100 nm). Atomistic models based on empirical poten-

tials contain a large number of adjustable parameters; these are usually calibrated

against known quantities such as elastic moduli and stacking fault energies and

can also be computed using ab initio techniques. Te accuracy of the predictions

depends strongly on the accuracy of the potentials. Currently, these kinds of simu-

lations are used mostly as a research tool for nanotechnology and materials design

applications.

Tis list is by no means exhaustive; additional models are available for materials such

as shape memory alloys, metallic glasses, and piezoelectric materials. Tese material

models are intended primarily to approximate stress-strain behavior. Special constitu-

tive equations have also been developed to model the behavior of contacting surfaces

or interfaces between two solids (Coulomb friction is a simple example). In addition,

if you need to model damage (fracture or fatigue), you may need to select and calibrate

additional material models. For example, to model brittle fracture, you would need to

know the fracture toughness of the material. To model the growth of a fatigue crack,

you would probably use Paris’ crack growth law da/dt = C(ΔK)

n

and would need data

for the Paris constant C and exponent n. Tere are several other stress- or strain-based

fatigue laws in common use. Tese models are ofen curve fts to experimental data

and are not based on any detailed physical understanding of the failure mechanism.

Tey must therefore be used with caution, and material properties must be measured

carefully.

1.1.6 A Representative Initial Value Problem in Solid Mechanics

Te result of the decisions made in Sections 1.1.1 through 1.1.5 is a boundary value problem

(for static problems) or initial value problem (for dynamic problems). Tis information

consists of a set of partial diferential equations, together with initial and boundary

conditions, that must be solved for the displacement and stress felds, as well as any

auxiliary felds (such as temperature) in the solid. To illustrate the structure of these

equations, this section provides a list of the governing equations for a representative initial

value problem.

As a representative example, we state the initial value problem that governs elastic

wave propagation in a linear elastic solid. A representative problem is sketched in Figure 1.2.

Take the following:

1. Te shape of the solid in its unloaded condition R

2. Te mass density ρ, the Young’s modulus E, and Poisson’s ratio ν for the solid

3. Te thermal expansion coem cient α for the solid and temperature distribution

T(x) in the solid (for simplicity, we assume that the temperature does not vary

with time)

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in10 10 9/9/09 7:25:00 PM

Overview of Solid Mechanics ◾ 11

4. Te initial displacement feld in the solid u x

0

( ) and the initial velocity feld v x

0

( )

5. A body force distribution b(x,t) (force per unit volume) acting on the solid

6. Boundary conditions, specifying displacements u

*

(x,t) on a portion ∂

1

R and trac-

tions t

*

(x,t) on a portion∂

2

R of the boundary of R.

Ten, calculate displacements u

i

, strains ε

ij

, and stresses σ

ij

satisfying the governing equa-

tions of linear elastodynamics:

1. Te strain-displacement (compatibility) equation ε

ij i j j i

u x u x = ∂ ∂ +∂ ∂

1

2

( / / ) .

2. Te linear elastic stress-strain law σ ε ε δ

ij ij kk ij

E

v

v

v

Ev

v v

=

+

+

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

+ − 1 1 2 1 1 2 ( )( )

αα δ ∆T

ij

.

3. Te equation of motion for a continuum (F=ma) ∂ ∂ + = ∂ ∂ σ ρ

ij i j j

x b u t / /

2 2

.

4. Te felds must satisfy initial conditions u x t u

u x t

t

v

i i i

i i

i

( , )

( , )

= =

∂ =

∂

= 0

0

0 0

, as well as

boundary conditions u u x t R

i i k

= ∂

*

( , ) on

1

and

1.1.7 Choosing a Method of Analysis

Once you have set up the problem, you will need to solve the equations of motion (or

equilibrium) for a continuum, together with the equations governing material behavior,

to determine the stress and strain distributions in the solid. Several methods are available

for this purpose.

Exact solutions. Tere is a good chance that you can fnd an exact solution for the

following:

1. 2D (plane stress or plane strain) linear elastic solids, particularly under static loading.

Solution techniques include integral transforms, stress function methods, and complex

variable methods. Dynamic solutions are also possible but somewhat more dim cult.

e

3

e

2

e

1

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0

b

t

FIGURE 1.2 Schematic of a representative boundary value problem.

σ

ij i j k

n t x t R = ∂

*

( , ) . on

2

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in11 11 9/9/09 7:25:01 PM

12 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2. 2D viscoelastic solids.

3. 3D linear elasticitity problems can be solved (usually using integral transforms) if

they are simple enough.

4. 2D (plane strain) deformation of rigid plastic solids (using slip line felds).

Naturally, analytical solutions are most easily found for solids with a simple geometry

(e.g., an infnite solid containing a crack, loading applied to a fat surface, etc.). In addition,

special analytical techniques can be used for problems for which the solid’s geometry can

be approximated. Examples include membrane theory, shell and plate theory, beam theory,

and truss analysis.

Even when you can’t fnd an exact solution to the stress and strain felds in your solid,

you can sometimes get the information you need using powerful mathematical theorems.

For example, bounding theorems allow you to estimate the plastic collapse loads for a

structure quickly and easily.

Numerical solutions. Computer simulations are used for most engineering design calcu-

lations in practice and include the following:

1. Te fnite element method (FEM): We will discuss this method in detail later in

this book. It is the most widely used technique and can be used to solve almost any

problem in solid mechanics, provided you understand how to model your material

and have access to a fast enough computer.

2. Finite diference methods: Tey are somewhat similar to FEM but are much less

widely used.

3. Boundary integral equation methods (or boundary element methods): Tese are

more em cient computer techniques for linear elastic problems, but they are not as

useful for problems involving nonlinear materials or geometry.

4. Free volume methods: Tey are used more in computational fuid dynamics than

in solids but are useful for problems involving very large deformations, in which the

solid fows much like a fuid.

5. Atomistic methods: Tey are used in nanotechnology applications to model material

behavior at the atomic scale. Molecular dynamic techniques integrate the equations of

motion (Newton’s laws) for individual atoms, and molecular statics solve equilibrium

equations to calculate atom positions. Te forces between atoms are computed using

empirical constitutive equations, or sometimes using approximations to quantum

mechanics. Tese computations can only consider exceedingly small material vol-

umes (up to a few million atoms) and short timescales (up to a few tens or hundreds

of nanoseconds).

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C001.in12 12 9/9/09 7:25:01 PM

13

2

Governing Equations

Te purpose of this chapter is to summarize the equations that govern the response of

solids to mechanical or thermal loading. Te following topics will be addressed in turn:

1. Te mathematical description of shape changes in a solid

2. Te mathematical description of internal forces in a solid

3. Equations of motion for deformable solids

4. Concepts of mechanical work and power for deformable solids and the important

principle of virtual work.

2.1 MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF SHAPE CHANGES IN SOLIDS

In this section, we list the various mathematical formulas that are used to characterize

shape changes in solids (and in fuids). Te formulas might look scary at frst, but they are

mostly just defnitions. You might fnd it helpful to refresh your memory on vectors and

matrices (Appendix A) and to read the brief discussion of tensors (Appendix B) and index

notation (Appendix C) before wading through this section.

As you work through the various defnitions, you should bear in mind that shape

changes near a point can always be characterized by six numbers. Tese could be the six

independent components of the Lagrangian strain, Eulerian strain, the lef or right stretch

tensors, or your own favorite deformation measure. Given the complete set of six numbers

for any one deformation measure, you can always calculate the components of other strain

measures. Te reason that so many diferent deformation measures exist is partly because

diferent material models adopt diferent strain measures and partly because each measure

is useful for describing a particular type of shape change.

2.1.1 Displacement and Velocity Fields

Te displacement vector u(x,t) describes the motion of each point in the solid. To make

this precise, visualize a solid deforming under external loads, as shown in Figure 2.1. Every

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in13 13 9/9/09 7:28:33 PM

14 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

point in the solid moves as the load is applied: for example, a point at position x in the

undeformed solid might move to a new position y at time t. Te displacement vector is

defned as

y = x + u(x, t).

We could also express this formula using index notation, which is discussed in detail in

Appendix C, as

y

i

= x

i

+ u

i

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, t).

Here, the subscript i has values 1, 2, or 3, and (for example) y

i

represents the three Cartesian

components of the vector y.

Te displacement feld completely specifes the change in shape of the solid. Te velocity

eld would describe its motion as

v x t

y

t

u x t

t

i k

i i k

x

k

( , )

( , )

. =

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=const

Some examples of deformations are listed in Table 2.1.

2.1.2 Displacement Gradient and Deformation Gradient Tensors

Tese quantities are defned by the following:

Displacement gradient tensor: u ⊗ ∇ is a tensor with components

∂

∂

u

x

i

k

.

Deformation gradient tensor:

F I u = + or in Cartesian components ⊗∇ = F

ik

δ

iik

i

k

u

x

+

∂

∂

,

•

•

x

u(x)

e

1

e

3

e

2

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

y

FIGURE 2.1 Deformation of a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in14 14 9/9/09 7:28:34 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 15

TABLE 2.1 Examples of Some Simple Deformations

Volume preserving uniaxial extension:

y x

y x

y x

1 1

2 2

3 3

=

=

=

λ

λ

λ

/

/

e

1

e

2

e

3

L

λL

Simple shear:

y x x

y x

y x

1 1 2

2 2

3 3

=

=

=

+ tanθ

e

3

e

1

e

2

θ

Rigid rotation through angle θ about e

3

axis:

y x x

y x x

y x

1

1

2

2 2 1

3 3

= −

= +

=

cos sin

cos sin

θ θ

θ θ

θ

e

3

e

1

e

2

e

3

e

1

e

2

General rigid rotation about the origin:

y = R⋅x or y

i

= R

ij

x

j

,

where R must satisfy R⋅R

T

= R

T

⋅R = I, det(R) > 0 (i.e., R is proper

orthogonal). I is the identity tensor with components

δ

ik

i k

i k

=

=

≠

¹

,

¹

1

0

,

,

.

e

1

e

2

Alternatively, a rigid rotation through angle θ (with right-hand screw convention) about an axis through the

origin that is parallel to a unit vector n can be written as

y = cosθx + (1−cosθ)(n ⋅ x)n + sinθ(n × x).

Te components of R are thus R

ij

= cosθδ

ij

+ sinθ∈

ikj

n

k

,

where ∈

ijk

is the permutation symbol, satisfying ∈ =

=

=

ijk

i j k

i j k

1 1 2 3 2 3 1

3 2

, , , , ; , ,

, , ,

or 3,1,2

-1 ,, ; , , , , 1 2 1 3 1 3 2

0

or

otherwise .

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

General homogeneous deformation:

y A x A x A x c

y A x A x A x

1 11 1 12 2 13 3 1

2 21 1 22 2 23 3

= + + +

= + + + +

= + + +

c

y A x A x A x c

2

3 31 1 32 2 33 3 3

or

y = A⋅x + c y

i

= A

ij

x

j

+ c

i

where A

ij

are constants.

e

1 e

3

e

2

e

1 e

3

e

2

Te physical signifcance of a homogeneous deformation is that all straight lines in the solid remain

straight under the deformation. Tus, every point in the solid experiences the same shape change. All the

deformations listed above are examples of homogeneous deformations.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in15 15 9/9/09 7:28:35 PM

16 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where I is the identity tensor, with components described by the Kronecker delta

symbol:

δ

ik

i k

i k

=

=

≠

¹

,

¹

1

0

,

,

and ∇ represents the gradient operator. Formally, the gradient of a vector feld u(x) is

defned so that

u n

u x n u x

⊗∇

[ ]

⋅ =

+ −

→

Lim

α

α

α

0

( ) ( )

(for more details, see Appendix B), but in practice the component formula ∂u

i

/ ∂x

j

is more

useful.

Note also that

y x u x F ⊗∇ ⊗∇ = ( + ( )) =

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+ or

y

x x

x u

i

j j

i i

( ) == +

∂

∂

= δ

ij

i

j

ij

u

x

F

Te rules of diferentiation using index notation are described in more detail in Appendix C.

Te concepts of displacement gradient and deformation gradient are introduced to

quantify the change in shape of infnitesimal line elements in a solid body. To see this,

imagine drawing a straight line on the undeformed confguration of a solid, as shown in

Figure 2.2. Te line would be mapped to a smooth curve on the deformed confguration.

However, suppose we focus attention on a line segment dx, much shorter than the radius

of curvature of this curve, as shown. Te segment would be straight in the undeformed

confguration and would also be (almost) straight in the deformed confguration. Tus, no

matter how complex a deformation we impose on a solid, infnitesimal line segments are

x

u(x)

e

3

e

1

e

2

dx

dy

u(x+dx)

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

FIGURE 2.2 Deformation of an infnitesimal line element in a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in16 16 9/9/09 7:28:35 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 17

merely stretched and rotated by a deformation. Te infnitesimal line segments dx and dy

are related by

dy = F ⋅ dx or dy

i

= F

ik

dx

k

Written out as a matrix equation, we have

dy

dy

dy

u

x

u

x

u

x

1

2

3

1

1

1

2

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

=

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

33

2

1

2

2

2

3

3

1

3

2

3

1

1

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

∂∂

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

x

dx

dx

dx

3

1

2

3

11

1

To derive this result, consider an infnitesimal line element dx in a deforming solid. When

the solid is deformed, this line element is stretched and rotated to a deformed line element

dy. If we know the displacement feld in the solid, we can compute dy =[x + dx + u(x +

dx)] – [x + u(x)] from the position vectors of its two end points

dy

i

= x

i

+ dx

i

+ u

i

(x

k

+ dx

k

) – (x

i

+ u

i

(x

k

))

Expand u

i

(x

k

+ dx

k

) as a Taylor series

u x dx u x

u

x

dx

i k k i k

i

k

k

( ) ( ) + ≈ +

∂

∂

so that

dy dx

u

x

dx

u

x

dx

i i

i

k

k ik

i

k

k

= +

∂

∂

= +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

δ

We identify the term in parentheses as the deformation gradient, so

dy

i

= F

ik

dx

k

Te inverse of the deformation gradient F

–1

arises in many calculations. It is defned

through

dx F dy

i ik k

=

−1

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in17 17 9/9/09 7:28:36 PM

18 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

or alternatively,

F

x

y

ij

i

j

−

=

∂

∂

1

.

2.1.3 Deformation Gradient Resulting from Two Successive Deformations

Suppose that two successive deformations are applied to a solid, as shown in Figure 2.3.

Let

dy d d d dy F dx dz F dy

i ij j i ij j

= = or F x z F y

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 1 2

⋅ ⋅ = =

map infnitesimal line elements from the original confguration to the frst deformed shape

and from the frst deformed shape to the second, respectively, with

F y F z

x y

(1) (2)

= = or ⊗∇ ⊗∇ =

∂

∂

F

y

x

F

ij

i

j

ij

( ) ( 1 22)

=

∂

∂

z

y

i

j

.

Te deformation gradient that maps infnitesimal line elements from the original confgu-

ration directly to the second deformed shape then follows as

d d dz F dx F F

i ij j ij

z F x F F F = with = or ⋅ ⋅ = =

( ) ( ) 2 1

iik kj

F

( ) ( ) 2 1

.

Tus, the cumulative deformation gradient attributable to two successive deformations

follows by multiplying their individual deformation gradients.

To see this, write the cumulative mapping as z

i

(y

j

(x

k

)) and apply the chain rule

dz

z

y

y

x

dx

i

i

j

j

k

k

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

.

x

u

(1)

(x)

e

3

e

1

e

2

dx

dy

Original

conﬁguration

After ﬁrst

deformation

dz

u

(2)

(y)

y z

After second

deformation

FIGURE 2.3 Solid subjected to two successive deformations.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in18 18 9/9/09 7:28:36 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 19

2.1.4 The Jacobian of the Deformation Gradient

Te Jacobian is defned as

J

u

x

ij

i

j

= = +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

det( ) det . F δ

It is a measure of the volume change produced by a deformation. To see this, consider the

infnitessimal volume element with sides dx, dy, and dz shown in Figure 2.4. Te original

volume of the element is

dV

0

= dz ⋅ (dx × dy) = ∈

ijk

dz

i

dx

j

dy

k

.

Here, ∈

ijk

is the permutation symbol. Te element is mapped to a paralellepiped with sides

dr, dv, and dw with volume given by

dV = ∈

ijk

dw

i

dr

j

dv

k

.

Recall that

dr

i

= F

il

dx

l

, dv

j

= F

jm

dy

m

, dw

k

= F

kn

dz

n

so that

dV = ∈

ijk

F

il

dx

l

F

jm

dy

m

F

kn

dz

n

= ∈

ijk

F

il

F

jm

F

kn

dx

l

dy

m

dz

n

.

Recall that

∈

ijk

A

il

A

jm

A

kn

= ∈

lmn

det(A)

so that

dV = det(F) ∈

lmn

dx

l

dy

m

dz

n

= det(F)dV

0

.

Hence,

dV

dV

J

0

= =

det( ) F .

dx

dy

dz dr

dv

dw

e

3

e

1

e

2

Undeformed

Deformed

dV

dV

0

FIGURE 2.4 Deformation of an infnitesimal volume element in a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in19 19 9/9/09 7:28:36 PM

20 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Observe the following:

For any physically admissible deformation, the volume of the deformed element must

be positive (no matter how much you deform a solid, you can’t make material disap-

pear). Terefore, all physically admissible displacement felds must satisfy J > 0.

If a material is incompressible, its volume remains constant. Tis requires J = 1.

If the mass density of the material at a point in the undeformed solid is ρ

0

, its mass

density in the deformed solid is ρ = ρ

0

/ J.

When working with constitutive equations, it is occasionally necessary to evalu-

ate derivatives of J with respect to the components of F. Te following result (which can

be proved by, for example, expanding the Jacobian using index notation) is extremely

useful:

∂

∂

=

−

J

F

JF

ij

ji

1

.

2.1.5 Lagrange Strain Tensor

Te Lagrange strain tensor is defned as

E F F I =

1

2

or ( ) ( )

T

ij ki kj ij

E F F ⋅ − = −

1

2

δ .

Te components of Lagrange strain can also be expressed in terms of the displacement

gradient as

E

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

ij

i

j

j

i

k

j

k

i

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

.

Te Lagrange strain tensor quantifes the changes in length of a material fber and angles

between pairs of fbers in a deformable solid. It is used in calculations in which large shape

changes are expected.

To visualize the physical signifcance of E, suppose we mark out an imaginary tensile

specimen with (very short) length l

0

on our deforming solid, as shown in Figure 2.5. Te

orientation of the specimen is arbitrary and is specifed by a unit vector m, with components

m

i

. Afer deformation, the specimen increases in length to l = l

0

+ δl. Defne the strain of

the specimen as

ε

L i

m

l l

l

l

l

l

l

( )

( )

=

−

= +

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

2 2

δ δ

.

•

•

•

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in20 20 9/9/09 7:28:37 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 21

Note that this defnition of strain is similar to the defnition ε = δl/l

0

you are familiar with

but contains an additional term. Te additional term is negligible for small δl. Given the

Lagrange strain components E

ij

, the strain of the specimen may be computed from

ε

L

(m) = m ⋅ E ⋅ m or ε

L

(m

i

) = E

ij

m

i

m

j

.

We proceed to derive this result. Note that

dx

i

= l

0

m

i

is an infnitesimal vector with length and orientation of our undeformed specimen. From

the preceding section, this vector is stretched and rotated to

dy

u

x

dx

u

x

l m

k kj

k

j

j kj

k

j

= +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

δ δ

0 jj

.

Te length of the deformed specimen is equal to the length of dy, so we see that

l dy dy

u

x

l m

u

x

k k kj

k

j

j ki

k

i

2

0

= = +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

δ δ

__

,

= +

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

¸

¸

l m

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

i

ij

i

j

j

i

k

i

k

j

0

δ

__

,

l m m

j i 0

2

.

Hence, the strain for our line element is

ε

L i

i

j

j

i

k

j

k

i

m

l l

l

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

( ) =

−

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

2

0

2

0

2

2

1

2

¸¸

¸

_

,

mm

i j

,

giving the results stated.

e

3

e

1

e

2

l

0

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

m

l

FIGURE 2.5 Deformation of a material fber in a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in21 21 9/9/09 7:28:37 PM

22 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2.1.6 Eulerian Strain Tensor

Te Eulerian strain tensor is defned as

E I F F

* *

( ) ( ) =

1

2

or − ⋅ = −

− − − − T

ij ij ki kj

E F F

1 1 1

1

2

δ

.

Its physical signifcance is similar to the Lagrange strain tensor, except that it enables you

to compute the strain of an infnitesimal line element from its orientation aer deforma-

tion. Specifcally, suppose that n denotes a unit vector parallel to the deformed material

fber, as shown in Figure 2.6. Ten

ε ε

E E i ij i j

l l

l

n E nn ( ) ( )

* *

n n E n =

−

= ⋅ ⋅ =

2

0

2

2

2

or

.

Te proof is lef as an exercise.

2.1.7 Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor

Te infnitesimal strain tensor is defned as

e = ⊗∇+ ⊗∇

( )

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

1

2

u u ( )

T

ij

i

j

j

i

u

x

u

x

or ε ,,

where u is the displacement vector. Written out in full,

e

2

e

1

e

3

l

0

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

n

l

FIGURE 2.6 Deformation of a material fber in a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in22 22 9/9/09 7:28:37 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 23

ε

ij

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

≡

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

+

∂

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

3

3

1

2

1

2 ∂∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

∂

∂

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

1

2

1

2 xx

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

3

3

2

3

1

1

3

3

1

2

1

2

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂xx

u

x

u

x

2

2

3

3

3

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

.

Te infnitesimal strain tensor is an approximate deformation measure, which is only

valid for small shape changes. It is more convenient than the Lagrange or Eulerian strain,

because it is linear.

Specifcally, suppose the deformation gradients are small, so that all δu

i

/ δx

j

<< 1. Ten

the Lagrange strain tensor is

E

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

ij

i

j

j

i

k

j

k

i

i

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂ 1

2

+ ≈

1

2 ∂∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

x

u

x

j

j

i

ij

≈ε

,

so the infnitesimal strain approximates the Lagrange strain. You can show that it also

approximates the Eulerian strain with the same accuracy.

Te properties of the infnitesimal strain tensor include the following:

For small strains, the engineering strain of an infnitesimal fber aligned with a unit

vector m can be estimated as

ε ε

e ij i j

l l

l

mm ( ) m =

−

≈

0

0

.

Note that

trace( ) e ≡ =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

=

−

ε

kk

u

x

u

x

u

x

dV dV

dV

1

1

2

2

3

3

0

0

.

For more details, see Section 2.1.9.

Te infnitesimal strain tensor is closely related to the strain matrix introduced in

elementary strength of materials courses. For example, the physical signifcance of

the (2D) strain matrix

ε γ

γ ε

11 12

21 22

¸

1

]

1

is illustrated in Figure 2.7.

•

•

•

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in23 23 9/9/09 7:28:38 PM

24 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

To relate this to the infntesimal strain tensor, let {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} be a Cartesian basis, with e

1

parallel to x and e

2

parallel to y as shown. Let ε

ij

denote the components of the infnitesimal

strain tensor in this basis. Ten

ε

11

= ε

xx

ε

22

= ε

yy

ε

12

= ε

21

= γ

xy

/ 2 = γ

yx

/ 2.

2.1.8 Engineering Shear Strains

For a general strain tensor (which could be any of E, E

*

or ε, among others), the diago-

nal strain components ε

11

, ε

22

, ε

33

are known as “direct” strains, whereas the of-diagonal

terms ε

12

= ε

21

ε

13

= ε

31

ε

23

= ε

32

are known as “shear” strains.

Te shear strains are sometimes reported as “engineering shear strains,” which are

related to the formal defnition by a factor of 2, i.e.,

γ

12

= 2ε

12

γ

13

= 2ε

13

γ

23

= 2ε

23

.

Tis factor of 2 is an endless source of confusion. Whenever someone reports shear strain

to you, be sure to check which defnition they are using. In particular, many commercial

fnite element codes output engineering shear strains.

2.1.9 Decomposition of Inﬁnitesimal Strain into Volumetric and Deviatoric Parts

Te volumetric innitesimal strain is defned as trace(ε) ≡ ε

kk

. Te deviatoric innitesimal

strain is defned as

e I =

1

3

trace( ) = e e − ≡ − e

ij ij ij kk

ε

1

3

δ ε

.

Te volumetric strain is a measure of volume changes and, for small strains, is related to

the Jacobian of the deformation gradient by ε

kk

≈ J – 1. To see this, recall that

J

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

=

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

det

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

3

2

1

2

2

2

∂∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

3

3

1

3

2

3

3

1

11

≈ +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

1 1 1

1

1

2

2

3

3

u

x

u

x

u

x

_

,

≈ +

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

1

1

1

2

2

3

3

u

x

u

x

u

x

.

l

0

l

0

l

0

(1+e

22

)

/2-12

l

0

(1+e

11

)

e

1

e

2

O A

B

C

O

A

B C

FIGURE 2.7 Plane deformation of an area element in a solid, showing defnition of engi-

neering strain measures.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in24 24 9/9/09 7:28:38 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 25

Te deviatioric strain is a measure of shear deformation (shear deformation involves no

volume change).

2.1.10 Inﬁnitesimal Rotation Tensor

Te infnitesimal rotation tensor is defned as

w u u = ∇− ∇

( )

( )

=

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

1

2

T

ij

i

j

j

i

or w

u

x

u

x

.

Written out as a matrix, the components of w

ij

are

w

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

ij

≡

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

−

∂

0

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

2

1

1

3

3

1

2

1

11

2

2

3

3

2

3

1

1

3

0

1

2

1

2

1

2

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

33

2

2

3

0

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

x

u

x

.

Observe that w

ij

is skew symmetric: w

ij

= – w

ij

.

A skew tensor represents a rotation through a small angle. Specifcally, the opera-

tion dy

i

= (δ

ij

+ w

ij

)dx

j

rotates the infnitesimal line element dx

j

through a small angle

θ = w w

ij ij

/ 2 about an axis parallel to the unit vector n

i

= ∈

ijk

w

kj

/(2θ). (A skew ten-

sor also sometimes represents an angular velocity.) To visualize the signifcance of w

ij

,

consider the behavior of an imaginary, infnitesimal, tensile specimen embedded in a

deforming solid. Te specimen is stretched and then rotated through an angle ϕ about

some axis q (Figure 2.8). If the displacement gradients are small, then ϕ <<1. Te rotation

of the specimen depends on its original orientation, represented by the unit vector m.

One can show (although one would rather not do all the algebra) that w

ij

represents the

average rotation, over all possible orientations of m, of material fbers passing through

a point.

As a fnal remark, we note that a general deformation can always be decomposed into an

infnitesimal strain and rotation:

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

∂

∂

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

i

j

i

j

j

i

i

j

1

2

1

2

. −

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= +

u

x

w

j

i

ij ij

ε

Physically, this sum of ε

ij

and w

ij

can be regarded as representing two successive deforma-

tions: a small strain, followed by a rotation, in the sense that

dy

i

= (δ

ik

+ w

ik

)(δ

kj

+ ε

kj

)dx

j

≈ dx

i

+ (ε

ij

+ w

ij

)dx

j

frst stretches the infnitesimal line element and then rotates it.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in25 25 9/9/09 7:28:39 PM

26 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2.1.11 Principal Values and Directions of the Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor

Te three principal values e

i

and directions n

(i)

of the infnitesimal strain tensor satisfy

=

or =

( )

e⋅ n n

( )

( ) ( )

i

i

i

kl l

i

i k

i

e

n e n ε

Clearly, e

i

and n

(i)

are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of e. Tere are three principal strains

and three principal directions, which are always mutually perpendicular.

Teir signifcance can be visualized as follows:

1. Note that the decomposition

∂

∂

= +

u

x

w

i

j

ij ij

ε can be visualized as a small strain, fol-

lowed by a small rigid rotation, as shown in Figure 2.9.

2. Te formula ε ⋅ n

(i)

= e

i

n

(i)

indicates that a vector n is mapped to another, parallel vec-

tor by the strain.

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

n

(1)

n

(2)

I+w

n

(2)

n

(1)

I+ε

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.9 Decomposition of an infnitesimal strain into a stretch and a rotation.

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

m l

m

φ

q

n

l

0

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.8 Rotation and extension of a material fber in a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in26 26 9/9/09 7:28:39 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 27

3. Tus, if you draw a small cube with its faces perpendicular to n

(i)

on the undeformed

solid, this cube will be stretched perpendicular to each face, with a fractional increase

in length e

i

= δl

i

/ l

0

. Te faces remain perpendicular to n

(i)

afer deformation.

4. Finally, w rotates the small cube through a small angle onto its confguration in the

deformed solid.

2.1.12 Cauchy–Green Deformation Tensors

Tere are two Cauchy–Green deformation tensors, defned through the following:

Te right Cauchy–Green deformation tensor: C = F

T

⋅ F C

ij

= F

ki

F

kj

.

Te lef Cauchy–Green deformation tensor: B = F ⋅ F

T

B

ij

= F

ik

F

jk

.

Tey are called “lef” and “right” tensors because of their relation to the “lef” and “right”

stretch tensors defned below. Tey can be regarded as quantifying the squared length of

infnitesimal fbers in the deformed confguration by noting that, if a material fber dx = l

0

m

in the undeformed solid is stretched and rotated to dy = ln in the deformed solid, then

l

l

l

l

2

0

2

0

2

2

1

= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅

−

m C m n B n.

2.1.13 Rotation Tensor and Left and Right Stretch Tensors

Te defnitions of these quantities are as follows:

Te right stretch tensor:

U C F F = = =

1/2 1/2 T

ij ij

U C ⋅

( )

1 2 /

.

Te lef stretch tensor:

V B =

1 2 1 2 / /

V B

ij ij

= .

Te rotation tensor:

R F U V F = ⋅ = ⋅

− − − − 1 1 1 1

R F U V F

ij ik kj ik kj

= = .

To calculate these quantities, you need to remember how to calculate the square root of

a matrix. For example, to calculate the square root of C, you must do the following:

1. Calculate the eigenvalues of C; we will call these λ

n

2

, with n = 1, 2, 3. Because

C and B are both symmetric and positive definite, the eigenvalues λ

n

2

are all

•

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in27 27 9/9/09 7:28:39 PM

28 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

positive real numbers, and therefore their square roots λ

n

are also positive real

numbers.

2. Calculate the eigenvectors of C and normalize them so they have unit magnitude. We

will denote the eigenvectors by c

(n)

. Tey must be normalized to satisfy c

(n)

⋅ c

(n)

= 1.

3. Finally, calculate C c

1 2 / ( )

=

( )

∑ λ

3

n

n n

=1 n

⊗c , where ⊗ denotes a dyadic product (see

Appendix B). In components, this can be written

C =

1/2

ij n i

n

∑ λ

3

n

n

j

c c

=1

( ) ( )

.

4. As an additional bonus, you can quickly compute the inverse square root (which is

needed to fnd R) as

C c c

− −

⊗

1 2 1 2

1 1

/ ( ) /

= or C = c

1

3 ( )

1

3

∑

λ

∑

λ

n= n=

n

n n

ij

n

i

(( ) ( ) n

j

n

c

.

To see the physical signifcance of these tensors, observe the following:

1. Te defnition of the rotation tensor shows that

R = F ⋅ U

–1

⇔ F = R ⋅ U

R = V

–1

⋅ F ⇔ F = V ⋅ R.

2. Te multiplicative decomposition of a constant tensor F = R ⋅ U can be regarded as a

sequence of two homogeneous deformations: U, followed by R. Similarly, F = V ⋅ R is

R followed by V.

3. R is proper orthogonal (it satisfes R ⋅ R

T

= R

T

= I and det(R) = 1) and therefore represents

a rotation. To see this, note that U is symmetric and therefore satisfes U

–T

= U

–1

, so that

R

T

⋅ R = (F ⋅ U

–1

)

T

⋅ (F ⋅ U

–1

)

= U

–T

⋅ F

T

⋅ F ⋅ U

–1

= U

–1

⋅ U

2

⋅ U

–1

= I

and det(R) = det(F)det(U

-1

) = 1.

4. U can be expressed in the form

U = λ

1

u

(1)

⊗ u

(1)

+ λ

2

u

(2)

⊗ u

(2)

+ λ

3

u

(3)

⊗ u

(3)

where u

(i)

are the three (mutually perpendicular) eigenvectors of U. (By construction,

these are identical to the eigenvectors of C.) If we interpret u

(i)

as basis vectors, we see

that U is diagonal in this basis and so corresponds to stretching parallel to each basis

vector, as shown in Figure 2.10.

Te decompositions F = R ⋅ U and F = V ⋅ R are known as the right and lef polar decom-

position of F. (Te right and lef refer to the positions of U and V.) Tey show that every

homogeneous deformation can be decomposed into a stretch followed by a rigid rotation

or, equivalently, into a rigid rotation followed by a stretch. Te decomposition is discussed

in more detail in the next section.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in28 28 9/9/09 7:28:40 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 29

2.1.14 Principal Stretches

Te principal stretches can be calculated from any one of the following (they all give the

same answer):

1. Te eigenvalues of the right stretch tensor U.

2. Te eigenvalues of the lef stretch tensor V.

3. Te square root of the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy–Green tensor C.

4. Te square root of the eigenvalues of the lef Cauchy–Green tensor B.

5. Te principal stretches are also related to the eigenvalues of the Lagrange and Eulerian

strains. Te details are lef as an exercise.

Tere are two sets of principal stretch directions, associated with the undeformed and

deformed solids.

1. Te principal stretch directions in the undeformed solid are the (normalized) eigen-

vectors of U or C. Denote these by u

(i)

.

2. Te principal stretch directions in the deformed solid are the (normalized) eigenvec-

tors of V or B. Denote these by v

(i)

.

To visualize the physical signifcance of principal stretches and their directions, note

that a deformation can be decomposed as F = R ⋅ U into a sequence of a stretch followed

by a rotation.

Note also the following:

1. Te principal directions u

(i)

are mutually perpendicular. You could draw a little cube

on the undeformed solid with faces perpendicular to these directions, as shown in

Figure 2.11.

2. Te stretch U will stretch the cube by an amount λ

i

parallel to each u

(i)

. Te faces of

the stretched cube remain perpendicular to u

(i)

.

3. Te rotation R will rotate the stretched cube so that the directions u

(i)

rotate to line

up with v

(i)

.

4. Te faces of the deformed cube are perpendicular to v

(i)

.

λ

3

λ

1

λ

2

u

(2)

u

(1)

u

(3)

u

(1)

1

1

1

u

(3)

u

(2)

FIGURE 2.10 Te deformation characterized by the right stretch tensor.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in29 29 9/9/09 7:28:40 PM

30 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te decomposition F = V ⋅ R can be visualized in much the same way. In this case, the

directions u

(i)

are frst rotated to coincide with v

(i)

. Te cube is then stretched parallel to

each v

(i)

to produce the same shape change.

We could compare the undeformed and deformed cubes by placing them side by side,

with the vectors v

(i)

and u

(i)

parallel, as shown in Figure 2.12.

2.1.15 Generalized Strain Measures

Te polar decompositions F = V ⋅ R and F = V ⋅ R provide a way to defne additional strain

measures. Let λ

i

denote the principal stretches and let u

(i)

and v

(i)

denote the normalized

eigenvectors of U and V. Ten one could defne strain tensors through

Lagrangian nominal strain: ( )

( ) ( )

3

λ

i

i i

− ⊗

=

1

1

u u

i

∑∑

⊗ Lagrangian logarithmic strain: log( )

( ) (

λ

i

i i

u u

))

3

i=

∑

1

.

Te correspoinding Eulerian strain measures are

Eulerian nominal strain: ( )

E

( ) ( )

3

λ

i

i i

− ⊗

=

∑

1

1

v v

i

uulerian logarithmic strain: log( )

( ) ( )

λ

i

i i

v v ⊗

= i 1

33

∑

.

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

u

(1)

u

(2)

v

(2)

v

(1)

U

R

u

(2)

u

(1)

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.11 Decomposition of the deformation gradient into a stretch, followed by a rotation

u

1

u

3

u

2

λ

3

λ

1

λ

2

v

1

v

2

v

3

FIGURE 2.12 Te deformation characterized by the lef stretch tensor.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in30 30 9/9/09 7:28:41 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 31

Another strain measure can be defned as

Green s strain:

1

2

( )

( ) ( )

i

3

’ E v v

G i

i i

= − ⊗

=

∑

λ

2

1

1

.

Tis can be computed directly from the deformation gradient as

E F F I

G

T

= ⋅ −

( )

1

2

and is very similar to the Lagrangean strain tensor, except that its principal directions are

rotated through the rigid rotation R.

2.1.16 The Velocity Gradient

We now list several measures of the rate of deformation. Te velocity gradient is the basic

measure of deformation rate and is defned as

L v

y

= ⊗∇ ≡ =

∂

∂

L

v

y

ij

i

j

.

It quantifes the relative velocities of two material particles at positions y and y + dy in the

deformed solid, in the sense that

dv v d v

v

y

dy

i i i

i

j

j

= + − =

∂

∂

( ) ( ) y y y

.

Te velocity gradient can be expressed in terms of the deformation gradient and its time

derivative as

v F F

y

⊗∇ = ⋅

∂

∂

=

− −

1 1

v

y

F F

i

j

ik kj .

To see this, note that

dv

d

dt

dy

d

dt

F dx F dx

i i ij j ij j

= =

( )

=

and recall that dy F dx dx F dy

j ji i j jk k

= ⇒ =

−1

, so that

dv F F dy

i ij jk k

=

−

1

.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in31 31 9/9/09 7:28:41 PM

32 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2.1.17 Stretch Rate and Spin Tensors

Te stretch rate tensor is defned as D = (L + L

T

)/2, or, in index notation, D

ij

= (L

ij

+ L

ji

) / 2.

Te spin tensor is defned as W = (L – L

T

)/2 or W

ij

= (L

ij

+ L

ji

) / 2.

A general velocity gradient can be decomposed into the sum of stretch rate and spin, as

L = D + W L

ij

= D

ij

+ W

ij

.

Te stretch rate quantifes the rate of stretching of a material fber in the deformed solid,

in the sense that

1

l

dl

dt

n D n

i ij j

= ⋅ ⋅ = n D n

is the rate of stretching of a material fber with length l and orientation n in the deformed

solid, as shown in Figure 2.13. To see this, let dy = ln, so that

d

dt

d

dl

dt

l

d

dt

y n

n

= +

.

By defnition,

d

dt

d

d

dt

d d d d d y F x F x F F y F F y L y = ⋅

( )

= ⋅ = ⋅

( )

= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅

− −

1 1

== ⋅ ( ) . D W n + l

Hence,

( ) . D W n n

n

+ ⋅ = + l

dl

dt

l

d

dt

Finally, take the dot product of both sides with n. Note that, because n is a unit vector, dn / dt

must be perpendicular to n and therefore n ⋅ dn / dt = 0. Note also that n ⋅ W ⋅ n = 0, because

W is skew symmetric. It is easiest to show this using index notation:

n

i

W

ij

n

j

= n

i

(L

ij

– L

ji

) n

j

/ 2 = 0.

Terefore,

n D W n n n n

n

n D n ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ ⇒ ⋅ ⋅ = ( ) . l

dl

dt

l

d

dt

l

dl

dt

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

n

e

2

e

1

e

3

l

0

l

FIGURE 2.13 Deformation of a material fber in a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in32 32 9/9/09 7:28:42 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 33

Te spin tensor W can be shown to provide a measure of the average angular velocity of all

material fbers passing through a material point.

2.1.18 Inﬁnitesimal Strain Rate and Rotation Rate

For small strains, the rate of deformation tensor can be approximated by the infnitesimal

strain rate, whereas the spin can be approximated by the time derivative of the infnitesi-

mal rotation tensor:

d

dt

d

dt

D

d

dt

d

dt

T

ij ij

e = ⊗∇+ ⊗∇ ( )

( )

≈ ≈

=

1

2

1

u u D

w

or

ε

22

u u W ⊗∇− ⊗∇ ( )

( )

≈ ≈

T

ij ij

w W or .

Similarly, you can show that

d

dt

u

x

F w L

i

j

ij ij ij ij

∂

∂

= = + ≈

ε .

2.1.19 Other Deformation Rate Measures

Te rate of deformation tensor can be related to time derivatives of other strain measures.

For example, the time derivative of the Lagrange strain tensor can be shown to be

d

dt

E F D F

T

ij ki kl lj

E

F D F = ⋅ ⋅ =

.

Other useful results are as follows:

For a pure rotation,

R R R R 0 ⋅ + ⋅ =

T T

or, equivalently,

R R R R ⋅ = − ⋅

( )

T T

T

. To see

this, recall that R R I

.

T

= and evaluate the time derivative.

If the deformation gradient is decomposed into a stretch followed by a rotation as

F = R ⋅ U, then

D R U U U U R = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅

( )

⋅

− −

1 1

2

T

/ and W R R = ⋅

T

+ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅

( )

⋅

− −

R U U U U R

1 1

2

T

/ .

Te trace of D is a measure of rate of change of volume. To see this, note that

dJ

dt

dJ

dF

dF

dt

JF F JL JD

ij

ij

ji ij ii ii

= = = =

−1

.

For small strains, the rate of change of Lagrangian strain E is approximately equal to the

rate of change of infnitesimal strain:

d

dt

d

dt

E

d

dt

ij ij

E

≈ ≈ e

ε

.

•

•

•

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in33 33 9/9/09 7:28:42 PM

34 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2.1.20 Strain Equations of Compatibility for Inﬁnitesimal Strains

It is sometimes necessary to invert the relations between strain and displacement, that is

to say, given the strain feld, to compute the displacements. In this section, we outline how

this is done, for the special case of innitesimal deformations.

For infnitesimal motions, the relation between strain and displacement is

ε

ij

i

j

j

i

u

x

u

x

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

.

Given the six strain components ε

ij

(six, because ε

ij

= ε

ji

), we want to determine the three dis-

placement components u

i

. First, note that we can never completely recover the displacement

feld that gives rise to a particular strain feld. Any rigid motion produces no strain, so the dis-

placements can only be completely determined if there is some additional information (besides

the strain) that will tell us how much the solid has rotated and translated. However, integrating

the strain feld can tell us the displacement feld to within an arbitrary rigid motion.

Second, we need to be sure that the strain-displacement relations can be integrated at

all. Te strain is a symmetric second-order tensor feld, but not all symmetric second-order

tensor felds can be strain felds. Te strain-displacement relations amount to a system of

six scalar diferential equations for the three displacement components u

i

.

To be integrable, the strains must satisfy the compatibility conditions, which may be

expressed as

∈ ∈

∂

∂ ∂

=

ipm jqn

mn

p q

x x

2

0

ε

,

or, equivalently,

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂

2 2 2 2

ε ε ε ε

ij

k l

kl

i j

il

j k

jk

x x x x x x x

ii l

x ∂

= 0,

or, once more equivalently,

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂

2

11

2

2

2

22

1

2

2

12

1 2

2

11

3

2

2 0

ε ε ε

ε

x x x x

x

++

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

2

33

1

2

2

13

1 3

2

22

3

2

2

33

2 0

ε ε

ε ε

x x x

x x

22

2

2

23

2 3

2 0 −

∂

∂ ∂

=

ε

x x

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

2

11

2 3 1

23

1

31

2

12

3

ε ε ε ε

x x x x x x

__

,

=

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

0

2

22

3 1 2

31

2

12

3

23

ε ε ε ε

x x x x x ∂∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

x

x x x x x

1

2

33

1 2 3

12

3

23

0

ε ε ε

11

31

2

0 +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

ε

x

.

It is easy to show that all strain felds must satisfy these conditions; you simply need to

substitute for the strains in terms of displacements and show that the appropriate equation

is satisfed. For example,

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in34 34 9/9/09 7:28:43 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 35

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂ ∂

2

11

2

2

2

22

1

2

2

12

1 2

4

1

1 2

2

ε ε ε

x x x x

u

x x

22

4

2

2 1

2

2

1 2

1

2

2

1

2

1

2

+

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_ u

x x x x

u

x

u

x ,,

= 0

and similarly for the other expressions. Note that, for planar problems for which ε ε

13 23

0 = =

ε

3

0 = and

d

dx

ij

, all of these compatibility equations are satisfed trivially, with the exception

of the frst:

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

2

11

2

2

2

22

1

2

2

12

1 2

2 0

ε ε ε

x x x x

.

Te following can be shown:

1. If the strains do not satisfy the equations of compatibility, then a displacement vector

cannot be integrated from the strains.

2. If the strains satisfy the compatibility equations and the solid is simply connected (i.e.,

it contains no holes that go all the way through its thickness), then a displacement

vector can be integrated from the strains.

3. If the solid is not simply connected, a displacement vector can be calculated, but it

may not be single valued; i.e., you may get diferent solutions depending on how the

path of integration encircles the holes.

Now, let us return to the question posed at the beginning of this section. Given the

strains, how do we compute the displacements?

For two dimensions (plane stress or plane strain), the procedure is quite simple and is

best illustrated by working through a specifc case. As a representative example, we will use

the strain feld in a 2D (plane stress) cantilever beam with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s

ratio ν loaded at one end by a force P, as shown in Figure 2.14. Te beam has a rectangular

cross section with height 2a and out-of-plane width b. We will show later (Section 5.2.4)

that the strain feld in the beam is

ε ε ε

11 1 2 22 1 2 12

2

2

2

2 2 1 = =− = + −

( )

Cx x vCx x v C a x C ( ) , ==

3

4

3

P

Ea b

.

We frst check that the strain is compatible. For 2D problems, this requires

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

2

11

2

2

2

22

1

2

2

12

1 2

2 0

ε ε ε

x x x x

,

which is clearly satisfed in this case.

For a 2D problem, we only need to determine u

1

(x

1

,x

2

) and u

2

(x

1

,x

2

) such that

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

=

u

x

u

x

u

u

u

x

1

1

11

2

2

22

1

2

2

1

ε ε , , and 2 2

12

ε .

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36 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te frst two of these give

ε ε

11

1

1

1 2 22

2

2

1 2

2 2 =

∂

∂

= =

∂

∂

=

u

x

Cx x

u

x

vCx x .

We can integrate the frst equation with respect to x

1

and the second equation with respect

to x

2

to get

u Cx x f x u vCx x f x

1 1

2

2 1 2 2 1 2

2

2 1

= + = − + ( ) ( ),

where f

1

(x

2

) and f

2

(x

1

) are two functions of x

2

and x

1

, respectively, which are yet to be deter-

mined. We can fnd these functions by substituting the formulas for u

1

(x

1

,x

2

) and u

2

(x

1

,x

2

)

into the expression for shear strain

ε

12

1

2

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

1

1

2

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= + −

⇒

u

x

u

x

v C a x

Cx

( ) ( )

−− + +

¸

¸

_

,

= + − vCx

df

dx

df

dx

v C a x

2

2 1

2

2

1

2

2

2

1 ( ) ( ).

We can rewrite this as

df

dx

Cx

df

dx

vCx v C a x

2

1

1

2 1

2

2

2 2

2

2 1 +

¸

¸

_

,

+ − − + − ( )

22

0

( )

¸

¸

_

,

= .

Te two terms in parentheses are functions of x

1

and x

2

, respectively. Because the lef-hand

side must vanish for all values of x

1

and x

2

, this means that

df

dx

Cx

df

dx

vCx v C a x

2

1

1

2

1

2

2

2 2

2 1

+

¸

¸

_

,

=

− − + −

ω

( )

22

2

( )

¸

¸

_

,

= −ω,

e

1

e

2

P

L

a

a

b

FIGURE 2.14 End-loaded cantilever beam.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in36 36 9/9/09 7:28:43 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 37

where ω is an arbitrary constant. We can now integrate these expressions to see that

f v Ca x

C

v x c

f x

C

x

1

2

2 2

3

2 1 1

3

2 1

3

2

3

= + − − + +

= −

( ( ) ) ( ) ω

ω ++d,

where c and d are two more arbitrary constants. Finally, the displacement feld follows as

u Cx x

C

v x v Ca x x c

u v

1 1

2

2 2

3 2

2 2

2

3

2 2 1 = − + + + − +

= −

( ) ( ) ω

CCx x

C

x x d

1 2

2

1

3

1

3

− + + ω .

Te three arbitrary constants ω, c, and d can be seen to represent a small rigid rotation

through angle ω about the x

3

axis, together with a displacement (c,d) parallel to (x

1

,x

2

)

axes, respectively.

For a general, 3D feld, a more formal procedure is required. Because the strains are the

derivatives of the displacement feld, so you might guess that we compute the displace-

ments by integrating the strains. Tis is more or less correct. Te general procedure is

outlined below.

We frst pick a point x

0

in the solid and arbitrarily say that the displacement at x

0

is zero

and also take the rotation of the solid at x

0

to be zero. Ten, we can compute the displace-

ments at any other point x in the solid by integrating the strains along any convenient path,

as shown in Figure 2.15. In a simply connected solid, it doesn’t matter what path you pick.

x

u(x)

Deformed

conﬁguration

x

0

ξ

Path A

Path B

u(x

0

)=0

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.15 Two possible paths of integration used to determine the displacement cor-

responding to a strain.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in37 37 9/9/09 7:28:44 PM

38 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Actually, you don’t exactly integrate the strains; instead, you must evaluate the following

integral

u U d

i ij j

( ) ( ) , x x,

x

x

=

∫

v ξ

0

where

U x

ij ij k k

ij

k

kj

i

( , ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

x v v

v v

= + −

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

ε ξ

ε

ξ

ε

ξ

11

]

1

.

Here, x

k

are the components of the position vector at the point where we are computing

the displacements, and ξ

j

are the components of the position vector ξ of a point somewhere

along the path of integration. Te fact that the integral is path independent (in a simply

connected solid) is guaranteed by the compatibility condition. Evaluating this integral in

practice can be quite painful, but, fortunately, almost all cases in which we need to inte-

grate strains to get displacement turn out to be two dimensional.

2.2 MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF INTERNAL FORCES IN SOLIDS

Our next objective is to outline the mathematical formulas that describe internal and exter-

nal forces acting on a solid. Just as there are many diferent strain measures, there are several

diferent defnitions of internal force. We shall see that internal forces can be described as a

second-order tensor, which must be symmetric. Tus, internal forces can always be quanti-

fed by a set of six numbers, and the various diferent defnitions are all equivalent.

2.2.1 Surface Traction and Internal Body Force

Forces can be applied to a solid body in two ways, as illustrated in Figure 2.16.

1. A force can be applied to its boundary: examples include fuid pressure, wind load-

ing, or forces arising from contact with another solid.

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0

b

t

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.16 External tractions and internal body forces acting on a deformable solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in38 38 9/9/09 7:28:44 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 39

2. Te solid can be subjected to body forces, which act on the interior of the solid.

Examples include gravitational loading, or electromagnetic forces.

Tese forces are quantifed using the surface traction vector and the body force vector,

respectively. Tese are defned as follows:

Te surface traction vector t at a point on the surface represents the force acting on

the surface per unit area of the deformed solid. Formally, let dA be an element of

area on a surface. Suppose that dA is subjected to a force dP, as shown in Figure 2.17.

Ten

t

P

=

→

lim .

dA

d

dA

0

Te resultant force acting on any portion S of the surface of the deformed solid is

P t =

∫

dA

S

.

Surface traction, like “true stress,” should be thought of as acting on the deformed

solid.

Te traction vector is ofen resolved into components acting normal and tangential to

a surface, as shown in Figure 2.18. Te normal component is referred to as the normal

traction, and the tangential component is known as the shear traction. Formally, let n

denote a unit vector normal to the surface. Ten

t

n

= (t ⋅ n)n t

t

= t – t

n

.

Te body force vector denotes the external force acting on the interior of a solid,

per unit mass. Formally, let dV denote an infnitesimal volume element within the

•

•

•

dA

dP

FIGURE 2.17 Force acting on an infnitesimal element on a surface.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in39 39 9/9/09 7:28:45 PM

40 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

deformed solid, and let ρ denote the mass density (mass per unit deformed volume).

Suppose that the element is subjected to a force dP, as shown in Figure 2.19. Ten

b

P

=

→

1

0

ρ

lim .

dV

d

dV

Te resultant body force acting on any volume V within the deformed solid is

P b =

∫

ρ dV

V

.

2.2.2 Traction Acting on Planes within a Solid

Every plane in the interior of a solid is subjected to a distribution of traction. To see this,

consider a loaded, solid body in static equilibrium. Imagine cutting the solid in two, as

illustrated in Figure 2.20. Te two parts of the solid must each be in static equilibrium. Tis

is possible only if forces act on the planes that were created by the cut. We quantify these

forces by means of the internal traction vector T(n), which represents the force per unit area

acting on an internal plane of a solid. Te notation T(n) shows that the internal traction

depends on the normal to the internal plane, denoted by n.

Formally, let dA be an element of area in the interior of the solid, with normal n. Suppose

that the material on the underside of dA is subjected to a force dP

(n)

across the plane dA, as

shown in Figure 2.21. Ten

T n

P

( ) lim .

( )

=

→ dA

d

dA

0

n

Note that internal traction is the force per unit area of the deformed solid, like “true stress.”

Te traction vector has the following properties:

dA

t

n

t

n

t

t

FIGURE 2.18 Decomposition of surface traction into normal and tangential components.

dV

dP

FIGURE 2.19 Body force acting on an infnitesimal volume element.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in40 40 9/9/09 7:28:45 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 41

Te resultant force acting on any internal volume V with boundary surface A

(Figure 2.22) within a deformed solid is

P T n b = +

∫ ∫

( ) . dA dV

A V

ρ

Te frst term is the resultant force acting on the internal surface A, and the second

term is the resultant body force acting on the interior V.

Newton’s third law (every action has an equal and opposite reaction) requires that

T(−n) = −T(n).

To see this, note that the forces acting on planes separating two adjacent volume ele-

ments in a solid must be equal and opposite, as shown in Figure 2.23.

Tractions acting on diferent planes passing through the same point are related to sat-

isfy Newton’s second law (F = ma). Specifcally, let {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} be a Cartesian basis. Let

T

i

(e

1

), T

i

(e

2

), T

i

(e

3

) denote the components of traction acting on planes with normal

vectors in the e

1

, e

2

, and e

3

directions, respectively. Ten, the traction components

T

i

(n) acting on a surface with normal n are given by

T

i

(n) = T

i

(e

1

)n

1

+ T

i

(e

2

)n

2

+ T

i

(e

3

)n

3

,

where n

i

are the components of n.

•

•

•

t

R

t

e

3

e

2

e

1

n

T(n)

T(-n)

-n

FIGURE 2.20 Tractions acting on internal planes within a solid.

dA

n

dP

(n)

FIGURE 2.21 Force acting on an internal area element.

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42 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

To see this, consider the forces acting on the infnitessimal tetrahedron shown in

Figure 2.24. Te base and sides of the tetrahedron have normals in the −e

2

, −e

1

, and −e

3

directions. Te fourth face has normal n. Suppose the volume of the tetrahedron is dV and

let dA

1

, dA

2

, dA

3

, and dA

n

denote the areas of the faces. Assume that the material within

the tetrahedron has mass density ρ and is subjected to a body force b. Let a denote the

acceleration of the center of mass of the tetrahedron. Ten, F = ma for the tetrahedron

requires that

T(n)dA

(n)

+ T(−e

1

)dA

1

+ T(−e

2

)dA

2

+ T(−e

3

)dA

3

+ ρbdV = ρdVa.

Recall that T(−e

i

) = −T(e

i

) and divide through by dA

(n)

:

T n T e T e T e

3

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

− − − +

1

1

2

2 3

dA

dA

dA

dA

dA

dA

n n n

ρρ ρ b a

dV

dA

dV

dA

n n ( ) ( )

. =

Finally, let dA

(n)

→0. We can show (see Appendix E) that

dA

dA

n

dA

dA

n

dA

dA

n

dV

dA

n n n

dA

n

n

1

1

2

2

3

3

0

0

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

lim

( )

= = = =

→

so

T(n) = T(e

1

)n

1

+ T(e

2

)n

2

+ T(e

3

)n

3

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0

b

t

n

V

T(n)

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.22 Tractions acting on an interior volume of a solid.

n

T(n)

T(–n)

–n

FIGURE 2.23 Equal and opposite tractions acting on adjacent internal surfaces.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in42 42 9/9/09 7:28:46 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 43

or, using index notation,

T

i

(n) = T

i

(e

1

)n

1

+ T

i

(e

2

)n

2

+ T

i

(e

3

)n

3

.

Te signifcance of this result is that the tractions acting on planes with normals in the e

1

,

e

2

, and e

3

directions completely characterize the internal forces that act at a point. Given

these tractions, we can deduce the tractions acting on any other plane. Tis leads directly

to the defnition of the Cauchy stress tensor in the next section.

2.2.3 Cauchy (True) Stress Tensor

Consider a solid that deforms under external loading. Let {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} be a Cartesian basis. Let

T

i

(e

1

), T

i

(e

2

), and T

i

(e

3

) denote the components of traction acting on planes with normals

in the e

1

, e

2

, and e

3

directions, respectively, as outlined in the preceding section. Defne the

components of the Cauchy stress tensor σ

ij

by

σ

σ σ σ

σ

ij j i

T

T T T

=

≡

= = =

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

e

e e e

11 1 1 12 2 1 13 3 1

211 1 2 22 2 2 23 3 2

31 1 3 32

= = =

= =

T T T

T

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

e e e

e

σ σ

σ σ TT T

2 3 33 3 3

( ) ( ). e e σ =

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Ten, the traction T

i

(n) acting on any plane with normal n follows as

T(n) = n ⋅ σ or T

i

(n) = n

j

σ

ji

.

To see this, recall the last result from the preceding section,

T

i

(n) = T

i

(e

1

)n

1

+ T

i

(e

2

)n

2

+ T

i

(e

3

)n

3

,

and substitute for T

i

(e

j

) in terms of the components of the Cauchy stress tensor

T

i

(n) = σ

1i

n

1

+ σ

2i

n

2

+ σ

3i

n

3

= n

j

σ

ji

.

e

1

e

3

e

2

T(n)dA

(n)

n

T(-e

1

)dA

1

-e

1

dA

(n)

dA

1

FIGURE 2.24 Tetrahedral infnitesimal volume element subjected to internal tractions.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in43 43 9/9/09 7:28:47 PM

44 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te Cauchy stress tensor completely characterizes the internal forces acting in a

deformed solid. Te physical signifcance of the components of the stress tensor is illus-

trated in Figure 2.25: σ

ji

represents the ith component of traction acting on a plane with

normal in the e

j

direction. Note that Cauchy stress represents force per unit area of the

deformed solid. In elementary strength of materials courses, it is called “true stress” for

this reason.

HEALTH WARNING: Some texts defne stress as the transpose of the defnition used

here, so that T(n) = σ ⋅ n or T

i

(n) = σ

ji

n

j

. In this case, the frst index for each stress compo-

nent denotes the direction of traction, whereas the second denotes the normal to the plane.

We will see later that Cauchy stress is always symmetric, so there is no confusion if you use

the wrong defnition. However, some stress measures are not symmetric (see below), and,

in this case, you need to be careful to check which convention the author has chosen.

2.2.4 Other Stress Measures: Kirchhoff, Nominal, and Material Stress Tensors

Cauchy stress σ

ji

(the actual force per unit area acting on an actual, deformed solid) is the

most physical measure of internal force. Other defnitions of stress ofen appear in consti-

tutive equations, however.

Te other stress measures regard forces as acting on the undeformed solid. Consequently,

to defne them, we must know not only what the deformed solid looks like, but also what it

looked like before deformation. Te deformation is described by a displacement vector u(x)

and the associated deformation gradient

F I u = + ⊗ +

∂

∂

∇ = F

u

x

ij

i

j

δ

ij

as outlined in Section 2.1. In addition, let J = det(F). We then defne the following stress

measures:

Kirchhof stress: τ = Jσ τ

ij

= Jσ

ij

.

Nominal (frst Piola–Kirchhof) stress: S F = ⋅ =

− −

J F

ij ik kj

1 1

σσ S J σ .

Material (second Piola–Kirchhof) stress: ∑= ⋅ ⋅ =

− − − −

J JF F

T

ij ik kl jl

F F

1 1 1

σσ Σ σ .

•

•

•

e

1

e

3

e

2

σ

11

σ

12

σ

13

σ

21

σ

22

σ

23

σ

31

σ

32

σ

33

FIGURE 2.25 Infnitesimal volume element subjected to Cauchy stress components.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in44 44 9/9/09 7:28:47 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 45

The inverse relations are also useful. The one for Kirchhoff stress is obvious; the

others are

σσ = ⋅ =

1 1

J J

S

ij ik

F S σ F

kj

σσ = ⋅ ∑⋅ = ∑

1 1

J J

F F

T

ij kl jl

F F σ .

ik

Te Kirchof stress has no obvious physical signifcance. Te nominal stress tensor

can be regarded as the internal force per unit undeformed area acting within a solid, as

follows:

1. Visualize an element of area dA in the deformed solid, with normal n, which is sub-

jected to a force dP

(n)

by the internal traction in the solid.

2. Suppose that the element of area dA has started out as an element of area dA

0

with

normal n

0

in the undeformed solid, as shown in Figure 2.26.

3. Ten, the force dP

(n)

is related to the nominal stress by d d P A n S

j i ij

( ) n

=

0

0

.

To see this, note that one can show (see Appendix D) that

dA J dA dAn JF n dA

T

i ki k

n n = ⋅ =

− −

F

0 0

1 0

0

Recall that the Cauchy stress is defned so that

d d P An

i j ji

( )

.

n

= σ

Substituting for dAn

j

and rearranging shows that

d d d P J A n F A n S

i k kj ji k ki

( )

( ) .

n

= =

−

0

0 1

0

0

σ

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

t

dA

0

dA

n

n

0

x

u(x)

dP

0

(n)

dP

(n)

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.26 Deformation of an internal area element within a deformable solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in45 45 9/9/09 7:28:47 PM

46 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te material stress tensor can also be visualized as force per unit undeformed area,

except that the forces are regarded as acting within the undeformed solid rather than on

the deformed solid:

1. Te infnitesimal force dP

(n)

is assumed to behave like an infnitesimal material fber

in the solid, in the sense that it is stretched and rotated just like a small vector dx in

the solid.

2. Tis means that we can defne a (fctitious) force in the reference confguration dP

(n0)

that is related to dP

(n)

by F ⋅ dP

(n0)

= dP

(n)

or F P P

ij j i

d d

( ) ( ) n n 0

= .

3. Tis fctitious force is related to material stress by d d P A n

i j ji

( ) n0

0

0

= ∑ .

To see this, substitute into the expression relating dP

(n)

to nominal stress to see that

F dP dA n S

ik k j ji

( )

.

n0

0

0

=

Finally, multiply through by F

li

−1

, note that F F

li

−

=

1

ik

δ

lk

, and rearrange to see that

d d d P A n S F A n

l j ji li j jl

( )

,

n0

0

0 1

0

0

= = ∑

−

where we have noted that

∑ =

−

jl

S F

ji li

1

.

In practice, it is best not to try to attach too much physical signifcance to these stress

measures. Cauchy stress is the best physical measure of internal force: it is the force per

unit area acting inside the deformed solid. Te other stress measures are best regarded

as generalized forces (in the sense of Lagrangian mechanics), which are work conjugate

to particular strain measures. Tis means that the stress measure multiplied by the time

derivative of the strain measure tells you the rate of work done by the forces. When set-

ting up any mechanics problem, we always work with conjugate measures of motion and

forces.

Specifcally, we shall show later that the rate of work

**W done by stresses acting on a
**

small material element with volume dV

0

in the undeformed solid (and volume dV in the

deformed solid) can be computed as

W D dV D dV F S dV E dV

ij ij ij ji ij ji ij ji

= = = = σ τ

0 0 0

Σ ,,

where D

ij

is the stretch rate tensor,

F

ij

is the rate of change of deformation gradient,

and

E

ij

is the rate of change of Lagrange strain tensor. Note that Cauchy stress (and also

Kirchhof stress) is not conjugate to any convenient strain measure; this is the main rea-

son that nominal and material stresses need to be defned. Te nominal stress is conju-

gate to the deformation gradient, whereas the material stress is conjugate to the Lagrange

strain tensor.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in46 46 9/9/09 7:28:48 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 47

2.2.5 Stress Measures for Inﬁnitesimal Deformations

For a problem involving innitesimal deformation (in which shape changes are character-

ized by the infnitesimal strain tensor and rotation tensor), all the stress measures defned

in the preceding section are approximately equal:

σ

ij

≈ τ

ij

≈ S

ij

≈ Σ

ij

.

To see this, write the deformation gradient as F u x

ij ij i

= +∂ ∂ δ /

j

; recall that

J u x

k k

= ≈ + ∂ ∂ det( ) / F 1

, and fnally assume that, for infnitesimal motions, ∂ ∂ u x

i j

/ <1.

Substituting into the formulas relating Cauchy stress, nominal stress, and material stress,

we see that

σ δ

ij ik kj

p p

ip

i

p

pj

J

F S

u x

u

x

S S = ≈

+∂ ∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

/

1 1

1

pj

++ ≈ . … S

pj

Te same procedure will show that material stress and Cauchy stress are approximately

equal, to within a term of order ∂ ∂ u x

i j

/ . <1

2.2.6 Principal Stresses and Directions

For any stress measure, the principal stresses σ

i

and their directions n

(i)

, with i = 1..3 are

defned such that

n n

( ) ) ( )

(

i

i jk i

i

n n ⋅ = = σσ σ σ σ

( ( ) i

j

i

k

or no sumo on i).

Clearly, (1) the principal stresses are the (lef) eigenvalues of the stress tensor, and (2) the

principal stress directions are the (lef) eigenvectors of the stress tensor. Te term “lef”

eigenvector and eigenvalue indicates that the vector multiplies the tensor on the lef. We

will see later that Cauchy stress and material stress are both symmetric. For a symmetric

tensor, the lef and right eigenvalues and vectors are the same.

Note that the eigenvectors of a symmetric tensor are orthogonal. Consequently, the

principal Cauchy or material stresses can be visualized as tractions acting normal to the

faces of a cube, as shown in Figure 2.27. Te principal directions specify the orientation of

this special cube.

m

1

m

3

m

2

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

FIGURE 2.27 Infnitesimal volume element subjected to principal stresses.

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48 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

One can also show that, if σ

1

> σ

2

> σ

3

, then σ

1

is the largest normal traction acting on

any plane passing through the point of interest, whereas σ

3

is the lowest. Tis is helpful in

defning damage criteria for brittle materials, which fail when the stress acting normal to

a material plane reaches a critical magnitude.

In the same vein, it can be shown that the largest shear stress acts on the plane with unit

normal vector m m m

shear

= − + ( )/

1 3

2 (at 45

o

to the m

1

and m

3

axes as shown in Figure 2.28)

and has magnitude

τ σ σ

max

( ) = −

1

2

1 3 . Tis observation is useful for defning yield criteria

for metal polycrystals, which begin to deform plastically when the shear stress acting on a

material plane reaches a critical value.

2.2.7 Hydrostatic, Deviatoric, and von Mises Effective Stress

Given the Cauchy stress tensor σ, the following may be defned:

Te hydrostatic stress is defned as σ

h

= trace(σ)/3 = σ

kk

/3.

Te deviatoric stress tensor is defned as

σ σ σ δ

′

ij ij h ij

= −

.

Te von Mises eective stress is defned as σ

3

2

σ σ

′ ′

e ij ij

= .

Te hydrostatic stress is a measure of the pressure exerted by a state of stress. Pressure

acts so as to change the volume of a material element. Te deviatoric stress is a measure

of the shearing exerted by a state of stress. Shear stress tends to distort a solid, with-

out changing its volume. Te von Mises efective stress can be regarded as a uniaxial

equivalent of a multiaxial stress state. It is used in many failure or yield criteria. Tus,

if a material is known to fail in a uniaxial tensile test (with σ

11

the only nonzero stress

component) when σ

11

= σ

crit

, it will fail when σ

e

= σ

crit

under multiaxial loading (with

several σ

ij

≠ 0).

Te hydrostatic stress and von Mises stress can also be expressed in terms of principal

stresses as

σ σ + σ σ

σ σ σ σ σ

h

e

= +

= − + −

( )/

{( ) ( )

1 2 3

1 2

2

1 3

2

3

1

2

++ − ( ) }. σ σ

2 3

2

•

•

•

m

1

m

3

m

2

σ

1

σ

3

τ

max

FIGURE 2.28 Volume element used to calculate maximum shear stress in a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in48 48 9/9/09 7:28:49 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 49

Te hydrostatic and von Mises stresses are invariants of the stress tensor: they have the

same value regardless of the basis chosen to defne the stress components.

2.2.8 Stresses near an External Surface or Edge: Boundary Conditions on Stresses

Note that, at an external surface at which tractions are prescribed, some components of

stress are known. Specifcally, let n denote a unit vector normal to the surface and let t

denote the traction (force per unit area) acting on the surface. Ten the Cauchy stress at

the surface must satisfy

n

i

σ

ij

= t

j

.

For example, suppose that a surface with normal in the e

2

direction is subjected to no

loading, as shown in Figure 2.29. Ten (noting that n

i

= δ

i2

) it follows that σ

2i

= 0. In addi-

tion, two of the principal stress directions must be parallel to the surface; the third (with

zero stress) must be perpendicular to the surface.

Te stress state at an edge is even simpler. Suppose that surfaces with normals in the e

2

and e

1

are traction free. Ten σ

1i

= σ

2i

= 0, so that six stress components are known to be

zero.

2.3 EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND EQUILIBRIUM

FOR DEFORMABLE SOLIDS

In this section, we generalize Newton’s laws of motion (conservation of linear and angular

momentum) to a deformable solid.

2.3.1 Linear Momentum Balance in Terms of Cauchy Stress

Consider a solid that is deformed by external forces, as shown in Figure 2.30. Let σ

ij

denote

the Cauchy stress distribution within a deformed solid. Assume that the solid is subjected

to a body force b

i

and let u

i

, v

i

and a

i

denote the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of

a material particle at position y

i

in the deformed solid.

Newton’s third law of motion (F = ma) can be expressed as

∇ ⋅ + =

∂

∂

+ =

y

. σσ b ρ ρ ρ ρ a or

σ

ij

i

j j

y

b a

e

1

e

3

e

2

σ

11

σ

13

σ

31

σ

33

FIGURE 2.29 Stresses acting on a volume element just under a free surface.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in49 49 9/9/09 7:28:50 PM

50 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Written out in full,

∂

∂

+

∂

+

∂

∂

+ =

∂

∂

+

σ σ

∂

σ

σ

11

1

21

2

31

3

1 1

12

1

y

b a

y

y y

ρ ρ

∂∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

σ σ

σ σ

22

2

32

3

2 2

13

1

23

2

y y

b

y y

ρ ρa

.

∂

∂

+ =

σ

33

3

3 3

y

b ρ ρa

Note that the derivative is taken with respect to position in the actual, deformed solid. For

the special (but rather common) case of a solid in static equilibrium in the absence of body

forces,

∂

∂

=

σ

ij

i

y

0.

Derivation: Recall that the resultant force acting on an arbitrary volume of material

V within a solid is

P T A b V

i i

A

i

V

= +

∫ ∫

( ) , n d d ρ

where T(n) is the internal traction acting on the surface A with normal n that bounds V.

Te linear momentum of the volume V is

Λ

i i

V

v dV =

∫

ρ ,

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0

b

t

n

V

T(n)

y

x

u(x)

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.30 Tractions acting on an interior volume of a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in50 50 9/9/09 7:28:50 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 51

where v is the velocity vector of a material particle in the deformed solid. Express T in

terms of σ

ij

and set P

i

= dΛ

i

/dt. Ten

σ

ji j i i

V V A

n A b V

t

v V d d

d

d

d . + =

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

∫ ∫ ∫

ρ ρ

Apply the divergence theorem to convert the frst integral into a volume integral and note

that one can show (see Appendix E) that

d

d

d d

t

v V a V

V

i

V

ρ ρ

i

∫ ∫

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

=

so

∂

∂

+ = ⇒

∂

∂

+ −

∫

σ

ρ ρ

σ

ρ ρ

ji

j

i

V

i

ji

j

i i

y

V b V a V

y

b a d d d

¸¸

¸

_

,

=

∫ ∫ ∫

V V V

V d . 0

Because this must hold for every volume of material within a solid, it follows that

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ji

j

y

b a ρ ρ

i i

as stated.

2.3.2 Angular Momentum Balance in Terms of Cauchy Stress

Conservation of angular momentum for a continuum requires that the Cauchy stress satisfy

σ

ji

= σ

ij

;

i.e., the stress tensor must be symmetric.

Derivation: Write down the equation for balance of angular momentum for the region V

within the deformed solid

y v × + × = ×

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

∫ ∫

. T y b y d d

d

d

d A V

t

V

V V

ρ ρ

AA

∫

Here, the lef-hand side is the resultant moment (about the origin) exerted by tractions

and body forces acting on a general region within a solid. Te right-hand side is the total

angular momentum of the solid about the origin.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in51 51 9/9/09 7:28:50 PM

52 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

We can write the same expression using index notation

∈ + ∈ = ∈

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

∫ ∫

ijk j k ijk j k

V

ijk j k

V

y T A y b V

t

y v V d d

d

d

d ρ ρ

¹¹

,

¹

¹

¹

∫

.

A

Express T in terms of σ

ij

and rewrite the frst integral as a volume integral using the diver-

gence theorem

∈ = ∈ =

∂

∂

∈

∫ ∫

ijk j k ijk j mk m

m

ijk j mk

V A A

y T dA y n dA

y

y dV σ σ ( )

∫∫

= ∈ +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∫

ijk jm mk j

mk

m

V

y

y

dV δ σ

σ

We may also show (see Appendix E) that

d

d

d d

t

y v V y a V

ijk j k

V

ijk j k

V

∈

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

= ∈

∫ ∫

ρ ρ .

Substitute the last two results into the angular momentum balance equation to see that

∈ +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+ ∈ =

∫

ijk jm mk j

mk

m

V

ijk j k

y

y

dV y b V δ σ

σ

ρd ∈∈

⇒ ∈ = − ∈

∂

∂

∫ ∫

ijk j k

V V

ijk jm mk ijk j

mk

y a V

V y

ρ

δ σ

σ

d

d

yy

b a V

m

k k

V V

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

∫ ∫

ρ ρ d .

Te integral on the right-hand side of this expression is zero, because the stresses must

satisfy the linear momentum balance equation. Because this holds for any volume V, we

conclude that

∈ = ∈ =

⇒ ∈ ∈ =

⇒

ijk jm mk ijk jk

imn ijk jk

jm

δ σ σ

σ

δ δ

(

0

0

kkn mk nj jk

mn nm

− =

⇒ − =

)

,

δ δ σ

σ σ

0

0

which is the result we wanted.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in52 52 9/9/09 7:28:51 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 53

2.3.3 Equations of Motion in Terms of Other Stress Measures

In terms of nominal and material stress, the balance of linear momentum is

∇⋅ + =

∂

∂

+ = S b a ρ ρ ρ ρ

0 0 0 0

S

x

b a

ij

i

j j

∇⋅ ⋅

¸

1

]

+ =

∂

∂

+ =

( )

Σ

Σ

F b a

T

ρ ρ ρ ρ

0 0 0 0

ik jk

i

j j

F

x

b a ..

Note that the derivatives are taken with respect to position in the undeformed solid.

Te angular momentum balance equation is

F ⋅ S = [F ⋅ S]

T

Σ = Σ

T

.

To derive these results, you can start with the integral form of the linear momentum bal-

ance in terms of Cauchy stress

σ

ji j

A

i i

V V

n A b V

t

v dV d d

d

d

.

∫ ∫ ∫

+ =

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

ρ ρ

Recall (or see Appendix E for a reminder) that area elements in the deformed and unde-

formed solids are related through

dAn JF n dA

i ki k

=

−1 0

0

.

In addition, volume elements are related by dV = JdV

0

. We can use these results to rewrite

the integrals as integrals over a volume in the undeformed solid as

σ

ji kj k i i

V

JF n A b J V

t

v J V

−

+ =

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

∫

1 0

0 0 0

0

d d

d

d

d ρ ρ ..

V A 0 0

∫ ∫

Finally, recall that S JF

ij ik kj

=

−1

σ and that Jρ = ρ

0

to see that

S n dA b dV

d

dt

v dV

ki k i i

V V A

0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

+ =

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

∫ ∫ ∫

ρ ρ ..

Apply the divergence theorem to the frst term and rearrange

∂

∂

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

=

∫

S

x

b

v

t

V

ji

j

i

i

V

. ρ ρ

0 0 0

0

d

d

d

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in53 53 9/9/09 7:28:51 PM

54 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Once again, because this must hold for any material volume, we conclude that

∂

∂

+ =

S

x

b a

ij

i

j j

. ρ ρ

0 0

Te linear momentum balance equation in terms of material stress follows directly, by

substituting into this equation for S

ij

in terms of Σ

ij

.

Te angular momentum balance equation can be derived simply by substituting into

the momentum balance equation in terms of Cauchy stress σ

ij

= σ

ji

.

2.4 WORK DONE BY STRESSES: PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK

In this section, we derive formulas that enable you to calculate the work done by stresses

acting on a solid. In addition, we prove the principle of virtual work, which is an alterna-

tive way of expressing the equations of motion and equilibrium derived in Section 2.3.

Te principle of virtual work is the starting point for fnite element analysis and so is a

particularly important result.

2.4.1 Work Done by Cauchy Stresses

Consider a solid with mass density ρ

0

in its initial confguration and density ρ in the

deformed solid, as shown in Figure 2.31. Let σ

ij

denote the Cauchy stress distribution

within the solid. Assume that the solid is subjected to a body force b

i

(per unit mass) and

let u

i

, v

i

, and a

i

denote the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a material particle at

position y

i

in the deformed solid. In addition, let

D

v

y

v

y

ij

j

j

i

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

i

denote the stretch rate in the solid.

Te rate of work done by Cauchy stresses per unit deformed volume is then σ

ij

D

ij

. Tis

energy is either dissipated as heat or stored as internal energy in the solid, depending on

the material behavior.

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0

b

t

n

V

T(n)

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.31 Tractions acting on an interior volume of a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in54 54 9/9/09 7:28:51 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 55

We shall show that the rate of work done by internal forces acting on any subvolume V

bounded by a surface A in the deformed solid can be calculated from

r T v A b v V D V

t

i i i i

V

ij ij

V

= + = +

∫ ∫

( ) n d d d

d

d

ρ ρ σ

1

2

VV

i i

A

v v V

∫ ∫

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

d .

Here, the two terms on the lef-hand side represent the rate of work done by tractions and

body forces acting on the solid (rate of work done = force × velocity). Te frst term on the

right-hand side can be interpreted as the work done by Cauchy stresses; the second term is

the rate of change of kinetic energy.

Derivation: Substitute for T

i

( ) n in terms of Cauchy stress to see that

r T v A b v V n v A b v

i i i i

V

j ji i

A

i

V

i

= + = +

∫ ∫ ∫

( ) n d d d d ρ ρ σ VV

A

∫

.

Now, apply the divergence theorem to the frst term on the right-hand side,

r

y

v dV b v dV

j

ji i

V

i i

V

=

∂

∂

+

∫ ∫

( ) . σ ρ

Evaluate the derivative and collect together the terms involving body force and stress

divergence,

r

v

y y

v

ji

i

j

ji

j

i i

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

σ

σ

ρb dV V

V

.

∫

Recall the equation of motion

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ji

j

i i

y

a ρ ρ b

and note that, because the stress is symmetric σ

ij

= σ

ji

,

σ σ σ σ

ji

i

j

ij ji

i

j

ij

i

j

j

v

y

v

y

v

y

v ∂

∂

= +

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂ 1

2

1

2

( )

∂∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

y

D

i

ij ij

σ

,

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in55 55 9/9/09 7:28:52 PM

56 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

to see that

r D a v dV

ij ij i i

V

= +

∫

{ } . σ ρ

Finally, note that

ρ ρ ρ a v V

v

t

v V

t

v v V

i i

V

o

i

V

i o i i

V

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

∫ ∫ ∫

= =

=

0 0

0 0

1

2

( )

dd

d

d d

t

v v V

d

dt

v v V

i i

V

i i

1

2

1

2

0 0 0 0

0

ρ ρ ( ) ( )

∫

¸

¸

_

,

=

VV V

i i

t

v v V

0

1

2

∫ ∫

¸

¸

_

,

= ( ) .

d

d

d ρ

Finally, substitution leads to

r T v A b v V D V

t

v v

i i i i

V

ij ij

V

i

= + = +

∫ ∫

( ) n d d d

d

d

ρ ρ σ

1

2

ii

V A

V d

∫ ∫

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

as required.

2.4.2 Rate of Mechanical Work in Terms of Other Stress Measures

Te rate of work done per unit undeformed volume by Kirchhof stress is τ

ij

D

ij

.

Te rate of work done per unit undeformed volume by nominal stress is S

ij

F

˙

ji

.

Te rate of work done per unit undeformed volume by material stress is Σ

ij ij

E

.

Tis shows that nominal stress and deformation gradient are work conjugate, as are mate-

rial stress and Lagrange strain.

In addition, the rate of work done on a volume V

0

of the undeformed solid can be

expressed as

r T v A b v V D V

t

i i i i

V

ij ij

V

= + = +

∫ ∫

( ) n d d d

d

d

ρ τ

0

0

11

2

0 0

0

ρ v v V

i i

V A

d

∫ ∫

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

r T v A b v V S F V

i i i i

V

ij ji

V

= + = +

∫ ∫

( ) n d d d

d

d

ρ

0

0

tt

v v V

i i

V A

1

2

0 0

0

ρ d

∫ ∫

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

r T v A b v V E V

i i i i

V

ij ij

V

= + = +

∫ ∫

( ) n d d d

d

d

ρ Σ

0

0

tt

v v V

i i

V A

1

2

0 0

0

ρ d

∫ ∫

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹.

•

•

•

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in56 56 9/9/09 7:28:52 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 57

Derivation: Te proof of the frst result (and the stress power of Kirchhof stress) is straight-

forward and is lef as an exercise. To show the second result, note that T dA n S dA

i j ji

( ) n

=

0

0

and dV = JdV

0

to rewrite the integrals over the undeformed solid; then apply the diver-

gence theorem to see that

r

x

S v dV b v JdV

j

ji i i i

V V

=

∂

∂

+

∫ ∫

( ) .

0 0

0

0

ρ

Evaluate the derivative, recall that Jρ = ρ

0

, and use the equation of motion

∂

∂

+ =

S

x

b

dv

dt

ij

i

j

j

ρ ρ

0 0

to see that

r S

v

x

dV

dv

dt

v dV

ji

i

j

i

i

V V

=

∂

∂

+

∫ ∫

0 0 0

0 0

ρ .

Finally, note that ∂v

i

/∂x

j

= (∂u

i

/∂x

j

) = F

˙

ij

and rewrite the second integral as a kinetic energy

term as before to obtain the required result.

Te third result follows by straightforward algebraic manipulations; note that, by

defnition,

S F F F

ij ji ik jk ji

= Σ .

Because Σ

ij

is symmetric, it follows that

Σ Σ Σ Σ

ik jk ji ik ki jk ji ik jk ji

F F F F F F

= + =

1

2

1

2

( ) ( ++ = F F E

ji jk ik ik

) . Σ

2.4.3 Rate of Mechanical Work for Inﬁnitesimal Deformations

For infntesimal motions, all stress measures are equal, and all strain rate measures can

be approximated by the infnitesimal strain tensor ε. Te rate of work done by stresses per

unit volume of either deformed or undeformed solid (the diference is neglected) can be

expressed as σ ε

ij ij

, and the work done on a volume V

0

of the solid is

r T v A b v V V

t

i i

A

i i

V

ij ij

= + = +

∫ ∫

( ) n d d d

d

d

ρ σ ε

0

1

22

0 0

0 0

ρ v v V

i i

V V

d

∫ ∫

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in57 57 9/9/09 7:28:53 PM

58 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2.4.4 The Principle of Virtual Work

Te principle of virtual work forms the basis for the fnite element method and so will be

discussed in detail in this section. Suppose that a deformable solid is subjected to loading

that induces a displacement feld u(x) and a velocity feld v(x), as shown in Figure 2.32.

Te loading consists of a prescribed displacement on part of the boundary (denoted by S

1

),

together with a traction t (which may be zero in places) applied to the rest of the boundary

(denoted by S

2

). Te loading induces a Cauchy stress σ

ij

. Te stress feld satisfes the angular

momentum balance equation σ

ij

= σ

ji

.

Te principle of virtual work is a diferent way of rewriting partial diferential equation

for linear moment balance

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ ρ

ji

i

i

i

y

b

v

t

d

d

in an equivalent integral form, which is much better suited for computer solution.

To express the principle, we defne a kinematically admissible virtual velocity eld δv(y),

satisfying δv = 0 on S

1

. You can visualize this feld as a small change in the velocity of

the solid if you like, but it is really just an arbitrary diferentiable vector feld. Te term

“kinematically admissible” is just a complicated way of saying that the feld is continuous,

diferentiable, and satisfes δv = 0 on S

1

; that is to say, if you perturb the velocity by δv(y),

the boundary conditions on displacement are still satisfed.

In addition, we defne an associated virtual velocity gradient and virtual stretch rate as

δ

δ

δ

δ δ

L

v

y

D

v

y

v

y

ij

i

j

i

j

j

i

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

ij

1

2

.

Te principal of virtual work may be stated in two ways.

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

2

R

0

S

0

b

t

V

y

x

u(x)

S

1

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 2.32 Deformation induced by external forces acting on a solid.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in58 58 9/9/09 7:28:54 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 59

2.4.4.1 First Version of the Principle of Virtual Work

Te frst is not very interesting, but we will state it anyway. Suppose that the Cauchy stress

satisfes the following:

1. Te boundary condition n

i

σ

ij

= t

j

on S

2

2. Te linear momentum balance equation

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ ρ

ji

j

i

i

y

b

v

t

.

d

d

Ten the virtual work equation

σ δ ρ δ ρ δ δ

ij ij

V

i

i

V

i i

V

i i

D dV

dv

dt

v dV b v dV t v d

∫ ∫ ∫

+ − − AA

S

=

∫

0

2

is satisfed for all virtual velocity felds.

Tis result can be proven as follows. Observe that, because the Cauchy stress is

symmetric,

σ δ σ

δ δ

σ

δ

ij ij ij

i

j

j

i

ji

D

v

y

v

y

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

1

2

1

2

vv

y

v

y

v

y

i

j

ij

j

i

ji

i

j

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

∂

σ

δ

σ

δ

.

Next, note that

σ σ δ

σ

δ

ji

i

j j

ji i

j

i

v

y y

v

y

v

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

( ) .

ji

Finally, substituting the latter identity into the virtual work equation, applying the diver-

gence theorem, using the linear momentum balance equation and boundary conditions on

σ and δv(y), we obtain the required result.

2.4.4.2 Second Version of the Principle of Virtual Work

Te converse of this statement is much more interesting and useful. Suppose that σ

ij

satis-

fes the virtual work equation

σ δ ρ δ ρ δ δ

ij ij

i

i i i i i

S

D dV

dv

dt

v dV b v dV t v dA + − − =

∫

0

2

VV V V

∫ ∫ ∫

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in59 59 9/9/09 7:28:54 PM

60 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

for all virtual velocity felds δv(y). Ten the stress feld must satisfy the following:

1. Te boundary condition n

i

σ

ij

= t

j

on S

2

2. Te linear momentum balance equation

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ ρ

ji

j

i

i

y

v

t

. b

d

d

Te signifcance of this result is that it gives us an alternative way to solve for a stress feld

that satisfes the linear momentum balance equation, which avoids having to diferentiate the

stress. It is not easy to diferentiate functions accurately in the computer, but it is easy

to integrate them. Te virtual work statement is the starting point for any fnite element

solution involving deformable solids.

To prove this result, follow the same preliminary steps as before, i.e.,

σ δ σ

δ δ

σ

δ

ij ij ij

i

j

j

i

j

D

v

y

v

y

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

1

2

1

2

i

vv

y

v

y

v

y

i

j

ij

j

i

ji

i

j

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

∂

σ

δ

σ

δ

σ σ δ

σ

δ

ji

i

j j

ji i

ji

j

i

v

y y

v

y

v

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

( ) ,

and substitute into the virtual work equation

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

+

∫

y

v

y

v V

v

t

v V

j

ji i

ji

j

i

i

i

V

( ) σ δ

σ

δ ρ δ d

d

d

d −− − =

∫ ∫ ∫

ρ δ δ b d d

i i i i

S V V

v V t v A 0

2

.

Apply the divergence theorem to the frst term in the frst integral and recall that δv = 0

on S

1

to see that

−

∂

∂

+ −

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

+ −

σ

ρ ρ δ σ δ

ji

j

i

i

i ji j i

y

v

t

v V n t v ( ) b

d

d

d

ii

S V

A d =

∫ ∫

0

2

.

Because this must hold for all virtual velocity felds, we could choose

δ

σ

ρ ρ v f

y

v

t

i

ji

j

i

i

=

∂

∂

+ −

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

( ) y b

d

d

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in60 60 9/9/09 7:28:55 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 61

where f(y) = 0 is an arbitrary function that is positive everywhere inside the solid but is

equal to zero on S. For this choice, the virtual work equation reduces to

−

∂

∂

+ −

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

∂

∂

+ −

∫

f

y

b

v

t y

b

ji

j

i

i

V

ki

k

i

( ) y

σ

ρ ρ

σ

ρ

d

d

ρρ

d

d

d

v

t

V

i

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= , 0

and, because the integrand is positive everywhere, the only way the equation can be

satisfed is if

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ ρ

ji

j

i

i

y

v

t

. b

d

d

Given this, we can next choose a virtual velocity feld that satisfes

δv

i

= (σ

ji

n

j

− t

i

)

on S

2

. For this choice (and noting that the volume integral is zero), the virtual work equa-

tion reduces to

+ − − =

∫

( )( ) . σ σ

ji j i ki k i

S

n t n t A d 0

2

Again, the integrand is positive everywhere (it is a perfect square) and so can vanish only

if σ

ji

n

j

= t

i

as stated.

2.4.5 The Virtual Work Equation in Terms of Other Stress Measures

It is ofen convenient to implement the virtual work equation in a fnite element code using

diferent stress measures. To do so, we defne the following:

1. Te actual deformation gradient in the solid F

u

x

ij ij

i

j

= +

∂

∂

δ

2. Te virtual rate of change of deformation gradient

δ

δ δ

F

v

y

F

v

x

ij

i

k

kj

i

j

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

3. Te virtual rate of change of Lagrange strain

δ δ δ

E F F F F

ij ki kj ki kj

= +

1

2

( )

In addition, we defne (in the usual way)

1. Kirchhof stress τ

ij

= Jσ

ij

2. Nominal (frst Piola–Kirchhof) stress S JF

ij ik kj

=

−1

σ

3. Material (second Piola–Kirchhof) stress Σ

ij ik ik jl

JF F =

− − 1 1

σ

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62 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

In terms of these quantities, the virtual work equation may be expressed as

τ δ ρ δ ρ δ δ

ij ij

i

i i i i i

D dV

dv

dt

v dV b v dV t v dA

0 0 0 0 0

+ − − ==

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

0

2 0 0

0 S V V V

S F dV

dv

dt

v dV b v dV t v d

ij ji

i

i i i i i

δ ρ δ ρ δ δ

0 0 0 0 0

+ − − AA

S V V V

=

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

0

2 0 0

0

ΣΣ

ij ij

i

i i i i i

S

E dV

dv

dt

v dV b v dV t v dA δ ρ δ ρ δ δ

0 0 0 0 0

0 + − − =

22 0

0 0

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

V V V

.

Note that all the volume integrals are now taken over the undeformed solid; this is conve-

nient for computer applications because the shape of the undeformed solid is known. Te

area integral is evaluated over the deformed solid, unfortunately. It can be expressed as an

equivalent integral over the undeformed solid, but the result is messy and will be deferred

until we actually need to do it.

2.4.6 The Virtual Work Equation for Inﬁnitesimal Deformations

For infntesimal motions, the Cauchy, nominal, and material stress tensors are equal, and

the virtual stretch rate can be replaced by the virtual infnitesimal strain rate

δε

δ δ

ij

i

j

j

i

v

x

v

x

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

.

Tere is no need to distinguish between the volume or surface area of the deformed and

undeformed solid. Te virtual work equation can thus be expressed as

σ δε ρ δ ρ δ δ

ij ij

i

i i i i i

V

v

t

v V v V t v A

d

d

d

d b d d

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 + − − =

SS V V V

2 0

0 0

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

for all kinematically admissible velocity felds.

As a special case, this expression can be applied to a quasi-static state with v

i

= 0. Ten,

for a stress state σ

ij

satisfying the static equilibrium equation dσ

ij

/dx

i

+ ρ

0

b

j

= 0 and bound-

ary conditions σ

ij

n

j

= t

i

on S

2

, the virtual work equation reduces to

σ δε ρ δ δ

ij ij i i i i

S V V

dV b u dV t u dA

0 0 0

0 0

2

= +

∫ ∫ ∫

,

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in62 62 9/9/09 7:28:56 PM

Governing Equations ◾ 63

in which δu

i

are kinematically admissible displacements components (δu

i

= 0 on S

2

) and

δε

ij

= (∂δu

i

/∂x

j

+ ∂δu

j

/∂x

i

)/2. Conversely, if the stress state σ

ij

satisfes

σ δ ε ρ δ δ

ij ij i i i i

S V V

dV b u dV t u dA

0 0 0

0 0

2

= +

∫ ∫ ∫

for every set of kinematically admissible virtual displacements, then the stress state

σ

ij

satisfes the static equilibrium equation ∂σ

ij

/∂x

i

+ ρ

0

b

j

= 0 and boundary conditions

σ

ij

n

j

= t

i

on S

2

.

TAF-K10131_BOWER-09-0202-C002.in63 63 9/9/09 7:28:57 PM

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65

3

Constitutive Models: Relations

between Stress and Strain

Te equations listed in Chapter 2 are universal: they apply to all deformable solids. Tey can-

not be solved, however, unless the deformation measure can be related to the internal forces.

Te constitutive model for a material is a set of equations relating stress to strain (and

possibly strain history, strain rate, and other feld quantities). Unlike the governing equa-

tions in the previous chapter, these equations cannot generally be calculated using fun-

damental physical laws (although people are trying to do these calculations). Instead,

constitutive models are ft to experimental measurements.

Before discussing specifc constitutive models, it is helpful to review the basic assump-

tions that we take for granted in developing stress-strain laws. Tey are listed below:

A very small sample that is extracted from the solid has uniform properties.

When the solid is deformed, initially straight lines in the solid are deformed into

smooth curves (with continuous slope), as shown in Figure 3.1.

Tis means that very short line segments (much shorter than the radius of curvature

of the curves) are just stretched and rotated by the deformation. Consequently, the

•

•

•

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 3.1 Deformation of an internal material element in a solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in65 65 9/9/09 7:25:46 PM

66 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

deformation of a sum ciently small volume element can be characterized by the defor-

mation gradient.

Te stress at a point in the solid depends only on the change in shape of a vanishingly

small volume element surrounding the point. It must therefore be a function of the

deformation gradient or a strain measure that is derived from it.

If we accept the preceding assumptions, it means that we can measure the relationship

between stress and strain by doing an experiment that induces a uniform strain in a suit-

able sample of the material. According to our assumptions, the stress should also be uni-

form and can be calculated from the forces acting on the specimen.

Tese are clearly approximations. Materials are not really uniform at small scales,

whether you choose to look at the atomic scale or the microstructural scale. However,

these features are usually much smaller than the solid part or component, and the material

can be regarded as statistically uniform, in the sense that, if you cut two specimens with

similar size out of the material, they will behave in the same way. A continuum model then

describes the average stress and deformation in a region of the material that is larger than

microstructural features but small compared with the dimensions of the part.

3.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS

You may be called on to develop a stress-strain law for a new material at some point in your

career. If so, it is essential to make sure that the stress-strain law satisfes two conditions:

1. It must obey the laws of thermodynamics.

2. It must satisfy the condition of objectivity or material frame indiference.

In addition, it is a good idea to ensure that the material satisfes the Drucker stability

criterion discussed in more detail below. Of course, your proposed law must conform to

experimental measurements and, if possible, should be based on some understanding of

the physical processes that govern the response of the solid.

3.1.1 Thermodynamic Restrictions

Te laws of thermodynamics impose two restrictions on stress-strain laws:

1. Te frst law requires that the work done by stresses must either be stored as recover-

able internal energy in the solid or be dissipated as heat (or a combination of both).

2. Te second law requires that, if a sample of the material is subjected to a cycle of

deformation that starts and ends with an identical strain and internal energy (at con-

stant temperature or without heat exchange with the surroundings), the total work

done must be positive or zero.

3.1.2 Objectivity

Strictly speaking, the term objectivity or material frame independence is the condition that the

tensor-valued functions that relate stress to deformation measure must transform correctly

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in66 66 9/9/09 7:25:47 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 67

under a change of basis and change of origin for the coordinate system. A detailed

mathematical derivation of the consequences of objectivity will not be given here [for more

details, see Malvern 1969]. However, you can check whether a constitutive law is objective

using the following simple (analytical) test:

1. Load the solid (quasi-statically) by subjecting its boundary to prescribed forces, to

induce a Cauchy stress σ

ij

( ) 0

in the solid.

2. Subject both the solid, and the loads acting on the solid, to a quasi-static rigid rota-

tion, characterized by a rotation tensor R

ij

, as shown in Figure 3.2.

3. Te constitutive law must predict that, afer the rotation, the stress components

change to new values given by σ σ

ij ik kl jl

R R

( ) ( ) 1 0

= .

To see this, note that, because the loads rotate together with the solid, the components of

traction acting normal and tangent to any interior material plane in the solid must remain

constant. With this in mind,

1. Suppose that, just before the rotation is applied, T n

i k ki

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 0

= σ denotes the traction

acting on an interior material plane with normal n

i

( ) 0

.

2. Te traction vector and the normal to the interior plane rotate with the solid and

therefore have components T R T

i ij j

( ) ( ) 1 0

= and n R n

i ij j

( ) ( ) 1 0

= afer rotation.

3. By defnition, T n

i j ji

( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1

= σ . From 2 above, we see therefore that R T R n

ik k kl l ki

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 1

= σ .

4. Multiply both sides of this equation by R

ip

and recall that R

ip

R

ik

= δ

kp

to see that

T n R R

p l kl ki ip

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 1

= σ

.

5. Comparing this with 1 above, we conclude that R R

kl ki ip lp

σ σ

( ) ( ) 1 0

= . Finally, multiplying

both sides of this equation by R

ij

R

np

, we conclude that σ σ

jn jl lp np

R R

( ) ( ) 1 0

= , giving the

required result.

3.1.3 Drucker Stability

For most practical applications, the constitutive equation must satisfy a condition known

as the Drucker stability criterion, which can be expressed as follows. Consider a deform-

σ

(0)

σ

(1)

R

FIGURE 3.2 Loaded solid subjected to a rigid rotation.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in67 67 9/9/09 7:25:48 PM

68 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

able solid, subjected to boundary tractions t

i

, which induce some displacement feld u

i

,

as shown in Figure 3.3. Suppose that the tractions are increased to t

i

+ Δt

i

, resulting in

an additional displacement Δu

i

. Te material is said to be stable in the sense of Drucker

if the work done by the tractions Δt

i

through the displacements Δu

i

is positive or zero for

all Δt

i

:

∆ ∆

∆

W t

d u

dt

dt

i

i

A

=

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

≥

∫ ∫

0.

You can show that this condition is satisfed as long as the stress-strain relation obeys

Δτ

ij

Δε

ij

≥ 0,

where Δτ

ij

is the change in Kirchhof stress, and Δε

ij

= (∂Δu

i

/∂x

j

+ ∂Δu

j

/∂x

i

) is an increment

in strain resulting from an infnitesimal change in displacement Δu

i

.

This is not a thermodynamic law (the work done by the change in tractions is not a

physically meaningful quantity), and there is nothing to say that real materials have

to satisfy Drucker stability. In fact, many materials show clear signs that they are not

stable in the sense of Drucker. However, if you try to solve a boundary value prob-

lem for a material that violates the Drucker stability criterion, you are likely to run

into trouble. The problem will probably not have a unique solution, and, in addition,

you are likely to find that smooth curves on the undeformed solid develop kinks (and

may not even be continuous) after the solid is deformed. This kind of deformation

violates one of the fundamental assumptions underlying continuum constitutive

equations.

A simple example of a stress-strain curve for material that is not stable in the sense

of Drucker is shown in Figure 3.4. Te stability criterion is violated wherever the stress

t

i

u

i

Original loading

t

i

+ ∆t

i

u

i

+ ∆u

i

Perturbed loading

FIGURE 3.3 Deformation in a solid subjected to an increment in external forces.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in68 68 9/9/09 7:25:49 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 69

decreases with strain in tension or increases with strain in compression. For the former, we

see that Δσ

11

< 0, whereas Δε

11

> 0; for the latter Δσ

11

> 0, whereas Δε

11

< 0.

In the following chapter, we outline constitutive laws that were developed to approximate

the behavior of a wide range of materials, including polycrystalline metals and nonmetals,

elastomers, polymers, biological tissue, soils, and metal single crystals. A few additional

material models, which account for material failure, are described in Chapter 9.

3.2 LINEAR ELASTIC MATERIAL BEHAVIOR

You are probably familiar with the behavior of linear elastic materials from introductory

materials courses. Teir main features are reviewed briefy below.

3.2.1 Isotropic, Linear Elastic Material Behavior

If you conduct a uniaxial tensile test on almost any material, and keep the stress levels suf-

fciently low, you will observe the following behavior:

Te specimen deforms reversibly: if you remove the loads, the solid returns to its

original shape.

Te strain in the specimen depends only on the stress applied to it; it does not depend

on the rate of loading or the history of loading.

For most materials, the stress is a linear function of strain, as shown in Figure 3.5.

Because the strains are small, this is true whatever stress measure is adopted (Cauchy

stress or nominal stress) and is true whatever strain measure is adopted (Lagrange

strain or infnitesimal strain).

For most, but not all, materials, the material has no characteristic orientation. Tus,

if you cut a tensile specimen out of a block of material, as shown in Figure 3.6, the

stress-strain curve will be independent of the orientation of the specimen relative to

the block of material. Such materials are said to be isotropic.

If you heat a specimen of the material, increasing its temperature uniformly, it will

generally change its shape slightly. If the material is isotropic (no preferred material

orientation) and homogeneous, then the specimen will simply increase in size, with-

out shape change.

•

•

•

•

•

ε

11

σ

11

σ

11

e

1

e

2

e

3

Unstable

Unstable

FIGURE 3.4 Unstable regions of a uniaxial stress-strain curve.

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70 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.2.2 Stress–Strain Relations for Isotropic, Linear Elastic Materials: Young’s

Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and the Thermal Expansion Coefﬁcient

Before writing down stress-strain relations, we need to decide what strain and stress mea-

sures we want to use. Because the model only works for small shape changes,

Deformation is characterized using the infnitesimal strain tensor ε

ij

= (∂u

i

/∂x

j

+

∂u

j

/∂x

i

)/2 defned in Section 2.1.7. Tis is convenient for calculations but has the

disadvantage that linear elastic constitutive equations can only be used if the solid

experiences small rotations, as well as small shape changes.

All stress measures are taken to be equal. We can use the Cauchy stress σ

ij

as the

stress measure.

You probably already know the stress-strain relations for an isotropic, linear elastic

solid. Tey are repeated below for convenience:

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

11

22

33

23

13

12

2

2

2

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

E

−− −

− −

− −

+

+

v v

v v

v v

v

0 0 0

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 2 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 2 1

( )

( vv

v

T

)

( )

0

0 0 0 0 0 2 1

1

1

1

0

0

0 +

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

+ α∆

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

.

•

•

ε

11

ε

22

ε

33

σ

11

E

ν

ε

11

σ

11

e

1

e

2

e

3

FIGURE 3.5 Stress-strain curves for a linear elastic solid.

Stress-strain

response equal

FIGURE 3.6 Specimens extracted from an isotropic material.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in70 70 9/9/09 7:25:49 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 71

Here, E and ν are Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, α is the coem cient of thermal

expansion, and ΔT is the increase in temperature of the solid. Te remaining relations can

be deduced from the fact that both σ

ij

and ε

ij

are symmetric.

Te inverse relationship can be expressed as

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

11

22

33

23

13

12

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

EE

v v

v v v

v v v

v v v

( )( )

(

1 1 2

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 0

1

+ −

−

−

−

− 22

2

0 0

0 0 0 0

1 2

2

0

0 0 0 0 0

1 2

2

v

v

v

)

( )

( )

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¸

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

11

22

33

23

13

12

2

2

2

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

−

−

¸

E T

v

α∆

1 2

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

.

HEALTH WARNING: Note the factor of 2 in the strain vector. Most texts and most

fnite element codes use this factor of 2 but not all. In addition, shear strains and stresses

are ofen listed in a diferent order in the strain and stress vectors. For isotropic materials,

this makes no diference, but you need to be careful when listing material constants for

anisotropic materials.

We can write this expression in a much more convenient form using index notation.

Verify for yourself that the matrix expression above is equivalent to

ε σ σ δ α δ

ij ij kk ij ij

v

E

v

E

T =

+

− +

1

∆ .

Te inverse relation is

σ ε ε δ

α

δ

ij ij kk ij ij

E

v

v

v

E T

v

=

+

+

−

{ }

−

− 1 1 2 1 2

∆

.

Te stress-strain relations are ofen expressed using the elastic modulus tensor C

ijkl

or the

elastic compliance tensor S

ijkl

as

σ

ij

= C

ijkl

(ε

kl

– αΔTδ

kl

) ε

ij

= S

ijkl

σ

kl

+ αΔTδ

ij

.

In terms of elastic constants, C

ijkl

and S

ijkl

are

C

E

v

Ev

v v

ijkl il jk ik jl

=

+

+ +

+ − 2 1 1 1 2 ( )

( )

( )( )

δ δ δ δ δ

iij kl

ijkl il jk ik jl ij kl

S

v

E

v

E

δ

δ δ δ δ δ δ =

+

+ −

1

2

( ) .

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72 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.2.3 Reduced Stress–Strain Equations for Plane Deformation of Isotropic Solids

For plane strain or plane stress deformations, some strain or stress components are always

zero (by defnition) so the stress-strain laws can be simplifed.

For a plane strain deformation, ε

33

= ε

23

= ε

13

= 0. Te stress-strain laws are

therefore

ε

ε

ε

11

22

12

2

1

1 0

1 0

0 0 2

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

+

− −

− −

( ) v

E

v v

v v

¸¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

+ +

σ

σ

σ

α

11

22

12

1

1

1

0

( ) v T ∆

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

σ

σ

σ

11

22

12

1 1 2

1 0

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

=

+ −

−

−

E

v v

v v

v v

( )( )

00

0 0

1 2

2

2

11

22

12

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

v

ε

ε

ε

11

1

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

E T

v

α∆

1 2

1

1

0

σ

ε ε α

σ σ

33

11 22

13 23

1 2 1 1 2

0 =

+

− +

+

−

= =

Ev

v v

E T

v

( )

( )( )

,

∆

In index notation,

ε σ σ δ α δ σ ε

αβ αβ γγ αβ αβ αβ α

=

+

−

{ }

+ + =

+

1

1

1

v

E

v v T

E

v

( ) ∆

ββ γγ αβ αβ

ε δ

α

δ +

−

{ }

−

−

v

v

E T

v 1 2 1 2

∆

where Greek subscripts α, β can have values 1 or 2.

For a plane stress deformation, σ

33

= σ

23

= σ

13

= 0, and the stress-strain relations are

ε

ε

ε

11

22

12

2

1

1 0

1 0

0 0 2 1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

=

−

−

+

¸

E

v

v

v ( )

1

]

1

1

1

+

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

α∆T

1

1

0

σ

σ

σ

11

22

12

2

1

1 0

1 0

0 0 1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

=

−

−

E

v

v

v

v

( )

( ) / 22 2

1

1

11

22

12

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

−

−

ε

ε

ε

α E T

v

∆

( )

11

0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

ε σ σ α

33 11 22

= − + +

v

E

T ( ) ∆

ε σ σ δ α δ σ

αβ αβ γγ αβ αβ αβ

=

+

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

+ =

+

1

1 1

v

E

v

v

T

E

v

∆ εε ε δ

α

δ

αβ γγ αβ αβ

+

−

{ }

−

−

v

v

E T

v 1 1

∆

.

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in72 72 9/9/09 7:25:51 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 73

3.2.4 Representative Values for Density and Elastic Constants of Isotropic Solids

Table 3.1 shows representative elastic constants for a range of diferent materials. Te data are

partly from Ashby and Jones [1997] and partly from manufacturers data sheets (web-based

databases such as http://www.matweb.com are helpful sources of material data).

Note the units: values of E are given in GN/m

2

; the G stands for giga and is short for 10

9

.

Te units for density are in Mgm

–3

, which is megagrams. One megagram is 1000 kg.

TABLE 3.1 Elastic Constants for Isotropic Materials

Material

Mass Density

ρ / Mgm

–3

Young’s Modulus

E / GNm

–2

Poisson’s

Ratio ν

Expansion

Coem cient K

–1

Tungsten carbide 14–17 450–650 0.22 5 × 10

–6

Silicon carbide 2.5–3.2 450 0.22 4 × 10

–6

Tungsten 13.4 410 0.30 4 × 10

–6

Alumina 3.9 390 0.25 7 × 10

–6

Titanium carbide 4.9 380 0.19 13 × 10

–6

Silicon nitride 3.2 320−270 0.22 3 × 10

–6

Nickel 8.9 215 0.31 14 × 10

–6

CFRP 1.5−1.6 70–200 0.20 2 × 10

–6

Iron 7.9 196 0.30 13 × 10

–6

Low alloy steels 7.8 200−210 0.30 15 × 10

–6

Stainless steel 7.5–7.7 190–200 0.30 11 × 10

–6

Mild steel 7.8 196 0.30 15 × 10

–6

Copper 8.9 124 0.34 16 × 10

–6

Titanium 4.5 116 0.30 9 × 10

–6

Silicon 2.5–3.2 107 0.22 5 × 10

–6

Silica glass 2.6 94 0.16 0.5 × 10

–6

Aluminum and alloys 2.6–2.9 69−79 0.35 22 × 10

–6

Concrete 2.4–2.5 45−50 0.3 10 × 10

–6

GFRP 1.4–2.2 7−45 0.25 10 × 10

–6

Wood, parallel grain 0.4–0.8 9−16 0.2 40 × 10

–6

Polyimides 1.4 3−5 0.1–0.45 40 × 10

–6

Nylon 1.1 – 1.2 2–4 0.25 81 × 10

–6

PMMA 1.2 3.4 0.35–0.4 50 × 10

–6

Polycarbonate 1.2 – 1.3 2.6 0.36 65 × 10

–6

Natural rubbers 0.83–0.91 0.01−0.1 0.49 200 × 10

–6

PVC 1.3–1.6 0.003−0.01 0.41 70 × 10

–6

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in73 73 9/9/09 7:25:51 PM

74 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.2.5 Other Elastic Constants: Bulk, Shear, and Lame Modulus

Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are the most common properties used to characterize

elastic solids, but other measures are also used. For example, we defne the shear modulus,

bulk modulus, and Lame modulus of an elastic solid as follows:

Bulk Modulus

Shear Modulus

L

K

E

v

E

v

=

−

=

+

3 1 2

2 1

( )

( )

µ

aame Modulus = λ

vE

v v ( )( )

.

1 1 2 + −

Table 3.2 relates all the possible combinations of moduli to all other possible combinations.

Enjoy!

TABLE 3.2 Relations between Elastic Constants

Lame Modulus

λ

Shear Modulus

μ

Young’s Modulus

Ε

Poisson’s Ratio

ν

Bulk Modulus

K

λ,μ

µ λ µ

λ µ

3 2 + ( )

+

λ

λ µ 2( ) +

3 2

3

λ µ +

λ,Ε Irrational Irrational Irrational

λ,ν

λ ν

ν

1 2

2

− ( ) λ ν ν

ν

1 1 2 + ( ) − ( )

λ ν

ν

1

3

+ ( )

λ,Κ

3

2

K − ( ) λ 9

3

K K

K

− ( )

−

λ

λ

λ

λ 3K −

μ,Ε

µ µ

µ

2

3

− ( )

−

E

E

E − 2

2

µ

µ

µ

µ

E

E 3 3 − ( )

μ,ν

2

1 2

µν

ν −

2 1 µ ν + ( )

2 1

3 1 2

µ ν

ν

+ ( )

− ( )

μ,Κ

3 2

3

K − µ 9

3

K

K

µ

µ +

3 2

2 3

K

K

−

+

µ

µ ( )

Ε,ν

ν

ν ν

E

1 1 2 + ( ) − ( )

E

2 1 + ( ) ν

E

3 1 2 − ( ) ν

Ε,Κ

3 3

9

K K E

K E

− ( )

−

3

9

EK

K E −

3

6

K E

K

−

ν,Κ

3

1

Kν

ν + ( )

3 1 2

2 1

K − ( )

+ ( )

ν

ν

3 1 2 K − ( ) ν

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in74 74 9/9/09 7:25:52 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 75

3.2.6 Physical Interpretation of Elastic Constants for Isotropic Solids

It is important to have a feel for the physical signifcance of the various elastic constants.

Tey can be interpreted as follows:

Young’s modulus E is the slope of the stress-strain curve in uniaxial tension. It has

dimensions of stress (N/m

2

) and is usually large, for steel, E = 210 × 10

9

N/m

2

. You can

think of E as a measure of the stifness of the solid. Te larger the value of E, the stifer

the solid. For a stable material, the Young’s modulus must satisfy E > 0.

Poisson’s ratio ν is the ratio of lateral to longitudinal strain in uniaxial tensile stress.

It is dimensionless and typically ranges from 0.2 to 0.49 and is around 0.3 for most

metals. For a stable material, Poisson’s ratio is in the range of –1 < ν < 0.5. It is a

measure of the compressibility of the solid. If ν = 0.5, the solid is incompressible;

its volume remains constant, no matter how it is deformed. If ν = 0, then stretching

a specimen causes no lateral contraction. Some bizarre materials have ν < 0; if you

stretch a round bar of such a material, the bar increases in diameter!

Termal expansion coem cient quantifes the change in volume of a material if it is

heated in the absence of stress. It has dimensions of (Kelvin)

–1

and is usually very

small. For steel, α ≈ 6–10 × 10

–6

K

–1

.

Te bulk modulus quantifes the resistance of the solid to volume changes. It has a

large value (usually bigger than E).

Te shear modulus quantifes its resistance to volume preserving shear deformations.

Its value is usually somewhat smaller than E.

3.2.7 Strain Energy Density for Isotropic Solids

Te following observations are the basis for defning the strain energy density of an elastic

material:

If you deform a block of material, you do work on it (or, in some cases, it may do work

on you …).

In an elastic material, the work done during loading is stored as recoverable strain

energy in the solid. If you unload the material, the specimen does work on you; when

it reaches its initial confguration, you come out even.

Te work done to deform a specimen depends only on the state of strain at the end of

the test. It is independent of the history of loading.

Based on these observations, we defne the strain energy density of a solid as the work done

per unit volume to deform a material from a stress-free reference state to a loaded state.

To write down an expression for the strain energy density, it is convenient to separate

the strain into two parts:

ε ε ε

ij ij

e

ij

T

= +

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in75 75 9/9/09 7:25:54 PM

76 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where, for an isotropic solid,

ε α δ

ij

T

ij

T = ∆

represents the strain attributable to thermal expansion (known as thermal strain), and

ε σ σ δ

ij

e

ij kk ij

v

E

v

E

=

+

−

1

is the strain attributable to mechanical loading (known as elastic strain). Work is done on

the specimen only during mechanical loading. It is straightforward to show that the strain

energy density is

U

ij ij

e

=

1

2

σ ε .

You can also rewrite this as

U

v

E

v

E

U

E

v

Ev

ij ij kk jj

ij

e

ij

e

=

+

−

=

+

+

1

2 2

2 1

σ σ σ σ

ε ε

( ) 22 1 1 2 ( )( )

.

+ − v v

ij

e

kk

e

ε ε

Observe that

ε

σ

σ

ε

ij

e

ij

ij

ij

e

U U

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

.

3.2.8 Stress–Strain Relation for a General Anisotropic Linear Elastic

Material: Elastic Stiffness and Compliance Tensors

Te simple isotropic model described in the preceding section is unable to describe the

response of some materials accurately, although the material may deform elastically. Tis

is because some materials do have a characteristic orientation. For example, in a block of

wood, the grain is oriented in a particular direction in the specimen. Te block will be

stifer if it is loaded parallel to the grain than if it is loaded perpendicular to the grain. Te

same observation applies to fber-reinforced composite materials. Generally, single crystal

specimens of a material will also be anisotropic; this is important when modeling stress

efects in small structures such as microelectronic circuits. Even polycrystalline metals may

be anisotropic, because a preferred texture may form in the specimen during processing.

A more general stress-strain relation is needed to describe anisotropic solids. Te most

general linear stress-strain relation has the form

σ

ij

= C

ijkl

(ε

kl

– α

kl

ΔT).

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in76 76 9/9/09 7:25:54 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 77

Here, C

ijkl

is a fourth-order tensor (horrors!), known as the elastic stifness tensor,

and α

kl

= α

lk

is the thermal expansion coem cient tensor. Te stress-strain relation is

invertible:

ε

ij

= S

ijkl

σ

kl

+ α

ij

ΔT,

where S

ijkl

is known as the elastic compliance tensor.

At frst sight, it appears that the stifness tensor has 81 components. Imagine having to

measure and keep track of 81 material properties! Fortunately, C

ijkl

must have the following

symmetries:

C

ijkl

= C

klij

= C

jikl

= C

ijlk

.

Tis reduces the number of material constants to 21. Te compliance tensor has the same

symmetries as C

ijkl

. To see the origin of the symmetries of C

ijkl

, note the following:

Te stress tensor is symmetric, which is only possible if C

ijkl

= C

jikl

.

If a strain energy density exists for the material, the elastic stifness tensor must sat-

isfy C

ijkl

= C

klij

.

Te previous two symmetries imply C

ijkl

= C

ijlk

.

To see that C

ijkl

= C

klij

, note that, by defnition

C

ijkl

ij

kl

=

∂

∂

σ

ε

and recall further that the stress is the derivative of the strain energy density with respect

to strain

σ

ε

ij

ij

U

=

∂

∂

.

Combining these,

C

U

ijkl

ij kl

=

∂

∂ ∂

2

ε ε

.

Now, note that

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂ ∂

2 2

U U

ij kl kl ij

ε ε ε ε

so that

C

ijkl

= C

klij

.

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in77 77 9/9/09 7:25:54 PM

78 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Tese symmetries allow us to write the stress-strain relations in a more compact matrix

form as

σσ

σσ

= −

=

¸

1

]

1

C( ) e a∆T

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

11

22

33

23

13

12

11

1

1

1

1

1

1

= C

c c c c c c

c c c c c

11 12 13 14 15 16

12 22 23 24 25

cc

c c c c c c

c c c c c c

c

26

13 23 33 34 35 36

14 24 34 44 45 46

15

cc c c c c

c c c c c c

25 35 45 55 56

16 26 36 46 56 66

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

¸

e

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

11

22

33

23

13

12

2

2

2

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

¸

a

α

α

α

α

α

α

11

22

33

23

13

12

2

2

2

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

,

where c

11

≡ C

1111

c

12

≡ C

1122

≡ C

2211

, etc., are the elastic stinesses of the material. Te inverse

has the form

e a = +

=

S

S

σσ ∆T

s s s s s s

s s s s s

11 12 13 14 15 16

12 22 23 24 25

ss

s s s s s s

s s s s s s

s

26

13 23 33 34 35 36

14 24 34 44 45 46

15

ss s s s s

s s s s s s

25 35 45 55 56

16 26 36 46 56 66

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

,

where s

11

= S

1111

, s

12

= S

1122

, etc. are the elastic compliances of the material. To satisfy Drucker

stability, the eigenvalues of the elastic stifness and compliance matrices must all be greater

than zero.

HEALTH WARNING: Te shear strain and shear stress components are not always

listed in the order given when defning the elastic and compliance matrices. Te conven-

tions used here are common and are particularly convenient in analytical calculations

involving anisotropic solids, but many sources use other conventions. Be careful to enter

material data in the correct order when specifying properties for anisotropic solids.

3.2.9 Physical Interpretation of the Anisotropic Elastic Constants

It is easiest to interpret s

11

, s

12

,…s

66

rather than c

11

, c

12

,…c

66

. Imagine applying a uniaxial

stress, say σ

11

, to an anisotropic specimen. In general, this would induce both extensional

and shear deformation in the solid, as shown in Figure 3.7. Te strain induced by the uni-

axial stress would be

ε

11

= s

11

σ

11

, ε

22

= s

12

σ

11

, ε

33

= s

13

σ

11

ε

23

= s

14

σ

11

, ε

13

= s

15

σ

11

, ε

12

= s

16

σ

11

.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in78 78 9/9/09 7:25:55 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 79

All the constants have dimensions m

2

/N. Te constant s

11

looks like a uniaxial compliance

(like 1/E), whereas the ratios s

12

/s

11

, s

13

/s

11

are generalized versions of Poisson’s ratio: they

quantify the lateral contraction of a uniaxial tensile specimen. Te shear terms are new: in

an isotropic material, no shear strain is induced by uniaxial tension.

3.2.10 Strain Energy Density for Anisotropic, Linear Elastic Solids

Te strain energy density of an anisotropic material is

U C T T

S

ijkl ij ij kl kl

ijkl ij

= − −

=

1

2

1

2

( )( ) ε α ε α

σ σ

∆ ∆

kkl

.

3.2.11 Basis Change Formulas for Anisotropic Elastic Constants

Te material constants c

ij

or s

ij

for a particular material are usually specifed in a basis with

coordinate axes aligned with particular symmetry planes (if any) in the material. When

solving problems involving anisotropic materials, it is frequently necessary to transform

these values to a coordinate system that is oriented in some convenient way relative to the

boundaries of the solid. Because C

ijkl

is a fourth-rank tensor, the basis change formulas are

highly tedious, unfortunately.

Suppose that the components of the stifness tensor are given in a basis {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

}, and we

want to determine its components in a second basis, {m

1

,m

2

,m

3

} (Figure 3.8). We defne

the usual transformation tensor Ω

ij

with components Ω

ij

= m

i

.

e

j

or in matrix form

Ω [ ] =

⋅ ⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅

m e m e m e

m e m e m e

m e m e

1 1 1 2 1 3

2 1 2 2 2 3

3 1 3 22 3 3

m e ⋅

¸

1

]

1

1

1

.

Tis is an orthogonal matrix satisfying ΩΩ

T

= Ω

T

Ω = I. In practice, the matrix can be com-

puted in terms of the angles between the basis vectors. It is straightforward to show that

stress, strain, thermal expansion, and elasticity tensors transform as

σ σ ε ε α

ij ik kl jl ij ik kl jl ij

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( m e m e m

= = Ω Ω Ω Ω

) )) (

( ) (

=

=

Ω Ω

Ω Ω Ω Ω

ik kl jl

ijkl ip jq pqrs kr l

C C

α

e

m e

)

)

ss

.

σ

11

σ

11

FIGURE 3.7 Shear deformation caused by uniaxial loading of an anisotropic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in79 79 9/9/09 7:25:55 PM

80 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te basis change formula for the elasticity tensor can be expressed in matrix form as

C

(m)

= KC

(e)

K

T

where the basis change matrix K is computed as

K=

¸

1

]

1

= =

K K

K K

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

1 2

3 4

1 2 2

2

K K

ij ij ij

Ω ΩΩ Ω

Ω

i j i j

ij i

K

mod( , ) mod( , )

( )

mod( , )

+ +

+

=

1 3 2 3

3

1 3 jj i j

ij i j

K

Ω

Ω Ω

mod( , )

( )

mod( , )mod( , )

+

+ +

=

2 3

4

1 3 1 3 mmod( , )mod( , )

mod( , )mod( , )

i j

i j

+ +

+ +

+

2 3 2 3

1 3 2 3

Ω ΩΩ

mod( , )mod( , )

, ..

i j

i j

+ +

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

2 3 1 3

1 3 =

and the modulo function satisfes

mod( , ) . i

i i

i i

3

3

3 3

=

<

− >

¹

,

¹

Although these expressions look cumbersome, they are quite convenient for computer

implementation.

Te basis change for the compliance tensor follows as

S

(m)

= K

−T

S

(e)

K

−1

,

where

K

K K

K K

−

=

¸

1

]

1

T

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

.

1 2

3 4

2

Te proof of these expressions is merely tiresome algebra and will not be given here. Ting

[1996] has a nice clear discussion.

e

2

θ

e

1

m

1

m

2

FIGURE 3.8 Basis vectors used to specify components of the elasticity tensor.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in80 80 9/9/09 7:25:56 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 81

For the particular case of rotation through an angle θ in a counterclockwise sense about

the e

1

,e

2

,e

3

axes, respectively, the rotation matrix reduces to

1 0 0 0 0 0

0 2 0 0

0 2 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

2 2

2 2

c s cs

s c cs

cs cs

c s

−

−

−

00 0 0 0 s c

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

c s cs

s c cs

c s

cs cs c

2 2

2 2

2

0 0 2 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 2 0

0 0 0 0

0 0

−

−

− −−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

s

s c

2

0

0 0 0 0

c s cs

s c cs

c s

s c

cs

2 2

2 2

0 0 0 2

0 0 0 2

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

−

−

− ccs c s 0 0 0

2 2

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

,

where c = cosθ s = sinθ. Te inverse matrix K

−1

can be obtained simply by changing the

sign of the angle θ in each rotation matrix. Clearly, applying the three rotations succes-

sively can produce an arbitrary orientation change.

For an isotropic material, the elastic stress-strain relations, the elasticity matrices, and

thermal expansion coem cient are unafected by basis changes.

3.2.12 The Effect of Material Symmetry on Stress–Strain

Relations for Anisotropic Materials

A general anisotropic solid has 21 independent elastic constants. Note that, in general,

tensile stress may induce shear strain, and shear stress may cause extension.

If a material has a symmetry plane, then applying stress normal or parallel to this plane,

as shown in Figure 3.9, induces only extension in directions normal and parallel to the

plane.

For example, suppose the material contains a single symmetry plane and let e

1

be normal to

this plane. Ten the components of the elastic stifness matrix c

15

= c

16

= c

25

= c

26

= c

35

= c

36

= 0

e

1

Symmetry plane

FIGURE 3.9 Loading applied to a solid containing a single symmetry plane.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in81 81 9/9/09 7:25:56 PM

82 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

(C

1112

= C

1113

= C

2212

= C

2213

= C

3312

= C

3313

= 0) (symmetrical terms also vanish, of course).

Tis leaves 13 independent constants. Similar restrictions on the thermal expansion coef-

fcient can be determined using symmetry conditions. Details are lef as an exercise.

In the following sections, we list the stress-strain relations for anisotropic materials

with various numbers of symmetry planes.

3.2.13 Stress–Strain Relations for Linear Elastic Orthotropic Materials

An orthotropic material has three mutually perpendicular symmetry planes. Tis type of

material has nine independent material constants. With basis vectors perpendicular to the

symmetry planes, as shown in Figure 3.10, the elastic stifness matrix has the form

C =

c c c

c c

c

sym c

c

11 12 13

22 23

33

44

55

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

0 0

0 00

66

c

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

.

Tis relationship is sometimes expressed in inverse form, in terms of generalized Young’s

moduli and Poisson’s ratios (which have the same signifcance as Young’s modulus and

Poisson’s ratio for uniaxial loading along the three basis vectors) as follows:

S =

− −

− −

1 0 0 0

1 0 0

1 21 2 31 3

12 1 2 32 3

/ / /

/ / /

E v E v E

v E E v E 00

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

13 1 23 2 3

23

13

− − v E v E E / / /

/

/

µ

µ

00 0 0 0 0 1

12

/

.

µ

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

e

!

e

"

e

#

Symmetry

planes

FIGURE 3.10 Symmetry planes in an orthotropic material.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in82 82 9/9/09 7:25:57 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 83

Here the generalized Poisson’s ratios are not symmetric but instead satisfy ν

ij

/E

i

= ν

ji

/E

j

(no

sums). Tis ensures that the stifness matrix is symmetric.

Te engineering constants are related to the components of the compliance tensor by

c c

11

= − = − = − E v v c v v c v

1 23 32 22 13 31 33 33

1 1 1 ( ) ( ) ( ϒ ϒ

112 21

1 21 31 23 2 12 32 13

v

E v v v E v v v

)

( ) ( )

ϒ

ϒ ϒ c

12

= + = +

cc

c

13

23

= + = +

=

E v v v E v v v

E

1 31 21 32 3 13 12 23

2

( ) ( )

(

ϒ ϒ

vv v v E v v v

c c

32 12 31 3 23 21 13

44 23 55 13

+ = +

= =

) ( ) ϒ ϒ

µ µ cc

v v v v v v v v v

66 12

12 21 23 32 31 13 21 32 1

1

1 2

=

=

− − − −

µ

ϒ

33

or in inverse form

E c c c c c c c c c c c

1 11 22 33 23 12 13 11 23

2

22 13

2

3

2 = + − − − (

33 12

2

22 33 23

2

2 11 22 33 23 12

2

c c c c

E c c c c c c

) / ( )

(

−

= +

113 11 23

2

22 13

2

33 12

2

11 33 13

2

− − − − c c c c c c c c c

E

) / ( )

33 11 22 33 23 12 13 11 23

2

22 13

2

3

2 = + − − − (c c c c c c c c c c c

33 12

2

11 22 12

2

21 12 33 13 23

c c c c

v c c c c c

) / ( )

( ) / (

−

= −

111 33 13

2

12 12 33 13 23 22 33 23

c c v c c c c c c c − = − − ) ( ) / (

22

31 13 22 12 23 11 22 12

2

13 2

)

( ) / ( ) ( v c c c c c c c v c = − − =

22 13 12 23 22 33 23

2

23 11 23 12

c c c c c c

v c c c c

− −

= −

) / ( )

(

113 11 33 13

2

32 11 23 12 13 11

) / ( ) ( ) / ( c c c v c c c c c c − = −

222 12

2

− c ).

μ

23

= c

44

μ

13

= c

55

μ

12

= c

66

For an orthotropic material, thermal expansion cannot induce shear (in this basis), but the

expansion in the three directions need not be equal. Consequently, the thermal expansion

coem cient tensor has the form

α

α

α

1

2

3

0 0

0 0

0 0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

.

3.2.14 Stress–Strain Relations for Linear Elastic Transversely Isotropic Material

A special case of an orthotropic solid is one that contains a plane of isotropy (this implies

that the solid can be rotated with respect to the loading direction about one axis with-

out measurable efect on the solid’s response). Choose e

3

perpendicular to this symmetry

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in83 83 9/9/09 7:25:57 PM

84 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

plane. Ten, transverse isotropy requires that c

22

= c

11

, c

23

= c

13

, c

55

= c

44

, c

66

= (c

11

–c

12

)/2, so

that the stifness matrix has the form

C =

c c c

c c

c

sym c

c

11 12 13

11 13

33

44

44

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

0 0

0 00 2

11 12

( ) /

.

c c −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Te engineering constants must satisfy

E

1

= E

2

= E

p

E

3

= E

t

v

12

= v

21

= v

p

v

31

= v

32

= v

tp

v

13

= v

23

= v

pt

and the compliance matrix has the form

S =

− −

− −

−

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

/ / /

/ / /

E v E v E

v E E v E

p p p tp t

p p p tp t

vv E v E E

pt p pt p t

t

t

/ / /

/

/

− 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

µ

µ

00 1 /

,

µ

p

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

where μ

p

= E

p

/2(1 + v

p

). As before, the Poisson’s ratios are not symmetric but satisfy

v

tp

/E

t

= v

pt

/E

p

.

Te engineering constants and stifnesses are related by

c c E v v c E v c E v

P pt tp t p p 11 22 33

2

12

1 1 = = − = − = ( ) ( ) ( ϒ ϒ

pp pt tp

p tp p tp t p p

v v

c c E v v v E v v

+

= = + = +

+

)

( ) (

ϒ

ϒ

13 23

vv c c

v v v v v v

pt t p

p pt tp p pt t

)ϒ

ϒ

44 66

2

1

1 2 2

= =

=

− − −

µ µ

pp

E c c c c c c c c c

p

= + − − ( )/ (

11

2

33 13

2

12 11 13

2

33 12

2

11

2 2 cc c

E c c c c c c c

t

33 13

2

11

2

33 13

2

12 11 13

2

33

2 2

−

= + − −

)

( cc c c

12

2

11

2

12

2

)/ ( ) −

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Constitutive Models ◾ 85

For this material, the two thermal expansion coem cients in the symmetry plane must be

equal, so the thermal expansion coem cient tensor has the form

α

α

1

1

3

0 0

0 0

0 0 α

¸

1

]

1

1

1

.

3.2.15 Representative Values for Elastic Constants of Transversely

Isotropic Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals

Hexagonal close-packed crystals are an example of transversely isotropic materials. Te e

3

axis

must be taken to be perpendicular to the basal (0001) plane of the crystal, as shown in Figure

3.11. Because the plane perpendicular to e

3

is isotropic, the orientation of e

1

and e

2

is arbitrary.

A table of values of stifnesses [reprinted from Freund and Suresh, 2003] is listed in

Table 3.3. Te engineering constants can be calculated and are listed in Table 3.4.

3.2.16 Linear Elastic Stress–Strain Relations for Cubic Materials

A huge number of materials have cubic symmetry: all the face-centered cubic (FCC) and

body-centered cubic metals, for example. Te constitutive law for such a material is par-

ticularly simple and can be parameterized by only three material constants. Pick basis vec-

tors perpendicular to the symmetry planes, as shown in Figure 3.12.

TABLE 3.3 Elastic Constants for Hexagonal Crystals

c

11

(GNm

–2

)

c

33

(GNm

–2

)

c

44

(GNm

–2

)

c

12

(GNm

–2

)

c

13

(GNm

–2

)

Be 292.3 336.4 162.5 26.7 14

C 1160 46.6 2.3 290 109

Cd 115.8 51.4 20.4 39.8 40.6

Co 307 358.1 78.3 165 103

Hf 181.1 196.9 55.7 77.2 66.1

Mg 59.7 61.7 16.4 26.2 21.7

Ti 162.4 180.7 46.7 92 69

Zn 161 61 38.3 34.2 50.1

Zr 143.4 164.8 32 72.8 65.3

ZnO 209.7 210.9 42.5 121.1 105.1

Source: Freund, L.B. and Suresh, S., in Film Materials. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

v c c c c c

p 12 33 13

2

11 33

( )/ ( = − −cc v c c c c c c

v c

tp

pt

13

2

13 11 12 13 11

2

12

2

) ( )/ ( )

(

= − −

=

111 13 12 13 11 33 13

2

23 44 13 55

c c c c c c c c − − = = )/ ( ) , µ µ µµ

12 66

=c .

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86 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Ten

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

11

22

33

23

13

12

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

cc c c

c c

c

sym c

c

11 12 12

11 12

11

44

44

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0 cc

44

11

22

33

23

2

2

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

113

12

2ε

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

or, in terms of engineering constants,

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

11

22

33

23

13

12

2

2

2

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

11

1

=

− −

− −

− −

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

1

/ / /

/ / /

/ / /

E v E v E

v E E v E

v E v E E 00 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

/

/

/

µ

µ

µ

¸

1

]

1

11

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

11

22

33

23

13

12

11

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

.

Tis is virtually identical to the constitutive law for an isotropic solid, except that the shear

modulus μ is not related to the Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus through the usual rela-

tion given in Section 3.1.6. In fact, the ratio

TABLE 3.4 Engineering Constants for Hexagonal Crystals

E

p

(GNm

–2

)

E

t

(GNm

–2

)

v

p

v

tp

v

pt

μ

t

(GNm

–2

)

μ

p

(GNm

–2

)

Be 289.38 335.17 0.09 0.04 0.04 162.50 132.80

C 903.69 30.21 0.04 0.08 2.25 2.30 435.00

Cd 83.02 30.21 0.09 0.26 0.72 20.40 38.00

Co 211.30 313.15 0.49 0.22 0.15 78.30 71.00

Hf 139.87 163.07 0.35 0.26 0.22 55.70 51.95

Mg 45.45 50.74 0.36 0.25 0.23 16.40 16.75

Ti 104.37 143.27 0.48 0.27 0.20 46.70 35.20

Zn 119.45 35.28 –0.06 0.26 0.87 38.30 63.40

Zr 98.79 125.35 0.40 0.30 0.24 32.00 35.30

ZnO 127.30 144.12 0.44 0.32 0.28 42.50 44.30

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in86 86 9/9/09 7:25:58 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 87

A

v

E

c

c c

=

+

=

−

2 1 2

44

11 12

µ( )

provides a convenient measure of anisotropy. For A = 1, the material is isotropic. For this

material, the thermal expansion coem cient matrix must be isotropic. Te relationships

between the elastic constants are

E c c c c c c v c c c = + − + = + ( ) / ( ) / (

11

2

12 11 12

2

11 12 12 11

2

112 44

11

2

12

1 1 2 1 2

)

( ) / ( ) / (

µ =

= − − − = − −

c

c E v v v c Ev v v

22

).

3.2.17 Representative Values for Elastic Properties of Cubic Crystals and Compounds

Table 3.5 lists values of elastic constants for various cubic crystals and compounds. Te

data for c

11

,c

44

,c

12

were taken from Freund and Suresh [2003], whereas the elastic constants

E,v were calculated using the formulas in the preceding section.

3.3 HYPOELASTICITY: ELASTIC MATERIALS WITH A NONLINEAR

STRESS–STRAIN RELATION UNDER SMALL DEFORMATION

Hypoelasticity is used to model materials that exhibit nonlinear, but reversible, stress-

strain behavior even at small strains. Its most common application is in the so-called

e

3

e

2

e

1

e

3

e

2

e

1

(fcc) (bcc)

FIGURE 3.12 Atoms in face- and body-centered cubic materials.

e

1

e

2

e

3

(hcp)

FIGURE 3.11 Atoms in a hexagonal close-packed solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in87 87 9/9/09 7:25:59 PM

88 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

“deformation theory of plasticity,” which is a crude approximation of the behavior of

metals loaded beyond the elastic limit.

A hypoelastic material has the following properties:

Te solid has a preferred shape.

Te specimen deforms reversibly: if you remove the loads, the solid returns to its

original shape.

Te strain in the specimen depends only on the stress applied to it; it does not depend

on the rate of loading or the history of loading.

•

•

•

TABLE 3.5 Elastic Constants for Cubic Crystals

Material

c

11

(GNm

–2

)

c

44

(GNm

–2

)

c

12

(GNm

–2

)

E

(GNm

–2

)

v μ

(GNm

–2

)

A

Ag 124.00 46.10 93.40 43.75 0.43 46.10 3.01

Al 107.30 28.30 60.90 63.20 0.36 28.30 1.22

Au 192.90 41.50 163.80 42.46 0.46 41.50 2.85

Cu 168.40 75.40 121.40 66.69 0.42 75.40 3.21

Ir 580.00 256.00 242.00 437.51 0.29 256.00 1.51

Ni 246.50 127.40 147.30 136.31 0.37 127.40 2.57

Pb 49.50 14.90 42.30 10.52 0.46 14.90 4.14

Pd 227.10 71.70 176.00 73.41 0.44 71.70 2.81

Pt 346.70 76.50 250.70 136.29 0.42 76.50 1.59

Cr 339.80 99.00 58.60 322.56 0.15 99.00 0.70

Fe 231.40 116.40 134.70 132.28 0.37 116.40 2.41

Mo 440.80 121.70 172.40 343.86 0.28 121.70 0.91

Nb 240.20 28.20 125.60 153.95 0.34 28.20 0.49

Ta 260.20 82.60 154.50 145.08 0.37 82.60 1.56

V 228.00 42.60 118.70 146.72 0.34 42.60 0.78

W 522.40 160.80 204.40 407.43 0.28 160.80 1.01

C 949.00 521.00 151.00 907.54 0.14 521.00 1.31

Ge 128.40 66.70 48.20 102.09 0.27 66.70 1.66

Si 166.20 79.80 64.40 130.23 0.28 79.80 1.57

GaAs 118.80 59.40 53.70 85.37 0.31 59.40 1.82

GaP 141.20 70.50 62.50 102.85 0.31 70.50 1.79

InP 102.20 46.00 57.60 60.68 0.36 46.00 2.06

LiF 114.00 63.60 47.70 85.86 0.29 63.60 1.92

MgO 287.60 151.40 87.40 246.86 0.23 151.40 1.51

TiC 500.00 175.00 113.00 458.34 0.18 175.00 0.90

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in88 88 9/9/09 7:25:59 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 89

Te stress is a nonlinear function of strain, even when the strains are small, as shown

in Figure 3.13. Because the strains are small, this is true whatever stress measure we

adopt (Cauchy stress or nominal stress) and is true whatever strain measure we adopt

(Lagrange strain or infnitesimal strain).

We will assume here that the material is isotropic (i.e., the response of a material is

independent of its orientation with respect to the loading direction). In principle,

it would be possible to develop anisotropic hypoelastic models, but this is rarely

done.

Te stress-strain law is constructed as follows:

Strains and rotations are assumed to be small. Consequently, deformation is charac-

terized using the infnitesimal strain tensor ε

ij

defned in Section 2.1.7. In addition,

all stress measures are taken to be approximately equal. We can use the Cauchy stress

σ

ij

as the stress measure.

When we develop constitutive equations for nonlinear elastic materials, it is usually

best to fnd an equation for the strain energy density of the material as a function of

the strain, instead of trying to write down stress-strain laws directly. Tis has several

advantages: (1) we can work with a scalar function, and (2) the existence of a strain

energy density guarantees that deformations of the material are perfectly reversible.

If the material is isotropic, the strain energy density can only be a function of strain

measures that do not depend on the direction of loading with respect to the mate-

rial. One can show that this means that the strain energy can only be a function of

invariants of the strain tensor, that is to say, combinations of strain components

that have the same value in any basis (see Appendix B). Te strain tensor always has

three independent invariants: these could be the three principal strains, for exam-

ple. In practice, it is usually more convenient to use the three fundamental scalar

invariants:

I I I

kk ij ij kk pp ij 1 2 3

1

2

3

1

6

= = − = = ∈ ε ε ε ε ε ( / ) det( ) e

kk lmn li mj nk

∈ ε ε ε .

•

•

•

•

•

εε

σ

ε

Strain

energy

density

FIGURE 3.13 Stress-strain curve for a hypoelastic material.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in89 89 9/9/09 7:26:00 PM

90 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Here, I

1

is a measure of the volume change associated with the strain, I

2

is a measure of

the shearing caused by the strain, and I can’t think of a good physical interpretation for I

3

.

Fortunately, it doesn’t ofen appear in constitutive equations.

Strain energy density: In principle, the strain energy density could be any sensible func-

tion U(I

1

,I

2

,I

3

). In most practical applications, nonlinear behavior is only observed when

the material is subjected to shear deformation (characterized by I

2

), whereas stress varies

linearly with volume changes (characterized by I

1

). Tis behavior can be characterized by

a strain energy density,

U KI

n

n

I

n n

= +

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

1

6

2

1

1

2 0 0 2

0

2

1 2

σ ε

ε

( )/

,

where K, σ

0

, ε

0

, n are material properties (see below for a physical interpretation).

Stress-strain behavior: For this strain energy density function, the stress follows as

σ

ε

ε δ σ

ε

ε

ij

ij

kk ij

n n

i

U K I

=

∂

∂

= +

¸

¸

_

,

−

3

0

2

0

2

1 2 ( )/

jj kk ij

− ¸

¸

_

,

ε δ

ε

/

.

3

0

Te strain can also be calculated in terms of stress

ε σ δ ε

σ

σ σ δ

ij kk ij

n

ij kk i

K

J

= +

¸

¸

_

,

−

−

1

3

0

2

0

2

1 2 ( )/

jj

/

,

3

0

σ

¸

¸

_

,

where J

2

= (σ

ij

σ

ij

− σ

kk

σ

pp

/3)/2 is the second invariant of the stress tensor. To interpret these

results, note the following:

If the solid is subjected to uniaxial tension (with stress σ

11

= σ and all other stress

components zero), the nonzero strain components are

ε

σ

ε

σ

σ

ε ε

σ

ε

σ

σ

11 0

0

22 33 0

0

3

2

3 3 3

1

3 3

= +

¸

¸

_

,

= = −

K K

n

¸¸

¸

_

,

n

.

If the solid is subjected to hydrostatic stress (with σ

11

= σ

22

= σ

33

= σ and all other

stress components zero), the nonzero strain components are

ε ε ε

σ

11 22 33

= = =

K

.

If the solid is subjected to pure shear stress (with σ

12

= σ

21

= τ and all other stress

components zero), the nonzero strains are

ε ε ε

τ

σ

12 21 0

0

= =

¸

¸

_

,

n

.

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in90 90 9/9/09 7:26:00 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 91

Tus, the solid responds linearly to pressure loading, with a bulk modulus K. Te relation-

ship between shear stress and shear strain is a power law, with exponent n.

3.4 GENERALIZED HOOKE’S LAW: ELASTIC MATERIALS SUBJECTED

TO SMALL STRETCHES BUT LARGE ROTATIONS

Recall that the stress-strain law for an anisotropic, linear elastic material (Section 3.1) has

the form

σ

ij

= C

ijkl

ε

kl

,

where σ

ij

is stress (any stress measure you like), ε

ij

= (∂u

i

/ ∂x

j

+ ∂u

j

/ ∂x

i

)/2 is the infnitesi-

mal strain, and C

ijkl

is the tensor of elastic moduli. Tis stress-strain relation can only be

used if the material is subjected to small deformations and small rotations. Tis is partly

because the infnitesimal strain ε

ij

≠ 0 for a fnite rotation, so the law predicts that a non-

zero stress is required to rotate a solid.

Tere are some situations in which a solid is subjected to small shape changes but large

rotations. For example, Figure 3.14 shows a long slender beam bent into a circle by moments

applied to its ends. Te strains in the beam are of order h/R, where h is the thickness of the

beam and R is its curvature. Te ends of the beam have rotated through a full 90°, however.

Te linear elastic constitutive equations would not predict the correct stress in the beam.

It is easy to fx this problem: provided we choose a sensible (nonlinear) strain mea-

sure, together with the appropriate work-conjugate stress measure, we can still use a linear

stress-strain relation. To make this precise, suppose that a solid is subjected to a displace-

ment feld u

i

(x

k

), as shown in Figure 3.15. Defne the following:

Te deformation gradient and its Jacobian:

F

u

x

ij ij

i

j

= +

∂

∂

δ J = det(F).

Te Lagrange strain:

E F F

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

ij ki kj ij

i

j

j

i

k

i

k

j

= − =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

1

2

1

2

( ) δ

¸¸

¸

_

,

.

Te Eulerian strain: E F F

ij ij ki kj

*

( ). = −

− −

1

2

1 1

δ

•

•

•

M M

h

R

FIGURE 3.14 Slender beam bent by terminal couples.

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92 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te rotation tensor (for the best way to compute R in practice, see Section 2.1.13):

R F U

ij ik kj

T

= = ⋅

( )

−1

1 2

U F F

/

.

Te Cauchy (“true”) stress σ

ij

, defned so that n Lim

dP

dA

i ij

dA

j

σ =

→0

( )

.

n

Te material stress (work conjugate to Lagrange strain): Σ

ij ik kl jl

JF F =

− − 1 1

σ .

Te material stress–Lagrange strain relation can be expressed as

Σ

ij ijkl kl

C E = ,

where C

ijkl

is the tensor of elastic moduli for the material with orientation in the unde-

formed confguration. Tis is identical to the stress-strain relation for a linear elastic solid,

except that the stress measure has been replaced by material stress, and the strain measure

has been replaced by Lagrange strain. You can therefore use all the matrix representations

and tables of data given in Section 3.1 to apply the constitutive equation. Te Cauchy (true)

stress can be computed from the material stress as

σ

ij ik kl jl ik kl jl

J

F F R R = ≈

1

Σ Σ .

For the Cauchy stress–Eulerian strain relation, alternatively, the stress-strain relation can

be expressed in terms of stress and deformation measures that characterize the deformed

solid, as

σ

ij ijkl kl

C E =

* *

,

where C

ijkl

*

is the tensor of elastic moduli for the material with orientation of the deformed

confguration. Tis tensor is related to C

ijkl

by

C

J

F F C F F R R C R R

ijmn ip jq pqkl mk nl ip jq pqkl mk n

*

= ≈

1

ll

.

•

•

•

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

t

dA

0

dA

n

n

0

x

dP

0

(n)

dP

(n)

u(x)

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 3.15 Deformation of an area element within a solid.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 93

For the special case of an isotropic material with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio v,

Σ

ij ij kk ij ij ij

E

v

E

v

v

E

E

v

E

v

v

=

−

+

−

{ }

=

+

+

− 1 1 2 1 1 2

δ σ

*

EE

kk ij

*

. δ

{ }

3.5 HYPERELASTICITY: TIME-INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOR OF

RUBBERS AND FOAMS SUBJECTED TO LARGE STRAINS

Hyperelastic constitutive laws are used to model materials that respond elastically when

subjected to very large strains. Tey account for both nonlinear material behavior and

large shape changes. Te main applications of the theory are (1) to model the rubbery

behavior of a polymeric material and (2) to model polymeric foams that can be subjected

to large reversible shape changes (e.g., a sponge).

In general, the response of a typical polymer is strongly dependent on temperature,

strain history, and loading rate. Te behavior will be described in more detail in the next

section, in which we present the theory of viscoelasticity. For now, we note that polymers

have various regimens of mechanical behavior, referred to as “glassy,” “viscoelastic,” and

“rubbery.” Te various regimens can be identifed for a particular polymer by applying a

sinusoidal variation of shear stress to the solid and measuring the resulting shear strain

amplitude. A typical result is illustrated in Figure 3.16, which shows the apparent shear

modulus (ratio of stress amplitude to strain amplitude) as a function of temperature.

At a critical temperature known as the glass transition temperature, a polymeric material

undergoes a dramatic change in mechanical response. Below this temperature, it behaves

like a glass, with a stif response. Near the glass transition temperature, the stress depends

strongly on the strain rate. At the glass transition temperature, there is a dramatic drop in

modulus. Above this temperature, there is a regime in which the polymer shows rubbery

behavior: the response is elastic, the stress does not depend strongly on strain rate or strain

history, and the modulus increases with temperature. All polymers show these general

trends, but the extent of each regime, and the detailed behavior within each regime,

depend on the solid’s molecular structure. Heavily cross-linked polymers (elastomers) are

the most likely to show ideal rubbery behavior. Hyperelastic constitutive laws are intended

to approximate this rubbery behavior.

Modulus (N/m

2

)

Temperature

10

9

10

5

Glassy

Viscoelastic

Rubbery

Melt

Glass transition

temperature T

g

FIGURE 3.16 Modulus of a typical polymer as a function of temperature.

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94 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te features of the behavior of a solid rubber include the following:

1. Te material is close to ideally elastic, i.e., (1) when deformed at constant temperature

or adiabatically, stress is a function only of current strain and independent of history

or rate of loading, and (2) the behavior is reversible, so no net work is done on the solid

during a closed cycle of strain under adiabatic or isothermal conditions.

2. Te material strongly resists volume changes. Te bulk modulus (the ratio of volume

change to hydrostatic component of stress) is comparable with that of metals or cova-

lently bonded solids.

3. Te material is very compliant in shear: shear modulus is of the order of 10

−5

times

that of most metals.

4. Te material is isotropic: its stress-strain response is independent of material

orientation.

5. Te shear modulus is temperature dependent: the material becomes stifer as it is

heated, in sharp contrast to metals.

6. When stretched, the material gives of heat.

Polymeric foams (e.g., a sponge) share some of these properties:

1. Tey are close to reversible and show little rate or history dependence.

2. In contrast to rubbers, most foams are highly compressible; bulk and shear moduli

are comparable.

3. Foams have a complicated true stress-true strain response, generally resembling

sketch in Figure 3.17. Te fnite strain response of the foam in compression is quite

diferent from that in tension because of buckling in the cell walls.

4. Foams can be anisotropic depending on their cell structure. Foams with a random

cell structure are isotropic.

Te literature on stress-strain relations for fnite elasticity can be hard to follow, partly

because nearly every paper uses a diferent notation and partly because there are many

σ

ε

Stress-strain

response of foam

FIGURE 3.17 Stress-strain curve for a typical foam.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 95

diferent ways to write down the same stress-strain law. You should fnd that most of the

published literature is consistent with the framework given below, but it may take some

work to show the equivalence.

All hyperelastic models are constructed as follows:

1. Defne the stress-strain relation for the solid by specifying its strain energy density

W as a function of deformation gradient tensor: W = W(F). Tis ensures that the

material is perfectly elastic and also means that we only need to work with a scalar

function. Te general form of the strain energy density is guided by experiment, and

the formula for strain energy density always contains material properties that can be

adjusted to describe a particular material.

2. Te undeformed material is usually assumed to be isotropic, i.e., the behavior of

the material is independent of the initial orientation of the material with respect

to the loading. If the strain energy density is a function of the lef Cauchy-Green

deformation tensor B = F · F

T

, the constitutive equation is automatically isotropic. If

B is used as the deformation measure, then the strain energy must be a function of

the invariants of B to ensure that the constitutive equation is objective (recall that the

invariants of a tensor remain constant under a change of basis).

3. Formulas for stress in terms of strain are calculated by diferentiating the strain

energy density as outlined below.

3.5.1 Deformation Measures Used in Finite Elasticity

Suppose that a solid is subjected to a displacement feld u

i

(x

k

), as shown in Figure 3.18.

Defne the following:

Te deformation gradient and its Jacobian:

F

u

x

ij ij

i

j

= +

∂

∂

δ J = det(F).

•

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

t

dA

0

dA

n

n

0

x

dP

0

!n)

dP

!n)

u(x)

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 3.18 Deformable solid subjected to external forces.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in95 95 9/9/09 7:26:03 PM

96 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te lef Cauchy–Green deformation tensor:

B = F · F

T

B

ij

= F

ik

F

jk

.

Invariants of B (these are the conventional defnitions):

I B

I I I B B

I

kk

ik ki

1

2 1

2

1

2

3

1

2

1

2

=

= − ⋅⋅

( )

= −

( )

trace( = B

B B

)

== = det B J

2

An alternative set of invariants of B more convenient for models of nearly incom-

pressible materials (note that I I

1 2

, remain constant under a pure volume change):

I

I

J

B

J

I

I

J

I

J

kk

1

1

2 3 2 3

2

2

4 3

1

2

4 3

1

2

= =

= = −

⋅⋅

¸

¸

_

,

/ /

/ /

B B

== −

¸

¸

_

,

=

1

2

1

2

4 3

I

B B

J

J

ik ki

/

.

det B

Principal stretches and principal stretch directions, specifed as follows:

1. Let e

1

, e

2

, e

3

denote the three eigenvalues of B. Te principal stretches are

λ λ λ

1 1 2 2 3 3

= = = e e e , ,

2. Let b

1

,b

2

,b

3

denote three, mutually perpendicular unit eigenvectors of B. Tese defne

the principal stretch directions. (Note: Because B is symmetric, its eigenvectors are

automatically mutually perpendicular as long as no two eigenvalues are the same. If

two or all three eigenvalues are the same, the eignevectors are not uniquely defned;

in this case, any convenient mutually perpendicular set of eigenvectors can be used.)

3. Recall that B can be expressed in terms of its eigenvectors and eigenvalues as

B b b b b b b = ⊗ + ⊗ + ⊗ λ λ λ

1

2 1 1

2

2 2 2

3

2 3 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

.

3.5.2 Stress Measures Used in Finite Elasticity

Usually stress-strain laws are given as equations relating Cauchy stress (true stress) σ

ij

to

lef Cauchy–Green deformation tensor. For some computations, it may be more convenient

to use other stress measures. Tey are defned below, for convenience.

Te Cauchy (true) stress represents the force per unit deformed area in the solid and

is defned by

n Lim

dP

dA

i ij

dA

j

σ =

→0

( )

.

n

•

•

•

•

•

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Constitutive Models ◾ 97

Kirchhof stress is defned as τ = Jσ τ

ij

= Jσ

ij

.

Nominal (frst Piola–Kirchhof) stress is defned as S = ⋅ =

− −

J S JF

ij ik kj

F

1 1

σσ σ

Material (second Piola–Kirchhof) stress is defned as.

Σ Σ = ⋅ ⋅ =

− − − −

J JF F

T

ij

ik kl jl

F F

1 1 1

σ σ .

3.5.3 Calculating Stress–Strain Relations from the Strain Energy Density

Te constitutive law for an isotropic hyperelastic material is defned by an equation relat-

ing the strain energy density of the material to the deformation gradient or, for an isotropic

solid, to the three invariants of the strain tensor:

W U I I I I I J ( ) ( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , ). F = = =

1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3

U U

¯

λ λ λ

Te stress-strain law must then be deduced by diferentiating the strain energy density.

Tis can involve some tedious algebra. Formulas are listed below for the stress-strain rela-

tions for each choice of strain invariant. Te results are derived below:

Strain energy density in terms of F

ij

:

σ

ij ik

jk

J

F

W

F

=

∂

∂

1

.

Strain energy density in terms of I

1

,I

2

,I

3

:

σ

ij ij ik kj

I

U

I

I

U

I

B

U

I

B B

2

3 1

1

2 2

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

¸

11

]

1

+

∂

∂

2

3

3

I

U

I

ij

δ .

Strain energy density in terms of

I I J

1 2

, ,

:

σ

ij ij

J J

U

I

I

U

I

B I

U

I

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

+

2 1

2

2 3

1

1

2

1

1

/

II

U

I J

U

I

B B

ij

ik kj 2

2

4 3

2

3

1 ∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

∂ δ

/

UU

J

ij

∂

δ .

Strain energy density in terms of λ

1

,λ

2

,λ

3

:

σ

λ

λ λ λ λ

λ

λ λ λ λ

ij i j

U

b b

U

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

1

1 2 3 1

1 1 2

1 2 3 2

¯ ¯

( ) ( )

bb b

U

b b

i j i j

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

.

2 2 3

1 2 3 3

3 3

+

∂

∂

λ

λ λ λ λ

¯

Derivations: We start by deriving the general formula for stress in terms of W(F):

1. Note that, by defnition, if the solid is subjected to some history of strain, the rate

of change of the strain energy density W(F) must equal the rate of mechanical work

done on the material per unit reference volume.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

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98 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2. Recall that the rate of work done per unit undeformed volume by body forces and

surface tractions is expressed in terms of the nominal stress S

i

as S F

ij ij

.

3. Terefore, for any deformation gradient F

ij

,

dW

dt

W

F

F

t

S

F

t

ij

ij

ji

ij

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

.

Tis must hold for all possible

F

ij

, so that

∂

∂

=

W

F

S

ij

ji

.

4. Finally, the formula for Cauchy stress follows from the equation relating σ

ij

toS

ij

:

σ

ij ik kj ik

jk

J

F S

J

F

W

F

= =

∂

∂

1 1

.

For an isotropic material, it is necessary to fnd derivatives of the invariants with respect to

the components of F to compute the stress-strain function for a given strain energy den-

sity. It is straightforward but somewhat tedious to show that

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

= −

( )

∂

∂

I

F

F

I

F

I F B F

I

F

ij

ij

ij

ij ik kj

i

1 2

1

3

2 2 , ,

jj

ji

I F =

−

2

3

1

Ten,

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

W

F

U

I

I

F

U

I

I

F

U

I

I

F

ij ij ij 1

1

2

2

3

3

iij

ij ik kj

U

I

I

U

I

F

U

I

B F I =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

2 2 2

1

1

2 2

3

∂∂

∂

−

U

I

F

ji

3

1

and

σ

ij ik

jk

ij

I

F

W

F I

U

I

I

U

I

B =

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

1 2

3 3 1

1

2

∂∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

∂

∂

U

I

B B I

U

I

ik kj ij

2

3

3

2 δ .

When using a strain energy density of the form U I I J ( , , )

1 2

, we will have to compute the

derivatives of the invariants I I J

1 2

, and with respect to the components of F to fnd

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

W

F

U

I

I

F

U

I

I

F

U

J

J

F

ij ij ij ij 1

1

2

2

We fnd that

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

−

∂

−

J

F

JF

I

F

J

I

F

I

J

ij

ji

ij

ij

1

1

2 3

1 1

5 3

1 2

3

/ /

JJ

F J

F

I

F

J

F I

ij

ij ji ij

∂

= −

¸

¸

_

,

= −

−

2

3

2 2

3

2 3

1

1

2 3 / /

11

1

2

4 3

2 2

7 3

1 4

3

F

I

F J

I

F

I

J

J

F

ji

ij ij ij

−

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

=

/ /

22 2

3

2

4 3

1

2

1

2 3

1

J

I F B F

I

F

J

I F

ij ik kj ji

/

/

− −

¸

¸

_

,

=

−

iij ik kj ji

J

B F

I

F − −

−

2 4

3

4 3

2

1

/

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Constitutive Models ◾ 99

Tus,

σ

ij ik

jk

ij

J

F

W

F

J

U

I

I

U

I

B

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

5 3

1

1

2

/

−−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

2

3

2

2

1

1

2

2

7 3

2

J

I

U

I

I

U

I J

U

I

B

ij i

δ

/

kk kj ij

B

U

J

+

∂

∂

δ .

Next, we derive the stress-strain relation in terms of a strain energy density

¯

U λ λ λ

1 2 3

, , ( )

that is expressed as a function of the principal strains. Note frst that

¯

U U I I I

I I

λ λ λ

λ λ λ λ

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 1

2

2

2

3

2

2

, , , ,

,

( ) = ( )

= + + =

11

2

3

2

2

2

3

2

1

2

3

2

3 1

2

2

2

3

2

λ λ λ λ λ λ λ λ + + = , I

so that the chain rule gives

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+ −

( )

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

¯

U

λ

λ λ

λ

i

i i

i

U

I

I

U

I

I U

I

2

1

1

2

2

3

2

3

__

,

= ( ) , , , . i 1 2 3

Using this and the expression that relates the stress components to the derivatives of U,

σ

ij ik

jk

ij

I

F

W

F I

U

I

I

U

I

B =

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

1 2

3 3 1

1

2

∂∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

∂

∂

U

I

B B I

U

I

ik kj ij

2

3

3

2 δ ,

we fnd that the principal stresses σ

1

, σ

2

, σ

3

are related to the corresponding principal

stretches λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

(square roots of the eigenvalues of B) through

σ

λ

λ λ λ λ

i

i

i

U

i =

∂

∂

=

( )

1 2 3

1 2 3

¯

, , , .

Te spectral decomposition for B in terms of its eigenvalues λ λ λ

1

2

2

2

3

2

, , and eigenvectors b

(1)

,

b

(2)

, b

(3)

:

B b b b b b b

ij i j i j i j

= + + λ λ λ

1

2 1 1

2

2 2 2

3

2 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (33)

.

now allows the stress tensor to be written as

σ

λ

λ λ λ λ

λ

λ λ λ λ

ij i j

U

b b

U

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

1

1 2 3 1

1 1 2

1 2 3 2

¯ ¯

( ) ( )

bb b

U

b b

i j i j

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

.

2 2 3

1 2 3 3

3 3

+

∂

∂

λ

λ λ λ λ

¯

3.5.4 A Note on Perfectly Incompressible Materials

Te preceding formulas assume that the material has some (perhaps small) compressibil-

ity; that is to say, if you load it with hydrostatic pressure, its volume will change by a mea-

surable amount. Most rubbers strongly resist volume changes, and, in hand calculations,

it is sometimes convenient to approximate them as perfectly incompressible. Te material

model for incompressible materials is specifed as follows:

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100 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te deformation must satisfy J = 1 to preserve volume.

Te strain energy density is therefore only a function of two invariants; furthermore,

both sets of invariants defned above are identical. We can use a strain energy density

of the form U(I

1,

I

2

).

Because you can apply any pressure to an incompressible solid without changing its

shape, the stress cannot be uniquely determined from the strains. Consequently, the

stress-strain law only specifes the deviatoric stress σ σ σ δ

ij ij kk ij

= − / 3. In problems

involving quasi-static loading, the hydrostatic stress p

kk

= σ / 3 can usually be calcu-

lated, by solving the equilibrium equations (together with appropriate boundary con-

ditions). Incompressible materials should not be used in a dynamic analysis, because

the speed of elastic pressure waves is infnite.

Te formula for stress in terms of U(I

1

, I

2

) has the form

σ

ij ij

U

I

I

U

I

B I

U

I

I

U

I

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

2 2

1

1

2

1

1

2

22 2

3

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

δ

δ

ij

ik kj ij

U

I

B B p .

Te hydrostatic stress p is an unknown variable, which must be calculated by solving

the boundary value problem.

3.5.5 Speciﬁc Forms of the Strain Energy Density

Specifc forms of the strain energy density include the following:

Generalized neo-Hookean solid [adapted from Treloar 1948]:

U I

K

J = − + −

µ

1

1

1 2

2

3

2

1 ( ) ( ) ,

where μ

1

and K

1

are material properties (for small deformations, μ

1

and K

1

are the shear

modulus and bulk modulus of the solid, respectively). Elementary statistical mechanics

treatments predict that μ

1

= NkT, where N is the number of polymer chains per unit vol-

ume, k is the Boltzmann constant, and T is temperature. Tis is a rubber elasticity model,

for rubbers with very limited compressibility, and should be used with K

1

>>μ

1

. Te stress-

strain relation follows as:

σ δ δ

ij ij kk ij ij

J

B B K J = −

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

µ

1

5 3

1

1

3

1

/

( ) .

Te fully incompressible limit can be obtained by setting K

1

(J – 1) = p/3 in the stress-strain law.

Generalized Mooney–Rivlin solid [adapted from Mooney 1940]:

U I I

K

J = − + − + −

µ µ

1

1

2

2

1 2

2

3

2

3

2

1 ( ) ( ) ( )

where μ

1

, μ

2

, and K

1

are material properties. For small deformations, the shear modulus

and bulk modulus of the solid are μ = μ

1

+ μ

2

and K = K

1

. Tis is a rubber elasticity model

and should be used with K

1

>>μ

1

. Te stress-strain relation follows as

•

•

•

•

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Constitutive Models ◾ 101

σ

µ

δ

µ

ij ij kk ij kk ij

J

B B

J

B B = −

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

1

5 3

2

7 3

1

3

1

/ /

33

1

3

1

2

1

[ ] ( B B B B B K J

kk ij ik kj kn nk ij

δ δ − +

¸

¸

_

,

+ − )) . δ

ij

Generalized polynomial rubber elasticity potential:

U C I I

K

J

ij

i j i i

i

N

i j

N

= − − + −

= + =

∑ ∑

( ) ( ) ( ) ,

1 2

2

1 1

3 3

2

1

where C

ij

and K

i

are material properties. For small strains, the shear modulus and bulk

modulus follow as μ = 2(C

01

+ C

10

), K = 2K

1

. Tis model is implemented in many fnite

element codes. Both the neo-Hookean solid and the Mooney–Rivlin solid are special cases

of the law (with N = 1 and appropriate choices of C

ij

). Values of N > 2 are rarely used,

because it is dim cult to ft such a large number of material properties to experimental

data.

Ogden model [adapted from Ogden 1972a,b]:

¯

U

K

J

i

i

i

N

i i i

= + + − + −

=

∑

2

3

2

1

2

1 2 3

1 2

1

µ

α

λ λ λ

α α α

( ) ( ) ,

where λ λ

i i

J = /

/ 1 3

, and μ

i

, α

i

, K are material properties. For small strains, the shear modu-

lus and bulk modulus follow as µ µ = =

=

∑ i

i

N

K K ,

1

1

. Tis is a rubber elasticity model and is

intended to be used with K

1

>>μ

1

. Te stress can be computed using the formulas in 3.5.3

but are too lengthy to write out in full here.

Arruda–Boyce eight-chain model [adapted from Arruda and Boyce 1992]:

U I I I = − + − + − + µ

β β

1

2

3

1

20

9

11

1050

27

1

2

1

2

4

1

3

( ) ( ) ( ) …

¹¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

+ −

K

J

2

1

2

( ) ,

where μ, β, K are material properties. For small deformations, μ, K are the shear and bulk

modulus, respectively. Tis is a rubber elasticity model, so K >> μ. Te potential was derived

by calculating the entropy of a simple network of long-chain molecules, and the series is

the result of a Taylor expansion of an inverse Langevin function. Te reference provided

lists more terms if you need them. Te stress-strain law is

σ

µ

β β

ij

kk kk

J

B

J

B

J

= + + +

¸

¸

5 3 2 3 2

2

4 4 3

1

5

33

525

/ / /

( )

…

_

,

−

¸

¸

_

,

+ − B

B

K J

ij

kk

ij ij

3

1

1

δ δ ( ) .

Ogden–Storakers hyperelastic foam [Storakers 1986]:

¯

U J

i

i i

i i i i i

= + + − −

¸

¸

_

,

−

2

3

1

1

2

1 2 3

µ

α

λ λ λ

β

α α α α β

( ,,

i

N

=

∑

1

where μ

i

, α

i

, β

i

are material properties. For small strains, the shear modulus and bulk

modulus follow as µ = = +

= =

∑ ∑

µ µ β

i

i

N

i i

i

N

K , ( / )

1 1

2 1 3 . Tis is a foam model and can model

highly compressible materials. Te shear and compression responses are coupled.

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102 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Blatz–Ko foam rubber [Blatz and Ko 1962]:

U I I I

I

I

I ( , , ) ,

1 2 3

1

2

3

2

2 = +

¸

¸

_

,

µ

where μ is a material parameter corresponding to the shear modulus at infnitesimal

strains. Poisson’s ratio for such a material is 0.25.

3.5.6 Calibrating Nonlinear Elasticity Models

To use any of these constitutive relations, you will need to determine values for the

material constants. In some cases, this is quite simple (the incompressible neo-Hookean

material only has one constant!); for models like the generalized polynomial or Ogden’s, it

is considerably more involved.

Conceptually, however, the procedure is straightforward. You can perform various

types of test on a sample of the material, including simple tension, pure shear, equibiaxial

tension, or volumetric compression. It is straightforward to calculate the predicted stress-

strain behavior for the specimen for each constitutive law. Te parameters can then be

chosen to give the best ft to experimental behavior. Here are some guidelines on how best

to do this:

1. When modeling the behavior of rubber under ambient pressure, you usually don’t

need to characterize response to volumetric compression in detail. For the rubber

elasticity models listed above, you can take K

1

≈ 10

5

MPa. To ft the remaining param-

eters, you can assume the material is perfectly incompressible.

2. If rubber is subjected to large hydrostatic stress (>100 MPa), its volumetric and shear

responses are strongly coupled. Compression increases the shear modulus, and high

enough pressure can even induce a glass transition [Quested, Pae, Sheinbein, and

Newman 1981]. To account for this, you would have to use one of the foam models:

in the rubber models, the volumetric and shear responses are decoupled. You would

also have to determine the material constants by testing the material under combined

hydrostatic and shear loading.

3. For the simpler material models (e.g. the neo-Hookean solid, the Mooney–Rivlin

material, or the Arruda–Boyce model, which contain only two material parameters

in addition to the bulk modulus), you can estimate material parameters by ftting

to the results of a uniaxial tension test. Tere are various ways to actually do the ft.

You could match the small-strain shear modulus to experiment and then select the

remaining parameter to ft the stress-strain curve at a larger stretch. Least-squared

fts are also ofen used. However, models calibrated in this way do not always predict

material behavior under multiaxial loading accurately.

4. A more accurate description of material response to multiaxial loading can be obtained

by ftting the material parameters to multiaxial tests. To help in this exercise, the

nominal stress (i.e., force/unit undeformed area) versus extension predicted by several

constitutive laws are listed in Table 3.6 (assuming perfectly incompressible behavior,

as suggested in 1 above). Specimen dimensions are illustrated in Figure 3.19.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 103

3.5.7 Representative Values of Material Properties for Rubbers

Te properties of rubber are strongly sensitive to its molecular structure, and, for accurate pre-

dictions, you will need to obtain experimental data for the particular material you plan to use.

As a rough guide, the experimental data of Treloar [1944] for the behavior of vulcanized rubber

under uniaxial tension, biaxial tension, and pure shear is shown in Figure 3.20. Te solid lines

in the fgure show the predictions of the Ogden model (which gives the best ft to the data).

Material parameters ft to this data for several constitutive laws are listed in Table 3.7.

3.6 LINEAR VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS: TIME-DEPENDENT

BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS AT SMALL STRAINS

Amorphous polymers show complex time-dependent behavior when subjected to a history

of stress or strain. Viscoelasticity theory was developed to approximate this behavior in

polymers that are subjected to modest strains (less than 0.5%). Typical applications might

TABLE 3.6 Stress-Stretch Relations Predicted by Hyperelastic Constitutive Equations

Uniaxial Tension Biaxial Tension Pure Shear

Invariants

l L

l L l L

I

1 1

2 2 3 3

1 2

1

2 1

2

/

/ /

/

=

= =

= +

−

−

λ

λ

λ λ

l L l L

l L

I

1 1 2 2

3 3

2

1

2 4

2

/ /

/

= =

=

= +

−

−

λ

λ

λ λ

l L l L

l L

I

1 1 2 2

3 3

1

1

2 2

1

1

/ /

/

= =

=

= + +

−

−

λ

λ

λ λ

Neo-Hookean S

S S

1 1

2

2 3

0

= −

( )

= =

−

µ λ λ S S

S

1 2 1

5

3

0

= = −

( )

=

−

µ λ λ S

S

S

1 1

3

2 1

1 3

3

0

= −

( )

= −

( )

=

−

− −

µ λ λ

µ λ λ

Mooney–Rivlin S

S S

1 1

2

2

3

2 3

1

0

= −

( )

+ −

( )

= =

−

−

µ λ λ

µ λ

S S

S

1 2 1

5

2

3 3

3

0

= = −

( )

+ −

( )

=

−

−

µ λ λ

µ λ λ

S

S

S

1 1 2

3

2 1

1

2

2

3

1 1

0

= + ( ) −

( )

= −

( )

+ −

( )

=

−

−

µ µ λ λ

µ λ µ λ

Arruda–Boyce S C

S S

1

2

2 3

0

= −

( )

= =

−

λ λ S S C

S

1 2

5

3

0

= = −

( )

=

−

λ λ S C

S C

1

3

2

2

1

= −

( )

= −

( )

−

−

λ λ

λ

C

I I

= + +

¸

¸

_

,

µ

β β

1

5

33

525

1

2

1

2

4

Ogden

S

n

S S

n n

n

1

2

2 3

0

= −

( )

−

∑

= =

µ λ λ

α α

λ

/

/

S S

S

n

n

n n

1 2

2

3

0

= = −

( )

=

−

∑

µ λ λ λ

α α

/ S

S

n

n

n

n

n n

n

1

2

1

= −

( )

= −

( )

−

−

∑

∑

µ λ λ λ

µ λ

α α

α

/

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104 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

be to model the energy dissipation during cyclic loading of a polymeric vibration damper

or to model human tissue responding to an electric shaver.

3.6.1 Features of the Small-Strain Rate-Dependent Response of Polymers

Te principal features of polymers (and some biological tissue) are summarized below:

1. Polymers strongly resist volume changes at all temperatures. Te bulk modulus (the

ratio of volume change to hydrostatic component of stress) is comparable to that of

metals or covalently bonded solids.

2. Te shear response of a polymer is strongly temperature dependent, as shown in

Figure 3.21. At low temperatures (the glassy regimen), the shear modulus is high and

comparable with that of metals. At a critical temperature (the glass transition), the

L

1

L

2

L

3

l

3

l

2

l

1

Undeformed Deformed

e

1

e

2

e

3

e

1

e

2

e

3

S

1

S

2

S

3

FIGURE 3.19 Homogeneous deformation of a hyperelastic solid.

Stretch ratio !

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Uniaxial tension

Biaxial tension

Simple shear(S

1

)

FIGURE 3.20 Comparison of predicted and measured stress-stretch curve for a rubber.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 105

modulus drops. At temperatures well above the glass transition temperature (the rub-

bery regimen), the shear modulus can be as low as 10

–5

times that of most metals.

3. At temperatures near the glass transition, the shear modulus is strongly time (and

load history) dependent; this behavior is discussed in more detail below. Te time-

dependent shear response can be measured in two ways: (1) by applying a step load to

a sample or (2) by applying a harmonic (sinusoidal) load to the specimen.

4. Te time-dependent modulus of polymers is also temperature dependent. Reducing

the temperature is qualitatively equivalent to increasing the strain rate. Te equiva-

lence of temperature and strain rate is discussed in more detail below.

5. Most amorphous polymers are isotropic; their stress-strain response is independent

of material orientation.

3.6.1.1 Time-Dependent Response to Step Loading

Te time-dependent shear response can be measured in one of two ways:

1. Take a specimen that is free of stress at time t = 0, apply a constant shear stress Δτ for

t > 0, and measure the resulting shear strain ε as a function of time. Te results are gen-

erally presented by plotting the creep compliance J(t) = 2ε(t)/Δτ as a function of time.

2. Take a specimen that is free of stress at time t = 0, apply a constant shear strain Δε for

t > 0, and measure the resulting shear stress τ(t) as a function of time. In this case, the

results are presented by plotting the relaxation modulus: G(t) = τ(t)/2Δε.

TABLE 3.7 Representative Material Properties for Vulcanized Rubber

Neo-Hookean μ

1

= 0.4 MNm

–2

Mooney-Rivlin μ

1

= 0.39 MNm

–2

, μ

2

= 0.015 MNm

–2

Arruda-Boyce μ

1

= 0.4 MNm

–2

, β = 10

Ogden μ

1

= 0.62 MNm

–2

, α

1

= 1.3

μ

2

= 0.00118 MNm

–2

, α

2

= 5

μ

3

= −0.00981 MNm

–2

, α

3

= −2

Modulus (N/m

2

)

Temperature

10

9

10

5

Glassy

Viscoelastic

Rubbery

Glass transition

temperature T

g

FIGURE 3.21 Variation of shear modulus of a typical polymer with temperature.

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106 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te results of such a test depend on the degree of cross-linking in the polymer. Heavily

cross-linked materials show “retarded elastic” behavior, whereas un-cross-linked materials

show steady-state creep. A detailed description of each type of behavior follows.

3.6.1.1.1 Retarded Elastic Behavior (Observed in Strongly Crosslinked Polymers)

Te notable features of this behavior are shown in Figure 3.22:

1. Tere is always an instantaneous strain Δε in response to a step change in stress

Δτ. Te instantaneous compliance J

g

= 2Δε/Δτ is low and only weakly dependent on

temperature.

2. At temperatures signifcantly below the glass transition temperature, the solid is

essentially elastic (there may be a very slow increase in compliance with time). At low

temperatures, the compliance is low, comparable with J

g

.

3. At temperatures signifcantly above the glass transition temperature, the solid is very

compliant, and the compliance is a function of temperature. Te specimen will show

an initial transient response but will quite quickly settle to a constant strain. Te time

taken to reach steady state decreases with increasing temperature, and, for some mate-

rials, the transient may be short enough to be neglected. In this case, the material can

be modeled using the hyperelastic constitutive law described in the preceding section.

4. For a range of temperatures both above and below the glass transition temperature,

the solid shows a slow transient response.

5. Te deformation is reversible: if the loading is removed, the specimen will eventually

return to its original confguration, although in the transition regimen this may take

a very long time.

3.6.1.1.2 Steady-State Creep Behavior (Observed in Uncrosslinked Polymers

and Polymer Melts)

Te notable features of this behavior are shown in Figure 3.23:

1. Tere is always an instantaneous strain in response to a step change in stress, exactly

as in crosslinked polymers.

T%m' t

)*m+,%-./' J

J

e

(T)

J

g

0,-ss2 3'4%m' T<<T

g

5677'32 3'4%m' T>>T

g

T3-.s%8%*. 3'4%m'

Unloading

FIGURE 3.22 Time-dependent compliance of a typical crosslinked polymer.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in106 106 9/9/09 7:26:11 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 107

2. At low temperatures (well below the glass transition temperature), the solid is essen-

tially elastic (there may be a very slow rate of creep) and has a very low compliance,

comparable with J

g

.

3. At temperatures above the glass transition temperature, the solid is very compliant.

It may show rubbery behavior for very low stresses, but, for most practical ranges

of loading, the compliance will increase more or less linearly with time (especially

for short time intervals). Te rate of change of compliance is strongly temperature

dependent, as discussed below.

4. Above the glass transition temperature, the deformation is irreversible: if the loading

is removed, the specimen will not return to its original shape.

3.6.1.2 Response to Harmonic Loading

In addition to measuring the response of a material to a step change in load, one can sub-

ject it to cyclic strain, e.g., with strains that vary sinusoidally with time:

ε(t) = ε

0

cos(ωt) = ε

0

Re[exp(iωt)],

where Re(z) denotes the real part of a complex number z. Te stress history will also be

harmonic and could be expressed as τ = τ

0

Re[exp(iωt)exp(iδ)], where τ

0

is the stress ampli-

tude, and δ is a phase shif. Both τ

0

and δ depend on ω. One can defne a complex modulus

as

G * (ω, T) = τ

0

exp(iδ)/2ε

0

.

Experimental data is usually presented by plotting the real part G'(ω,T) of the complex

modulus G'(ω,T) against the inverse of frequency, where

G * = G' + iG'' G' = τ

0

cos (δ)/ε

0

G'' = τ

0

sin (δ)/ε

0

.

Te variation of the modulus with frequency is illustrated in Figure 3.24.

Time t

Compliance J

J

g

Unloading

J

g

FIGURE 3.23 Time-dependent compliance of a typical uncrosslinked polymer.

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108 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.6.1.3 Williams–Landell–Ferry Time/Temperature Equivalence

You may have noticed that the fgures showing the variation of modulus with temperature

and frequency are remarkably similar. Of course these are just sketches, but in fact the con-

nection between temperature and loading rate is more than just a qualitative trend. Tis

can be demonstrated by means of the following experiment:

1. At temperature T

1

, subject a specimen to a step change in shear strain Δε and measure

the relaxation modulus G(t,T

1

) = τ(t)/(2Δε).

2. Repeat the experiment at several progressively higher temperatures T

2

, T

3

… T

n

to

obtain a series of relaxation modulus curves G(t, T

2

),G(t, T

3

) … .

3. Plot log(G(t)) versus log(t) for the raw data. Te results will look like a complicated

mess, something like Figure 3.25.

4. However, you will fnd that, if you simply shif the modulus curves for the higher temper-

atures to the right, you can make the data collapse onto a single master curve, as shown.

5. Tis observation can be expressed mathematically as log(G) = f{log(t) + log[A(T; T

1

]}, where

the function f represents the master curve, and log A(T; T

1

) represents the horizontal shif

(Frequency)

–1

Modulus (N/m

2

)

10

9

10

5

Glassy

Viscoelastic

Rubbery

Melt

Glass transition

temperature T

g

FIGURE 3.24 Harmonic modulus of a typical polymer as a function of frequency.

A[T

3

;T

1

]

A[T

2

;T

1

]

A[T

4

;T

1

]

A[T

5

;T

1

]

log (time)

log (G)

Master curve

Measured

modulus

T

1

T

2

T

3

T

4

T

5

FIGURE 3.25 Scaling of the temperature-dependent relaxation modulus onto a master

curve.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 109

from temperature T

1

to T

2

. A(T; T

1

) is known as the Williams-Landell-Ferry (WLF) shif

function.

6. If you measure A(T; T

1

) at a series of temperatures and plot log A(T; T

1

) as a function

of temperature T, you will fnd that the data can be well approximated by a function

of the form log A(T; T

1

) = – C

1

(T – T

1

)/{C

2

+(T – T

1

)}. Te scaling holds for any two

temperatures, but of course C

1

and C

2

must depend on the choice of T

1

. In practice, it

is convenient (and conventional) to use the glass transition temperature as the refer-

ence temperature. Te scaling law can then be written as

A T T

C T T

C T T

g

g

g

g

g

; exp .

( )

= −

−

( )

+ −

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

1

2

Te values of

C

g

1

and

C

g

2

vary slightly (but surprisingly little) from one polymer

to another: typical ranges are

C

g

1

10 40 ≈ –

and C

g

2

50 100 ≈ − Kelvin. Te expression

works (again surprisingly) for T both above and below T

g

, but of course the expres-

sion blows up if T T C

g

g

< –

2

. For temperatures below this critical value, the material

is perfectly elastic (with constant elastic moduli).

7. Note that, because A(T; T

1

) = A(T

g

; T

1

)A(T; T

g

), the constants C

1

, C

2

, T

1

and C

g

1

, C

g

2

,

T

g

are related by C C C C T T

g g g

g 1 1 2 2 1

= + − /( ), C C T T

g

g 2 2 1

= + − . Tis means that,

if you measure a time-dependent modulus G(t, T

1

) at temperature T

1

and know the

values of C

g

1

, C

g

2

, T

g

for the material, you can immediately calculate the modulus at

any other temperature as G(t, T) = G(A(T; T

1

)t, T

1

), where

A T T

C T T

C T T C T T

g

g

g

g

g

( ; )

( )

.

1

2 1

2 1 2

=

− −

+ −

¸

1

]

+ −

¸

1

]

¸

¸

_

,

exp

C

1

g

3.6.2 General Constitutive Equations for Linear Viscoelastic Solids

Te general stress-strain law for a linear viscoelastic solid is constructed as follows:

Assume that the material experiences small shape changes and rotations. Te defor-

mation can then be characterized using the infnitesimal strain tensor ε

ij

= (∂u

i

/∂x

j

+

∂u

j

/∂x

i

)/2 defned in Section 2.1.7.

For small strains, all stress measures are equal. We can use the Cauchy stress σ

ij

as

the stress measure.

Assume that, for time t < 0, the solid is stress free, and ε

ij

= 0.

For small strains/stresses, we can assume that the stress and strain are related through

linear equations. (Tis does not mean that stress is proportional to strain, of course;

instead, stress, strain, and their rates are related by a time-dependent linear ODE, as

discussed below.)

Assume that the material is isotropic.

•

•

•

•

•

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110 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

In most practical applications, we can assume that material response to a pure volu-

metric strain (ε

11

= ε

22

= ε

33

= (V − V

0

)/(3V

0

) with all other ε

ij

= 0) is perfectly elas-

tic (with no time-dependent behavior). Te volumetric strain will induce a state of

hydrostatic tension σ

11

= σ

22

= σ

33

= σ with all other σ

ij

= 0. Te stress is related to the

strain by σ = Kδ V/V, where K is the bulk modulus.

Viscoelastic response is most commonly characterized by the shear relaxation modu-

lus G(t, T

1

) measured at some reference temperature T

1

. (Recall that the shear relax-

ation modulus can be measured by subjecting a specimen to a step increase in shear

strain Δε and measuring the resulting shear stress τ(t). Te relaxation modulus fol-

lows as G(t, T

1

) = τ(t)/(2Δε).

Te temperature dependence of the modulus is characterized by the WLF constants

C

g

1

, C

g

2

and the glass transition temperature T

g

, through the WLF shif function

defned in the preceding section.

Because the stress is linearly related to strain, the stress history σ

ij

(t) resulting from

an arbitrary strain history ε

ij

(t) can be computed by appropriately superposing the

step response. Te result is

σ ζ ε ζ ε ζ

ij ij kk

t G A T T t T ( ) ; , ( ) ( ) = ( ) − ( ) ( )

− 2

1

3

1 1

δδ ζ ε δ

ij kk ij

t

d K

¸

1

]

1

+

∫

0

.

Here, the temperature T is assumed to be constant up to time t. It is not hard to

extend the formula to account for time-varying temperatures, but the result looks

messy and is dim cult to visualize.

To apply this stress-strain relation in practice, it is necessary to fnd a convenient way to

ft the relaxation modulus G(t, T

1

). Various approaches to doing this are described in the

next two sections.

3.6.3 Spring–Damper Approximations to the Relaxation Modulus

Spring-damper models are ofen used as a simple, approximate model of the behavior of a

viscoelastic solid. Te sketches in Figure 3.26 illustrate the general idea: in each case, the

force applied to the spring-dashpot system represents shear stress, whereas the extension

represents shear strain. It is straightforward to show that they are related by

k

d

dt

k

d

dt

σ η

σ

η

ε

+ = Maaxwell

σ ε η

ε

= + k

d

dt

Kelvin–Voigt

k

d

dt

k k k

1 1 2 1

σ η

σ

ε + = + ( ++ k

d

dt

2

) . η

ε

3 Parameter

•

•

•

•

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Constitutive Models ◾ 111

For a material with time-independent bulk modulus K, these can be generalized to multi-

axial loading as

e S K

kS

dS

dt

k

ij ij kk ij ij ij kk ij

ij

ij

= − = +

+ =

ε ε δ σ ε δ

η ηη

de

dt

ij

Maxwelll

S ke

de

dt

ij ij

ij

= + η Kelvin Voigt –

k S

dS

dt

k

ij

ij

1

+ = η

11 2 1 2

3 k e k k

de

dt

ij

ij

+ + ( )η parameter.

Qualitatively, these models describe the behavior of a typical polymer. Te Kelvin–Voigt model

gives retarded elastic behavior and represents a crosslinked polymer. Te Maxwell model

gives steady-state creep and would represent an uncrosslinked polymer. With an appropriate

choice of k

1

and k

2

, the three-parameter model can describe both types of behavior.

For hand calculations, it is ofen more convenient to use the diferential equations

relating stress to strain than the integral integral form given in the preceding section.

However, it is straigthforward to calculate the relaxation modulus for the Maxwell and

three- parameter models:

G t ke

G t k k e

kt

k t

( )

( )

/

/

=

= +

−

−

η

η

Maxwell

2 1

1

33 parameter.

Te Kelvin–Voigt model does not have a well-defned relaxation modulus.

FIGURE 3.26 Spring-damper representations of polymer behavior.

k

η

k

1

k

2

η

k

η

Kelvin–Voigt Maxwell

σ

σ

σ

ε

ε

ε

3 parameter

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112 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.6.4 Prony Series Representation for the Relaxation Modulus

Te models described in the preceding section are too simple to give a good quantitative ft

to any polymer over an extended period of time. We can make a more versatile model by

connecting a bunch of Maxwell elements in series and adding a spring in parallel with the

whole array. Te relaxation modulus for this material has the form

G t G G e

i

t t

i

N

i

( ) ,

/

= +

∞

−

=

∑

1

where G

∞

is the steady-state stifness (represented by the parallel spring), and G

i

, t

i

i = 1 … N

are the time constants and stifnesses of the Maxwell elements. Tese parameters are used

directly as the properties of the material. Te sum of exponentials is known as the “Prony

series.”

3.6.5 Calibrating the Constitutive Laws for Linear Viscoelastic Solids

Experimental data for the time-dependent behavior of polymers can be presented in sev-

eral diferent ways:

1. Te Young’s modulus E(t, T

i

) or shear modulus G(t, T

i

) as a function of time t,at vari-

ous temperatures T

i

;

2. Te tensile compliance C(t, T

i

) or shear compliance J(t, T

i

) as a function of time, at

various temperatures;

3. Te complex modulus G * (ω,T

i

) = G'(ω, T

i

) + iG'' (ω,T

i

), or, more usually, just the real

part of the complex modulus G'(ω, T

i

) as a function of frequency ω and temperature;

4. Te complex compliance J *

(ω, T) or the real part of the complex compliance J'(ω, T)

as a function of frequency and temperature.

Te material parameters G

∞

, G

i

, t

i

must be ft to this data. For each dataset, the frst step is

to combine data from tests at various temperatures into a master curve of G(t, T), G'(ω, T), or

J(t, T), J'(ω, T) at a single reference temperature, using the WLF scaling procedure described

in Section 3.6.1. Te parameters should then be chosen to give the best ft to this master

curve. (A simple way to ft the parameters is to choose t

i

to be spaced at exponentially increas-

ing time intervals and then choose G

∞

, G

i

to minimize the square of the diference between

the predicted and measured values log (G(t)).)

To do the ft, it is helpful to fnd formulas for G(t, T), or G'(ω, T), in terms of material

properties. It is straightforward to show that

G t T G G t t

G T G

G

i i

i

N

i

( , ) ( / )

'( , )

= + −

= +

∞

=

∞

∑

exp

1

2

ω

ω tt

t

G T

G t

t

i

i

i

N

i i

i

i

N

2

2 2

1

2 2

1

1 1 +

=

+

= =

∑ ∑

ω

ω

ω

ω

"( , ) .

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Constitutive Models ◾ 113

It is slightly more cumbersome to ft the Prony series parameters to compliance measure-

ments. Te compliances can be expressed in terms of G

∞

, G

i

, t

i

as follows

J t T L

s

G

s

t G

t s

i i

i

i

N

( , ) = +

+

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

− ∞

=

−

∑

1

1

1

1

1

2

¹¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

,

J T

G T

G T G T

J T

G

Ј

Ј

Ј Љ

Љ

Љ

( , )

( , )

( , ) ( , )

( , )

(

ω

ω

ω ω

ω =

+

=

2 2

ωω

ω ω

, )

( , ) ( , )

,

T

G T G T Ј Љ

2 2

+

where L

−1

denotes an inverse Laplace transform (which can be calculated using a symbolic

manipulation program), and GЈ, GЉ were defned above.

If you are given experimental data for Young’s modulus E(t) or tensile compliance C(t),

you will need to estimate G(t) or J(t). Precise values cannot be found without knowing the

bulk modulus or Poisson’s ratio of the material, but, for most practical applications, you can

assume that the bulk modulus is very large, in which case G(t) = E(t)/3 and J(t) = 3C(t).

3.6.6 Representative Values for Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers

Te properties of polymers are very sensitive to their molecular structure, so for accurate

predictions, you will need to obtain data for the particular material you intend to use. As

a rough guide to typical values, the master curve of G(t,T

g

) and the WLF shif function

A(T, T

g

) for polyisobutylene have been calculated from the data in McCrum, Buckley, and

Bucknall [1997] and are shown in Figure 3.27. Te glass transition temperature for this

material is T

g

= 193K. Te resulting WLF parameters, together with moduli and time con-

stants for a seven-term Prony series ft to the data are listed in Table 3.8. Te shear modulus

predicted by the Prony series is shown on the modulus-versus-time plot for comparison

with the experimental data.

3.7 SMALL STRAIN, RATE-INDEPENDENT PLASTICITY:

METALS LOADED BEYOND YIELD

For many design calculations, the elastic constitutive equations outlined in Section 3.1 are suf-

fcient, because large plastic strains are generally undesirable and will lead to failure. Tere are

some applications, however, in which it is of interest to predict the behavior of solids subjected

to large loads, sum cient to cause permanent plastic strains. Examples include the following:

Modeling metal forming, machining, or other manufacturing processes

Designing crash-resistant vehicles

Plastic design of structures

Plasticity theory was developed to predict the behavior of metals under loads exceeding

the plastic range, but the general framework of plasticity theory has since been adapted

to other materials, including polymers and some types of soil (clay). Some concepts from

metal plasticity are also used in modeling concrete and other brittle materials such as

polycrystalline ceramics.

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114 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

TABLE 3.8 Viscoelastic Properties of Polyisobutylene

WLF parameters: C T

1 2

36 9

g g

C = = . 57.6 Kelvin 193 Kelvin

g

=

G G t

G

∞

− −

= = =

=

0 143 7 3 100

4 9

2

1

2

1

2

. . sec

.

M

G

Nm GNm

Nm

−− −

= = = ×

=

2

2 3

2

3

4

4

2000 0 48 2 10

57

t G t

G

sec . sec G

M

Nm

NNm Nm

− −

= × = = ×

=

2

4

5

5

2

5

6

6

2 10 6 4 2 10

1

t G t

G

sec . sec

.

M

33 2 10 0 1 4 10

2

6

7

7

2

7

8

M M Nm Nm

− −

= × = = × t G t sec . sec

FIGURE 3.27 Relaxation behavior of polyisobutylene. (a) Modulus master-curve; (b) WLF

shif function.

Time (sec)

M

o

d

u

l

u

s

G

(

t

,

T

g

)

(

G

P

A

)

10

1

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

10

10

10

–4

10

–3

10

–2

10

–1

10

0

10

1

(a)

Temperature (Kelvin)

l

n

[

A

g

(

T

)

]

200

(b)

220 240

–20

–15

–10

–5

0

5

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Constitutive Models ◾ 115

3.7.1 Features of the Inelastic Response of Metals

We begin by reviewing the results of a typical tension/compression test on an annealed,

ductile, polycrystalline metal specimen (e.g., copper or aluminum). Assume that the test is

conducted at moderate temperature (less than half the melting point of the solid, e.g., room

temperature) and at modest strains (less than 10%), at modest strain rates (10

–2

– 10 s

–1

).

Te results of such a test are illustrated in Figure 3.28.

For modest stresses (and strains), the solid responds elastically. Tis means the stress

is proportional to the strain, and the deformation is reversible.

If the stress exceeds a critical magnitude, the stress-strain curve ceases to be linear.

It is ofen dim cult to identify the critical stress accurately, because the stress-strain

relation starts to curve rather gradually.

If the critical stress is exceeded, the specimen is permanently changed in length on

unloading.

If the stress is removed from the specimen during a test, the stress-strain curve during

unloading has a slope equal to that of the elastic part of the stress-strain curve. If the

specimen is reloaded, it will initially follow the same curve, until the stress approaches

its maximum value during previous loading. At this point, the stress-strain curve

once again ceases to be linear, and the specimen is permanently deformed further.

If the test is interrupted and the specimen is held at constant strain for a period of

time, the stress will relax slowly. If the straining is resumed, the specimen will behave

as though the solid were unloaded elastically. Similarly, if the specimen is subjected

to a constant stress, it will generally continue to deform plastically, although the plas-

tic strain increases very slowly. Tis phenomenon is known as creep.

If the specimen is deformed in compression, the stress-strain curve is a mirror image

of the tensile stress-strain curve. (Of course, this is only true for modest strains. For

•

•

•

•

•

•

FIGURE 3.28 Typical stress-strain behavior of a ductile metal.

Unloading

Stress

Strain

Linear

elastic

Permanent

strain

Hold at

constant strain

Hold at

constant stress

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116 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

large strains, geometry changes will cause diferences between the tension and com-

pression tests.)

If the specimen is frst deformed in compression, then loaded in tension, it will gener-

ally start to deform plastically at a tensile stress that is lower than the yield stress of an

annealed specimen. Tis phenomenon is known as the “Bauschinger efect.”

Material response to cyclic loading can be extremely complex. One example is shown

in the picture above; in this case, the material hardens cyclically. Other materials may

sofen.

Te detailed shape of the plastic stress-strain curve depends on the rate of loading,

and also on temperature.

We also need to characterize the multiaxial response of an inelastic solid. Tis is a much

more dim cult experiment to do. Some of the nicest experiments were done by G. I. Taylor

and collaborators in the early part of the past century. Teir approach was to measure the

response of thin-walled tubes under combined torsion, axial loading, and hydrostatic pres-

sure. Te main conclusions of these tests were as follows:

Te shape of the uniaxial stress-strain curve is insensitive to hydrostatic pressure.

However, the ductility (strain to failure) can be increased by adding hydrostatic pres-

sure, particularly under torsional loading.

Plastic strains are volume preserving, i.e., the plastic strain rate must satisfy

ε

kk

= 0.

During plastic loading, the principal components of the plastic strain rate tensor are

parallel to the components of stress acting on the solid. Tis sounds obvious until

you think about it. To understand what this means, imagine that you take a cylindri-

cal shaf and pull it until it starts to deform plastically. Ten, holding the axial stress

fxed, apply a torque to the shaf. Experiments show that the shaf will initially stretch

rather than rotate. Te plastic strain increment is parallel to the stress acting on the

shaf, not the stress increment. Tis is totally unlike elastic deformation.

Under multiaxial loading, most annealed polycrystalline solids obey the Levy–Mises

ow rule, which relates the principal components of strain rate during plastic loading

to the principal stresses as follows:

ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

1 2

1 2

1 3

1 3

2 3

2 3

−

−

=

−

−

=

−

−

.

In this section, we will outline the simplest plastic constitutive equations that capture

the most important features of metal plasticity. Tere are many diferent plastic constitutive

laws, which are intended to be used in diferent applications. Tere are two broad classes:

1. Rate independent plasticity: used to model metals deformed at low temperatures (less

than half the material’s melting point) and modest strain rates (of order 0.01–10/s).

Tis is the focus of this section.

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•

•

•

•

•

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Constitutive Models ◾ 117

2. Rate-dependent plasticity, or viscoplasticity: used to model high-temperature creep

(steady accumulation of plastic strain at constant stress) and also to model metals

deformed at high strain rates (100/s or greater), where fow strength is sensitive to

deformation rate. Viscoplasticity will be discussed in Section 3.8.

There are also various different models within these two broad categories. The

models generally differ in two respects: (1) the yield criterion and (2) the strain hard-

ening law. There is no completely general model that describes all the features that

were just listed, so in any application, you will need to decide which aspect of material

behavior is most important and then choose a model that accurately characterizes

this behavior.

3.7.1.1 Key Ideas in Modeling Metal Plasticity

Five key concepts form the basis of almost all classical theories of plasticity. Tey are as

follows:

1. Te decomposition of strain into elastic and plastic parts;

2. Yield criteria, which predict whether the solid responds elastically or plastically;

3. Strain hardening rules, which control the way in which resistance to plastic fow

increases with plastic straining;

4. Te plastic fow rule, which determines the relationship between stress and plastic

strain under multiaxial loading;

5. Te elastic unloading criterion, which models the irreversible behavior of the

solid.

Tese concepts will be described in more detail in the sections below.

For simplicity, we will at this stage restrict attention to infnitesimal deformations.

Consequently, we adopt the infnitesimal strain tensor

ε

ij

i

j

j

i

u

x

u

x

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

as our deformation measure. We have no need to distinguish between the various stress

measures and will use σ

ij

to denote stress.

It is also important to note that the plastic strains in a solid depend on the load his-

tory. Tis means that the stress-strain laws are not just simple equations relating stress to

strain. Instead, plastic strain laws must either relate the strain rate in the solid to the stress

and stress rate or else specify the relationship between a small increment of plastic strain

d

ij

p

ε in terms of strain, stress, and stress increment dσ

ij

In addition, plasticity problems are

almost always solved using the fnite element method. Consequently, numerical methods

are used to integrate the plastic stress-strain equations.

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118 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.7.2 Decomposition of Strain into Elastic and Plastic Parts

Experiments show that, under uniaxial loading, the strain at a given stress has two parts:

a small recoverable elastic strain, and a large, irreversible plastic strain, as shown in

Figure 3.29. In uniaxial tension, we would write

ε = ε

e

+ ε

p

.

Experiments suggest that the reversible part is related to the stress through the usual linear

elastic equations. Plasticity theory is concerned with characterizing the irreversible part.

For multiaxial loading, we generalize this by decomposing a general strain increment

dε

ij

into elastic and plastic parts, as

d d d

ij ij

e

ij

p

ε ε ε = + .

Te elastic part of the strain is related to stress using the linear elastic equation (discussed

in detail in Section 3.1)

C d d

ijkl kl

e

ij

ε σ = .

3.7.3 Yield Criteria

Te yield criterion is used to determine the critical stress required to cause permanent

deformation in a material. Tere are many diferent yield criteria; here we will just list the

simplest ones. Let

σ

ij be the stress acting on a solid and let

σ σ σ

1 2 3

, ,

denote the principal

values of stress. In addition, let Y denote the yield stress of the material in uniaxial tension.

Ten, defne the following:

von Mises yield criterion:

f

ij

p

σ ε σ σ σ σ σ σ ,

( )

= − ( ) + − ( ) + − ( )

¸

1

]

−

1

2

1 2

2

1 3

2

2 3

2

YY

p

ε

( )

= 0.

•

σ

ε

E

ε

p

ε

e

FIGURE 3.29 Decomposition of a uniaxial stress-strain curve into elastic and plastic

parts.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 119

Tresca yield criterion:

f Y

ij

p p

σ ε σ σ σ σ σ σ ε , , , .

( )

= − − −

{ }

−

( )

= max

1 2 1 3 2 3

0

In both cases, the criteria are defned so that the material deforms elastically for f(σ

ij

) < 0

and plastically for f(σ

ij

) = 0. Te yield stress Y may increase during plastic straining, so

we have shown that Y is a function of a measure of total plastic strain ε

p

, to be defned in

Section 3.7.5.

An alternative form of von Mises criterion: for a general stress state, it is a nui-

sance having to compute the principal stresses to apply von Mises yield criterion.

Fortunately, the criterion can be expressed directly in terms of the stress tensor

f Y

ij

p

e

p

σ ε σ ε , ,

( )

= −

( )

where

σ σ σ δ

e ij ij ij ij kk ij

S S S = = −

3

2

1

3

are the components of the von Mises efective stress and deviatoric stress tensor, respectively.

Tese yield criteria are based largely on the following experimental observations:

1. A hydrostatic stress (all principal stresses equal) will never cause yield, no matter

how large the stress.

2. Most polycrystalline metals are isotropic. Because the yield criterion depends only

on the magnitudes of the principal stresses, and not their directions, the yield criteria

predict isotropic behavior.

Tests suggest that the von Mises yield criterion provides a slightly better ft to experi-

ment than Tresca, but the diference between them is very small. Sometimes it simplifes

calculations to use Tresca’s criterion instead of von Mises.

3.7.4 Graphical Representation of the Yield Surface

Any arbitrary stress state can be plotted in “principal stress space,” with the three principal

stresses as axes. Te von Mises yield criterion is plotted in this way in Figure 3.30. Te yield

criterion is a cylinder, radius Y / 3 , with its axis parallel to the line

σ

1

= σ

2

= σ

3

.

If the state of stress falls within the cylinder, the material is below yield and responds

elastically. If the state of stress lies on the surface of the cylinder, the material yields and

deforms plastically. If the plastic deformation causes the material to strain harden, the

radius of the cylinder increases. Te stress state cannot lie outside the cylinder; this would

lead to an infnite plastic strain.

Because the yield criterion f(σ

ij

) = 0 defnes a surface in stress space, it is ofen referred to

as a yield surface. Te yield surface is ofen drawn as it would appear when viewed down the

•

•

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120 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

axis of the cylinder, as shown in Figure 3.31a. Te Tresca yield criterion can also be plotted in

this way. It looks like a cylinder with a hexagonal cross section, as shown in Figure 3.31b.

3.7.5 Strain Hardening Laws

Experiments show that, if you plastically deform a solid, unload it, and then try to reload it

so as to induce additional plastic fow, its resistance to plastic fow will have increased. Tis

is known as strain hardening.

Obviously, we can model strain hardening by relating the size and shape of the yield

surface to plastic strain in some appropriate way. Tere are many ways to do this. Here we

describe the two simplest approaches.

3.7.5.1 Isotropic Hardening

Rather obviously, the easiest way to model strain hardening is to make the yield surface

increase in size but remain the same shape, as a result of plastic straining, as shown in

Figure 3.32.

Tis means that we must devise some appropriate relationship between Y and the plastic

strain. To get a suitable scalar measure of plastic strain, we defne the accumulated plastic

strain magnitude

ε ε ε

p

ij

p

ij

p

d d

2

3

.

∫

(Te factor of 2/3 is introduced so that ε ε

p p

=

11

in a uniaxial tensile test in which the speci-

men is stretched parallel to the e

1

direction. To see this, note that plastic strains do not

change volume, so that dε

22

= dε

33

= −dε

11

/2 and substitute into the formula.)

FIGURE 3.31 Axial views of yield surfaces. (a) von Mises; (b) Tresca.

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

Elastic

Yield

Inaccessible

(a)

Y

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

Elastic

Yield

Inaccessible

Y

(b)

FIGURE 3.30 Te von Mises yield surface.

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

Elastic

Yield

Inaccessible

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Constitutive Models ◾ 121

Ten we make Y a function of ε

p

. People ofen use power laws or piecewise linear approxi-

mations in practice. A few of the more common forms of hardening functions are as follows:

Perfectly plastic solid: Y = constant

Linear strain hardening solid: Y Y h

p p

ε ε

( )

= +

0

Power-law hardening material: Y Y h

p

m

= +

( ) 0

1

ε

/

.

In these formulas, Y

0

, h, and m are material properties. Tese functions are illustrated in

Figure 3.33.

3.7.5.2 Kinematic Hardening

An isotropic hardening law is generally not useful in situations in which components are

subjected to cyclic loading. It does not account for the Bauschinger efect and so predicts

that, afer a few cycles, the solid will just harden until it responds elastically.

To fx this, an alternative hardening law allows the yield surface to translate, without

changing its shape. Te idea is illustrated graphically in Figure 3.34. As you deform the

material in tension, you drag the yield surface in the direction of increasing stress, thus

modeling strain hardening. Tis soens the material in compression, however. So, this

constitutive law can model cyclic plastic deformation. Te stress-strain curves for isotropic

and kinematic hardening materials are contrasted in Figure 3.35.

To account for the fact that the center of the yield locus is at a position α

ij

in stress space,

the von Mises yield criterion needs to be modifed as follows:

f S S Y

ij ij ij ij ij ij

σ α α α , .

( )

= −

( )

−

( )

− =

3

2

0

Here, Y is now a constant, and hardening is modeled by the motion of the yield surface. To

do so, we need to relate α

ij

to the plastic strain history somehow. Tere are many ways to

FIGURE 3.32 Evolution of a yield surface as a result of strain hardening.

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

σ

ij

dσ

ij

Y

FIGURE 3.33 Simple hardening relations. (a) Perfectly plastic; (b) linear hardening; and (c)

power-law hardening.

Y

ε

p

Perfectly plastic (a) (b) (c)

Y

0

h

Y

ε

p

Linear hardening

Y

0

Y

ε

p

Power-law hardening

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122 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

do this, which can model subtle features of the plastic response of solids under cyclic and

nonproportional loading. Te simplest approach is to set

d cd

ij ij

p

α ε =

2

3

.

Tis hardening law predicts that the stress-plastic strain curve is a straight line with slope c.

Tis is known as linear kinematic hardening.

A more sophisticated approach is to set

d cd d

ij ij

p

ij

p

α ε γ α ε = −

2

3

,

where c and γ are material constants. It is not easy to visualize what this does; it turns out

that that this relation can model the tendency of a material to accumulate strain in the

direction of mean stress under cyclic loading, as illustrated in Figure 3.36. It is known as

the Armstrong–Frederick hardening law.

Tere are many other kinematic type hardening laws. New ones are still being

developed.

3.7.6 Plastic Flow Law

To complete the plastic stress-strain relations, we need a way to predict the plastic strains

induced by stressing the material beyond the yield point. Specifcally, given

1. Te current stress σ

ij

applied to the material

2. Te current yield stress (characterized by Y

p

ε

( )

for isotropic hardening, or α

ij

for

kinematic hardening)

ε ε

Kinematic hardening Isotropic hardening

σ σ

FIGURE 3.35 Comparison of stress-strain curves for kinematic and isotropic hardening.

FIGURE 3.34 Evolution of a yield surface during kinematic hardening.

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

σ

ij

dσ

ij

Y

α

ij

Y

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Constitutive Models ◾ 123

3. A small increase in stress dσ

ij

applied to the solid,

we want to determine the small change in plastic strain d

ij

p

ε . Te formulas are given below,

for isotropic and kinematic hardening. Tese are just fts to experiment (specifcally, to the

Levy–Mises fow rule). Te physical signifcance and reason for the structure of the equa-

tions will be discussed later.

Te plastic strains are usually derived from the yield criterion f defned in Section 3.7.3

and so are slightly diferent for isotropic and kinematic hardening. A material that has its

plastic fow law derived from f is said to have an “associated” fow law, i.e., the fow law

is associated with f. Te fow rules for isotropic and kinematic hardening solids are as

follows.

3.7.6.1 Isotropic Hardening (von Mises Yield Criterion)

d d

f

d

S

Y

ij

p p

ij

p

ij

ε ε

σ

ε =

∂

∂

=

3

2

,

where

f S S Y S

ij

p

ij ij

p

ij ij kk ij

σ ε ε σ σ δ ,

( )

= −

( )

= −

3

2

1

3

denotes the von Mises yield criterion, and d

p

ε is determined from the condition that the

yield criterion must be satisfed at all times during plastic straining. Tis shows that

f d d f

f

d

f

ij ij

p p

ij

p

ij

ij

σ σ ε ε σ ε

σ

σ + +

( )

=

( )

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

, ,

εε

ε

σ

σ

ε

ε

ε

σ

p

p

ij

ij

p

p

p

ij

d

f

d

Y

d

d

h

f

=

⇒

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

=

⇒ =

∂

∂

0

0

1

dd

h

S d

Y

h

dY

d

ij

ij ij

p

σ

σ

ε

= =

1 3

2

.

Here, h Y

p

= ∂ ∂ / ε is the slope of the plastic stress-strain curve. Te algebra involved in

diferentiating f with respect to stress is outlined below.

ε ε

Linear kinematic

hardening

Nonlinear kinematic

hardening

σ σ

FIGURE 3.36 Stress-strain curves for kinematic hardening solids.

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124 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.7.6.2 Linear Kinematic Hardening (von Mises Yield Criterion)

d d

f

d

S

Y

ij

p p

ij

p

ij ij

ε ε

σ

ε

α

=

∂

∂

=

−

( ) 3

2

,

where the yield criterion is now

f S S Y S

ij ij ij ij ij ij ij ij

σ α α α σ ,

( )

= −

( )

−

( )

− = −

3

2

1

3

σσ δ

kk ij

,

and as before, d

p

ε is determined from the condition that the yield criterion must be satis-

fed at all times during plastic straining. Tis shows that

f d d f

f

d

ij ij ij ij ij ij

ij

ij

σ σ α α σ α

σ

σ + +

( )

=

( )

+

∂

∂

+ , ,

∂∂

∂

=

f

d

ij

ij

α

α 0.

Recall that, for linear kinematic hardening, the hardening law is

d cd cd

S

Y

ij ij

p p

ij ij

α ε ε

α

= =

−

( ) 2

3

.

Substituting into the Taylor expansion of the yield criterion and simplifying shows that

d

c

S d

Y

p

ij ij ij

ε

α σ

=

−

( ) 1 3

2

.

3.7.6.3 Comparison of Flow Law Formulas with the Levy–Mises Flow Rule

Te Levy–Mises fow law (based on experimental observations) states that principal values

of the plastic strain increment dε

1

, dε

2

, dε

3

induced by a stress increment are related to the

principal stresses σ

1

, σ

2

, σ

3

by

d d d d d d ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

1 2

1 2

1 3

1 3

2 3

2 3

−

−

=

−

−

=

−

−

.

It is straightforward to show that this observation is consistent with the predictions of

the fow law formulas given in this section. To see this, suppose that the principal axes of

stress are parallel to the {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} directions. In this case, the only nonzero components

of deviatoric stress are

S

11

= σ

1

− (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/3 S

22

= σ

2

− (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/3 S

33

= σ

3

− (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/3.

Te fow law

d d

f

d

S

Y

ij

p p

ij

p ij

ε ε

σ

ε =

∂

∂

=

3

2

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Constitutive Models ◾ 125

gives

d d d

S

Y

d d d

S

Y

d

p p p p p p

ε ε ε ε ε ε ε

1 11

11

2 22

22

3

3

2

3

2

= = = =

pp p p

d d

S

Y

= = ε ε

33

33

3

2

.

Tus, we see that

d d d

S S

Y

d

Y

d d

p p p p

p

ε ε ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

1 2

11 22 1 2

1 3

3

2

3

2

− =

−

=

−

−

pp p p

d

S S

Y

d

Y

=

−

=

−

ε ε

σ σ 3

2

3

2

11 33 1 3

with similar expressions for other components. Some trivial algebra then yields the

Levy-Mises fow law.

3.7.6.4 Differentiating the Yield Criterion

Diferentiating the yield criterion requires some sneaky index notation manipulations.

Note that

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=

f

S S

S

S

S S

ij

kl kl

pq

pq

ij

kl k

σ σ

3

2

1

2

1

3

2

2

3

2

1

3

2

ll

pq

pq

ij

S

S ∂

∂σ

.

Now, recall that

S

ij ij kk ij

= − σ σ δ

1

3

and further that

∂

∂

=

σ

σ

δ δ

ij

kl

ik jl

.

Hence,

∂

∂

= −

S

pq

ij

ip jq ik jk pq

σ

δ δ δ δ δ

1

3

and

S

S

S S

pq

pq

ij

pq ip jp ik jk pq ij

∂

σ

δ δ δ

∂

= −

¸

¸

_

,

= δ δ

1

3

−− S

pp ij

δ .

However, observe that

S

pp pp kk pp

= − = σ σ δ

1

3

0

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126 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

so that

S

S

S

pq

pq

ij

ij

∂

∂

=

σ

and fnally

∂

∂

= =

f S

S S

S

Y

ij

ij

kl kl

ij

σ

3

2 3

2

3

2

.

3.7.7 Elastic Unloading Condition

Tere is one fnal issue to consider. Experiments show that plastic fow is irreversible, and

always dissipates energy. If the increment in stress dσ

ij

is tangent to the yield surface, or

brings the stress below yield, as shown in Figure 3.37, then there is no plastic strain. For an

isotropically hardening solid, this unloading condition may be expressed as

S

ij

dσ

ij

< 0.

For kinematic hardening,

S d

ij ij ij

−

( )

< α σ 0.

In both cases, the solid deforms elastically (no plastic strain) if the condition is satisfed.

3.7.8 Complete Incremental Stress–Strain Relations for a

Rate-Independent Elastic–Plastic Solid

We conclude by summarizing the complete elastic-plastic stress-strain relations for isotro-

pic and kinematic hardening solids with von Mises yield surfaces.

3.7.8.1 Isotropically Hardening Elastic-Plastic Solid

Te solid is characterized by its elastic constants E,v and by the yield stress Y

p

( ) ε as a func-

tion of accumulated plastic strain ε

p

and its slope h

dY

d

p

=

ε

, as shown in Figure 3.38.

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

σ

ij

dσ

ij

Y

FIGURE 3.37 Stress trajectory during elastic unloading.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 127

In this case, we have that

d d d

ij ij

e

ij

p

ε ε ε = +

with

d

v

E

d

v

v

d

ij

e

ij kk ij

ε σ σ δ =

+

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

1

1

d

S S Y

h

S d

Y

S

Y

ij

p

ij ij

p

kl kl ij

ε

ε

σ

=

− < 0

3

2

0

1 3

2

3

2

3

2

( )

SS S Y

ij ij

p

−

( )

=

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

ε 0,

where x

x x

x

=

≥

≤

¹

,

¹

0

0 0

.

Tese may be combined to

d

v

E

d

v

v

d S S Y

ij

ij kk ij ij ij

p

ε

σ σ δ ε

=

+

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

−

1

1

3

2

(( )

<

+

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

0

1

1

1 3

2

v

E

d

v

v

d

h

S d

ij kk ij

kl kl

σ σ δ

σ

YY

S

Y

S S Y

ij

ij ij

p

3

2

3

2

0 −

( )

=

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

ε

.

It is sometimes necessary to invert these expressions. A straightforward but tedious series

of index notation manipulations shows that

d

E

v

d

v

v

d S S Y

ij

ij kk ij ij ij

p

σ

ε ε δ ε

=

+

+

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

(

1 1 2

3

2

))

<

+

+

−

−

+ +

0

1 1 2

3

3 2 1

3

2

E

v

d

v

v

d

E

E v h

S

ij kk ij

kl

ε ε δ

( )

dd

Y

S

Y

S S Y

kl ij

ij ij

p

ε

ε

3

2

3

2

0

¸

¸

_

,

−

( )

=

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

.

Tis constitutive law is the most commonly used model of inelastic deformation. It has the

following properties:

It will correctly predict the conditions necessary to initiate yield under multiaxial

loading.

•

ε

p

Y

h

FIGURE 3.38 Defnition of the hardening modulus.

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128 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

It will correctly predict the plastic strain rate under an arbitrary multiaxial stress

state.

It can model accurately any uniaxial stress-strain curve.

It has the following limitations:

It is valid only for modest plastic strains (<10%).

It will not predict creep behavior or strain rate sensitivity.

It does not predict behavior under cyclic loading correctly.

It will not predict plastic strains accurately if the principal axes of stress rotate signif-

cantly (more than about 30°) during inelastic deformation.

3.7.8.2 Linear Kinematically Hardening Solid

Te solid is characterized by its elastic constants E, v and by the initial yield stress Y and

the strain hardening rate c. Ten,

d d d

ij ij

e

ij

p

ε ε ε = +

with

d

v

E

d

v

v

d

ij

e

ij kk ij

ε σ σ δ =

+

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

1

1

d

S S Y

c

S

ij

p

ij ij ij ij

kl kl

ε

α α

α

=

− − − <

− (

0

3

2

0

1 3

2

( )( )

)) −

( )

− − − =

d

Y

S

Y

S S Y

kl ij ij

ij ij ij ij

σ α

α α

3

2

3

2

0 ( )( )

¹¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

where x

x x

x

=

≥

≤

¹

,

¹

0

0 0

.

Finally, the evolution equation for α

ij

is

d cd

ij ij

p

α ε =

3

2

.

Tis constitutive equation is used primarily to model cyclic plastic deformation or plas-

tic fow under nonproportional loading (in which principal axes of stress rotate signif-

cantly during plastic fow). It has the following limitations:

It is valid only for modest plastic strains (<10%).

It will not predict creep behavior or strain rate sensitivity.

It does not predict the shape of the stress-strain curve accurately.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

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Constitutive Models ◾ 129

3.7.9 Typical Values for Yield Stress of Polycrystalline Metals

Unlike elastic constants, the plastic properties of metals are highly variable and are also

very sensitive to alloying composition and microstructure (which can be infuenced by

heat treatment and mechanical working). Consequently, it is impossible to give accurate

values for yield stresses or hardening rates for materials. Table 3.9 lists rough values for

yield stresses of common materials [the data are from Ashby and Jones 1997]; these may

provide a useful guide in preliminary calculations. If you need accurate data, you will have

to measure the properties of the materials you plan to use yourself.

3.7.10 Perspectives on Plastic Constitutive Equations:

Principle of Maximum Plastic Resistance

Te constitutive law outlined in the preceding section has an important property, known

as the principle of maximum plastic resistance.

Statement of the principle: Let σ

ij

be a stress state that causes plastic deformation, let dσ

ij

be a small change in σ

ij

, and let

d

ij

p

ε

be the resulting strain increment. Now, let σ

ij

*

be any

other stress that can be imposed on the specimen that either does not reach yield or else

just satisfes the yield criterion, i.e., 3 2 S S Y

ij ij

* *

/ ≤ with S

ij ij kk ij

* * *

= − σ σ δ .

Ten

σ σ

ε

ij ij

ij

d

dt

−

( )

≥

*

. 0

Interpretation: Te principle of maximum plastic resistance is a mathematical statement

of the following ideas:

1. Te von Mises yield surface is convex.

2. Te plastic strain rate is normal to the yield surface.

TABLE 3.9 Approximate Values for Yield Stress of a Few Materials

Material Yield Stress σ

Y

/ MNm

–2

Material Yield Stress σ

Y

/ MNm

–2

Tungsten carbide 6000 Mild steel 220

Silicon carbide 10 000 Copper 60

Tungsten 2000 Titanium 180−1320

Alumina 5000 Silica glass 7200

Titanium carbide 4000 Aluminum and alloys 40−200

Silicon nitride 8000 Polyimides 52−90

Nickel 70 Nylon 49−87

Iron 50 PMMA 60−110

Low alloy steels 500−1980 Polycarbonate 55

Stainless steel 286−500 PVC 45−48

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130 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

It is best to illustrate these ideas graphically. In principal stress space, the product σ ε

ij ij

p

d

is represented by the dot product of the stress and plastic strain rate vectors shown in

Figure 3.39. Te statement

σ σ ε

ij ij ij

p

d −

( )

≥

*

0

is equivalent to the requirement that the angle between the vectors formed by σ σ

ij ij

−

( )

*

and d

ij

p

ε must be greater than 90° for all stresses and strain rates. Tis is only possible if the

yield stress is convex and the strain rate is normal to the yield surface.

Te principle of maximum plastic resistance is important because it is the basis for a

number of very important theorems concerning plastic deformation in solids. For exam-

ple, it can be shown that the stress feld in a material that obeys the principle is always

unique. In addition, the principle leads to clever techniques to estimate collapse loads for

elastic-plastic solids and structures.

3.7.10.1 Proof of the Principle of Maximum Plastic Resistance

Our goal is to prove that σ ε σ ε

ij ij

p

ij ij

p

d d ≥

*

. Te simplest way to do so is to show that

σ ε ε

ij ij

p p

d Yd = , whereas σ ε ε

ij ij

p p

d Yd

*

≤ , in which d d d

p

ij

p

ij

p

ε ε ε = 2 3 / is the plastic strain

magnitude, and Y is the yield stress. To this end,

1. Recall the plastic fow rule: d d

f

d

S

Y

ij

p p

ij

p

ij

ε ε

σ

ε =

∂

∂

=

3

2

.

2. Multiply both sides by stress:

σ ε σ ε σ δ ε

ij ij

p

ij

p ij

ij kk ij

p ij

d d

S

Y

S d

S

Y

d = = +

( )

=

3

2

3

3

2

/ εε

p ij ij

S S

Y

3

2

,

where we have noted that S

kk

=0.

3. Recall that S

ij

causes yield and so must satisfy the yield condition 3 2 0 S S Y

ij ij

/ − = . Tis

shows that σ ε ε

ij ij

p p

d Yd = .

4. Now consider

σ ε σ ε ε

ij ij

p

ij

p ij p ij ij

d d

S

Y

d

S S

Y

* *

*

. = =

3

2

3

2

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

Elastic

Yield

Inaccessible

Y

Nonconvex Convex

σ

ij

σ

ij

ε

ij

σ

ij

ε

ij

σ

ij

ε

1

ε

2

ε

2

ε

3

ε

1

ε

3

FIGURE 3.39 Comparison of nonconvex and convex yield surfaces.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 131

5. Note that

3

2

0

3

2

( )( )

* * * *

S S S S S S S S

ij ij ij ij ij ij ij ij

− − ≥ ⇒ + − 22 0 S S

ij ij

*

.

( )

≥

6. Now, recall again that S

ij

causes yield, whereas S

ij

*

can be at or below yield. Te yield

criterion therefore requires that 3 2 3 2

2 2

S S Y S S Y

ij ij ij ij

/ /

* *

= ≤ . Substituting these inequal-

ities into 5 above shows that Y S S

ij ij

2

3 2 ≥

*

/ . Finally, this shows

σ ε ε ε

ij ij

p p

ij ij

p

d d

S S

Y

Yd

*

*

. = ≤

3

2

Tus, σ ε σ ε

ij ij

p

ij ij

p

d d ≥

*

, proving the principle.

3.7.11 Perspectives on Plastic Constitutive Equations: Drucker’s Postulate

Constitutive models of inelastic behavior are based largely on experimental observations of

plastic fow in laboratory specimens. Similar constitutive laws are used to describe very dif-

ferent materials, including metals, ceramics, glasses, soils, and polymers. Te mechanisms

of deformation in these materials are very diferent, so it is surprising that their response is

similar.

One perspective on the structure of constitutive laws for inelastic solids was developed

by Drucker in the 1950s. Drucker introduced the idea of a stable plastic material, as fol-

lows. Consider a deformable solid, subjected to boundary tractions t

i

, which induce some

displacement feld u

i

, as shown in Figure 3.40. Suppose that the tractions are increased to

t

i

+ Δt

i

, resulting in an additional displacement Δu

i

. Te material is said to be stable in the

sense of Drucker if the work done by the tractions Δt

i

through the displacements Δu

i

is

positive or zero for all Δt

i

:

∆ = ∆

∆

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

≥

∫ ∫

W t

d u

dt

dt

i

A

i

0.

t

i

u

i

t

i

+ ∆t

i

u

i

+ ∆u

i

Original loading

Perturbed loading

FIGURE 3.40 A plastically deforming solid subjected to incremental loading.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in131 131 9/9/09 7:26:24 PM

132 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

It can be shown that, for a plastic material to be stable in this sense, it must satisfy the

following conditions:

Te yield surface f (σ

ij

) must be convex.

Te plastic strain rate must be normal to the yield surface d d

f

ij

p p

ij

ε ε

σ

=

∂

∂

.

Te rate of strain hardening must be positive or zero

dY

d

p

ε

≥ 0.

Furthermore, a material that is stable in the sense of Drucker must satisfy the principle of

maximum plastic resistance.

Tis does not really explain why the constitutive law should have this structure, but

materials that do not satisfy the Drucker stability criterion tend to be dim cult to work with

in calculations, so there is a strong incentive for choosing a constitutive law that meets the

condition. It is not surprising, then, that the people developing constitutive laws ended up

with a form that satisfes Drucker stability.

3.7.12 Microscopic Perspectives on Plastic Flow in Metals

It is possible to obtain some insight into the structure of the constitutive laws for metals

by considering the micromechanisms responsible for plastic fow. Plastic fow in metals is

caused by dislocation motion. Dislocations are line defects in crystalline solids; you can

think of a dislocation as an extra plane of atoms inserted within a perfect crystal, as shown

in Figure 3.41. When the crystal is subjected to stress, these defects move through the solid

and rearrange the crystal lattice. For example, if the model crystal is subjected to a shear

stress, the atoms rearrange so that the top part of the crystal is shifed to the right relative

to the bottom part, as shown in Figure 3.42. Because the crystal lattice is distorted near

a dislocation, only a modest shear stress is required to drive the dislocation through the

solid, causing permanent plastic deformation.

Experiments and atomistic simulations suggest that dislocation motion obeys Schmidt’s

law: a dislocation moves through a crystal if the shear stress on its glide plane exceeds a

critical magnitude τ

c

. It can be shown that a material that deforms by dislocation glide and

that obeys Schmidt’s law will satisfy the principle of maximum plastic resistance. Tis, in

turn, implies that the yield surface for the solid must be convex and the plastic strain rate

must be normal to the yield surface.

Te notion of a yield surface and convexity for a material that deforms by dislocation

glide can be illustrated with a simple double-slip model. Consider a single crystal, which

•

•

•

Dislocation

FIGURE 3.41 An edge dislocation in a crystal.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in132 132 9/9/09 7:26:25 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 133

contains two dislocation glide planes oriented at 45° to the principal axes of stress as shown

in Figure 3.43. Assume plane stress conditions, for simplicity.

Figure 3.44 shows side views of the two slip planes. As an exercise, you should

verify that the shear stresses (tangential component of traction) acting on the two slip

planes are

τ σ σ

τ σ

= ± −

= ±

1

2

1

2

1 2

2

( )

.

Te solid reaches yield if τ = τ

c

. Te resulting yield surface is sketched in Figure 3.45.

Observe that the yield surface is convex: this is a consequence of Schmidt’s law. Now,

suppose that slip is activated on one of the glide planes. Let t

i

denote the tangent to the slip

plane and let n

i

denote the normal. To compute the strain produced by slip on a single

slip system, consider the deformation of an infnitesimal line element dx under shear γ, as

shown in Figure 3.46. Te deformed line element is given by

dw = dx + γ (dx

.

n)t

or, in index notation

dw

i

= (δ

ij

+ γ t

i

n

j

) dx

j

.

FIGURE 3.42 Plastic shearing caused by motion of an edge dislocation.

"

1

"

2

e

1

e

2

Slip planes

e

3

FIGURE 3.43 Crystal with two slip planes subjected to biaxial loading.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in133 133 9/9/09 7:26:25 PM

134 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te deformation gradient follows as

F

ij

= δ

ij

+ γ t

i

n

j

,

and the Lagrange strain tensor is

E F F t n t n n n

ij ki jk ij i j j i i j

= −

( )

= +

( )

+

1

2

1

2

1

2

2

δ γ γ .

For small γ, we can approximate the Lagrange strain tensor by the infnitesimal strain

tensor

ε

ij i j j i

t n t n = +

( )

1

2

γ .

Now, suppose that the stress satisfes

σ

2

– σ

1

= 2τ

c

,

as marked on the yield locus shown in Figure 3.47. Tis activates slip as shown in the fg-

ure. Te normal and tangent to the appropriate slip plane are

t n =

−

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

1

2

1

2

0

1

2

1

2

0 , , , , .

"

1

"

2

e

1

e

2

Slip plane

"

2

e

3

e

2

Slip plane

FIGURE 3.44 Side view of slip planes in a crystal.

σ

1

σ

2

σ

2

=

2τ

c

−σ

2

=

2τc

σ

2

−

σ

1

=

2τ

c

σ

1

−

σ

2

=

2τ

c

FIGURE 3.45 Yield surface for the crystal shown in Figures 3.43 and 3.44.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in134 134 9/9/09 7:26:26 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 135

Te strain rate therefore follows as

d

dt

d

dt

ij

ε γ

¸

1

]

1

=

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

0 0

0

1

2

0

0 0 0

..

Tus,

d

dt

d

dt

ε ε

1 2

= −

, showing that the plastic strain rate is normal to the yield locus (Figure

3.47). You could verify as an exercise that, if the stress reaches the other limiting surfaces

of the yield locus, the resulting strain rate will be normal to the yield locus.

3.8 SMALL-STRAIN VISCOPLASTICITY: CREEP AND HIGH

STRAIN RATE DEFORMATION OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS

Viscoplastic constitutive equations are used to model the behavior of polycrystalline mate-

rials (metals and ceramics) that are subjected to stress at high temperatures (greater than

half the melting point of the solid), and also to model the behavior of metals that are

deformed at high rates of strain (greater than 100 per second).

Viscoplasticity theory is a relatively simple extension of the rate-independent plastic-

ity model discussed in Section 3.7. You may fnd it helpful to review this material before

attempting to read this section.

3.8.1 Features of Creep Behavior

Creep tests conducted under uniaxial loading conditions yield the following results:

1. If a tensile specimen of a crystalline solid is subjected to a time-independent stress, it

will progressively increase in length. A typical series of length-versus-time curves is

illustrated in Figure 3.48.

2. Te length-versus-time plot has three stages: a transient period of primary creep, in

which the creep rate is high; a longer period of secondary creep, in which the exten-

sion rate is constant; and fnally, a period of tertiary creep, in which the creep rate

again increases. Most creep laws focus on modeling primary and secondary creep. In

fact, it is ofen sum cient to model only secondary creep.

n

t

n

t

dx

dw

dx n dx

n γdx

FIGURE 3.46 Deformation caused by shearing on a slip system.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in135 135 9/9/09 7:26:26 PM

136 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3. Te rate of extension increases with stress. A typical plot of secondary creep rate as

a function of stress is shown in Figure 3.49. Tere are usually three regimes of

behavior: each regime can be ft (over a range of stress) by a power-law with the form

ε σ ≈ A

m

. At low stresses, m ≈ 1 – 2.5, at intermediate stresses, m ≈ 2.5 – 7, and at high

stress, m increases rapidly and can exceed 10–20.

4. Te rate of extension increases with temperature. At a fxed stress, the temperature

dependence of strain rate can be ft by an equation of the form ε ε = −

0

exp( / ) Q kT ,

where Q is an activation energy, k is the Boltzmann constant, and T is temperature.

Like the stress exponent m, the activation energy Q can transition from one value to

another as the temperature and stress level is varied.

5. Te various regimens for m and Q are associated with diferent mechanisms of creep.

At low stress, creep occurs mostly by grain boundary sliding and difusion. At higher

stresses, it occurs as a result of thermally activated dislocation motion. Frost and

Ashby [1982] plot charts that are helpful to get a rough idea of which mechanism is

likely to be active in a particular application.

"

1

"

2

e

1

e

2

Slip plane

"

2

"

2

#2#

c

$"

2

#2#

c

"

2

$"

1

#2#

c

"

1

$"

2

#2#

c

"

1

%

1

%

2

Plastic ﬂow

direction

FIGURE 3.47 Direction of the plastic strain rate attributable to shearing on an active slip

system.

ε

Primary

creep

Secondary

creep

Tertiary

creep

Time

Increasing

stress

FIGURE 3.48 Typical strain-versus-time curves for high-temperature creep.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in136 136 9/9/09 7:26:27 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 137

6. Te creep behavior of a material is strongly sensitive to its microstructure (especially

grain size and the size and distribution of precipitates) and composition.

Under proportional multiaxial loading, creep shows all the same characteristics as rate

independent plasticity: (1) plastic strains are volume preserving; (2) creep rates are insen-

sitive to hydrostatic pressure; (3) the principal strain rates are parallel to the principal

stresses; and (4) plastic fow obeys the Levy–Mises fow rule. Tese features of behavior are

discussed in more detail in Section 3.6.1.

3.8.2 Features of High-Strain Rate Behavior

Stress-strain curves for metals have been measured for strain rates as high as 10

7

/sec. Te

general form of the stress-strain curve is essentially identical to that measured at quasi-

static strain rates (for an example, see Section 3.7.1), but the fow stress increases with

strain rate. A schematic of typical stress-versus-strain rate curve for a ductile material such

as aluminum or copper is shown in Figure 3.50. Te fow stress rises slowly with strain rate

up to a strain rate of about 10

6

and then begins to rise rapidly.

3.8.3 Small-Strain, Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations

Viscoplastic constitutive equations are almost identical to the rate-independent plastic

equations in Section 3.7. Te main concepts in viscoplasticity are as follows:

1. Strain rate decomposition into elastic and plastic components.

2. Te elastic stress-strain law, which specifes the elastic part of the strain rate in terms

of stress rate.

3. Te plastic fow potential, which determines the magnitude of the plastic strain rate,

given the stresses and the resistance of the material to fow.

4. State variables, which characterize the resistance of the material to fow (analogous to

yield stress).

Log (dε/dt)

Log (σ)

dε/dt~10

–1

dε/dt~10

–5

m~1

m~4

m~10

FIGURE 3.49 Typical steady-state stress-versus-strain rate response during creep.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in137 137 9/9/09 7:26:27 PM

138 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5. Te plastic fow rule, which specifes the components of plastic strain rate under mul-

tiaxial loading. Recall that, in rate-independent plasticity, the fow rule was expressed

as the derivative of the yield surface with respect to stress. In viscoplasticity, the fow

rule involves the derivative of the plastic fow potential.

6. Hardening laws, which specify the evolution of the state variables with plastic

strain.

Tese are discussed in more detail below.

Strain rate decomposition: We assume infnitesimal deformation, so shape changes are

characterized by

ε

ij

= (∂u

i

/ ∂x

j

+ ∂u

j

/ ∂x

i

) / 2.

Te strain rate is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts as

d

dt

d

dt

d

dt

ij ij

e

ij

p

ε ε ε

= +

Elastic constitutive equations: Te elastic strains are related to the stresses using the

standard linear elastic stress-strain law. Te elastic strain rate follows as

d

dt

S

d

dt

ij

e

ijkl

kl

ε σ

= ,

where S

ijkl

are the components of the elastic compliance tensor. For the special case of an

isotropic material with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio ν,

d

dt

v

E

d

dt

v

E

d

dt

ij

e

ij kk

ij

ε σ σ

δ =

+

−

1

.

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Strain rate (s

–1

)

10

–2

10

0

10

2

10

4

10

6

High rate response of

ductile metal

FIGURE 3.50 Typical stress-versus-strain rate during high rate deformation of a ductile

metal.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in138 138 9/9/09 7:26:28 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 139

Plastic ßow potential: Te plastic fow potential specifes the magnitude of the plastic

strain rate, as a function of stress and the resistance of the material to plastic fow. It is very

similar to the yield surface for a rate-independent material. Te plastic fow potential is

constructed as follows.

1. Defne the plastic strain rate magnitude as

ε ε ε

e ij

p

ij

p

= 2 3 / .

2. Let σ

ij

denote the stresses acting on the material and let σ

1

, σ

2

, σ

3

denote the principal

stresses.

3. Experiments show that the plastic strain rate is independent of hydrostatic pres-

sure. Te strain rate must be a function of only the deviatoric stress components,

defned as

S

ij

= σ

ij

– σ

kk

δ

ij

/ 3.

4. Assume that the material is isotropic. Te strain rate can therefore only depend on

the invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor. Te deviatoric stress has only two non-

zero invariants. It is convenient to choose

σ σ

e

=

3

2

S S

ij ij III

= det( ). S

In practice, only the frst of these (the von Mises efective stress) is used in most fow

potentials.

5. Te plastic fow potential can be represented graphically by plotting it as a function of

the three principal stresses, exactly as the yield surface is shown graphically for a rate

independent material. An example is shown in Figure 3.51. Te lines show contours

of constant plastic strain rate.

6. For Drucker stability, the contours of constant strain rate must be convex, and

the plastic strain rate must increase with strain rate in the direction shown in

Figure 3.51.

7. Just as the yield stress of a rate-independent material can increase with plastic strain,

the resistance of a viscoplastic material to plastic straining can also increase with

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

Contour of

constant

strain rate

Direction of

increasing strain rate

von-Mises ﬂow potential

FIGURE 3.51 von Mises viscoplastic fow potential.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in139 139 9/9/09 7:26:28 PM

140 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

strain. Te resistance to fow is characterized by one or more material state variables,

which may evolve with plastic straining.

Te most general form for the fow potential of an isotropic material is thus

ε σ σ

e e III

=g( , State variables), ,

where g must satisfy g(ασ

e

, ασ

III

, State vars) ≥ g(σ

e

, σ

III

, State vars) for all α ≥ 1 (with state

variables held fxed) and must also be a convex function of σ

e

, σ

III

.

3.8.3.1 Examples of Flow Potentials: von Mises Flow Potential with Power-Law

Rate Sensitivity

Creep is ofen modeled using the a fow potential of the form

g Q kT

e

i i

i

e

i

( ,{ }) exp( / )

( ) ( )

( )

σ σ ε

σ

σ

0 0

0

= −

¸

¸

_

,

=

∑

m

i

N i

1

,

where

ε

0

( ) i

, Q

i

, and m

i

, i = 1 … N are material properties (Q

i

are the activation energies for

the various mechanisms that contribute to creep), k is the Boltzmann constant, and T is

temperature. Te model is most ofen used with N = 1, but more terms are required to ft

material behavior over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. Te potential has

several state variables, σ

0

( ) i

. To model steady-state creep, you can take σ

0

to be constant; to

model transient creep, σ

0

must increase with strain. An example of an evolution law for σ

0

is given below.

High strain rate deformation is also modeled using a power law von Mises fow poten-

tial. Te following form is sometimes used:

g

e

e

e

m

( , )

/

( / )

( )

σ σ

σ σ

ε σ σ σ

0

0

0

1

0

0 0 1

1 1

1

=

< <

−

¸

1

]

<

ee

e

m

e

/

( / ) /

,

( )

σ α

ε σ σ α σ σ

0

0

2

0 0

2

1

<

−

¸

1

]

<

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

where

ε ε α α

0

2

0

1

1 2

1 1

( ) ( )

( )/ ( ) = − −

m m

and

ε α

0

1

1 2

( )

, , , m m are material properties, whereas σ

0

is a

strain-, strain rate-, and temperature-dependent state variable, which represents the quasi-

static yield stress of the material and evolves with deformation as described below. In this

equation, m

2

< m

1

so as to model the transition in strain rate sensitivity at high strain rates,

whereas α controls the point at which the transition occurs.

Plastic ßow rule: Te plastic fow rule specifes the components of plastic strain rate result-

ing from a multiaxial state of stress. It is constructed so that the following applies:

1. Te plastic strain rate satisfes the Levy–Mises plastic fow rule.

2. Te viscoplastic stress-strain law satisfes the Drucker stability criterion.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in140 140 9/9/09 7:26:29 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 141

3. Te fow rule predicts a plastic strain magnitude consistent with the fow potential.

Both 1 and 2 are satisfed by

ε

σ σ

σ

ij

p e III

kl

g

g g

=

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

3

2

( , , )

( / )( /

State vars

σσ σ

kl ij

g

)

.

[ ]

∂

∂

If g depends on stress only through the von Mises efective stress, this expression can be

simplifed to

ε σ

σ

ij

p

e

ij

e

g

S

= ( , ) . State vars

3

2

For the particular case of the power-law von Mises fow potential, this gives

ε ε

σ

σ

ij

p n

n

e

n

m

ij

Q kT

S

n

= −

¸

¸

_

,

0

0

3

2

( )

( )

exp( / )

σσ

e

n

N

=

∑

1

.

Hardening rule: Te hardening rule specifes the evolution of state variables with plas-

tic straining. Many diferent forms of hardening rule are used (including kinematic

hardening laws such as those discussed in Section 3.7.5). A simple example of an isotropic

hardening law that is ofen used to model transient creep is

σ

ε

ε

0

0

1

1

( )

( )

( )

/

,

i

i

e

i

i

n

Y

i

= +

¸

¸

_

,

where

ε ε σ σ

e

i i

i e

i m

Q kT

i

( ) ( ) ( )

exp( / )( / ) = −

∫

0 0

is the accumulated strain associated with

each mechanism of creep, and Y

i

i

,

( )

ε

0

, and n

i

are material constants. Te law is usually

used only with N = 1.

Similar hardening laws are used in constitutive equations for high strain rate deforma-

tion, but, in this case, the fow strength is made temperature dependent. Te following

formula is sometimes used:

σ β

ε

ε

0 0

0

1

1 1 = − −

[ ]

+

¸

¸

_

,

Y T T

e

n

( ) ,

/

where ε ε ε

e ij

p

ij

p

dt =

∫

3 2

/ is the total accumulated strain, T is temperature, and Y, n, T

0

, β

are material properties. More sophisticated hardening laws make the fow stress a function

of strain rate [for more details, see Clifon 1990].

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142 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.8.4 Representative Values of Parameters for Viscoplastic Models of Creeping Solids

Fitting material parameters to test data is conceptually straightforward: the fow potential

has been constructed so that, for a uniaxial tension test with σ

11

= σ, all other stress com-

ponents zero, the uniaxial plastic strain rate is

ε ε

σ

σ

11 0

1

0

p n

n

n

N

n

m

Q kT

n

= −

¸

¸

_

,

=

∑

( )

( )

exp( / ) ,

so the properties can be ft directly to the results of a series of uniaxial tensile tests con-

ducted at diferent temperatures and applied stresses. To model steady-state creep, σ

0

( ) n

can

be taken to be constant. One or two terms in the series is usually sum cient to ft material

behavior over a reasonable range of temperature and stress.

Creep rates are very sensitive to the microstructure and composition of a material, so for

accurate predictions, you will need to fnd data for the particular material you plan to use.

Frost and Ashby [1982] provide approximate expressions for creep rates of a wide range of

materials, as well as references to experimental data. As a rough guide, approximate values

for a one-term ft to creep data for polycrystalline aluminum alloys subjected to stresses in

the range of 5–60 MPa are listed in Table 3.10.

3.8.5 Representative Values of Parameters for Viscoplastic

Models of High Strain Rate Deformation

Te material parameters in constitutive models for high strain rate deformation can also

be ft to the results of a uniaxial tension or compression test. For the model described in

Section 3.7.3, the steady-state uniaxial strain rate as a function of stress is

ε

σ σ

ε σ σ σ σ α

ε

=

< <

( ) −

¸

1

]

< <

0 0 1

1 1

0

0

1

0 0

0

1

/

/ /

( )

m

(( )

/ /

.

2

0 0

2

1 σ σ α σ σ ( ) −

¸

1

]

<

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

m

Te material constants m m

1 2 0

1

, , ,

( )

α ε

**and the fow stress σ
**

0

can be determined from

a series of uniaxial tension tests conducted at diferent temperatures and levels of applied

stress, whereas

ε

0

2 ( )

can be found from

ε ε α α

0

2

0

1

1 2

1 1

( ) ( )

( )/ ( ) = − −

m m

. If strain harden-

ing can be neglected, σ

0

is a temperature-dependent constant, which could be approxi-

mated crudely as σ

0

= Y (1 – β (T–T

0

)), where Y, β, T

0

are constants, and T is temperature.

Viscoplastic properties of materials are very strongly dependent on their composition and

microstructure, so for accurate predictions, you will need to fnd data for the actual mate-

rial you intend to use. Clifon [1990] describes several experimental techniques for testing

material at high strain rates, and the work contains references to experimental data. As

a rough guide, parameter values for 1100-0 aluminum alloy (ft to data in Clifon’s paper

cited previously) are listed in Table 3.11. Te value of β was estimated by assuming that the

solid loses all strength at the melting point of aluminum (approximately 650°C).

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in142 142 9/9/09 7:26:30 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 143

3.9 LARGE STRAIN, RATE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY

Tis section describes the constitutive equations that are used to model large, permanent

deformations in polycrystalline solids. Representative applications include models of metal

forming, crash simulations, and various military applications that are best lef to the imag-

ination. Te constitutive equations are used mostly in numerical simulations. It is usually

preferable to use rate-dependent, viscoplasticity models in computations, because they are

less prone to instabilities than rate independent models. Te rate-independent limit can

always be approximated by using a high strain rate sensitivity.

Te constitutive equations outlined in this section make use of many concepts from

Sections 3.7 and 3.8, so you may fnd it convenient to read these sections before the mate-

rial to follow.

3.9.1 Kinematics of Finite Strain Plasticity

Let x

i

be the position of a material particle in the undeformed solid. Suppose that the solid

is subjected to a displacement feld u

i

(x

k

), so that the point moves to y

i

= x

i

+ u

i

, as shown

in Figure 3.52. Defne the following:

Te deformation gradient and its Jacobian:

F

u

x

ij ij

i

j

= +

∂

δ

∂

J = det (F).

Te velocity gradient:

L

u

y

F F

ij

i

j

ik kj

=

∂

∂

=

−

1

.

Te stretch rate and spin:

D L L W L L

ij ij ji ij ij ji

= + = − ( )/ ( )/ . 2 2

•

•

•

TABLE 3.10 Approximate Creep Parameters for Polycrystalline Aluminum Alloys

ε

0

(sec

−1

) σ

0

(MNm

–2

) m Q (J)

1.3 × 10

8

20 4 2.3 × 10

–19

TABLE 3.11 Approximate Constitutive Parameters for High Strain Rate Behavior of Aluminum Alloy

εε

0

1 1

sec

( )

( )

−−

εε

0

2 1

sec

( )

( )

−−

α m

1

m

2

Y (MNm

–2

) β (Κ

–1

) T

0

(Κ)

100 2.4 10

7

1.6 15 0.1 50 0.00157 298

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in143 143 9/9/09 7:26:31 PM

144 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Recall that F

ij

relates infnitesimal material fbers dy

i

and dx

i

in the deformed and

undeformed solid, respectively, as

dy

i

= F

ij

dx

j

.

To decompose the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic parts, we borrow

ideas from crystal plasticity. Te plastic strain is assumed to shear the lattice, without

stretching or rotating it. Te elastic deformation rotates and stretches the lattice. We

think of these two events occurring in sequence, with the plastic deformation frst,

and the stretch and rotation second, giving

dy F dx F F dx

i ij j ik

e

kj

p

j

= = .

To decompose the velocity gradient into elastic and plastic parts, note that

L F F F F F F F F

ij ik kj ik

e

kl

p

ik

e

kl

p

lm

p

m

= = +

( )

− −

1 1

jj

e

ik

e

kj

e

ik

e

kl

p

lm

p

mj

e

F F F F F F

− − − −

( )

+

1 1 1 1

=

.

Tus, the velocity gradient contains two terms, one of which involves only measures

of elastic deformation, whereas the other contains measures of plastic deformation.

We use this to decompose L into elastic and plastic parts:

L L L L F F L F F

ij ij

e

ij

p

ij

e

ik

e

kj

e

ij

p

ik

e

kl

p

= + = =

−

1

FF F

lm

p

mj

e − − 1 1

.

Defne the elastic and plastic stretch rates and spin rates as

D L L W L L

D L

ij

e

ij

e

ji

e

ij

e

ij

e

ji

e

ij

p

= + = −

=

( ) / ( ) /

(

2 2

iij

p

ji

p

ij

p

ij

p

ji

p

L W L L + = − ) / ( ) / . 2 2

Constitutive equations must specify relations between the stresses (as defned below)

and the elastic and plastic parts of the deformation gradient. Te equations are usually

written in rate form, in which case the elastic and plastic stretch rates and spin are related

to the stress rate.

•

•

•

•

e

3

e

1

e

2

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

x

u(x)

F

P

F

F

e

dx

dy

Plastic strain

Elastic strain

y

FIGURE 3.52 Decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic parts.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in144 144 9/9/09 7:26:31 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 145

3.9.2 Stress Measures for Finite Deformation Plasticity

Stress measures that appear in descriptions of fnite strain plasticity are summarized

below:

Te Cauchy (true) stress represents the force per unit deformed area in the solid and

is defned by

n L

dP

dA

i ij

dA

j

σ =

→

im

0

( ) n

.

Kirchhof stress is defned by τ

ij

= Jσ

ij

.

Material stress for intermediate confguration is described by Σ

ij ik

e

kl jl

e

JF F =

− − 1 1

σ .

Note that the material stress tensor is related to the Cauchy stress by a function of F

e

,

not F as in the usual defnition. Tis stress should be interpreted physically as a material

stress associated with the intermediate confguration, as shown in Figure 3.53. Tis stress

measure is introduced because the elastic constitutive equations require an internal force

measure that is work conjugate to an appropriate function of F

e

.

In addition, viscoplastic constitutive equations are ofen written in rate form (as in

Section 3.7), relating stain rate to stress and (for the elastic part) stress rate. Stress rates are

dim cult to work with in fnite strain problems. At frst sight, it might appear that stress rate

can be calculated by simply taking the time derivative of the stress components dσ

ij

/ dt, but

in fact, this is not a useful measure of stress rate. To see this, imagine applying a uniaxial

tensile stress to a material and then rotating the entire test apparatus (so the applied force

and specimen rotate together). Te time derivatives of the stress components are nonzero,

but the material actually experiences a time-independent force per unit area. As shown

below, the correct stress rate is the Jaumann Rate with respect to the elastic spin, defned as

σ

σ

σ σ

ij

e

ij

ik

e

kj ik kj

e

d

dt

W W

∇

= − + .

•

•

•

e

3

e

1

e

2

Intermediate

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

t

dA

0

dA

n

n

0

dP

0

(n)

dP

(n)

Elastic strain F

e

FIGURE 3.53 Deformation of an area element in a solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in145 145 9/9/09 7:26:32 PM

146 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.9.3 Elastic Stress–Strain Relation for Finite Strain Plasticity

Plastically deforming metals may experience large strains. Te stresses remain modest,

however, and are usually substantially lower than the elastic modulus of the solid. Te

elastic strains are small, but the material may experience large rotations. Under these con-

ditions, the small-strain elastic constitutive equations of Section 3.1 cannot be used, and

the simple generalized Hooke’s law described in Section 3.3 must be used instead. Tis law

relates the elastic part of the deformation gradient to stress, as follows:

1. Defne the Lagrangean elastic strain as E F F

ij

e

ki

e

kj

e

ij

= − ( )/ . δ 2

2. Assume that the material stress is proportional to Lagrange strain, as

Σ

ij ijkl kl

e

C E =

,

where C

ijkl

are the components of the elastic stifness tensor (as defned and tabulated

in Section 3.1), for the material with orientation in the undeformed confguration.

3. For the special case of an elastically isotropic material, with Young’s modulus E and

Poisson’s ratio v, the stress-strain law is

Σ

ij ij

e

kk

e

ij

E

v

E

v

v

E =

+

+

−

{ }

1 1 2

δ .

4. Te elastic stress-strain law is ofen expressed in rate form, as follows:

τij

e

ijkl

e

kl

e

C D

∇

≈ ,

where

τ

ij

e ∇

is the Jaumann rate of Kirchhof stress; C F F C F F

ijkl

e

in

e

jm

e

nmpq kp

e

lq

e

= can be

thought of as the components of the elastic compliance tensor for material with ori-

entation in the deformed confguration, and

D

ij

e

is the elastic stretch rate. For the par-

ticular case of an isotropic material, the stress rate can be approximated further as

τ

δ

ij

e

ij

e

kk

e

ij

E

v

D

v

v

D

∇

≈

+

+

−

{ }

1 1 2

.

Derivation of the rate form of the elastic stress-strain law: Our goal is to derive the

expression in item 4 above, starting from the stress-strain law in item 2. To this end,

perform the following:

1. Take the time derivative of the constitutive equation:

d

dt

C

dE

dt

ij

ijkl

kl

e

Σ

=

.

2. Take the time derivative of the formula relating material and Kirchhof stress

τ

τ

ij ik

e

kl jl

e

ij ik

e

kl jl

e

ik

e

F F

d

dt

dF

dt

F F

d

=

⇒ = +

Σ

Σ

ΣΣ

Σ

kl

jl

e

ik

e

kl

jl

e

dt

F F

dF

dt

+ .

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in146 146 9/9/09 7:26:32 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 147

3. Substitute for material stress in terms of Kirchof stress:

d

dt

dF

dt

F F

d

dt

F F

ij ik

e

kl

e

lj ik

e kl

jl

e

il

τ

τ τ = + +

−1

Σ

llk

e

jk

e

dF

dt

−1

.

4. Recall that

F F L D W

ik

e

kj

e

ij

e

ij

e

ij

e −

= = +

1

, observe that W W

ij

e

ji

e

= − , D D

ij

e

ji

e

= , and substitute

from item 1

d

dt

D W F C

dE

dt

F

ij

ik

e

ik

e

kj ik

e

klmn

mn

e

jl

e

τ

τ = +

( )

+ + ττ

ik kj

e

kj

e

D W −

( )

.

5. Next, note that

dE

dt

F D F

mn

e

pm

e

pq

e

qn

e

=

so

d

dt

D W F F C F F

ij

ik

e

ik

e

kj ik

e

jl

e

klmn pm

e

qn

e

τ

τ = +

( )

+ DD D W

d

dt

W W

pq

e

ik kj

e

kj

e

ij

ik kj

e

ik

e

kj

+ −

( )

⇒ + −

τ

τ

τ τ == + + C D D D

ijpq

e

pq

e

ik

e

kj ik kj

e

τ τ .

6. Finally, assume that τ

ik kj

e

ijpq

e

pq

e

D C D << because the stresses are much less than the

modulus. Tis shows that

τij

e

ijkl

e

kl

e

C D

∇

≈ .

3.9.4 Plastic Constitutive Law for Finite Strain Viscoplasticity

Next, we turn to developing an appropriate plastic constitutive law for fnite deformations.

Te constitutive equations must specify a relationship between work-conjugate measures

of stress and strain; recall that τ

ij

L

ij

is the rate of work done by stresses per unit reference

volume. Consequently, the constitutive equations must relate D

p

, W

p

to τ and its rate.

Usually, plastic constitutive laws for fnite deformations are just simple extensions of

small strain plasticity. For example, for a fnite strain, rate-dependent, von Mises solid with

isotropic hardening power-law hardening, we set

D W

ij

p e

m

ij

e

ij

p

=

¸

¸

_

,

′

=

ε

τ

σ

τ

τ

0

0

3

2

0,

where ′ = − τ τ τ δ

ij ij kk ij

and τ τ τ

e ij ij

= ′ ′ 3 2 / . Te hardening rule is

σ

ε

ε

0

0

1

1 = +

¸

¸

_

,

Y

e

n /

,

where ε ε τ σ

0 0 0

=

∫

( / )

e

m

dt.

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148 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Finite strain plasticity models disagree on the correct way to prescribe W

p

. Many theo-

ries simply set W

p

= 0. Simple models of polycrystals give some support for this assump-

tion, but it may not be appropriate in materials that develop a signifcant texture. More

complex models have also been developed. For isotropically hardening solids, predictions

are relatively insensitive to the choice of W

p

, but any attempt to capture evolution of plastic

anisotropy would need to specify W

p

carefully. Crystal plasticity-based models provide a

way out of this dim culty, because they have a clearer (but not completely unambiguous)

defnition of the plastic spin.

3.10 LARGE STRAIN VISCOELASTICITY

Tis section describes constitutive equations that can be used to model large, irreversible

deformations in polymers and also to model biological tissue that is subjected to large

shape changes. Finite strain viscoelasticity is not as well developed as fnite strain plas-

ticity, and a number of diferent formulations exist. Te model outlined here is based on

Bergstrom and Boyce [1998].

Te constitutive equation is intended to capture the following features of material

behavior:

1. When the material is deformed very slowly (so that material behavior is fully revers-

ible), it behaves like an ideal rubber, as described in Section 3.4.

2. When deformed very quickly (so that there is no time for inelastic mechanisms to

operate), it again behaves like an ideal rubber but with diferent properties.

3. At intermediate rates, the solid exhibits a rate-dependent, hysteretic response.

In addition, we assume the following

Te material is isotropic.

Material response to a pure volumetric strain (ε

11

= ε

22

= ε

33

= δ V / V with all other

ε

ij

= 0) is perfectly elastic (with no time-dependent behavior).

Te material is nearly incompressible.

Hydrostatic stress has no efect on the deviatoric response of the solid.

Te constitutive equations outlined in this section make use of many concepts from

Sections 3.5, 3.6, and 3.7, so you may fnd it convenient to read these sections before the

material to follow.

3.10.1 Kinematics for Finite Strain Viscoelasticity

Te description of shape changes in polymers follows closely the approach outlined in

Section 3.9.1. Let x

i

be the position of a material particle in the undeformed solid. Suppose

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in148 148 9/9/09 7:26:34 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 149

that the solid is subjected to a displacement feld u

i

(x

k

), so that the point moves to y

i

= x

i

+ u

i

(Figure 3.54). Defne the following:

Te deformation gradient and its Jacobian:

F

u

x

ij ij

i

j

= +

∂

∂

δ

J = det (F).

Te velocity gradient:

L

u

y

F F

ij

i

j

ik kj

=

∂

∂

=

−

1

.

Te deformation gradient is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts as

F F F

ij ik

e

kj

p

=

.

Te velocity gradient is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts as

L L L L F F L F F

ij ij

e

ij

p

ij

e

ik

e

kj

e

ij

p

ik

e

k

= + = =

−

, ,

1

ll

p

lm

p

mj

e

F F

− − 1 1

.

Defne the elastic and plastic stretch rates and spin rates as

D L L W L L

D L

ij

e

ij

e

ji

e

ij

e

ij

e

ji

e

ij

p

= + = −

=

( ) / ( ) /

(

2 2

iij

p

ji

p

ij

p

ij

p

ji

p

L W L L + = − ) / ( ) / . 2 2

Defne the lef Cauchy–Green deformation tensor for the total and elastic deforma-

tion gradients:

B F F B F F

ij ik jk ij

e

ik

e

jk

e

= =

.

•

•

•

•

•

•

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

x

u(x)

F

dx

dy

Plastic strain

F

P

Elastic strain

F

e

y

e

1

e

2

e

3

FIGURE 3.54 Decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic parts.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in149 149 9/9/09 7:26:35 PM

150 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Defne the invariants of B and B

e

as

I

B

J

I I

B B

J

I

kk ik ki

1

2 3

2 1

2

4 3

3

1

2

= = −

¸

¸

_

,

= =

/ /

det B JJ

I

B

J

I I

B B

J

e kk

e

e

e e ik

e

ki

e

e

2

1

2 3

2 1

2

4 3

1

2

= = −

¸

¸

/ /

__

,

= = I J

e e

e 3

2

det . B

Denote the principal stretches for B and B

e

by λ λ

i i

e

, (these are the square roots of the

eigenvalues of B and B

e

) and principal stretch directions by b b

i i

e

, .

3.10.2 Stress Measures for Finite Strain Viscoelasticity

Usually stress-strain laws are given as equations relating Cauchy stress (true stress) σ

ij

to

lef Cauchy–Green deformation tensor. For some computations, it may be more convenient

to use other stress measures. Tey are defned below, for convenience.

Cauchy (true) stress represents the force per unit deformed area in the solid and is

defned by

n L

dP

dA

i ij

dA

j

σ =

→

im

0

( )

.

n

Kirchhof stress is defned by τ

ij

= Jσ

ij

.

Te constitutive model must specify relations between stress, the total deformation

gradient F, the elastic part of the deformation gradient F

e

, and the plastic part of the

deformation gradient F

p

.

3.10.3 Relation among Stress, Deformation Measures, and Strain Energy Density

Just as for hyperelastic materials, the instantaneous stress in a hyperviscoelastic solid is

calculated from a strain energy density function U. For viscoelastic materials, the strain

energy density is separated into two parts:

U I I J I I U I I J U I I J

e e

T

e e

e

( , , , , ) ( , , ) ( , , )

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

= +

∞

.

Here,

1. U I I J

∞

( , , )

1 2

specifes the strain energy density in the fully relaxed material. It rep-

resents the efect of a set of polymer chains in the solid that can only accommodate

deformation by stretching to follow the total extension. U

∞

= 0 for a material that

exhibits steady-state creep.

2. U I I J

T

e e

e

( , , )

1 2

is an additional, transient contribution to the total strain energy. Tis

contribution gradually relaxes with time. It represents the efects of a set of polymer

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in150 150 9/9/09 7:26:35 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 151

chains that initially stretch with the solid but with time are able to relax toward their

preferred confguration.

Te stress is related to the energy density by

σ

ij ij

J J

U

I

I

U

I

B

I U

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

∞ ∞ ∞

2 1

3

2 3

1

1

2

1

/

II J

U

I

B B

U

J

J

ij ik kj ij

e

1

4 3

2

1

2

δ δ −

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

∂

∂

+

∞ ∞

/

11

3

2 3

1

1

2

1

J

U

I

I

U

I

B

I U

e

T

e

e T

e

ij

e

e

T

/

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂∂

−

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

∂

∂ I J

U

I

B B

U

J

e

ij

e

T

e

ik

e

kj

e T

e 1

4 3

2

1

δ

/

δδ

ij

.

You can use any of the hyperelastic strain energy density potentials listed in Section 3.4

to describe a particular material. It is sensible to choose U

T

, U

∞

to have the same functional

form (but with diferent material constants). Note also that, because the inelastic strains

are assumed to be volume preserving (see below), J

e

= J, and therefore one can take ∂U

T

/ ∂J

e

= 0 without loss of generality.

3.10.4 Strain Relaxation

Te strain rate dependence and irreversibility of a viscoelastic material can be modeled

using the framework described in Section 3.9 for fnite strain viscoplasticity. Te constitutive

equations must specify the plastic stretch rate D

ij

p

and plastic spin W

ij

p

as a function of

stress. Te expressions given here follow Bergstrom and Boyce [1998].

Defne the deviatoric Kirchhof stress resulting from the elastic part of the deformation

gradient F

ij

e

as

′ =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

− τ

ij

e

T

e

e T

e

ij

e

J

U

I

I

U

I

B

I

2

1

2 3

1

1

2

1

/

ee

T

e

ij

e

T

e

ik

e

kj

e

U

I J

U

I

B B

3

1

1

4 3

2

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

δ

/

.

1. Defne the efective stress:

τ τ τ

e ij ij

= ′ ′ 3 2 /

.

2. Te plastic strain rate is then

D I I T

ij

p

e e

e e

ij

e

=

′

ε τ

τ

τ

( , , , ) .

1 2

3

2

3. Here,

ε

e

is the magnitude of the plastic strain rate, which is a function of temperature

T, the efective stress τ

e

, and the elastic strain. Tis function must be calibrated exper-

imentally. Bergstrom and Boyce [1998] suggest that the following function should

describe approximately the relaxation dynamics of long-chain molecules:

ε ε

τ

τ

e

e

n

e

m

I = −

( )

¸

¸

_

,

0 1

0

3 .

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152 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where C

1

> 0, –1 < n < 0, τ

0

> 0, and m > 0 are temperature-dependent material

properties.

Additional constitutive equations must specify W

ij

p

. Tis has not been studied in detail:

usually we just take W

ij

p

= 0.

3.10.5 Representative Values for Material Parameters

in a Finite-Strain Viscoelastic Model

Bergstrom and Boyce [1998] give experimental data for the rate-dependent response of

several rubbers and ft material properties to their data. Tey use the Arruda–Boyce [1992]

potential for both U

∞

and U

T

:

U I I I

∞ ∞

∞ ∞

= − + − + − µ

β β

1

2

3

1

20

9

11

1050

2

1

2

1

2

4

1

3

( ) ( ) ( 77

2

1

2

) ... ( ) +

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

+ −

K

J

U I I I

T T

T T

= − + − + − µ

β β

1

2

3

1

20

9

11

1050

2

1

2

1

2

4

1

3

( ) ( ) ( 77) ... . +

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

Material behavior is therefore characterized by values of the two shear moduli μ

T

, μ

∞

, the

bulk modulus K, the coem cients β

∞

, β

T

, and the parameters

ε

0

, n, τ

0

, and m, as outlined in

the preceding section. Representative values for these parameters are listed in Table 3.12.

3.11 CRITICAL STATE MODELS FOR SOILS

Soils consist of a two-phase mixture of particles and water. Tey exhibit very complex

behavior in response to stress, and a number of diferent constitutive theories are used to

model them; in fact, entire books are devoted to critical state soil models. Here, we outline

a basic soil model known as “Cam-clay,” developed at Cambridge University (Cambridge,

UK). It uses many of the concepts that are used to model plastic deformation of metals, so

you will fnd it helpful to review Sections 3.7 and 3.8 before reading this one.

3.11.1 Features of the Behavior of Soils

Experiments on soils reveal the following behavior:

1. Soils cannot withstand signifcant tensile stress: we, therefore, focus on their response

to combined pressure and shear loading.

2. Te behavior of a soil is very sensitive to its water content. Two types of experiment

are conducted on soils: in a “drained” test, water is allowed to escape from the speci-

men as it is compressed (so the water pressure is zero); in an “undrained” test, the

volume of the specimen (water + soil particles) is held fxed. In the latter test, the

water pressure can be measured by means of a manometer connected to the pressur-

ized cell.

3. Under combined pressure and shear loading, soil behaves like a frictional material.

In a drained test, the solid can support shear stresses τ < Mp/ 3 without excessive

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in152 152 9/9/09 7:26:36 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 153

deformation, where M is a material property (analogous to friction coem cient) and p

is the applied hydrostatic pressure. If the shear stress reaches τ = Mp/ 3, the material

collapses, usually by shearing along one or more discrete shear planes parallel to

the maximum resolved shear stress. If the same test is conducted on an undrained

specimen, shear occurs earlier, because the water supports part of the hydrostatic

pressure. In this case, shear failure occurs when τ < − M p p

w

( )/ 3, where p is the

applied hydrostatic pressure, and p

w

is the water pressure.

4. If subjected to loads below those required to cause catastrophic collapse, soils show

a complicated behavior that resembles that of a strain hardening metal, except that

soils compact in response to combined shear and pressure, whereas metals do not. In

addition, the strain hardening occurs only as a result of the compaction: shear strain

does not increase the solid’s strength. For example, Figure 3.55 shows the response

of a soil sample to a test in which a specimen is subjected to a constant pressure,

together with a steadily increasing shear stress. Te soil accumulates a permanent

shear strain and also compacts. Te strength of the solid increases up to the limiting

shear stress τ = − M p p

w

( )/ 3, at which point the compaction reaches a steady state,

and the specimen continues to deform at constant shear stress.

3.11.2 Constitutive Equations for Cam-Clay

Te constitutive equations for Cam-clay are very similar to the rate-independent plastic

equations in Section 3.6. Te main concepts are as follows:

1. Strain rate decomposition into elastic and plastic parts.

2. Pressure decomposition into contributions from the water pressure (or “pore pres-

sure”) and from the pressure supported by the soil particles. Te pore pressure must

be calculated by modeling fuid seepage through the soil.

TABLE 3.12 Material Parameters for a Nitrile

Rubber

μ

∞

0.29 MNm

−2

β

∞

6

μ

T

0.73 MNm

−2

β

T

4

K 100 MNm

−2

ε

0

7 sec

−1

τ

0

1 MNm

−2

n –0.6

m 5.0

Source: Bergstrom, J.S., Boyce, M.C., J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 46, 931,1998.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in153 153 9/9/09 7:26:37 PM

154 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3. Te elastic stress-strain law, which specifes the elastic part of the strain in terms of

stress.

4. A yield criterion, which determines the magnitude of the plastic strain rate, given the

stresses and the resistance of the material to fow. Unlike metals, the yield criterion

for a soil is a function of the hydrostatic stress, or pressure, in addition to shear stress.

Te yield criterion is expressed in terms of a state variable, which characterizes the

resistance of the material to fow (analogous to yield stress).

5. A plastic fow rule that specifes the ratios of the plastic strain components under

multiaxial stress.

6. A hardening law, which specifes how the state variable evolves with plastic straining.

7. Te yield surface, fow rule, and hardening law also defne a critical state criterion for

the solid. Te critical state criterion specifes the combination of stresses that lead to

unconstrained collapse of the solid.

Tese are discussed in more detail below.

Strain rate decomposition: We assume small strains, so shape changes are characterized by

ε

ij i j j i

u x u x = ∂ ∂ +∂ ∂

( )

/ / / 2. Te strain is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts as

ε ε ε

ij ij

e

ij

p

= + .

Pressure decomposition: Assume that the soil is subjected to a stress σ

ij

. Te pressure is

p = –σ

kk

/ 3 (note the negative sign). In general, part of this pressure is supported by the

water in the soil, whereas the rest is supported by the soil particles themselves. Te pressure

is decomposed into two parts:

p = p

w

+ p

s

where p

s

is the contribution to the pressure from the soil particles, and p

w

is the contribu-

tion from the water.

Shear stress

Shear strain

Unloading

Volumetric

strain

p

τ

FIGURE 3.55 Typical stress-strain response of a soil.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 155

When using the constitutive equation in a boundary value problem, the water pres-

sure must be calculated as a separate problem, in addition to solving the usual mechanical

feld equations. Here, we outline briefy a simple approximate description of fuid seepage

through a soil. More general treatments are also available, which include nonlinear ver-

sions of the fow law, fnite strain efects, as well as the efects of fuid absorption by the soil

particles to form a gel, the tendency of soil to absorb fuid due to capillarity, and the efects

of partial soil saturation.

1. Fluid seepage through the soil is driven by gravity and fuid pressure variations. Te

driving force is quantifed by the piezometric head, defned as

φ

ρ

= + z

p

g

w

w

,

where z is the height above some arbitrary datum, p

w

is the fuid pressure (compressive

pressure is positive), ρ

w

is the fuid density, and g is the gravitational acceleration.

2. Te volume of material fowing through unit area of solid in the x

i

direction per unit

time obeys Darcy’s law:

q k

x

i

i

= −

∂

∂

φ

,

where k is a material parameter, known as the permeability of the medium.

3. Te fuid itself may be compressible, with bulk modulus K

w

.

4. Te fuid can be absorbed in cavities in the soil. Te volume fraction of cavities n is

defned as

n

dV

dV

c

= ,

where dV

c

is the cavity volume in a volume of soil (including both cavities and soil

particles) dV.

5. At time t = 0, the solid starts with some cavity volume fraction n

0

; this volume frac-

tion evolves as the solid is deformed. Usually the dominant contribution to the cavity

volume change occurs as a result of plastic compaction of the soil (more sophisticated

treatments include an elastic contribution). Te cavity volume fraction afer the solid

is subjected to an infnitesimal plastic strain ε

ij

p

is

n n

kk

p

= +

0

ε

.

6. At time t = 0, a fuid pressure p

w0

acts on the solid, and for t > 0, the values of

either fuid pressure or volumetric fow rate must be specifed on the boundary of

the solid.

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156 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

7. Finally, the rate of change of f luid pressure follows from conservation of f luid

volume as

n

K

p

t

q

x

dn

dt

w

w i

i

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+ .

Elastic constitutive equations: Te elastic strains are related to the stresses using the

standard linear elastic stress-strain law. Te elastic strain is related to stress by

σ ε

ij ijkl kl

e

C = ,

where C

ijkl

are the components of the elastic compliance tensor. For the special case of an

isotropic material with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio v,

σ ε ε δ

ij ij kk ij

E

v

v

v

=

+

+

−

{ }

1 1 2

.

Yield criterion and critical state surface: Te yield criterion specifes the stresses that are

required to cause plastic fow in the soil. Te concept is identical to the yield criterion used

in metal plasticity, except that, unlike metals, hydrostatic pressure can cause yield in a soil.

Te yield criterion is

f

p

a Ma

ij

s e

( ) , σ

σ

= −

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

− = 1 1 0

2 2

where

1. p

s

= −σ

kk

/3 – p

w

is the pressure exerted by the stresses on the soil skeleton.

2. σ

e ij ij

S S = 3 2 / , where S

ij ij kk ij

= − σ σ δ

1

3

, is the von Mises efective stress.

3. M is a material property, whose physical signifcance was described in Section 3.11.1.

Usually M < 1.

4. a is a state variable that quantifes the current yield strength of the soil. At time

t = 0, the soil has some fnite strength a = a

0

, which subsequently evolves with plastic

straining, as described below.

Te yield criterion is sketched in principal stress space in Figure 3.56; it resembles a

football (if you are American, or a rugby ball to the rest of the world) with its axis parallel

to the line σ

1

= σ

2

= σ

3

. Te shape of the football depends on M; for M = 1, it is a sphere,

and for M < 1, it is stretched parallel to its axis. Te size of the yield locus is determined

by a.

Te yield criterion, together with the hardening law, also defne a critical state surface, which

determines the stress in which unrestricted shear deformation can occur at constant shear

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in156 156 9/9/09 7:26:38 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 157

stress (i.e., with zero hardening). If the stresses lie inside the critical state surface (this is known

as the “wet” side of critical state), the material shows stable strain hardening behavior. If the

stresses lie outside the critical state surface (known as the “dry” side of the critical state), the

material sofens with plastic straining and so violates the Drucker stability condition. Under

these conditions, the material is unstable, and plastic strain tends to localize into shear bands.

Te critical state surface for Cam-clay is

g (σ

ij

) = σ

e

– Mp

s

.

Te material is stable for g < 0 and unstable for g > 0. Te critical state surface is sketched

in Figure 3.57: it is a cone, which cuts through the fattest part of the yield surface.

Flow law: Te fow law specifes the plastic strain components under a multiaxial state of

stress. Like metal plasticity, the Cam-clay model bases the fow law on the yield criterion,

so that

d d a

f

d

p

a

S

M a

ij

p

ij

s

ij

ij

ε λ

σ

λ δ =

∂

∂

= − −

¸

1

]

1

+

2

3

1 3

2

¸¸

¸

_

,

,

where dλ is a dimensionless constant that depends on the increment of stress applied to the

solid and is proportional to the plastic strain magnitude. Te procedure to calculate dλ is

discussed in more detail below: if the stress state lies inside the critical state surface (g (σ

ij

)

< 0), then dλ can be expressed in terms of the stress increment dσ

ij

and the fuid pressure

increment dp

w

applied to the solid as

d =

0 )<0

λ

σ

σ

f

a

p

a

d dp

ij

s

kk w

(

( ) − −

¸

1

]

1

+ +

1

3

1 3

3

2

SS dS

Ma

c

p

a

p

a

f

ij ij

s s

ij

( )

(

2

2 1 −

¸

1

]

1

¹

,

¹

¹

σ )=0.

¹¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

FIGURE 3.56 Te Cam-clay yield surface.

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158 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Here 〈 x 〉 = x for x > 0 and 〈 x 〉 = 0 for x < 0, and c is a material property governing the

hardening rate, as defned below. Tese expressions are valid only if the stress lies inside

the critical state surface. If the stress lies on or outside the critical state surface g(σ

ij

) ≥ 0,

then dλ cannot be determined from the stress increment.

Hardening law: A soil becomes stronger if it is compacted to crush the soil particles

together. Tis is described in the constitutive law by making the state variable a evolve

with plastic straining in some appropriate way. A simple hardening law that captures the

main features of experiments is

da cad

kk

p

= − ε

,

where c is a dimensionless material property, which determines the hardening rate. Notice

that, in this law, hardening occurs only as a result of compaction and not as a result of

shear deformation.

Calculating the plastic stress-strain relation: When using the constitutive equation, the

formulas outlined in the preceding sections must be combined to predict the plastic strain

d

ij

p

ε resulting from an increment in stress dσ

ij

and fuid pressure increment dp

w

. Tis is

done as follows:

1. Check the yield criterion. If f < 0, the plastic strain is zero d

ij

p

ε = 0.

2. Check to see whether the stresses lie inside the critical state surface. If g(σ

ij

) < 0, the

material behaves like a stable, strain hardening plastic solid, and the plastic strain

increment can be calculated by following steps 3–5 below.

3. Check for elastic unloading. Te solid will unload elastically, with d

ij

p

ε = 0, if the

stress increment brings the stress below yield. Tis is the case whenever

∂

∂

< ⇒ − −

¸

1

]

1

+ ( ) +

f

d

a

p

a

d dp

S

ij

ij

s

kk w

i

σ

σ σ 0

2

3

1 3 3

jj ij

dS

Ma ( )

.

2

0

¸

¸

_

,

<

σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

FIGURE 3.57 Te Cam-clay critical state surface.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 159

4. If plastic strain does occur, the yield criterion must be satisfed throughout plastic

straining. Tis requires that

df

f

d

f

a

da

ij

ij

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

=

σ

σ 0.

It is straightforward to show that

∂

∂

=

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

− = −

f

a

p

a

p

a M a

p

a

s s e s

2

1 2

2

2

2

2 3 2

σ

.

5. Te hardening law and plastic fow rule give

da cad cad

f

cd

p

a

kk

p

kk

s

= − = −

∂

∂

= −

¸

1

]

1

ε

σ

λ λ 2 1 .

6. Finally, combining steps 3–5 leads to

d

p

a

d dp

S dS

Ma

s

kk w

ij ij

λ

σ

=

− −

¸

1

]

1

+ ( ) +

1

3

1 3

3

2

2

( )

¸¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

1

]

1

2 1 c

p

a

p

a

s s

.

If the stress state is at yield f(σ

ij

) = 0 and also lies on the critical state g(σ

ij

) = 0, the mate-

rial behaves like a perfectly plastic solid (with constant fow stress). In this case,

1. Te solid unloads elastically, with d

ij

p

ε = 0 if

∂

∂

< ⇒ − −

¸

1

]

1

+ ( )+

f

d

a

p

a

d dp

S

ij

ij

s

kk w

i

σ

σ σ 0

2

3

1 3 3

jj ij

dS

Ma ( )

.

2

0

¸

¸

_

,

<

2. If the solid deforms plastically, the stress state must satisfy

∂

∂

= ⇒ − −

¸

1

]

1

+ ( )+

f

d

a

p

a

d dp

S

ij

ij

s

kk w

i

σ

σ σ 0

2

3

1 3 3

jj ij

dS

Ma ( )

.

2

0

¸

¸

_

,

=

In this case, the plastic strain cannot be determined from the stress increment: any dλ > 0

is admissible. In a situation in which the total strain of the solid is prescribed, the plastic

strain increment can be determined by frst solving for the elastic strain increment and

subtracting it from the total strain.

If the stress lies outside the critical state g(σ

ij

) > 0 and is at yield f(σ

ij

) = 0, the material

sofens. In this case, it is impossible to distinguish unambiguously between elastic unload-

ing and plastic fow accompanied by strain sofening. Te deformation in this regime usu-

ally consists of intense plastic shearing along one or more discrete shear bands, whereas

the rest of the material unloads elastically. Boundary value problems with material behav-

ior in the unstable regime are generally ill posed and cannot be solved uniquely. However,

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in159 159 9/9/09 7:26:40 PM

160 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

attempting to load a soil past the critical state usually results in catastrophic collapse (such

as a landslide), so detailed solutions to boundary value problems in this regime are not of

much practical interest. Te critical state surface can be used as a failure criterion to avoid

collapse.

3.11.3 Application of the Critical State Equations to Simple 2D Loading

Te constitutive equations for soils are complicated, and a simple 2D example helps to

interpret them. To this end, consider a solid subjected to a 2D stress state of the form

σ

ij

= −pδ

ij

+ q(δ

i1

δ

j2

+ δ

i2

δ

j1

), as illustrated in Figure 3.58. Assume that the specimen is

drained, so that the water pressure p

w

= 0. In addition, assume that, at time t = 0, the

solid has strength a

0

.

For this loading, the yield surface can be plotted in two dimensions, as a graph of the

critical combinations of p and q that cause yield, as shown in Figure 3.59. Te yield sur-

face is an ellipse, with semi-axes a and Ma. Te critical state surface is a straight line with

slope M.

We can now examine the behavior of the solid as it is loaded. Consider frst the response

to a constant pressure on the wet side of critical state p > a

0

, together with a steadily increas-

ing shear stress q. In this case,

1. Te solid frst reaches yield when (p/a

0

− 1)

2

+ 3(q/Ma

0

)

2

= 1.

2. If the shear stress is raised beyond yield, the solid will deform plastically. Because the

fow law is derived from the yield criterion, the plastic strain direction is normal to

the yield surface. Tat is to say, if the solid experiences a plastic shear strain dγ and

volumetric strain dv, the vector (dv, dγ) is normal to the yield surface, as shown in the

fgure.

3. On the wet side of critical state, the volumetric plastic strain component dv is always

compressive. Tis means the solid compacts, and its strength increases (recall that

da = −cadv and dv < 0 during compaction).

4. As the yield surface expands, the volumetric strain component associated with an

increase in shear stress dq decreases (remember that we assume a constant pressure).

q

p

FIGURE 3.58 Material element in a soil subjected to pressure and shearing.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in160 160 9/9/09 7:26:40 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 161

Te hardening rate therefore decreases with strain, until the stress reaches the critical

state. At this point dv = 0, so there is no additional hardening.

Next, consider behavior on the dry side of critical state. In this case,

1. Te solid frst reaches yield when (p/a

0

− 1)

2

+ 3(q/Ma

0

)

2

= 1.

2. As before, the direction of the plastic strain is normal to the yield surface.

3. Notice that, on the dry side of critical state, the volumetric plastic strain component dv

is always dilatational. Tis means that the strength of the solid decreases with plastic

straining, as shown in Figure 3.60 (recall that da = −cadv and dv > 0 during dilation).

4. Te yield surface contracts during plastic straining, and this process continues until

the stress reaches the critical state. At this point, the solid continues to deform at a

constant shear stress.

3.11.4 Typical Values of Material Properties for Soils

Soil properties are highly variable, and, for accurate predictions, you will need to measure

directly the properties of the soil you are intending to model. In addition, soil models that

are used in practice are somewhat more sophisticated than the simplifed version given

here. As a rough guide, material properties estimated from data by Wood [1990] are listed

in Table 3.13.

3.12 CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR METAL SINGLE CRYSTALS

Plastic fow in a single crystal is anisotropic and so cannot be modeled using the simple

constitutive equations described in Section 3.7. Instead, a more complicated constitutive

law is used that considers the slip activity in the crystal directly. Te main application of

the constitutive equation is to model the rotations of individual grains in a polycrystal and

hence to predict the evolution of texture and to account for the efects of texture on the

development of anisotropy in the solid.

Wet

Dry

Critical

state

q

d%

p

d%

p

d&

–dv

Ma

0

a

0

1

2

3

Elastic

2da

p

Shear stress q

Shear strain &

Volumetric

strain -v

1

2

3

FIGURE 3.59 Evolution of yield surface and stress-strain response of a soil, with loading on

the wet side of critical state.

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162 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.12.1 Review of Some Important Concepts from Crystallography

Before describing the constitutive laws for plastically deforming crystals, we review

briefy the various conventions that are used to describe crystallographic directions and

orientations.

3.12.1.1 Common Crystal Structures

Most metal crystals of practical interest have face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic,

or hexagonal crystal structures. Tese are illustrated in Figure 3.61. Crystal plasticity

models exist for all three crystal structures, but FCC materials are the most extensively

studied.

3.12.1.2 Miller index Notation for Crystallographic Planes and Directions

Planes and directions in a single crystal are referred to as follows. For a cubic crystal, we

choose basis vec -tors {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} perpendicular to the faces of the basic cubic unit cell, as

illustrated in Figure 3.61. Ten,

1. Te symbol [l,m,n], where l,m,n are positive integers, denotes a direction parallel to a

unit vector with components ( ) / . l m n l m n e e e

1 2 3

2 2 2

+ + + +

2. Te symbol l m n , , [ ] denotes a direction parallel to the unit vector with components

( ) / . l m n l m n e e e

1 2 3

2 2 2

− + + +

Wet

Dry

Critical

state

q

dε

p

dε

p

dγ

dv

Ma

0

a

0

!

#

"

Elastic

2da

p

:;'-3 s83'ss q

:;'-3 s83-%. γ

<*,6m'83%/

s83-%. v

!

#

"

FIGURE 3.60 Evolution of yield surface and stress-strain response of a soil, with loading on

the dry side of critical state.

TABLE 3.13 Approximate Material Properties for Clay

Bulk Modulus K

Water Bulk

Modulus K

w

Hardening Rate c

Critical State

Constant M Initial Strength a

0

2 GNm

-2

2.2 GNm

-2

5 0.8 0.2 MNm

-2

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in162 162 9/9/09 7:26:41 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 163

3. Te symbol <l,m,n> denotes the family of [l,m,n] directions that are identical because

of the symmetry of the crystal. For example <111> in a cubic crystal includes all of

111 111 111 111 111 111 111 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

, , , , , , , 111

[ ]

.

4. Te symbol (l, m, n) denotes a plane that is perpendicular to a unit vector with com-

ponents ( )/ . l m n l m n e e e

1 2 3

2 2 2

+ + + +

5. Te symbol

( , , ) l m n

denotes a plane that is perpendicular to a unit vector with com-

ponents ( ) / . l m n l m n e e e

1 2 3

2 2 2

− + + +

6. Te symbol {l, m, n} denotes the family of (l,m,n) planes that are crystallographically

identical by symmetry.

For a hexagonal crystal, planes and directions are defned by introducing four auxiliary

unit vectors m

i

, i = 1 … 4 as shown in Figure 3.61. Te frst three unit vectors lie in the

basal plane and are oriented parallel to the three shortest distances between neighboring

atoms. Te fourth vector is perpendicular to the basal plane. Tese vectors are related to a

Cartesian basis {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} by

m e m e e m e e m e

1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 4 3

3 2 3 2 = = − +

( )

= − −

( )

= / / .

Ten,

1. Te symbol [l,m,n,p], where l,m,n,p are positive integers, denotes a direction parallel to

a unit vector ( )/ . l m n p l m n lm mn p m

1 2 3 4

2 2 2 2

+ + + + + − − − + m m m ln

2. A bar over one of the indices, l m n p , , ,

¸

1

]

, changes the sign of the index, exactly as for

cubic crystals.

3. Te symbol <l,m,n,p> denotes the family of [l,m,n,p] directions that are crystallo-

graphically identical by symmetry.

e

1

e

2

e

3

e

1

e

2

e

3

(fcc) (bcc)

e

1

e

2

e

3

(hcp)

m

1

m

2

m

3

m

4

FIGURE 3.61 Crystal structures for common metals.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in163 163 9/9/09 7:26:42 PM

164 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

4. Te symbol (l, m, n, p) denotes a plane that is perpendicular to a unit vector with

components ( )/ . l m n p l m n lm mn p m m m m

1 2 3 4

2 2 2 2

+ + + + + − − − + ln

5. Te symbol ( , , , ) l m n p denotes a plane that is perpendicular to a unit vector with com-

ponents ( ) / . l m n p l m n lm mn p m m m m

1 2 3 4

2 2 2 2

− + + + + − − − + ln

6. Te symbol {l, m, n, p} denotes the family of (l,m,n,p) planes that are crystallographi-

cally identical by symmetry.

3.12.1.3 Representing Crystallographic Directions and Orientations Using Stereographic

Projections

Stereographic projection is a way to represent 3D orientations on a 2D plane. Figure 3.62

shows one way to interpret the projection:

1. Te specimen is placed in the center of an imaginary sphere with unit radius, with

some convenient material directions aligned with the {i, j, k} basis.

2. A direction of interest is represented by a unit vector m = xi + yj + zk, which intersects

the sphere at some point P on its surface.

3. A line is then drawn from P to the point where the k axis intersects the sphere at Q.

4. Te line PQ cuts through the equatorial plane of the sphere at some point R.

5. Te vector OR

¸ , ¸¸

≡ p is the stereographic projection of the orientation m.

6. Te general conversion between the 2D projection and the 3D unit vector is easily

shown to be

p

p p p

p p

=

− ⋅

+ ⋅

=

+ − ⋅

+ ⋅

m m k k

m k

m

k ( ) ( )

.

1

2 1

1

7. Te symmetry of the crystal makes the ± m directions equivalent. For this reason,

projections usually only show vectors with a positive k component (the projection of

a vector with a negative k component lies outside the sphere).

m

i

j

k

ρ

P

Q

R

FIGURE 3.62 Illustration of the stereographic projection.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 165

3.12.1.4 Pole Figures and Inverse Pole Figures

In crystal plasticity, the projection is used in two ways. In one approach, specifc crystallo-

graphic directions are chosen to be aligned with the {i, j, k} directions, and other directions

of interest (which could be other crystallographic directions, or the direction of the loading

axis in a tensile test, for example) are projected. Tis is known as an inverse pole gure.

For example, Figure 3.63 shows the standard projection for a cubic crystal. To interpret

the fgure, note the following:

1. Te [100], [010], and [001] directions are parallel to i, j, k, respectively. HEALTH

WARNING: Tis is not the only choice of crystal orientation; you will ofen see the

inverse pole fgure with [100] parallel to k, for example.

2. Te points mark the projections of the specifed crystallographic directions.

3. Te lines mark the traces of the planes specifed, that is to say, the projection of the

line at which the plane intersects the surface of the unit sphere.

4. Te fgure also shows the standard triangle for a cubic crystal. Notice that the traces

of the planes divide the plane into a set of 24 curvilinear triangles, each of which has

<100>, <110>, and <111> directions at its corners. Tese triangles are indistinguish-

able because of the symmetry of the crystal; you could interchange any two trian-

gles by applying an appropriate rigid rotation to the crystal, without infuencing the

arrangement of atoms. Tis has important consequences: for example, when testing

the response of a cubic crystal to uniaxial tension, you only need to run tests with the

loading direction inside the standard triangle. For this reason, inverse pole fgures

ofen only display the standard triangle.

[001]

[100]

[010]

[010]

[100]

[110]

[110]

[110]

[111]

[111]

[111]

[111]

[101] [101]

[011]

[011]

Trace of (110)

[110]

Trace of (110)

Trace of (011)

Trace of (100)

Trace of (011)

Trace of (010)

Trace of (101)

Trace of (101)

Standard

triangle

FIGURE 3.63 Stereographic projection of directions of interest in a cubic crystal.

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166 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

A second application of the stereographic projection in crystal plasticity is to display

pole gures. In this approach, specifc physical directions are chosen to be aligned with the

{i, j, k} basis, and the orientations of crystallographic directions of interest are displayed

on the projection.

For example, when a pole fgure is plotted for a rolled sheet specimen, the rolling direc-

tion (denoted RD) is ofen chosen to be parallel to j, the direction transverse to the rolling

direction in the plane of the sheet (denoted TD) is chosen to be parallel to i, and the direc-

tion perpendicular to the sheet (denoted ND) is chosen to be parallel to k. Te sheet gener-

ally contains many grains, and each grain is a single crystal. Te orientations of the grains

are displayed on a pole fgure by choosing some convenient crystallographic direction

(<100> or <111> are common) and plotting the stereographic projection for each member

of this family of crystallographic directions. In a cubic crystal, each grain contributes four

points to the projection (there are eight <100> directions but only four of them have posi-

tive k component). A typical <100> pole fgure for a rolled aluminum sheet afer a 40%

reduction is shown in Figure 3.64. Te pole fgure shows that grain orientations tend to

cluster together, indicating that the sheet has developed a texture.

3.12.2 Features of Plastic Flow in Single Crystals

Plastic fow in a crystal is most ofen measured by conducting a tensile test with the loading

axis parallel to a chosen crystallographic direction. Te main results of these experiments

are as follows:

1. For most orientations of the loading axis, the plastic fow initially consists of shearing

parallel to one member of a family crystallographic planes in the crystal, in the direction

of a vector s lying in that plane, as illustrated in Figure 3.64. Te crystallographic plane

on which shear occurs is called a slip plane. Te shearing direction is known as the slip

direction. Slip planes and directions for common crystals are listed in Table 3.14

RD

TD

FIGURE 3.64 Typical pole fgure showing texture induced by rolling a sheet of an FCC

metal.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 167

2. Crystals contain a large number of candidate slip systems. For example, an FCC crys-

tal contains 12 possible slip systems. Tese are conventionally designated as listed in

Table 3.15.

3. Te slip systems in the undeformed crystal are identifed by unit vectors m

α

nor-

mal to the slip plane, together with unit vectors s

α

parallel to the slip direction.

Here α = 1 … N, and N denotes the total number of slip systems (e.g., N = 12 for

an FCC crystal). Te crystal can rotate during deformation. In the deformed solid,

the slip plane normals, and slip directions are denoted m

*α

, s

*α

.

4. In a tensile test on an annealed FCC single crystal, shearing occurs on the slip system

that is subjected to the largest resolved shear stress. Te resolved shear stress on the

αth system can be computed from the Cauchy stress σ

ij

acting on the solid as

τ σ

α α α

= J m s

ij i j

* *

,

where J = dV/dV

0

is the ratio of deformed to undeformed volume of the specimen

(J ≈ 1). For example, the inverse pole fgure in Figure 3.66 shows the active slip system

for all possible orientations of the tensile axis with respect to an FCC crystal (a bar

over a slip system indicates a negative resolved shear stress). In materials with other

crystal structures, some slip systems may be inherently stronger than others. In this

case, slip occurs on the system with highest value of τ

α

/g

α

, where g

α

denotes the

strengths of the slip systems.

5. Slip on the critical system initiates when the resolved shear stress exceeds a critical

magnitude (the strength of the slip system) τ

α

> g

α

. Te strength of the slip systems

increases with plastic straining: this behavior will be discussed in more detail later.

6. For special orientations of the tensile axis, more than one slip system may be acti-

vated. For example, if an FCC crystal is loaded parallel to a <100> direction, eight slip

systems are subjected to the same resolved shear stress and so are active at the same

time (the inverse pole fgure in Figure 3.66 shows the active systems)

7. Te deformation gradient resulting from a shear strain γ

α

on the αth system is

F R s m

ij ik kj k j

= + ( ), δ γ

α α α

TABLE 3.14 Slip Directions and Slip Planes for Common Crystal Structures

Structure Slip Direction Slip Plane

FCC <110> {111}

BCC <111> {110},{112}

HCP

< >

< >

1120

1123

( ), { }

{ }, { }

0001 1111

1101 1101

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168 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where R

ij

is a proper orthogonal tensor (i.e., det(R) = 1, R

ik

R

jk

= δ

ij

), representing a

rigid rotation. Te rotation is determined by the way the solid is loaded. For example,

in a tensile test, R

ij

is ofen calculated from the condition that the material fber paral-

lel to the loading axis (specifed by a unit vector p) does not rotate during deforma-

tion (Figure 3.67). Tis gives

R

ij

= δ

ij

cos θ + 1(1− cosθ)n

i

n

j

+ sinθ∈

ikj

n

k

,

TABLE 3.15 Slip Systems for an FCC Crystal

Slip Plane Slip Direction

(111)

011

¸

1

]

a

1

[100] [010]

[001]

[100] [010]

[001]

[100] [010]

[001]

d

1

a

1

a

2

a

3

b

2

b

3

b

1

c

1

c

3

c

2

d

2

d

3

[100] [010]

[001]

101

¸

1

]

a

2

110

¸

1

]

a

3

( ) 111

b

1

101

¸

1

]

b

2

110

¸

1

]

b

3

( ) 111

011

¸

1

]

c

1

101

¸

1

]

c

2

c

3

( ) 111

d

1

101

¸

1

]

d

2

110

¸

1

]

d

3

m

s

m

s

σ

σ

σ

σ

Deformation during tensile test Specimens rotated to show shearing

Shear deformation of a material element

s

Slip plane

m

*

s

*

m

*

s

*

m

m

*

s

*

tan

–1

γ

FIGURE 3.65 Deformation of a crystal occurring as a result of the slip on a single system

during uniaxial loading.

011

¸

1

]

011

¸

1

]

110

¸

1

]

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Constitutive Models ◾ 169

where n

i

= ∈

ijk

s

j

p

k

, cosθ γ

α α α

= + ( )/ 1 p s p m C

i i k k

,

sinθ γ

α α α

= − ( ) ( ( ) )/ , p m p s C

i i i i

1

2

and

C p m p s p m

i i i i k k

= + + 1 2

2 2

γ γ

α α α α α

( )

. Other assumptions are also used to calculate R.

8. Te crystal lattice is rotated by R so that, afer deformation, s R s m R m

i ij j i ij j

* *

= =

for all the slip systems.

9. Te rate of deformation resulting from a shearing rate

γ

α

on the αth system is

L F F R R R s m R R R

ij ip pj ik jk ik k p jp ik

= = + =

−

1

γ

α α α

jjk i j

s m +

γ

α α α * *

.

Tis can be decomposed into a symmetric part, representing a stretching, together

with a skew part, representing a spin, as

L D W W R R s m s m

ij ij ij ij ik jk i j j i

= + = + −

γ

α α α α

(

* * * *αα α α α α α

γ )/ ( )/ .

* * * *

2 2 D s m s m

ij i j j i

= +

**Here, the frst term in W
**

ij

represents the rotation of the lattice, whereas the second

term is the spin attributable to lattice shearing.

10. In a tensile test oriented for single slip, the crystal rotates so as to align the slip direc-

tion with the loading axis. Tis rotation is illustrated for an FCC crystal on the inverse

pole fgure in Figure 3.68. Eventually, the crystal rotates far enough to activate a sec-

ond slip system. Te exact point at which this occurs depends on how the crystal

hardens; it usually occurs shortly before the loading axis moves out of the standard

[100]

[010]

[010]

[100]

[110]

[110]

[110]

[110]

d1

a1

d3

a3

b2

c2

c2

c3

b1

a2

a3

b1

d1

d2

b3

c3

c1

a2

a1

d3

d2 b2

b3

c1

FIGURE 3.66 Active slip systems during uniaxial tensile loading of an FCC crystal.

s

m*

s*

m

tan

–1

γ

p

p

FIGURE 3.67 Rotation of a crystal lattice during uniaxial tensile loading.

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170 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

triangle. Te rotation direction changes afer the second slip system becomes active:

eventually, the loading axis aligns with the <112> direction. Tis is a stable orienta-

tion, and the crystal continues to deform in double slip without additional rotation.

11. Te resistance of each slip plane to shearing increases with plastic strain, caused by

strain hardening. A typical stress-strain curve for a single crystal that is initially

oriented for single slip is illustrated in Figure 3.69. Te curve is divided into three

characteristic regions. Stage I corresponds to the period while a single slip system is

active and has a low hardening rate (resulting from self hardening). Stage II begins

when a second slip system activates and has a higher hardening rate (resulting from

both self and latent hardening). Stage III occurs at large strains, and the harden-

ing rate decreases attributable to dynamic recovery. Te hardening rates in Stages I

and II are insensitive to temperature, but the Stage III hardening rate decreases with

temperature.

12. Shearing on the αth system increases its own strength g

α

: this is known as self-

hardening. Shearing on the αth system also increases the strength of all the other slip

systems g

β

, β ≠ α: this is known as latent hardening. Self-hardening can be measured

using single-slip tests. Latent hardening is ofen measured by frst deforming the

material in single slip and then reloading the specimen to activate a second slip sys-

tem. Latent hardening is ofen quantifed by the latent hardening ratio, which speci-

fes the ratio of the strength of the second system to that of the frst q

αβ

= g

β

/g

α

. Te

details of the hardening behavior of single crystals are very complex, and, at present,

there is no consensus on how best to measure or characterize hardening.

13. Lattice rotation during a tensile test gives rise to a phenomenon known as “geometric

sofening,” which plays an important role in shear localization in single crystals. Te

term geometric sofening refers to the fact that the crystal may rotate so as to increase

the resolved shear stress on its active slip system and, therefore, lead to a decrease in

the tensile fow stress of the crystal.

Initial orientation

Onset of

secondary slip

Steady state

orientation

[112]

[101]

[111]

[011]

FIGURE 3.68 Inverse pole fgure showing evolution of the tensile axis during uniaxial load-

ing of an FCC crystal.

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Constitutive Models ◾ 171

3.12.3 Kinematic Descriptions Used in Constitutive Models of Single Crystals

Let x

i

be the position of a material particle in the undeformed crystal. Suppose that the

solid is subjected to a displacement feld u

i

(x

k

), so that the point at x

i

moves to y

i

= x

i

+ u

i

,

as shown in Figure 3.70. Defne the following:

Te deformation gradient and its Jacobian:

F

u

x

ij ij

i

j

= +

∂

∂

δ J = det (F).

Te velocity gradient:

L

u

y

F F

ij

i

j

ik kj

=

∂

∂

=

−

1

.

•

•

Stage I

Stage II

Stage III

Increasing

temperature

Onset of

secondary slip

~ 0.1 ~ 0.2

Stress

Strain

FIGURE 3.69 Typical stress-strain curves during uniaxial tensile loading of an FCC single

crystal.

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

F

Lattice shearing

F

P

Elastic strain

F

e

m

s

s

m

m*

s*

FIGURE 3.70 Decomposition of deformation in a crystal into elastic and plastic parts.

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172 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te stretch rate and spin:

D L L W L L

ij ij ji ij ij ji

= + = − ( ) / ( ) / . 2 2

Recall that F

ij

relates infnitesimal material fbers dy

i

and dx

i

in the deformed and

undeformed solid, respectively, as

dy

i

= F

ij

dx

j

.

To decompose the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic parts, we assume that

deformation takes place in two stages. Te plastic strain is assumed to shear the lat-

tice, without stretching or rotating it. Te elastic deformation rotates and stretches

the lattice. We think of these two events occurring in sequence, with the plastic

deformation frst and the stretch and rotation second, giving

dy F dx F F dx

i ij j ik

e

kj

p

j

= = .

To decompose the velocity gradient into elastic and plastic parts, note that

L F F F F F F F F

ij ik kj ik

e

kl

p

ik

e

kl

p

lm

p

m

= = +

( )

− −

1 1

jj

e

ik

e

kj

e

ik

e

kl

p

lm

p

mj

e

F F F F F F

− − − −

( )

= +

1 1 1 1

.

Tus, the velocity gradient contains two terms, one of which involves only measures

of elastic deformation, whereas the other contains measures of plastic deformation.

We use this to decompose L into elastic and plastic parts:

L L L L F F L F F

ij ij

e

ij

p

ij

e

ik

e

kj

e

ij

p

ik

e

kl

p

= + = =

−

1

FF F

lm

p

mj

e − − 1 1

.

Plastic fow in the crystal occurs by shearing a set of N slip systems. Te slip systems

are characterized by unit vectors parallel to slip directions s

i

α

and slip plane normals

m

i

α

in the undeformed solid. Te rate of shear on the αth system is denoted by

γ

α

. Te

velocity gradient attributable to this shearing is

F F s m

ik

p

kj i j

N

−

=

=

∑

1

1

γ

α α α

α

.

It is convenient to defne vectors that describe plastic shearing in the current con-

fguration, as

s F s m m F

i ik

e

k i k ki

e * *

.

α α α α

= =

−1

Te former can be interpreted as the slip direction in the deformed solid (note that it

is not a unit vector, however), whereas m

i

*α

can be interpreted as the slip plane normal

in the deformed solid.

•

•

•

•

•

•

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Constitutive Models ◾ 173

Te plastic part of the velocity gradient can then be expressed in terms of the shear-

ing rates as

L s m

ij

p

i j

N

=

=

∑

γ

α α α

α

* *

.

1

Te elastic and plastic parts of the velocity gradient can be decomposed in to

symmetric and skew symmetric parts, representing stretching and spin, respec-

tively, as

D L L W L L

D L

ij

e

ij

e

ji

e

ij

e

ij

e

ji

e

ij

p

i

= +

( )

= −

( )

=

/ / 2 2

jj

p

ji

p

ij

p

ij

p

ji

p

L W L L +

( )

= −

( )

/ / . 2 2

Te plastic stretching and spin can be expressed in terms of the lattice shearing as

D s m s m W

ij

p

i j j i

N

ij

p

= + =

=

∑

γ γ

α α α α α

α

α

( ) / (

* * * *

2

1

ss m s m

i j j i

N

* * * *

) / .

α α α α

α

−

=

∑

2

1

3.12.4 Stress Measures Used in Crystal Plasticity

Stress measures that appear in descriptions of crystal plasticity are summarized below:

Te Cauchy (true) stress represents the force per unit deformed area in the solid and

is defned by

n Lim

dP

dA

i ij

dA

j

σ =

→0

( )

.

n

Kirchhof stress is defned by τ

ij

= Jσ

ij

.

Material stress for the intermediate confguration is defned by Σ

ij ik

e

kl jl

e

JF F =

− − 1 1

σ .

Resolved shear stress on a slip system is defned by τ σ

α α α

= Jm s

i ij j

* *

.

Lattice Jaumann rate of Kirchof stress is defned by τ

τ

τ τ

ij

e

ij

ik

e

kj ik kj

e

d

dt

W W

∇

= − + .

Note that the material stress should be interpreted as the force per unit area acting on the

intermediate confguration, as shown in Figure 3.71, rather than on the undeformed con-

fguration. For additional details, see Section 3.9.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

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174 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te constitutive equations must specify relationships between these stress measures and

the deformation measures outlined in the preceding section. In particular, the constitutive

equations must relate the following:

1. Te elastic part of the deformation gradient to stress

2. Te rate of shearing on each slip system to the resolved shear stress

3.12.5 Elastic Stress–Strain Relation Used in Crystal Plasticity

Te relations between stress and the elastic part of the deformation gradient follow the

procedure developed for fnite strain plasticity in Section 3.8.3. Only the fnal results will

be repeated here:

1. Defne the Lagrangean elastic strain as

E F F

ij ki

e

kj

e

ij

= − ( ) / δ 2

.

2. Assume that the material stress is proportional to Lagrange strain, as Σ

ij ijkl kl

C E = ,

where C

ijkl

are the components of the elastic stifness tensor (as defned and tabulated

in Section 3.1), for the material with orientation in the undeformed confguration.

3. Te elastic stress-strain law is ofen expressed in rate form, as follows

τ

ij

e

ijkl

e

kl

e

C D

∇

≈ ,

where

τ

ij

e ∇

is the Jaumann rate of Kirchhof stress with respect to axes that rotate with

the crystal lattice; C F F C F F

ijkl

e

in

e

jm

e

nmpq kp

e

lq

e

= can be thought of as the components of the

elastic compliance tensor for material with orientation in the deformed confgura-

tion, and D

ij

e

is the elastic stretch rate.

3.12.6 Plastic Stress–Strain Relation Used in Crystal Plasticity

Te plastic constitutive equations specify the relationship between the stress on the crystal

and slip rates

γ

α

on each slip system. Here, we outline a simple and widely used approach

to doing this, based on the work of Pierce, Asaro, and Needleman [1983]. Tis model is not

e

3

e

1

e

2

Intermediate

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

t

dA

0

dA

n

n

0

dP

0

(n)

dP

(n)

Elastic strain F

e

FIGURE 3.71 Deformation of an area element in a solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in174 174 9/9/09 7:26:49 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 175

the best ft to experimental observations, however; in particular, more sophisticated equa-

tions are required to accurately describe latent hardening behavior.

Flow rule: Tere are many advantages to using a viscoplastic fow rule to predict the slip

rates in a single crystal: this avoids having to use an iterative procedure to identify active

slip systems and also helps to stabilize material behavior. Te simplest such fow rule is

γ γ τ

τ

α α

α

α

=

¸

¸

_

,

0

sign

g

m

( ) ,

where τ

α

is the resolved shear stress on the slip system, g

α

is its current strength (which

evolves with plastic straining), and

γ

0

,m are material properties.

Hardening rule: Te hardening rule must specify the relationship between the slip system

strengths g

α

and the plastic strain. At time t = 0, each slip system has the same initial strength

g

0

. Tereafer, the slip systems increase in strength as a result of the plastic shearing accord-

ing to

g h

N

α

αβ

β

β

γ =

=

∑

1

,

where h

αβ

are strain-dependent hardening rates. Te hardening rate is approximated as

h q h

h h h h

h h

g g

s s

s

s

αβ αβ

γ

γ

=

= + −

−

−

¸

¸

( )

( ) ( )

0

0

0

sech

2

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

γ ,

where h

s

, h

0

, g

s

, q

αβ

are material properties, and γ is the total accumulated slip on all slip

systems

γ γ

α

α

=

=

∑

∫

dt

N

t

.

1

0

Te matrix q

αβ

controls the latent hardening rate: for an FCC crystal, it is usually taken to

have the form

q

q

αβ

α β

=

¹

,

¹

1 ,

,

coplanar

otherwise

where q is a material property. Te slip systems for an FCC crystal are listed in Table 3.15;

for example, slip systems a

1

, a

2

, a

3

are coplanar, whereas a

1

, b

1

are non-coplanar.

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176 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3.12.7 Representative Values for Plastic Properties of Single Crystals

Elastic properties of single crystals are listed in Sections 3.1.15 and 3.1.16. Te plastic

properties of single crystals are strongly sensitive to the material’s crystal structure and

composition. For accurate predictions, you will need to test the actual material you plan

to use. As a rough guide, representative parameters for a copper single crystal [taken from

Wu, Neale, and Van der Giessen 1996] are listed in Table 3.16.

3.13 CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR CONTACTING

SURFACES AND INTERFACES IN SOLIDS

Many practical problems involve two contacting surfaces that roll or slide against one

another: examples include machine elements, such as gears and bearings, machining

and metal forming processes, or slip along a geological fault. In addition, models of

deformation and failure in materials must ofen account for the nucleation and growth

of cracks in the solid. In these applications, constitutive equations must be used to spec-

ify the forces transmitted across the interfaces or contacting surfaces as a function of

their relative motion.

Te simplest and most familiar such constitutive law is Coulomb friction, which relates

the normal and tangential tractions acting across a contacting surface. More complex

constitutive laws are also available, which can model very complex interactions between

surfaces. In this section, we outline two general classes of interface law: (1) cohesive zone

models, which are used to model interfaces in materials or adhesion between very clean

(ofen nanoscale) surfaces; and (2) models that are intended to model contact and friction

between two sliding surfaces.

3.13.1 Cohesive Zone Models of Interfaces

Cohesive zone models are usually used to model the nucleation and propagation of cracks

along an interface between two solids and to model adhesion between two contacting sur-

faces. Figure 3.72 illustrates the problem to be solved. We assume the following:

Two solids meet at a surface S. •

TABLE 3.16 Properties of a Copper Crystal

γ

0

0.001 s

–1

m 10–20

g

0

16 MNm

-2

g

s

70.4 MNm

-2

h

0

132 MNm

-2

h

s

8 MNm

-2

q 1.4

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in176 176 9/9/09 7:26:50 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 177

In the undeformed confguration, the interface is free of traction, and there is no

overlap or separation between the solids along S.

When the solid is loaded, forces are transmitted across the interface, while the two

solids may separate, slide, or overlap at the interface. Te notion that two solids may

interpenetrate can be disturbing at frst sight. However, the surface S where the solids

meet does not represent a plane of atoms; it merely characterizes the equilibrium

separation between the two solids when the interface is stress free. If the two solids

overlap, this means that the atomic or material planes just adjacent to the interface

move closer together.

We shall assume that the relative displacement of the two solids across S is small

compared with any characteristic dimension of the solid and also that the two con-

tacting solids themselves experience small shape changes.

A cohesive zone law relates the relative motion of the two solids adjacent to S to the trac-

tions transmitted across S. A large number of such constitutive equations have been devel-

oped, but there are two general classes. (1) Te frst consists of reversible force-displacement

laws, in which the traction is simply a function of the relative distance between the two sur-

faces and independent of the history of loading. Tese are ofen used to model nucleation

and growth of a crack on an interface that is subjected to monotonically increasing load-

ing in which irreversibility plays no role and are also used to model interaction between

surfaces of nanoscale structures, whose dimension can be comparable with the distance

of action of long-range interatomic forces. (2) Te second consists of irreversible force-

displacement laws, which model failure processes that lead to the creation of new free

surface in the solid. Tese could include separation of atomic planes attributable to cleavage,

or more complex processes such as rupture by void nucleation and coalescence, or fatigue.

Kinematics: Te relative motion of the two solids is characterized as follows:

1. Let n denote a unit vector normal to the interface. Te sense of n is arbitrary (i.e., it can

point up or down, as you prefer). Once n has been chosen, however, we designate the

two material surfaces adjacent to S by S

+

and S

−

, with n the outward normal to S

−

.

•

•

•

FIGURE 3.72 Separation of an interface between two solids.

S

+

t

+

t

–

S

–

∆

n

∆

t

e

1

e

2

n

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in177 177 9/9/09 7:26:50 PM

178 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2. Introduce two mutually perpendicular unit vectors e

α

that are tangent to the

interface.

3. Let u

+

(x) and u

−

(x) denote the displacement of two material points that are just adjacent

to a point x on S in the undeformed solid.

4. Let ∆ = u

+

− u

−

denote the relative displacement of two initially coincident points. To

specify constitutive equations, it is convenient to characterize the relative displace-

ment using the three scalar Cartesian components (Δ

n

, Δ

1

, Δ

2

) of ∆ in the basis {n, e

1

, e

2

}.

If the interface is isotropic (i.e., its response is independent of the direction of the

relative tangential displacement between the surfaces), the behavior of the interface

depends only on Δ

n

and ∆ = ∆ + ∆

t 1

2

2

2

.

Kinetics: Te forces acting between the two surfaces are characterized as follows:

1. Two points that are initially coincident in the undeformed interface are assumed to

exert equal and opposite tractions on one another. Because the relative displacements

of S

+

and S

−

are assumed to be small and both solids are assumed to experience small

shape changes, there is no need to distinguish between forces acting on the deformed

and undeformed solids. Let t

−

(x) and t

+

(x) denote the force per unit area acting on

S

−

and S

+

, respectively.

2. Because t

+

(x) = −t

−

(x), the tractions can be characterized by the three scalar compo-

nents (T

n

, T

1

, T

2

) of t

−

in the basis {n, e

1

, e

2

}.

Te constitutive equations for the interface must relate (T

n

, T

1

, T

2

) to (Δ

n

, Δ

1

, Δ

2

).

Con stitutive equations representing reversible separation between interfaces are the

simplest cohesive zone laws. For these models, the tractions are a function only of the

relative displacement of the material planes adjacent to the interface and are independent

of the history or rate of loading. Tis means that the traction-displacement relation for

the interface is reversible. Te interface will heal if the two surfaces are brought back into

contact afer separation.

Te constitutive equations relating (T

n

, T

1

, T

2

) to (Δ

n

, Δ

1

, Δ

2

) for a reversible interface are

constructed as follows:

1. Te traction-displacement relation is most conveniently characterized by a scalar

interplanar potential Φ (Δ

n

, Δ

1

, Δ

2

) by setting

T T T

n

n

=

∂

∂∆

=

∂

∂∆

=

∂

∂∆

Φ Φ Φ

1

1

2

2

.

Te value of Φ represents the work done per unit area in separating the interface

by ∆.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in178 178 9/9/09 7:26:51 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 179

2. A number of diferent functions are used to approximate Φ. Here, we will just give one

example [a simplifed version of a potential developed by Xu and Needleman 1995]:

Φ( , ) exp exp ∆ ∆ = − +

∆ ¸

¸

_

,

−

∆ ¸

¸

_

,

n t n n

n

n

n

n

φ φ

δ δ

1 −−

∆ ¸

¸

_

,

β

δ

2 2

2

t

n

.

Here,

∆ = ∆ +

t

2

1

2

2

2

∆

, whereas ϕ

n

, δ

n

, β are material properties. Teir physical signif-

cance is discussed below.

3. Formulas relating (T

n

, T

1

, T

2

) to (Δ

n

, Δ

1

, Δ

2

) can be calculated by diferentiating the

potential. Te result is

T

T

n

n

n

n

n

n

= −

¸

¸

_

,

=

¸

¸

σ

δ δ

σ

β

δ

α

α

max

∆ ∆

∆

exp

max

1

2

2

__

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

¸

_

,

− 1 1

2 2

2

∆ ∆ ∆

n

n

n

n

t

n

δ δ

β

δ

exp exp

¸¸

¸

_

,

,

where σ

max

= ϕ

n

/δ

n

exp (1).

Te traction-displacement relations are plotted in Figure 3.73. Under purely normal

tensile loading, the interface has work of separation ϕ

n

, and the normal traction reaches a

value of σ

max

at an interface separation Δ

n

= δ

n

. Under purely shear loading, the tangential

traction has a maximum value τ βφ δ

max

/ ( exp( ) =

n n

2 1 ) at a tangential shear displace-

ment ∆

t n

=δ / 2.

Constitutive equations modeling irreversible separation between interfaces: Most

interfaces do not heal when brought back into contact afer separation. In applications in

which interfaces are subjected to cyclic loading, more complicated constitutive equations

FIGURE 3.73 Traction-separation relations for a typical cohesive zone law. (a) Under nor-

mal loading; (b) under tangential loading.

Displacement ∆

n

/δ

n

T

r

a

c

t

i

o

n

T

n

/

σ

m

a

x

0 1 2 3

0

0.5

1

(a)

Displacement ∆

t

/δ

n

T

r

a

c

t

i

o

n

T

t

/

σ

m

a

x

–2 0 2

-0.5

0

0.5

(b)

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in179 179 9/9/09 7:26:51 PM

180 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

must be used to account for this irreversible behavior. Again, a very large number of

such constitutive equations have been developed: we will illustrate their general features

using a model adapted from Ortiz and Pandolf [1999] as a representative example.

Te behavior of the interface can be illustrated using its response to a purely normal

tensile traction, shown in the traction-separation law in Figure 3.74. Te interface initially

responds elastically, with a constant stifness k

0

= σ

max

/d

1

, so that T

n

= k

0

Δ

n

. As long as

Δ

n

≤ d

1

, the interface is reversible and undamaged. If the displacement exceeds Δ

n

= d

1

, the

interface begins to accumulate irreversible damage, which causes the stress to drop. At the

same time, the damage reduces the stifness of the interface so that, during unloading,

the traction-displacement relation remains linear but with a reduced slope. Note that the

total work of separation for the interface under tensile loading is ϕ

0

= σ

max

(d

1

+ d

2

)/2. Te

constitutive equation is constructed as follows:

1. Te material surfaces S

+

and S

−

are completely prevented from overlapping, by enforc-

ing the constraint Δ

n

≥ 0.

2. Te magnitude of the relative displacement between S

+

and S

−

is quantifed by a scalar

parameter λ β = + + ∆ ∆ ∆

n

2 2

1

2

2

2

( ), where β is a material property, which controls

the relative stifness and strength of the interface under normal and shear loading.

3. Similarly, the magnitude of the traction can be quantifed by an efective stress

τ β = + + T T T

n

2

1

2

2

2 2

( ) / .

4. Te tractions acting between S

+

and S

−

are related to the relative displacement by an

elastic potential Φ(Δ

n

, Δ

1

, Δ

2

, D) by setting

T T T

n

n

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Φ

∆

Φ

∆

Φ

∆

1

1

2

2

.

Here, 0 ≤ D ≤ 1 is a scalar parameter that quantifes the irreversible damage accumu-

lated by the interface.

5. A linear traction-displacement relation is constructed by making Φ a quadratic func-

tion of λ, as follows

Φ = − k D

0

2

1 2 ( ) / . λ

FIGURE 3.74 Traction-separation law for an irreversible cohesive zone law.

d

1

d

2

σ

max

T

n

∆

n

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in180 180 9/9/09 7:26:52 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 181

Here, k

0

is a material property that corresponds to the slope of the traction-displace-

ment relation for the undamaged interface. It follows that the tractions are related to

the displacements by

T k D T k D T k D

n n

= − = − = −

0 1

2

0 1 2

2

0 2

1 1 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) . ∆ ∆ ∆ β β

6. Te constitutive law is completed by devising an appropriate equation governing the

evolution of D. D remains constant if the traction on the interface is less than its cur-

rent strength, if the interface is unloaded, or if D reaches 1. Otherwise, D must evolve

so that the strength of the interface decreases linearly from its initial value σ

max

to

zero as the efective displacement λ increases from λ = d

1

to λ = d

2

. Tis requires

dD

dt

D d d

D d d

d d

=

<

− +

− +

0

1 1

1

1 2

1 2

τ

σ

λ

( )( / )

/

/

max

or tt D

D

d

d

d

dt

< =

− +

¸

¸

_

,

0 1

1

1

1

2

( )

or

Otherwise.

λ

λ

¹¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Representative values for properties of cohesive zones: Te two constitutive laws contain

the following parameters:

1. Te reversible interface can be conveniently characterized by its strength, σ

max

, the

total work of tensile separation ϕ

0

, and the parameter β that controls the ratio of shear

to normal strength.

2. Te irreversible interface can be characterized by its strength, σ

max

, the total work of

tensile separation ϕ

0

, the parameter β, and the displacement d

1

at the instant of maxi-

mum stress.

It is dim cult to give precise values for these material properties. Tis is partly because

the constitutive equations are used to model a variety of physical processes that lead to

failure and partly because there is no simple way to measure the values of the parameters.

Te following guidelines are usually followed:

1. If the cohesive zone is used to model atomic-scale cleavage in a brittle elastic mate-

rial or adhesion between two elastic solids, then ϕ

0

is set equal to the fracture tough-

ness of the interface (typically ϕ

0

≈ 1 Jm

−2

) and the peak strength of the material σ

max

≈

E/100 where E is the Young’s modulus. Available data suggest that interfaces are stron-

ger in shear than in tension so β is usually taken to be slightly less than 1 (β ≈ 0.7).

Computations are usually not strongly sensitive to the shape of the cohesive zone, so

d

1

/d

2

can be taken to be approximately 1 in the irreversible model.

2. If the cohesive zone is intended to model both the plastic zone and the failure pro-

cess at the tip of a crack in an otherwise elastic solid, then ϕ

0

is set equal to the frac-

ture toughness of the solid (fracture toughness values are tabulated in Section 9.3.6),

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in181 181 9/9/09 7:26:53 PM

182 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

whereas σ

max

is taken to be roughly three times the yield stress of the solid in uniaxial

tension (yield stress values are tabulated in Section 3.7.9). Again, β ≈ 0.7, whereas

d

1

/d

2

≈ 1 in the irreversible model.

3. Cohesive zones are sometimes used to model material separation at the tip of a crack

in a plastic solid, together with an elastic-plastic constitutive equation for the two

solids adjacent to the cohesive interface. In this case, it is not usually clear what pro-

cess the cohesive zone represents. Experience shows that, if the strength σ

max

of the

cohesive zone is taken to be too high (greater than approximately three times the

yield stress of the plastic material), the crack will never propagate. If the strength of

the cohesive zone is less than the yield stress, there is no plasticity. Consequently, Y <

σ

max

< 3Y. It is dim cult to interpret the meaning of ϕ

0

in these models, but fortunately

simulations tend to be relatively insensitive to ϕ

0

. A value for ϕ

0

is usually estimated

by choosing a sensible characteristic length (between 1 and 10 μm) for δ

n

or d

1

and

setting ϕ

n

= σ

max

δ

n

exp(1) for the reversible model or ϕ

0

= σ

max

(d

1

/d

2

)/2 for the irre-

versible version.

3.13.2 Models of Contact and Friction between Surfaces

A friction experiment is conceptually very simple: two surfaces are pressed into contact

by a controlled normal pressure p, and the specimens are loaded so as to induce a state of

uniform shear traction T acting between the contacting surfaces (Figure 3.75). Te experi-

ment seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the critical combination of normal and tangential forces cause the surfaces to

start to slide?

2. If the two surfaces do start to slip, what tangential force is required to keep them

sliding?

3. If the surfaces are slipping, how does the tangential force vary with sliding velocity

and normal pressure, and how does the surface respond to changes in sliding velocity

and pressure?

4. How does friction depend on the contact area, the properties of the two contacting

surfaces, surface roughness, environment, lubricant flms, etc.?

Te results of these experiments show the following for most engineering surfaces that

make contact over a nominal area exceeding 100 μm

2

or so:

Te critical tangential traction required to initiate sliding between two surfaces

is proportional to the normal pressure. If the normal force is zero, the contact

cannot support any tangential force. Doubling the normal force will double the

critical tangential force that initiates slip.

Surface roughness has a very modest efect on friction. Doubling the surface

roughness might change the friction force by a few percentage.

•

•

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Constitutive Models ◾ 183

Contaminants or lubricant on the two surfaces has a big efect on friction. Even

a little moisture on the surfaces can reduce friction by 20–30%. If there is a thin

layer of grease on the surfaces, it can cut friction by a factor of 10. If the con-

taminants are removed, friction forces can be huge, and the two surfaces can seize

together completely.

Friction forces depend quite strongly on what the two surfaces are made from.

Some materials like to bond with each other (metals generally bond well to other

metals, for example) and so have high friction forces. Some materials (e.g., Tefon)

do not bond well to other materials. In this case, friction forces will be smaller.

If the surfaces start to slide, the tangential force ofen (but not always) drops

slightly. Tus, kinetic friction forces are ofen a little lower than static friction

forces. Otherwise, kinetic friction forces behave just like static friction; they are

proportional to the normal force, etc.

Te steady-state kinetic friction force usually (but not always) decreases slightly

as the sliding speed increases. Increasing sliding speed by a factor of 10 might

drop the friction force by a few percentage.

Te transient response to changes in sliding speed has been extensively studied in

geological materials, motivated by the need to understand earthquakes. In these

materials, increasing the sliding speed causes an instantaneous increase in shear

traction, which then gradually decays to a lower steady-state value, as illustrated

in Figure 3.76. If the sliding speed is reduced, there is an instantaneous drop

in the friction force, which subsequently increases toward a steady state. Te

•

•

•

•

•

Contact, area A

T

t

p

(1)

(2)

FIGURE 3.75 Simple friction experiment.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in183 183 9/9/09 7:26:53 PM

184 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

transients occur over a sliding distance of order 10–50 μm. Tis behavior has

been observed in other materials (including metals) as well but is not universal;

for example, Gearing, Moon, and Anand [2001] observe an increase in steady-

state friction forces with sliding speed in sliding of aluminum against steel.

Te transient response to a change in contact pressure has not been studied as

extensively as the response to changes in sliding speed. Te data of Prakash [1998]

indicates that, when the contact pressure is suddenly increased, the shear traction

is initially unchanged and subsequently asymptotes toward a value proportional

to the new contact pressure as the relative distance of sliding between the two

surfaces increases, as illustrated in Figure 3.77.

Tese trends can be attributed to the efects of surface roughness. All surfaces are rough

and, when brought into contact, meet only at highest points on the two surfaces, as shown

in Figure 3.78. Te true area of contact between the two surfaces is much less than the

nominal contact area and increases roughly in proportion to the nominal contact pres-

sure acting between the surfaces. Te nominal tangential traction is proportional to the

product of the true contact area and the shear strength of the contacting surfaces and is

therefore approximately proportional to the nominal contact pressure.

Tere are some situations in which the true area of contact approaches the nominal

contact area. Examples include (1) the tip of an atomic force microscope, which has rough-

ness comparable with atomic scale dimensions, and (2) friction between the tool and work

piece in metal forming applications. In these situations, the traction acting tangent to the

surface is relatively insensitive to the contact pressure.

•

V

1

V

1

Friction coeﬃcient T/p

Sliding distance

V

2

>V

1

Sliding speed

FIGURE 3.76 Transient variation of friction coem cient afer changes in sliding velocity.

p

1

p

1

Shear traction T

Sliding distance

p

2

>p

1

Contact pressure

FIGURE 3.77 Transient variation of friction coem cient afer changes in contact pressure.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in184 184 9/9/09 7:26:54 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 185

Kinematics of surfaces in sliding contact: Constitutive laws for friction must account

for large relative motion between the contacting surfaces. Consequently, the contact is

best characterized by the relative position and motion of the two surfaces in the deformed

confguration.

1. One of the two surfaces is arbitrarily designated the “master” surface and labeled

S

−

, as shown in Figure 3.79. Te other surface is designated the “slave” and is labeled

S

+

. Note that, in some friction models (e.g., the plasticity model described below),

exchanging the master and slave surface will have a small infuence on the behavior

of the interface.

2. At a representative point y

−

on S

−

, we let n denote a unit vector normal to S

−

and

introduce two mutually perpendicular unit vectors e

α

that are tangent to S

−

. We take

e

1

to point along a characteristic material direction in S

−

, i.e., if m

1

is a unit vector

tangent to S

−

in the undeformed slave surface, e

1

= (F

.

m

1

)/|F

.

m

1

| in the deformed

surface.

3. Te gap between the two surfaces is characterized by the points on the two surfaces that

lie along n, i.e., y

+

= y

−

+ Δ

n

n. Te relative velocity of the two surfaces is defned as

v y

n

= − − ∆

+ −

d

dt

d

dt

n

( ) . y

4. It is convenient to separate the relative velocity into components normal and tangent

to the surface v

n

= dΔ

n

/dt = v ⋅ n, v

1

= v ⋅ e

1

, v

2

= v ⋅ e

2

.

Nominal contact area A

nom

True contact

area A

true

FIGURE 3.78 True and apparent area of contact between two rough surfaces.

FIGURE 3.79 Geometry of two interacting surfaces.

n

y

+

y

–

∆

n

S

–

S

+

e

1

t

+

t

–

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in185 185 9/9/09 7:26:54 PM

186 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5. In fnite element computations, it is sometimes convenient to introduce a small elas-

tic compliance for the interface. In this case, the relative velocity of the surfaces is

divided into a reversible elastic part and an irreversible (plastic) part by defning

v v v = + = + = + =

e p

n n

e

n

p e p

v v v v v v

α α α

α 1 2 , .

Kinetics of surfaces in sliding contact: Te forces acting between the two surfaces are

characterized as follows:

1. Te points on the two surfaces at positions y

+

and y

−

are assumed to exert equal and

opposite tractions on one another. We let t

+

(y

+

), t

−

(y

−

) denote the tractions on S

+

and

S

−

, respectively.

2. Because t

+

(y

+

) = −t

−

(y

−

), the tractions can be characterized by the three scalar com-

ponents (T

n

, T

1

, T

2

) of t

−

in the basis {n, e

1

, e

2

}.

Constitutive equations for sliding friction must specify relationships between (Δ

n

, v

i

) and

(T

n

, T

1

, T

2

). Various alternatives are summarized briefy below.

Coulomb friction: Tis is the most familiar friction law. For this model,

1. Te interface separates, with an indeterminate Δ

n

if T

n

> 0.

2. Te surfaces are prevented from interpenetrating Δ

n

= 0 if T

n

< 0.

3. No slip occurs between the surfaces v

i

= 0 if T T T

n 1

2

2

2

+ < µ | |, where μ is the coef-

fcient of friction.

4. Te tangential traction is proportional to the normal pressure and opposes

the direction of slip if the two surfaces slide T T v v v

n 1 1 1

2

2

2

= + µ | | /

T T v v v

n 2 2 1

2

2

2

= + µ | | / .

Table 3.17 lists rough values for friction coem cients for a few material pairs. Tese are

rough guides only; friction coem cients for a given material can by highly variable (for

example, friction for a steel/steel contact can vary anywhere between 0.001 and 3) and can

even vary signifcantly with time or sliding distance during an experiment.

HEALTH WARNING: Descriptions of Coulomb friction in elementary mechanics

and physics texts ofen distinguish between kinetic and static friction coem cients. It is not

advisable to adopt this approach when posing a boundary value problem in continuum

mechanics, because it is likely to make the problem ill posed (with either no solution or an

infnite number of solutions). In fact, even with a single friction coem cient, the Coulomb

friction model can be ill posed and should be used with caution.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in186 186 9/9/09 7:26:55 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 187

Coulomb friction with a shear cutoñ: In metal-forming applications, contacting surfaces

can be subjected to extremely high pressure, with the result that the true area of contact

approaches the nominal area. Under these conditions, the shear traction is no longer pro-

portional to the contact pressure. Behavior at high pressure is ofen approximated by trun-

cating the shear traction at a critical value (usually taken to be somewhat lower than the

shear yield strength of the sofer of the two contacting surfaces). Te modifed friction has

the following constitutive equations:

1. Te interface separates, with an indeterminate Δ

n

if T

n

> 0.

2. Te surfaces are prevented from interpenetrating Δ

n

= 0 if T

n

< 0.

3. We introduce the shear resistance of the interface τ defned as

τ

µ µ τ

τ µ τ

=

≤

≥

¹

,

¹

| | | |

| | ,

T T

T

n n

n

0

0 0

where τ

0

is the maximum shear stress that the interface can withstand.

4. No slip occurs between the surfaces v

i

= 0 if T T

1

2

2

2

+ < τ.

5. Te tangential traction is proportional to the normal pressure and opposes the direc-

tion of slip if the two surfaces slide: T v v v T v v v

1 1 1

2

2

2

2 2 1

2

2

2

= + = + τ τ / / .

Rate and state variable models of friction: Te variation of friction with sliding velocity

and transient behavior afer changes in contact pressure play an important role in control-

ling the stability of sliding on an interface. Several friction laws have been developed to

describe this behavior and are widely used in geophysics applications. As a representative

TABLE 3.17 Friction Coem cients for Various Materials

Material Approximate Friction Coem cient

Rubbers on dry surfaces 0.8−1.5

Clean metals in air 0.8−2

Clean metals in wet air 0.5−1.5

Sof metals (lead, bronze) 0.1

Ceramics (carbides, rocks) 0.05−0.5

Polymers on polymers 0.05−1.0

Grease or high temperature lubricant 0.05−0.2

Hydrodynamically lubricated surfaces (full oil flm) 0.0001−0.0005

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in187 187 9/9/09 7:26:55 PM

188 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

example, we outline a constitutive law based loosely on work by Dieterich [1979], Ruina

[1983], andPrakash [1998].

Te transient behavior of sliding friction is modeled by introducing two state variables

ω

±

, p

±

for each material point on S

±

. Te state variables evolve according to

d

dt

v

v

L t

dp

dt

T p

v

L

s

s

v v

n

s

p

ω

ω = − ( ) +

¸

¸

_

,

= − + ( ) +

1 1

tt

p

¸

¸

_

,

,

where v v v

s

p p

=

( )

+

( ) 1

2

2

2

, (L

v

, L

p

) are material properties with units of length, and (t

v

, t

p

)

are material properties with units of time. Te two surfaces S

+

and S

−

may have diferent

properties. To interpret these equations, note the following:

1. Both ω and p evolve with time and the sliding distance.

2. If the surfaces slide at constant speed, then ω → v

s

in the steady state, whereas if the

surfaces are subjected to a time-independent normal traction, p → −T

n

.

3. Te two constants (t

v

, t

p

) control the timescale associated with this evolution for a

static contact, whereas (L

v

, L

p

) control the distance required for ω and p to reach their

steady-state values under a rapidly sliding contact.

HEALTH WARNING: Note the following. (1) State variables must be introduced to

characterize both contacting surfaces, because coincident points on the two surfaces expe-

rience diferent histories of contact pressure and slip velocity. To see this, note that, as you

slide your fnger over the surface of a table, a point on your fnger sees a constant contact

pressure, whereas a point on the table experiences a cycle of loading. (2) Te time deriva-

tives of the state variables should be interpreted as the rate of change experienced by an

observer traveling with a particular material particle in each surface.

Te variation of steady-state friction coem cient with sliding velocity is modeled by

introducing a friction coem cient that is a function of the state variables ω

±

µ ω µ µ µ ω ( ) ( )exp ( / ) , = + − −

¸

1

]

k s k

n

V

1

where ω ω ω = +

+ −

( ) / 2 and μ

k

, μ

s

, V

1

, n are all material properties. Te constant μ

k

rep-

resents the limiting value of the friction coem cient as sliding velocity approaches infn-

ity (it can be interpreted as the kinetic friction coem cient), whereas μ

s

is the steady-state

value of friction coem cient for a static contact (and can be interpreted as the static friction

coem cient). Te two constants V

1

and n control the rate at which the friction transitions

from one value to the other.

Te friction law can be conveniently expressed as a relationship between the tractions

and the relative velocity of the contact, as follows. For Δ

n

> 0, the surfaces are traction-free:

T

n

= T

1

= T

2

= 0. For Δ

n

≤ 0:

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in188 188 9/9/09 7:26:56 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 189

1. Te elastic part of the relative velocity is related to the traction components by

v

k

dT

dt

v

k

dT

dt

v

k

dT

dt

n

e

n

n e

t

e

t

= = =

1 1 1

1

1

2

2

,

where k

n

and k

t

are two elastic stifnesses. Note that these equations assume that the

elastic distorsion of the interface occurs on the slave surface (the time derivatives cor-

respond to the traction rate experienced by an observer fxed to the slave surface).

2. Te irreversible part of the normal component of velocity v

n

p

= 0.

3. Te irreversible part of the tangential component of velocity is calculated from

v

V

V

T

p

T

T

T

p

t

m

t α

α

ω

µ =

+

¸

¸

_

,

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

1

]

1

1

0

0

1 1

tt

t

p

T p

≥

<

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

µ

µ 0

,

where T T T

t

= +

1

2

2

2

, ω ω ω = +

+ −

( ) / 2, p p p = +

+ −

( ) / 2, and V

0

, m are two con-

stants that control the variation of shear stress to a step change in sliding velocity.

To interpret this equation, suppose that the interface is subjected to a constant (i.e., time

independent) pressure and is constrained to slip at a rate v

s

. Te magnitude of the shear

traction follows as

T p

v V

V

t

s

m

=

+

+

¸

¸

_

,

µ ω

ω

( )

/

/

.

/

0

0

1

1

1

Te steady-state value is T v p

t s

= µ( ) . Afer an instantaneous increase in sliding speed, the

shear traction frst jumps to a new, higher value and then progressively decreases to a lower

steady-state value as ω approaches the new value of sliding speed. Similarly, if the sliding

speed is suddenly reduced, the shear stress frst drops to a lower value, and subsequently

increases gradually to a higher steady-state.

Representative values of material properties for state variable model of friction: Te

subtle features of friction captured by this constitutive equation are very sensitive to the

materials involved, the surface fnish, and the environment. Extensive tests are required to

characterize a particular contacting pair. As a rough guide to the orders of magnitudes of the

various material parameters, Table 3.18 lists estimates for parameters based on a discussion

by Coker, Lykotraftis, Needleman, and Rosakis [2005] of transient friction in Homalite.

Friction laws based on plasticity theory: Te general framework of viscoplasticity can

easily be adapted to construct friction laws that approximate the variation of friction with

sliding speed and the evolution of friction with slip. Laws of this kind are ofen used in

metal-forming simulations. Several such models exist but will not be described in detail

here. Instead, we will illustrate the general idea by adapting the critical state theory of

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in189 189 9/9/09 7:26:56 PM

190 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

plasticity outlined in Section 3.11, together with the viscoplasticity law described in Section

3.8 to construct a friction law that captures the transient behavior of a sliding interface, as

follows:

1. Te normal traction must satisfy T

n

≤ 0: if T

n

= 0, the surfaces separate and

T

1

= T

2

= 0.

2. Te relative velocity of the two surfaces is divided into elastic and plastic parts:

v v v v v v

n n

e

n

p e p

= + = + =

α α α

α 1 2 , .

3. Te elastic part of the relative velocity is related to the traction components by

v

k

dT

dt

v

k

dT

dt

v

k

dT

dt

n

e

n

n e

t

e

t

= = =

1 1 1

1

1

2

2

,

where k

n

and k

t

are two elastic stifnesses. Note that these equations assume that the

elastic distorsion occurs on the slave surface (the time derivatives correspond to the

traction rate experienced by an observer fxed to the slave surface).

4. Tree state variables p

±

, ω

±

, s

±

are introduced to track the history of contact pressure,

sliding speed, and sliding distance on each of the two contacting surfaces. Te state

variables evolve according to

dp

dt

cv

ds

dt

v

d

dt

v

v

L t

n

p

s s

s

v v

= − = = − +

¸

¸

_

,

ω

ω ( ) ,

1

where v v v

s

= +

1

2

2

2

and c, L

v

, t

v

are material properties. Naturally, the two surfaces

may have diferent values of c, L

v

, t

v

. Te governing equations for the evolution of the

state variables have been designed so that p → −T

n

and ω → v

s

under conditions of

steady sliding.

5. Te variation of relative velocity between the surfaces with traction is approximated using

a slip potential (similar to the viscoplastic potential described in Section 3.8), defned as

g T T

V

m

T

p

T

n t

n t

( , ) =

+

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

−

0 0

2

0

2

1

1 1

τ

τ

¸¸

1

]

1

1

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

− ≥

+ ( )/ m

n t

T

p

T

1 2

2

0

2

1 1 0

τ

00 1 1 0

2

0

2

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

− ≤

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

T

p

T

n t

τ

,

TABLE 3.18 Representative Values of Parameters for a Simple State Variable Friction Law

k

n

(GPa/m) k

t

(GPa/m) μ

k

μ

s

V

1

(m/s) n

300 100 0.5 0.6 26 1.2

L

p

(μm) t

p

(s) L

v

(μm) t

v

(s) V

0

(m/s) m

20 ∞ 20 ∞ 100 5

Te two contacting surfaces are assumed to have identical properties.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in190 190 9/9/09 7:26:57 PM

Constitutive Models ◾ 191

where V

0

, m are material properties that control the response of the interface to an

instantaneous change in traction, p p p = +

+ −

( ) / 2, and τ

0

is a representative shear

strength that may be a function of one or more of the state variables, as discussed

further below. Te state variable

p

plays the role of a in the critical state soil model

outlined in Section 3.11.

6. Te plastic part of the relative velocity between the surfaces is related to g through an

associated fow law:

v

g

T

v

g

T

n

p

n

p

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=

α

α

α 1 2 , .

Evaluating the derivatives gives

v

V

p

T

p

T

p

T

n

p

n n t

=

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

0

0

2

0

1 1

τ

τ

22

1 2

2

0

2

1 1 −

¸

1

]

1

1

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

− ( )/ m

n t

T

p

T

τ

−− ≥

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

− ≤

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

1 0

0 1 1 0

2

0

2

T

p

T

n t

τ

v

V

T T

p

T

p

n t

m

α

τ τ

=

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

1

]

1

1

−

0

0

2

0

2

1 1

α

( 11 2

2

0

2

1 1 0

0

)/

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

− ≥

T

p

T

n t

τ

1 1 0

2

0

2

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

¸

¸

_

,

− ≤

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

T

p

T

n t

τ

7. Finally, the variation of the tangential force with contact pressure, sliding speed,

and slip distance must be specifed by an appropriate equation for

τ ω

0

( , , ) p s

. Any

sensible function can be chosen, depending on the behavior that you would like to

approximate. For example,

Setting τ µ

0

= p will produce Coulomb friction-like behavior, with a delayed

response to changes in contact pressure. To see this, note that the model behaves

like the critical state soil model discussed in Section 3.10, with “volumetric strain”

replaced by the normal separation between the surfaces, and μ ≡ M.

Setting τ µ µ µ ω ω

0 1 0

= + − − (( ( )exp( ( / ) )) / ( / ),

k s k

n

V p f V where f(y) is the root of

the equation y = x(x

2

– 1)

(m–1)/2

, will give a Coulomb-like friction law with a veloc-

ity-dependent friction coem cient similar to the rate- and state-variable model

outlined previously.

Tere is very little to distinguish the rate- and state-variable model from the plasticity-

based model. Te plasticity model has some advantages for numerical simulations, because

(1) the transition from stick to slip is gradual, (2) the plasticity model has a “sof” relationship

between the normal displacement of the surfaces and the normal pressure, and (3) the plas-

ticity model has an associated fow rule. All these tend to stabilize numerical computations.

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C003.in191 191 9/9/09 7:26:57 PM

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193

4

Solutions to Simple Boundary

and Initial Value Problems

In this chapter, we derive exact solutions to several problems involving deformable solids. Te

examples have been selected partly because they can easily be solved, partly because they illus-

trate clearly the role of the various governing equations and boundary conditions in controlling

the solution, and partly because the solutions themselves are of some practical interest.

4.1 AXIALLY AND SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC SOLUTIONS

TO QUASI-STATIC LINEAR ELASTIC PROBLEMS

4.1.1 Summary of Governing Equations of Linear Elasticity in Cartesian Components

It is helpful to review briefy the equations we must solve to calculate deformation in an

elastic material subjected to loading. A representative problem is sketched in Figure 4.1.

We are given the following information:

1. Te geometry of the solid

2. A constitutive law for the material (i.e., the linear elastic-stress-strain equations)

3. Body force density b

i

(per unit mass) (if any)

e

3

e

1

e

2

Original

Conﬁguration

Deformed

Conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0 b

t

FIGURE 4.1 Typical boundary value problem for an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in193 193 9/9/09 7:27:32 PM

194 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

4. Temperature distribution ΔT (if any)

5. Prescribed boundary tractions t

i

and/or boundary displacements u

i

.

In addition, to simplify the problem, we make the following assumptions:

1. All displacements are small. Tis means that we can use the infnitesimal strain tensor

to characterize deformation; we do not need to distinguish between stress measures,

and we do not need to distinguish between deformed and undeformed confgura-

tions of the solid when writing equilibrium equations and boundary conditions.

2. Te material is an isotropic, linear elastic solid, with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s

ratio ν, and mass density ρ

0

.

With these assumptions, we need to solve for the displacement feld u

i

, the strain feld ε

ij

,

and the stress feld σ

ij

satisfying the following equations:

Displacement-strain relation: ε

ij

i

j

j

i

u

x

u

x

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

.

Stress-strain relation:

σ

ν

ε

ν

ν

ε δ

α

ν

δ

ij ij kk ij ij

E E T

=

+

+

−

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

−

∆

− 1 1 2 1 2

.

Equilibrium equation:

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ

ij

i

j

x

b

0

0 (static problems only; you need the acceleration

terms for dynamic problems).

Traction boundary conditions: σ

ij

n

i

= t

j

on parts of the boundary where tractions are

known.

Displacement boundary conditions: u

i

= d

i

on parts of the boundary where displace-

ments are known.

4.1.2 Simpliﬁed Equations for Spherically Symmetric Linear Elasticity Problems

A representative spherically symmetric problem is illustrated in Figure 4.2. We consider a

hollow, spherical solid that is subjected to spherically symmetric loading (i.e., internal body

forces, as well as tractions or displacements applied to the surface, are independent of θ and

ϕ and act in the radial direction only). If the temperature of the sphere is nonuniform, it

must also be spherically symmetric (a function of R only).

Te solution is most conveniently expressed using a spherical-polar coordinate system, illus-

trated in Figure 4.2. Te general procedure for solving problems using spherical and cylindrical

coordinates is complicated and is discussed in detail in Appendix D. In this section, we simply

summarize the special form of these equations for spherically symmetric problems.

As usual, a point in the solid is identifed by its spherical-polar coordinates (R,θ,ϕ). All

vectors and tensors are expressed as components in the basis {e

R

,e

θ

,e

ϕ

} shown in Figure 4.2.

For a spherically symmetric problem, the position, displacement, and body force are

•

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in194 194 9/9/09 7:27:33 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 195

Position vector: x = Re

R

Displacement vector: u = u(R)e

R

Body force vector: b = ρ

0

b(R)e

R

Here, u(R) and b(R) are scalar functions. Te stress and strain tensors (written as compo-

nents in {e

R

,e

θ

,e

ϕ

}) have the form

σ

σ

σ

σ

ε

ε

ε

θθ

φφ

θθ

≡ ≡

RR RR

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

εε

φφ

¸

1

]

1

1

1

and furthermore must satisfy σ

θθ

= σ

ϕϕ

ε

θθ

= ε

ϕϕ

. Te tensor components have exactly the

same physical interpretation as they did when we used a fxed {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

} basis, except that

the subscripts (1,2,3) have been replaced by (R,θ,ϕ).

For spherical symmetry, the governing equations of linear elasticity reduce to the

following:

Strain displacement relations: ε ε ε

φφ θθ RR

du

dR

u

R

= = = .

Stress-strain relations:

σ

ν ν

ν ε νε νε

α

θθ RR RR

E E T

=

+ −

− + +

{ }

−

∆

− ( )( )

( )

1 1 2

1

1

φφ

22

1 1 2 1 2

ν

σ σ

ν ν

ε νε

α

ν

θθ φφ θθ

= =

+ −

+

{ }

−

∆

−

E E T

RR

( )( )

.

Equilibrium equations:

d

dR R

b

RR

RR R

σ

σ σ σ ρ

θθ φφ

+ − −

( )

+ =

1

2 0

0

.

Boundary conditions:

prescribed displacements, u

R

(a) = g

a

u

R

(b) = g

b

;

prescribed tractions, σ

RR

(a) = t

a

σ

RR

(b) = t

b

.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

R

θ

φ

e

R

e

θ

e

φ

e

1

e

2

e

3

FIGURE 4.2 Coordinate system used for spherically symmetric problems.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in195 195 9/9/09 7:27:34 PM

196 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Tese results can either be derived as a special case of the general 3D equations of linear

elasticity in spherical coordinates or alternatively can be obtained directly from the formu-

las in Cartesian components. Here, we briefy outline the latter.

1. Note that we can fnd the components of {e

R

,e

θ

,e

ϕ

} in the {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

} basis as follows.

First, note that e

R

is radial and can be written in terms of the position vector as x/|x|.

Next, note e

ϕ

= e

3

× e

R

/|e

3

× e

R

| and e

θ

= e

ϕ

× e

R

/|e

ϕ

× e

R

|. Using index notation, the

components of the basis vectors {e

R

,e

θ

,e

ϕ

} in {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

} are therefore

x

i i i

i j j

R

R

R

R

R

, ,

x x

x

x

x

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

−

−

∈

−

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

δ

¹¹

where R

k k

= = x x x , δ

ij

is the Kronecker delta and ∈

ijk

is the permutation symbol.

2. Te components of the (radial) displacement vector in the {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

} basis are u

i

=

u(R)x

i

/R.

3. To proceed with the algebra, it is helpful to remember that ∂ ∂ = x x

i j ij

δ , ∂ ∂ = R

j

x

R

j

x , and ∂ ∂ = −

−

R R

j j

1 3

x x .

4. Te components of the strain tensor in the {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

} basis therefore follow as

ε

δ

ij

i

j

j

i

i j i

u

u

du

dR R

u R =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= +

1

2

2

x x

x x

( )

jj i j

R R

−

¸

¸

_

,

x x

3

.

5. Te strain components ε

RR

, ε

θθ

,ε

ϕϕ

can then be found as ε

RR

= e

R

⋅ ε ⋅ e

R

, ε

θθ

= e

θ

⋅ ε ⋅

e

θ

, and ε

ϕϕ

= e

ϕ

⋅ ε ⋅ e

ϕ

. Substituting for the basis vectors and simplifying gives the

strain-displacement relations. For example,

ε ε

δ

RR ij

i j i i j j ij i j

R

du

dR R

u R

R R

= = +

x x x x x x x x

2 4 2

( ) −−

¸

¸

_

,

=

x x x x

i i j j

R

du

dR

5

,

where we have noted x

i

x

i

= R

2

. Te remaining components are lef as an exercise.

6. Finally, to derive the equilibrium equation, note that the stress tensor can be expressed

as σ = σ

RR

e

R

⊗ e

R

+ σ

θθ

e

θ

⊗ e

θ

+ σ

ϕϕ

e

ϕ

⊗ e

ϕ

. Substituting for the basis vectors from

item 1 above gives

σ σ σ

θθ ij RR

i j i k k j n n

R

R

R

R

R

= +

∈

−

∈

−

x x x

x

x

x

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

++

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

−

σ

δ δ

φφ

x x

x

x x

x

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

i i j j

R

R

R

R

¸¸

¸

_

,

.

7. Substitute the preceding result into the equilibrium equation

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ

ij

i

j

b R

R x

x

0

0 ( )

and work through a good deal of tedious algebra to see that

∂

∂

+

( )

+

¸

¸

_

,

=

σ

σ σ σ ρ

RR

RR

j

R R

b R

R

1

2 0

0

− −

θθ φφ

( ) .

x

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 197

4.1.3 General Solution to the Spherically Symmetric Linear Elasticity Problem

Our goal is to solve the equations given in Section 4.1.2 for the displacement, strain, and

stress in the sphere. To do so, perform the following:

1. Substitute the strain-displacement relations into the stress-strain law to show that

σ

σ ν ν

ν ν

ν

θθ

RR

E

du

dR

¸

1

]

1

=

+ −

−

¸

1

]

1

( )( )

1 1 2

1 2

1 uu

R

E T

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

−

∆

−

¸

1

]

1

α

ν 1 2

1

1

.

2. Substitute this expression for the stress into the equilibrium equation and rearrange

the result to see that

d u

dR R

du

dR

u

R

d

dR R

d

dR

R u

2

2 2 2

2

2 2 1 1

+ − =

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

α( ++

−

∆

−

+ −

−

ν

ν

ν ν

ν

ρ

)

( )

( )( )

( )

( ).

1

1 1 2

1

0

d T

dR E

b R

Given the temperature distribution and body force, this equation can easily be integrated to

calculate the displacement u. Two arbitrary constants of integration will appear when you do

the integral—these must be determined from the boundary conditions at the inner and outer

surface of the sphere. Specifcally, the constants must be selected so that either the displace-

ment or the radial stress have prescribed values on the inner and outer surface of the sphere.

In the following sections, this procedure is used to derive solutions to various boundary

value problems of practical interest.

4.1.4 Pressurized Hollow Sphere

A pressurized sphere is illustrated in Figure 4.3. Assume the following:

No body forces act on the sphere.

Te sphere has uniform temperature.

Te inner surface R = a is subjected to pressure p

a

.

•

•

•

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

b

p

a

p

b

FIGURE 4.3 Spherical shell subjected to internal and external pressure.

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198 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te outer surface R = b is subjected to pressure p

b

.

Te displacement, strain, and stress felds in the sphere are

u =

−

−

( )

− + − ( )

1

2

2 1 2

3 3 2

3 3 3

E b a R

p a p b R p p

a b a b

( )

( ) ( ν 11

3 3

+

{ }

ν)b a

R

e

ε ν

RR a b a b

E b a R

p a p b R p p =

−

( )

−

( )

− − −

( )

1

1 2 1

3 3 3

3 3 3

( ) ++

( )

{ }

ν b a

3 3

ε ε ν

θθ φφ

= =

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

1

2

2 1 2

3 3 3

3 3 3

E b a R

p a p b R p

a b a

−−

( )

+

( )

{ }

p b a

b

1

3 3

ν

σ

RR

a b

a b

p a p b

b a

p p b a

b a R

=

−

( )

−

( )

−

−

( )

−

( )

3 3

3 3

3 3

3 3 3

σ σ

θθ φφ

= =

−

( )

−

( )

+

−

( )

−

p a p b

b a

p p b a

b a

a b

a b

3 3

3 3

3 3

3

2

33 3

( )

R

.

Derivation: Te solution can be found by applying the procedure outlined in Section

4.1.3.

1. Note that the governing equation for u (Section 4.1.3) reduces to

d

dR R

d

dR

R u

1

0

2

2

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= .

2. Integrating twice gives

u AR

B

R

= +

2

,

where A and B are constants of integration to be determined.

3. Te radial stress follows by substituting into the stress-displacement formulas

σ

ν ν

ν ν

ν ν

RR

E du

dR

u

R

E

=

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

{ }

=

+

( )

−

( )

+

1 1 2

1 2

1 1 2

1 νν ν

( )

− −

( )

{ }

A

B

R

2 1 2

3

.

4. To satisfy the boundary conditions, A and B must be chosen so that σ

RR

(R = a) = –p

a

and σ

RR

(R = b) = –p

b

(the stress is negative because the pressure is compressive). Tis

gives two equations for A and B that are easily solved to fnd

A

p b p a

a b E

B

p p b a

a

b a

b a

=

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

=

−

( )

+

( )

3 3

3 3

3 3

1 2

1

2

ν

ν

33 3

−

( )

b E

.

5. Finally, expressions for displacement, strain, and stress follow by substituting for A

and B in the formula for u in item 2 and using the formulas for strain and stress in

terms of u in Section 4.1.2.

•

•

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 199

4.1.5 Gravitating Sphere

A planet under its own gravitational attraction may be idealized (rather crudely) as a solid

sphere with radius a, illustrated in Figure 4.4. Te solid is subjected to the following loading:

A body force b = –(g R / a)e

R

per unit mass, where g is the acceleration attributable to

gravity at the surface of the sphere

A uniform temperature distribution

A traction-free surface at R=a

Te displacement, strain, and stress in the sphere follow as

u =

− ( )

− ( )

+ ( ) − − ( )

{ }

1 2

10 1

1 3

0

2 2

ν

ν

ρ ν ν

aE

gR R a

R

e

ε

ν

ν

ρ ν ν

RR

aE

g R a =

−

( )

−

( )

+

( )

− −

( ) { }

1 2

10 1

3 1 3

0

2 2

ε ε

ν

ν

ρ ν ν

θθ φφ

= =

−

( )

−

( )

+

( )

− −

( )

{ }

1 2

10 1

1 3

0

2 2

aE

g R a

σ

ρ ν

ν

RR

g

a

R a =

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

0 2 2

3

10 1

σ σ

ρ

ν

ν ν

θθ φφ

= =

−

( )

+

( )

− −

( ) { }

0 2 2

10 1

3 1 3

g

a

R a .

Derivation

1. Begin by writing the governing equation for u given in Section 4.1.3 as

d

dR R

d

dR

R u

E

gR

a

1

1 1 2

1

2

2 0

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

ν ν

ν

ρ

..

2. Integrate

u

E

gR

a

AR

B

R

=

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+ +

1 1 2

1 10

0

3

2

ν ν

ν

ρ

,

where A and B are constants of integration that must be determined from boundary

conditions.

•

•

•

2a

FIGURE 4.4 Spherical planet deforming under its own gravitational feld.

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200 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3. Te radial stress follows from the formulas in Section 4.1.3 as

σ

ν ν

ν ν

ρ ν

RR

E du

dR

u

R

g

=

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

{ }

=

−

(

1 1 2

1 2

3

0

))

−

( )

+

+

( )

−

( )

+

( )

− −

( )

{ }

R

a

E

A

B

R

2

3

10 1 1 1 2

1 2 1 2

ν ν ν

ν ν .

4. Finally, the constants A and B can be determined as follows: (1) the stress must be

fnite at R → 0, which is only possible if B = 0; (2) the surface of the sphere is traction

free, which requires σ

RR

= 0 at R = a. Substituting the latter condition into the formula

for stress in item 3 and solving for A gives

A

ga

E

= −

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

1 2 3

10 1

0

ν ν ρ

ν

.

5. Te fnal formulas for stress and strain follow by substituting the result of item 4 back

into item 2 and using the formulas in Section 4.1.2.

4.1.6 Sphere with Steady-State Heat Flow

Te deformation and stress in a sphere that is heated on the inside (or outside) and has

reached its steady-state temperature distribution can be calculated as follows. A hollow

sphere is shown in Figure 4.5. Assume the following:

No body force acts on the sphere.

Te temperature distribution in the sphere is

T

T b T a

b a

T T ab

b a R

b a

a b

=

−

−

+

−

( )

−

( )

,

where T

a

and T

b

are the temperatures at the inner and outer surfaces. Te total rate of heat

loss from the sphere is Q

.

= 4πk(T

a

– T

b

)ab/(b – a), where k is the thermal conductivity.

Te surfaces at R = a and R = b are traction free.

•

•

•

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

b

T

a

T

b

FIGURE 4.5 Spherical shell with prescribed internal and external temperatures.

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 201

Te displacement, strain, and stress felds in the sphere follow as

u

T T a

b a

b a ab b

a b

=

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

( )

+ +

( )

+

α

ν

ν ν

1

2

1 2

3 3

2 2

aa a ab b R

a b

R

T R

b

2 2 2

2 3

2

1 − − −

( )

− +

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

+ ν ν ν α

ε

α

ν

ν ν ν

RR

a b

T T a

b a

a a ab b =

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

− − −

( )

+

1

2

3 3

2 2 2

11

2 3

3

+

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

+ ν α

a b

R

T

b

ε ε

α

ν

ν

θθ φφ

= =

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

( )

+ +

1

2

1

3 3

2

T T a

b a R

b a ab

a b

bb a a ab b R

a b

R

2 2 2 2

2 3

2

2 1

( )

+ − − −

( )

− +

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

ν ν ν ν

¹¹

+T

b

α

σ

αν

ν

RR

a b E

T T ab

b a

R a R b Ra Rb =

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

1

3 3

++

( )

ab

σ σ

α

ν

θθ φφ

= =

−

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

( )

−

+ E

T T ab

b a

a b

a a a b

2 1

2

3 3

2

bb b

R

a b

R

+

−

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

2 2 2

3

.

Derivation

1. Te diferential equation for u given in Section 4.1.3 reduces to

d

dR R

d

dR

R u

T T ab

b

a b 1

1

1

2

2

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= −

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

α ν

ν −−

( )

a R

2

.

2. Integrate

u

T T ab

b a

AR

B

R

a b

=

+ ( )

− ( )

− ( )

− ( )

+ +

α ν

ν

1

2 1

2

,

where A and B are constants of integration.

3. Te radial stress follows from the formulas in Section 4.1.3 as

σ

ν ν

ν ν

α

RR

E du

dR

u E T

=

+ −

− + −

∆

− ( )( )

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

1 1 2

1 2

1 R 22

1 2 1 1 1 2

ν

να

ν ν ν

=

− −

−

−

+

+ − ( )( )

( )

( ) ( )

E T T ab

b a R

E

a b

νν

ν ν

( )

( ) ( )

{ }

+ − − 1 2 1 2

3

A

B

R

−

−

−

−

+

− ( )

− ( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

E T b T a

b a

T T ab

b a R

b a

a b

α

ν 1 2

.

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202 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

4. Te boundary conditions require that σ

RR

= 0 at R = a and R = b. Substituting these

conditions into the result of step 3 gives two equations for A and B that can be solved

to see that

A

T b T a T T ab a b

a b

b a a b

=

−

( )

−

( )

+ −

( )

+

( )

−

( )

−

1

1

3 3

3

ν ν

ν

33

3 3

3 3

1

2 1

( )

=

−

( )

+

( )

−

( ) −

( )

B

T T

a b

b a

a b

α ν

ν

.

4.1.7 Simpliﬁed Equations for Axially Symmetric Linear Elasticity Problems

Two examples of axially symmetric problems are illustrated in Figure 4.6. In both cases,

the solid is a circular cylinder that is subjected to axially symmetric loading (i.e., internal

body forces, as well as tractions or displacements applied to the surface, are independent

of θ and z and act in the radial direction only). If the temperature of the sphere is nonuni-

form, it must also be axially symmetric (a function of r only). Finally, the solid can spin

with steady angular velocity about the e

3

axis.

Te two solids have diferent shapes. In the frst case, the length of the cylinder is sub-

stantially greater than any cross-sectional dimension. In the second case, the length of the

cylinder is much less than its outer radius.

Te state of stress and strain in the cylinder depends on the loads applied to the ends of

the cylinder. Specifcally,

If the cylinder is completely prevented from stretching in the e

3

direction, a state

of plane strain exists in the solid. Tis is an exact solution to the 3D equations of

elasticity, is valid for a cylinder with any length, and is accurate everywhere in the

cylinder.

•

e

1

e

2

e

3

θ

z

r

e

θ

e

z

e

r

Plane strain, or

generalized plane strain

e

2

θ

r

e

θ

e

z

e

r

Plane stress

e

3

e

1

FIGURE 4.6 Coordinate system used for cylindrically symmetric problems.

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 203

If the top and bottom surface of the short plate-like cylinder are free of traction,

a state of plane stress exists in the solid. Tis is an approximate solution to the 3D

equations of elasticity and is accurate only if the cylinder’s length is much less than

its diameter.

If the top and bottom ends of the long cylinder are subjected to a prescribed force (or

the ends are free of force), a state of generalized plane strain exists in the cylinder. Tis

is an approximate solution that is accurate only away from the ends of a long cylinder.

As a rule of thumb, the solution is applicable approximately three cylinder radii away

from the ends.

Te solution is most conveniently expressed using a cylindrical-polar coordinate system,

illustrated in Figure 4.6. A point in the solid is identifed by its spherical-polar coordinates

(r,θ,z). All vectors and tensors are expressed as components in the basis {e

r

,e

θ

,e

z

} shown in

the fgure. For an axially symmetric problem,

Position vector: x = re

r

+ ze

z

Displacement vector: u = u(r)e

r

+ ε

zz

ze

z

Body force vector: b = ρ

0

b(r)e

r

Acceleration vector: a = –ω

2

re

r

Here, u(r) and b(r) are scalar functions.

Te stress and strain tensors (written as components in {e

r

,e

θ

,e

z

}) have the form

σ

σ

σ

σ

ε

ε

ε

ε

θθ θθ

≡ ≡

rr

zz

rr

z

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

zz

¸

1

]

1

1

1

.

For axial symmetry, the governing equations of linear elasticity reduce to the

following:

Strain displacement relations: ε ε

θθ rr

du

dr

u

r

= = .

Stress-strain relations (plane strain and generalized plane strain):

σ

σ

σ

ν ν

ν ν ν

ν ν ν

ν

θθ

rr

zz

E

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

+

( )

−

( )

−

−

1 1 2

1

1

νν ν

ε

ε

ε

α

ν

θθ

1

1 2

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

−

∆

−

rr

zz

E T

11

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

,

where ε

zz

= 0 for plane strain and constant for generalized plane strain.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in203 203 9/9/09 7:27:38 PM

204 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Stress-strain relations (plane stress):

σ

σ ν

ν

ν

ε

ε

α

θθ θθ

rr rr

E E

¸

1

]

1

=

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

−

1

1

1

2

∆∆

−

¸

1

]

1

T

1

1

1 ν

σ ε

ν

σ σ α

θθ zz zz rr

E

T = = +

( )

+ ∆ 0 .

Equation of motion:

d

dr r

b r

rr

rr

σ

σ σ ρ ρ ω

θθ

. + −

( )

+ = −

1

0 0

2

Boundary conditions:

prescribed displacements, u

r

(a) = g

a

u

r

(b) = g

b

;

prescribed tractions, σ

rr

(a) = t

a

σ

rr

(b) = t

b

;

plane strain solution, ε

zz

= 0;

generalized plane strain solution, with axial force F

z

applied to cylinder,

2π σ r dr F

zz

a

b

z

∫

= .

Tese results can either be derived as a special case of the general 3D equations of linear

elasticity in spherical coordinates or alternatively can be obtained directly from the formu-

las in Cartesian components. Here, we briefy outline the latter.

1. Note that we can fnd the components of {e

r

, e

θ

, e

z

} in the {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} basis as follows.

First, note that e

r

is radial; a radial unit vector can be written in terms of the position

vector as x/|x|. Next, note e

θ

= e

3

× e

r

and e

z

= e

3

. Using index notation, the compo-

nents of the basis vectors {e

r

, e

θ

, e

z

} in {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} are therefore

x

r

x

r

i i

α

α

α

δ , , , ∈

{ }

3 3

where

r x x x x = = +

α α 1

2

2

2

, and we use the convention that Greek subscripts range

from 1 to 2.

2. Te components of the (radial) displacement vector in the {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

} basis are u

α

=

u(r)x

α

/r.

3. To proceed with the algebra, it is helpful to remember that ∂ ∂ = x x

α α αβ

δ / ,

∂ ∂ = r x x r / /

α α

, and ∂ ∂ =−

−

r x x r

1 3

/ / .

α α

4. Te components of the strain tensor in the {e

1

,e

2

,e

3

} basis therefore follow as

ε

δ

αβ

α

β

β

α

α β α

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= +

1

2

2

u

x

u

x

du

dr

x x

r

u r ( )

ββ α β

ε ε

r

x x

r

zz

−

¸

¸

_

,

=

3

33

.

•

•

•

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 205

5. Te strain components ε

rr

, ε

θθ

,ε

zz

can then be found as ε

rr

= e

r

.

ε

.

e

r

, ε

θθ

= e

θ

.

ε

.

e

θ

, and

ε

zz

= e

z

.

ε

.

e

z

. Substituting for the basis vectors and simplifying gives the strain-dis-

placement relations. For example,

ε ε

δ

αβ

α β α α β β αβ α β

rr

x x

r

du

dr

x x x x

r

u r

r

x x

r

= = +

2 4 2

( ) −−

¸

¸

_

,

=

x x x x

r

du

dr

α α β β

5

,

where we have noted x

α

x

α

= r

2

. Te remaining components are lef as an exercise.

6. Finally, to derive the equilibrium equation, note that the stress tensor can be expressed

as σ = σ

rr

e

r

⊗ e

r

+ σ

θθ

e

θ

⊗ e

θ

+ σ

zz

e

z

⊗ e

z

. Substituting for the basis vectors from item

1 above gives

σ σ σ σ σ

αβ

α β

θθ α γ

γ

β κ

κ

= + ∈ ∈ =

rr zz

x x

r

x

r

x

r

2

3 3 333

.

7. Substitute the preceding result into the equilibrium equation

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ

ij

i

j

x

b r

x

r

0

0 ( )

and crank through a good deal of tedious algebra to see that

d

dr r

b r

x

r

rr

rr

σ

σ σ ρ

θθ

α

+ −

( )

+

¸

¸

_

,

=

1

0

0

( )

.

4.1.8 General Solution to the Axisymmetric Boundary Value Problem

Our goal is to solve the equations given in Section 4.1.2 for the displacement, strain, and

stress in the sphere. To do so, perform the following:

1. Substitute the strain-displacement relations into the stress-strain law to show that,

for generalized plane strain,

σ

σ

σ

θθ

rr

zz

E

v v

v v v

v v v

v

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

+ ( ) − ( )

−

−

1 1 2

1

1

vv v

du

dr

u

r

zz

1 −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

ε

11

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

E T

v

α∆

1 2

1

1

1

,

where ε

zz

is constant. Te equivalent expression for plane stress is

σ

σ ν

ν

ν

θθ

rr

E

du

dr

u

r

¸

1

]

1

=

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

2

11

1

1

−

∆

−

¸

1

]

1

E T α

ν 1

1

1

.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in205 205 9/9/09 7:27:39 PM

206 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2. Substitute these expressions for the stress into the equilibrium equation and rear-

range the result to see that, for generalized plane strain,

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

∂

∂

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

+

( )

2

2 2

1 1

1

u

r r

u

r

u

r r r r

ru ( )

α ν

11

1 1 2

1

0

2

−

( )

∂∆

∂

−

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

+

( )

ν

ν ν

ν

ρ ω

T

r E

b r ,

whereas for plane stress,

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

∂

∂

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= +

( )

2

2 2

1 1

1

u

r r

u

r

u

r r r r

ru ( ) α ν

∂∂∆

∂

−

−

( )

+

( )

T

r E

b r

1

2

0

2

ν

ρ ω

.

Given the temperature distribution and body force, these equations can be integrated to

calculate the displacement u. Two arbitrary constants of integration will appear when you

do the integral; these must be determined from the boundary conditions at the inner and

outer surface of the cylinder. Specifcally, the constants must be selected so that either the

displacement or the radial stress have prescribed values on the inner and outer surface of

the sphere. Finally, for the generalized plane strain solution, the axial strain ε

zz

must be

determined, using the equation for the axial force acting on the ends of the cylinder.

In the following sections, this procedure is used to derive solutions to various boundary

value problems of practical interest.

4.1.9 Long (Generalized Plane Strain) Cylinder Subjected

to Internal and External Pressure

We consider a long hollow cylinder with internal radius a and external radius b as shown

in Figure 4.7. Assume the following:

No body forces act on the cylinder.

Te cylinder has zero angular velocity.

Te cylinder has uniform temperature.

•

•

•

a

b

p

a

p

b

F

z

F

z

FIGURE 4.7 Cylindrical shell subjected to internal and external pressure and axial forces.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in206 206 9/9/09 7:27:40 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 207

Te inner surface r = a is subjected to pressure p

a

.

Te outer surface r = b is subjected to pressure p

b

.

For the plane strain solution, the cylinder does not stretch parallel to its axis. For the

generalized plane strain solution, the ends of the cylinder are subjected to an axial

force F

z

as shown. In particular, for a closed-ended cylinder, the axial force exerted by

the pressure inside the cylinder acting on the closed ends is F p a p b

z a b

= −

( )

π

2 2

.

Te displacement, strain, and stress felds in the cylinder are

u =

+ ( )

−

( )

− ( )

+ − ( )

−

( ) 1

1 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

2

ν

ν

a b

E b a

p p

r

p a p b

a

a b

a b

bb

r r z

r zz r zz z

2

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

− + e e e νε ε

ε

ν

ν

rr

a b

a

a b

E b a

p p

r

p a

=

+

( )

−

( )

−

−

( )

+ −

−

1

1 2

2 2

2 2

2

2

( )

pp b

a b

a b

E b

b

zz

2

2 2

2 2

2

1

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

−

=

+

( )

−

νε

ε

ν

θθ

aa

p p

r

p a p b

a b

a b

a b

2

2

2 2

2 2

1 2

( )

−

( )

+ −

−

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

( ) ν

¹¹

¹

¹

− νε

zz

σ

rr

a b

a b

p a p b

b a

a b

b a r

p p =

−

( )

−

−

−

( )

−

( )

¹

,

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2 2

¹¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

=

−

( )

−

+

−

( )

σ

θθ

p a p b

b a

a b

b a r

a b

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2 2

pp p

p a p b

b a

E

a b

zz

a b

−

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

=

−

( )

−

+ σ ν ε 2

2 2

2 2

zzz

,

where ε

zz

= 0 for plane strain, whereas

ε

π

ν

zz

z

a b F

E b a

E

p a p b

b a

=

−

( )

−

−

( )

−

( )

2 2

2 2

2 2

2

for generalized plane strain.

Derivation: Tese results can be derived as follows. Te governing equation reduces to

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

∂

∂

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

2

2 2

1 1

0

u

r r

u

r

u

r r r r

ru ( ) .

•

•

•

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208 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te equation can be integrated to see that

u Ar

B

r

. = +

Te radial stress follows as

σ

ν ν

ν ν

rr

u

r

u

r

E

( )( )

(

=

+ −

−

( )

∂

∂

+

{ }

=

E

1 1 2

1

1 )( )

.

+ −

− −

( )

{ }

ν ν

ν

1 2

1 2

2

A

B

r

Te boundary conditions are σ σ

rr a rr b

r a p r b p =

( )

= − =

( )

= − (the stresses are negative

because the pressure is compressive). Tis yields two equations for A and B that are easily

solved to see that

A

E

p a p b

b a

B

a b

=

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

−

=

+ 1 1 2 1

2 2

2 2

ν ν

.

ν

( )

−

−

( )

E

a b

b a

p p

a b

2 2

2 2

Te remaining results follow by elementary algebraic manipulations.

4.1.10 Spinning Circular Plate

We consider a thin solid plate with radius a that spins with angular speed ω about its axis,

as shown in Figure 4.8. Assume the following:

No body forces act on the disk.

Te disk has constant angular velocity.

Te disk has uniform temperature.

Te outer surface r = a and the top and bottom faces of the disk are free of

traction.

Te disk is sum ciently thin to ensure a state of plane stress in the disk.

u e = −

( )

+

( )

− +

( ) { }

+ 1

8

3 1

0

2

2 3

ν

ρ ω

ν ν

E

a r r z

r

εε

zz z

e

ε ν

ρ ω

ν ν

rr

E

a r = −

( )

+

( )

− +

( ) { }

1

8

3 3 1

0

2

2 2

ε ν

ρ ω

ν ν

θθ

= −

( )

+

( )

− +

( ) { }

1

8

3 1

0

2

2 2

E

a r

ε ν

ρ ω

ν ν

zz

E

a r = − +

( )

− +

( ) { }

0

2

2 2

8

2 3 3 2

σ ν

ρ ω

σ

ρ ω

ν

θθ

rr

a r

a

= +

( )

−

{ }

= +

( )

3

8

8

3

0

2

2 2

0

2

2

. − +

( ) { }

3 1

2

ν r

•

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in208 208 9/9/09 7:27:40 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 209

Derivation: To derive these results, recall that the governing equation is

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

∂

∂

{ }

= −

−

2

2 2

2

1 1

1

u

r r

u

r

u

r r r r

ru ( )

ν

(( )

E

r ρ ω

0

2

.

Te equation can be integrated to see that

u Ar

B

r E

r

. = + −

−

( )

1

8

2

0

2 3

ν

ρ ω

Te radial stress follows as

σ

ν

ν

ν

ν

rr

E du

dr

u

r

E

=

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

=

−

+

1 1

1

2 2

(( ) − − ( ) −

−

( )

+ ( ) A

B

r E

r

1

1

8

3

2

2

0

2

ν

ν ρ ω

ν

22

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

.

Te radial stress must be bounded at r = 0, which is only possible if B = 0. In addition, the

radial stress must be zero at r = a, which requires that

A

E

a

. =

+ ( )

+ ( )

ρ ω ν

ν

0

2

2

8

3

1

Te remaining results follow by straightforward algebra.

4.1.11 Stresses Induced by an Interference Fit between Two Cylinders

Interference fts are ofen used to secure a bushing or a bearing housing to a shaf. In this

problem, we calculate the stress induced by such an interference ft.

Consider a hollow cylindrical bushing, with outer radius b and inner radius a. Suppose

that a solid shaf with radius a + Δ, with Δ/a << 1, is inserted into the cylinder as shown in

Figure 4.9 (in practice, this is done by heating the cylinder or cooling the shaf until they

ft and then letting the system return to thermal equilibrium). Assume that

No body forces act on the solids.

Te angular velocity is zero.

Te cylinders have uniform temperature.

Te shaf slides freely inside the bushing.

Te ends of the cylinder are free of force.

•

•

•

•

•

a

ω

FIGURE 4.8 Tin disk spinning about its axis.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in209 209 9/9/09 7:27:41 PM

210 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Both the shaf and cylinder have the same Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio ν.

Te cylinder and shaf are sum ciently long to ensure that a state of generalized plane

strain can be developed in each solid.

Te displacements, strains, and stresses in the solid shaf (r < a) are

u

= −

+ ( ) − ( )∆ −

( )

−

1 1 2

2

2

2 2

2

ν ν

ν

b a

a

r

r

b

e

22

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

∆ −

( )

+

∆ −

( )

b a

ab

r

b a

ab

r z

e e ν z

ε ε

ν ν

θθ rr

b a

ab

= = −

+ ( ) − ( ) −

( )

−

1 1 2

2

2 2

2

∆

22

2

2

2 2

2

ν

∆ b a

ab

−

( )

σ σ σ

θθ rr zz

E b a

ab

. = = −

−

( )

=

∆

2 2

2

2

0

In the hollow cylinder, they are

u

=

+ ( )

+ − ( )

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

−

1

2

1 1 2

2

2

ν

ν ν

a

r

r

b

r

∆

e

22

2

2

2

2

∆ ∆ a

b

r

a

b

z

r z

e e + ν

ε

ν

ν

rr

a

r

r

b

=

+ ( )

− + − ( )

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

1

2

1 1 2

2

2

2

∆

−−

=

+ ( )

+ − ( )

ν

ε

ν

ν

θθ

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

1 1 2

∆

∆

a

b

a

r

r

b

¹¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

− ν

2

2

∆a

b

σ σ

θθ rr

E a

b

b

r

E a

b

b

= −

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= +

∆ ∆

2

1

2

1

2

2

2 2

22

2

0

r

zz

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= σ .

•

•

a+∆

a

b

FIGURE 4.9 Interference ft between a solid shaf and a hollow cylinder.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in210 210 9/9/09 7:27:41 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 211

Derivation: Tese results can be derived using the solution to a pressurized cylinder given

in Section 4.1.9. Afer the shaf is inserted into the tube, a pressure p acts to compress the

shaf, and the same pressure pushes outward to expand the cylinder. Suppose that this

pressure induces a radial displacement u

S

(r) in the solid cylinder and a radial displace-

ment u

C

(r) in the hollow tube. To accommodate the interference, the displacements must

satisfy

u r a u r a

C S

=

( )

− =

( )

= ∆.

Evaluating the relevant displacements using the formulas in Section 4.1.9 gives

u r a

E

pa

E

pa

u r a

S

C

= ( ) = −

− ( ) + ( )

−

=

1 2 1 2

2

ν ν ν

(( ) =

+ ( )

−

( )

− ( )

{ }

+

1

1 2

2 2

2 2 2

ν

ν

a b

E b a

p

a

pa

b

+

.

2

2 3

2 2

ν pa

E b a −

( )

Here, we have assumed that the axial force acting on both the shaf and the tube must van-

ish separately, because they slide freely relative to one another. Solving these two equations

for p shows that

p

E b a

ab

. =

−

( )

∆

2 2

2

2

Tis pressure can then be substituted back into the formulas in Section 4.1.9 to evaluate

the stresses.

4.2 AXIALLY AND SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC SOLUTIONS

TO QUASI-STATIC ELASTIC–PLASTIC PROBLEMS

In this section, we derive exact solutions to simple boundary value problems involving

elastic-perfectly plastic solids. Te solutions are of interest primarily because they illus-

trate important general features of solids that are loaded beyond yield. In particular, they

illustrate the following concepts:

1. Te elastic limit: Tis is the load required to initiate plastic fow in the solid.

2. Te plastic collapse load: At this load, the displacements in the solid become infnite.

3. Residual stress: If a solid is loaded beyond the elastic limit and then unloaded, a sys-

tem of self-equilibrated stress is established in the material.

4. Shakedown: If an elastic-plastic solid is subjected to cyclic loading and the maximum

load during the cycle exceeds yield, then some plastic deformation must occur in the

material during the frst load cycle. However, residual stresses are introduced in the

solid, which may prevent plastic fow during subsequent cycles of load. Tis process is

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in211 211 9/9/09 7:27:42 PM

212 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

known as “shakedown,” and the maximum load for which it can occur is known as the

“shakedown limit.” Te shakedown limit is ofen substantially higher than the elastic

limit, so the concept of shakedown can ofen be used to reduce the weight of a design.

5. Cyclic plasticity: For cyclic loads exceeding the shakedown limit, a region in the solid

will be repeatedly plastically deformed.

4.2.1 Summary of Governing Equations

A representative problem is sketched in Figure 4.10. We are given the following information:

1. Te geometry of the solid

2. Constitutive law for the material (i.e., the elastic-plastic stress-strain equations)

3. Body force density b

i

(per unit mass) (if any)

4. Temperature distribution ΔT (if any)

5. Prescribed boundary tractions t

i

and/or boundary displacements u

i

In addition, to simplify the problem, we make the following assumptions:

1. All displacements are small. Tis means that we can use the infnitesimal strain tensor

to characterize deformation; we do not need to distinguish between stress measures,

and we do not need to distinguish between deformed and undeformed confgura-

tions of the solid when writing equilibrium equations and boundary conditions.

2. Te material is an isotropic, elastic-perfectly plastic solid, with Young’s modulus E,

Poisson’s ratio ν, yield stress Y, and mass density ρ

0

.

3. We will neglect temperature changes.

With these assumptions, we need to solve for the displacement feld u

i

, the strain feld ε

ij

,

and the stress feld σ

ij

satisfying the following equations:

Displacement-strain relation:

ε

ij

i

j

j

i

u

x

u

x

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

.

•

e

3

e

1

e

2

Original

Conﬁguration

Deformed

Conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0 b

t

FIGURE 4.10 Typical boundary value problem for an elastic-plastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in212 212 9/9/09 7:27:42 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 213

Incremental stress-strain relation:

d d d

ij ij

e

ij

p

ε ε ε = +

d

E

d d

ij

e

ij kk ij

ε

ν ν

ν

=

+

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

1

1

σ σ δ

d

S S Y

d

S

Y

S S Y

ij

p

ij ij

p ij

ij ij

ε

ε

, =

<

=

¹

0

3

2

3

2

3

2

,,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

where S

ij

= σ

ij

– σ

kk

δ

ij

/ 3.

Equilibrium equation:

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ

ij

i

j

x

b

0

0 (static problems only; you need the acceleration

terms for dynamic problems).

Traction boundary conditions: σ

ij

n

i

= t

j

on parts of the boundary where tractions are

known.

Displacement boundary conditions: u

i

= d

i

on parts of the boundary where displace-

ments are known.

4.2.2 Simpliﬁed Equations for Spherically Symmetric Problems

A representative spherically symmetric problem is illustrated in Figure 4.11. We consider

a hollow, spherical solid that is subjected to spherically symmetric loading (i.e., internal

body forces, as well as tractions or displacements applied to the surface, are independent

of θ and ϕ and act in the radial direction only). If the temperature of the sphere is nonuni-

form, it must also be spherically symmetric (a function of r only).

Te solution is most conveniently expressed using a spherical-polar coordinate system,

illustrated in Figure 4.11. Te general procedure for solving problems with spherical and

cylindrical coordinates is complicated and is discussed in detail in Chapter 10 in the context

•

•

•

•

R

θ

φ

e

R

e

θ

e

φ

e

1

e

2

e

3

FIGURE 4.11 Coordinate system used for spherically symmetric problems.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in213 213 9/9/09 7:27:42 PM

214 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

of modeling deformation in shells. In this section, we summarize the special form of these

equations for spherically symmetric problems.

As usual, a point in the solid is identifed by its spherical-polar coordinates (r,θ,ϕ). All

vectors and tensors are expressed as components in the Cartesian basis {e

r

, e

θ

, e

ϕ

} shown in

the fgure. For a spherically symmetric problem, we have the following:

Position vector: x = re

r

.

Displacement vector: u = u(r)e

r

.

Body force vector: b = ρ

0

b(r)e

r

.

Here, u(r) and b(r) are scalar functions. Te stress and strain tensors (written as compo-

nents in {e

r

, e

θ

, e

ϕ

}) have the form

σ

σ

σ

σ

ε

ε

ε

ε

θθ

φφ

θθ

φ

≡ ≡

rr rr

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

φφ

¸

1

]

1

1

1

and furthermore must satisfy σ

θθ

= σ

ϕϕ

, ε

θθ

= ε

ϕϕ

. Te tensor components have exactly the

same physical interpretation as they did when we used a fxed {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} basis, except that

the subscripts (1,2,3) have been replaced by (r, θ, z).

For spherical symmetry, the governing equations reduce to the following:

Strain-displacement relations:

ε ε ε

φφ θθ rr

du

dr

u

r

. = = =

Stress-strain relations:

in elastic region(s),

σ

ν ν

ν ε νε νε

θθ φφ rr rr

E

=

+ ( ) − ( )

− ( ) + +

{

1 1 2

1

}}

= =

+ ( ) − ( )

+

{ }

σ σ

ν ν

ε νε

θθ φφ θθ

E

rr

1 1 2

|σ

θθ

– σ

rr

| < Y;

in plastic region(s),

yield criterion: |σ

θθ

– σ

rr

| = Y

strain partition:

d d d d d d d

rr rr

p

rr

e p e

ε ε ε ε ε ε ε

φφ φφ φφ θθ

= + = + = dd d

p e

ε ε

θθ θθ

+

elastic strain:

d d E d d E

d d

rr

e

rr

e e

ε σ ν σ σ

ε ε

θθ φφ

θθ φφ

/ /

= − +

( )

= == −

( )

− / / d E d E

rr

σ ν ν σ

θθ

1

•

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in214 214 9/9/09 7:27:43 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 215

fow rule:

d d Y

d d d

rr

p p

rr

p p p

ε ε σ σ

ε ε ε

θθ

θθ φφ

/

= −

( )

= = σσ σ

θθ

/ . −

( ) ( )

rr

Y 2

Equilibrium equations:

d

dr r

b

rr

rr r

σ

σ σ σ ρ

θθ φφ

. + − −

( )

+ =

1

2 0

0

Boundary conditions:

prescribed displacements, u

r

(a) = g

a

u

r

(b) = g

b

;

prescribed tractions, σ

rr

(a) = t

a

σ

rr

(b) = t

b

.

Te equilibrium and strain-displacement equations can be derived following the pro-

cedure outlined in Section 4.1.2. Te stress-strain relations are derived by substituting the

strain components into the general constitutive equation and simplifying the result.

Unlike the elastic solution discussed in Section 4.1, there is no clean, direct, and general

method for integrating these equations. Instead, solutions must be found using a combina-

tion of physical intuition and some algebraic tricks, as illustrated in the sections below.

4.2.3 Elastic Perfectly Plastic Hollow Sphere Subjected to

Monotonically Increasing Internal Pressure

A pressurized spherical thick-walled sphere is illustrated in Figure 4.12. Assume the following:

Te sphere is stress free before it is loaded.

No body forces act on the sphere.

Te sphere has uniform temperature.

Te inner surface r = a is subjected to (monotonically increasing) pressure p

a

.

Te outer surface r = b is traction free.

Strains are infnitesimal.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

b

p

a

FIGURE 4.12 Spherical shell subjected to internal pressure.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in215 215 9/9/09 7:27:43 PM

216 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Solution

1. Preliminaries:

Te sphere frst reaches yield (at r = a) at an internal pressure p

a

/Y = 2(1 – a

3

/b

3

)/3.

For pressures in the range 2(1 – a

3

/b

3

)/3 < p

a

/Y < 2log(b/a) the region between r = a

and r = c deforms plastically, whereas the region between c < r < b remains elastic,

in which c satisfes the equation p Y c a c b

a

/ log / / . = ( )

+ −

( )

2

2

3

1

3 3

At a pressure p

a

/Y = 2log(b/a), the entire sphere is plastic. At this point, the sphere

collapses, and the displacements become infnitely large.

2. Solution in the plastic region a < r < c:

u

log /

=

−

( )

( )

−

{ }

+

−

( )

1 2

2

1

3

ν ν

E

r Y r a p

Y c

E

a r

e

rr

r

2

e

σ σ σ

θθ φφ rr a

Y r a p Y r a log / log / =

( )

− = =

( )

2 2 . − + p Y

a

3. Solution in the elastic region c < r < b:

u = − ( ) + + ( )

{ }

Yc

Eb r

r b

r

3

3 2

3 3

3

2 1 2 1 ν ν e

σ

rr

Yc

b

b

r

= −

¸

¸

_

,

2

3

1

3

3

3

3

σ σ

θθ φφ

. = = +

¸

¸

_

,

2

3

1

2

3

3

3

3

Yc

b

b

r

Tese results are plotted in Figure 4.13. Displacements are shown for ν = 0.3.

Derivation: By substituting the stresses for the elastic solution given in Section 4.1.4 into

the von Mises yield criterion, we see that a pressurized elastic sphere frst reaches yield at

r = a. If the pressure is increased beyond yield, we anticipate that a region a < r < c will

deform plastically, whereas a region c < r < b remains elastic. We must fnd separate solu-

tions in the plastic and elastic regimes.

In the plastic regime a < r < c:

1. We anticipate that σ σ σ

θθ φφ rr

< = > 0 0 . Te yield criterion then gives σ σ

θθ

− =

rr

Y.

2. Substituting this result into the equilibrium equation given in Section 4.2.2 shows

that

d

dr r

d

dr

Y

r

rr

rr

rr

σ

σ σ σ

σ

θθ φφ

+ − −

( )

= ⇒ −

1

2 0 2 == . 0

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in216 216 9/9/09 7:27:43 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 217

FIGURE 4.13 Stress and displacement felds for a pressurized elastic-plastic spherical shell.

Stress (a) and displacement (b) distributions for various positions of the elastic-plastic

boundary c/a; (c) variation of internal displacement with applied pressure. Displacements

are shown for ν = 0.3.

r/a

S

t

r

e

s

s

σ

/

Y

1 1.5 2 2.5 3

–2.5

–2

–1.5

–1

–0.5

0

0.5

1 (a)

σ

θθ

σ

rr

c/a=2.5

c/a=1.5

c/a=2

r/a

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

u

r

E

/

Y

a

1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0

2

4

6

8

10

c/a=1.5

c/a=2

c/a=2.5

(b)

Pressure p/Y

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

u

r

(

a

)

E

/

Y

a

1 1.5 2 2.5

0

5

10

15 (c)

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in217 217 9/9/09 7:27:44 PM

218 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3. Integrating and using the boundary condition σ

rr

= –p

a

r = a together with the yield

condition in item 1 gives

σ σ σ

θθ φφ rr a a

Y r a p Y r Y = ( ) − = = ( ) − + 2 2 log / log / . a p

4. Because the pressure is monotonically increasing, the incremental stress-strain rela-

tions for the elastic-plastic region given in Section 4.2.2 can be integrated. Te elastic

strains follow as

ε σ νσ ε ε ν σ νσ

θθ φφ θθ θθ rr

e

rr

e e

rr

E = − ( ) = = − ( ) − ( )

2 1 / // . E

5. Te plastic strains satisfy ε ε

θθ rr

p p

+ = 2 0. Consequently, using the strain partition for-

mula, the results of item 4 and the strain-displacement relation shows that

ε ε ε ε

ν

σ σ

θθ θθ θθ rr rr

e e

rr

E

du

dr

+ = + =

−

( )

+

( )

⇒ +

2 2

1 2

2

22 1

1 2

6 3 2

2

2

u

r r

d

dr

r u

E

Y r a p Y

a

=

( )

=

−

( )

( )

− +

( )

ν

log / ..

6. Integrating gives

u

E

r Y r a p C r

a

=

−

( )

( )

−

{ }

+

1 2

2

2

ν

log / / ,

where C is a constant of integration.

7. Te constant of integration can be found by noting that the radial displacements in

the elastic and plastic regimens must be equal at r = c. Using the expression for the

elastic displacement feld below and solving for C gives

C

c b

E b c

p Y c a

a

=

−

( )

−

( )

−

( ) { }

3

2

1

2

3 3

3 3

ν

log / .

Tis result can be simplifed by noting that p Y c a Y c b

a

−

( )

= −

( )

2 2 1 3

3 3

log / / /

from the expression for the location of the elastic-plastic boundary given below.

In the elastic region, the solution can be found directly from the solution to the inter-

nally pressurized elastic sphere given in Section 4.1.4. From step 3 in the solution for the

plastic regimen, we see that the radial pressure at r = c is p p Y c a

c rr a

= − = −

( )

σ 2 log / .

We can simplify the solution by noting

p Y c a Y c b

a

−

( )

= −

( )

2 2 1 3

3 3

log / / /

from the

expression for the location of the elastic-plastic boundary. Substituting into the expres-

sions for stress and displacement shows that

σ

rr

c

p c

b c

b

r

=

−

( )

−

¸

¸

_

,

3

3 3

3

3

1

σ σ

θθ φφ

= =

−

( )

+

¸

¸

_

,

p c

b c

b

r

c

3

3 3

3

3

1

2

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 219

u =

−

( )

− ( ) + + ( )

{ }

p c

E b c r

r b

c

r

3

3 3 2

3 3

2

2 1 2 1 ν ν e .

Te elastic-plastic boundary is located by the condition that the stress in the elastic

region must just reach yield at r = c (so there is a smooth transition into the plastic region).

Te yield condition is σ

θθ

– σ

rr

= Y, so substituting the expressions for stress in the elastic

region and simplifying yields

σ σ

θθ

− =

−

( ) ( )

−

( )

= ⇔ =

rr

a

a

p Y c a b

b c

Y

p

Y

3 2

2

2

3

3 3

log /

loog / / . c a c b

( )

+ −

( )

2

3

1

3 3

If p

a

, Y, a, and b are specified, this equation can be solved (numerically) for c. For

graphing purposes, it is preferable to choose c and then calculate the corresponding

value of p

a

.

4.2.4 Elastic Perfectly Plastic Hollow Sphere Subjected to Cyclic Internal Pressure

Figure 4.14 illustrates a thick-walled internally pressurized sphere. Assume the

following:

Te sphere is stress free before it is loaded.

No body forces act on the sphere.

Te sphere has uniform temperature.

Te outer surface r = b is traction free.

Suppose that the inner surface of the sphere r = a is repeatedly subjected to pressure p

a

and

then unloaded to zero pressure.

•

•

•

•

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

b

p

a

FIGURE 4.14 Elastic-plastic spherical shell subjected to cyclic internal pressure.

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220 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Solution: Te nature of the solution depends on the magnitude of the internal pressure as

follows:

If the maximum pressure p

a

applied to the sphere does not exceed the elastic limit

i.e., 3 / ( / )/ p Y a b

a

< − ( ) 2 1

3 3

, the solid remains elastic throughout the loading cycle.

In this case, the sphere is stress free afer unloading and remains elastic throughout

all subsequent load cycles.

For pressures in the range 2 1 3 2

3 3

( / )/ / log( / ) − < < a b p Y b a

a

, the region between

r = a and r = c deforms plastically during the frst application of pressure, whereas

the region between c < r < b remains elastic, in which c satisfes the equation

p Y c a c b

a

/ log / / =

( )

+ −

( )

2

2

3

1

3 3

. In this case, the solid is permanently deformed.

Afer unloading, its internal and external radii are slightly increased, and the sphere

is in a state of residual stress.

If the maximum internal pressure satisfes

2 1 3 4 1 3

3 3 3 3

−

( )

< < −

( )

a b p Y a b

a

/ / / / / ,

the cylinder deforms plastically during the frst application of pressure. It then

deforms elastically (no yield) while the pressure is removed. During subsequent pres-

sure cycles between zero and the maximum pressure, the cylinder deforms elastically.

Residual stresses introduced during the frst loading cycle are protective and prevent

additional plasticity. Tis behavior is known as shakedown, and the maximum load

for which it can occur

p Y a b

a

/ ( / )/ = − ( ) 4 1 3

3 3

is known as the shakedown limit.

If the maximum internal pressure reaches the shakedown limit p Y a b

a

/ / / = −

( )

4 1 3

3 3

,

the residual stress just reaches yield at r = a when the pressure is reduced to zero afer the

frst loading cycle.

For internal pressures p Y a b

a

/ / / > −

( )

4 1 3

3 3

, a plastic zone forms between

a < r < d as the pressure is reduced to zero, where d satisfes the equation

p Y d b Y d a

a

= −

( )

+

( )

4 1 3 4

3 3

/ / log / . During subsequent cycles of loading, the region

a < r < d is repeatedly plastically deformed, stretching in the hoop direction during

increasing pressure and compressing as the pressure is reduced to zero. Te region

between d < r < c deforms plastically during the frst cycle of pressure but remains

elastic for all subsequent cycles. Tis is a “shakedown region.” Te remainder of the

sphere experiences elastic cycles of strain.

In the preceding discussion, we have assumed that the cylinder is thick enough to sup-

port an arbitrarily large pressure. Te internal pressure cannot exceed the collapse load

p Y b a

a

/ log / =

( )

2 , so some regimens are inaccessible for thinner-walled spheres.

Te stress felds at maximum and minimum load for these various ranges of applied

load are listed below. Te displacements can be computed, but the formulas are too long

to record here.

•

•

•

•

•

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 221

Te residual stress distributions (afer unloading to zero pressure) are shown in

Figure 4.15, for a sphere with b/a = 3. Te solution for c/a = 1.25 is below the shake-

down limit; the other two solutions are for pressures exceeding the shakedown limit.

Te region of cyclic plasticity can be seen from the discontinuity in the hoop stress

curves. Note that the residual stresses are predominantly compressive. For this reason,

bolt holes, pressure vessels, and gun barrels are ofen purposely pressurized above the

elastic limit so as to introduce a compressive stress near the loaded surface. Tis pro-

tects the component against fatigue, because fatigue cracks do not propagate under

compressive loading.

Solution for pressures below the elastic limit p

a

/Y < 2(1 – a

3

/b

3

)/3: Te displacement,

strain, and stress feld at maximum load are given by the elastic solution in Section 4.1.4.

Solution for pressures between the elastic and shakedown limits p

a

/Y < 4(1 – a

3

/b

3

)/3

At maximum pressure, the displacement and stress felds are given by the elastic-

plastic solution in Section 4.2.3.

At zero pressure, the solutions are as follows:

1. Solution for a < r < c:

σ

σ

θθ

rr a

a

Y

r

a

p

p a

b a

b

r

=

¸

¸

_

,

− −

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

2 1

3

3 3

3

3

log

( )

== =

¸

¸

_

,

− + −

−

+

¸

¸

_

σ

φφ

2 1

2

3

3 3

3

3

Y

r

a

p Y

p a

b a

b

r

a

a

log

( ) ,,

.

•

•

r/a

S

t

r

e

s

s

σ

/

Y

1 1.5 2 2.5 3

–1.5

–1

–0.5

0

0.5

σ

θθ

σ

rr

c/a=2.5

c/a=1.25

c/a=2

FIGURE 4.15 Residual stress distributions afer unloading a pressurized elastic-plastic

shell, for various positions of the elastic/plastic boundary c/a.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in221 221 9/9/09 7:27:47 PM

222 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

2. Solution for c < r < b:

σ

rr

a

Yc

b

b

r

p a

b a

b

r

= −

¸

¸

_

,

−

−

( )

−

¸

¸

2

3

1 1

3

3

3

3

3

3 3

3

3

_

,

σ σ

θθ φφ

= = +

¸

¸

_

,

−

−

( )

+

2

3

1

2

1

3

3

3

3

3

3 3

Yc

b

b

r

p a

b a

b

a

33

3

2r

¸

¸

_

,

.

Solution for pressures exceeding the shakedown limit p

a

/Y > 4(1 – a

3

/b

3

)/3

At maximum pressure, the displacement, strain, and stress felds are given in

Section 4.2.3.

At zero pressure, the solutions are as follows:

1. Solution for cyclic plastic region a < r < d:

σ σ σ

θθ φφ rr

Y r a Y r a Y = −

( )

= = −

( )

− 2 2 log / log / .

2. Solution for shakedown region d < r < c:

σ

σ σ

θθ φ

rr a

Y r a p

Yd

b

b

r

= ( ) − − −

¸

¸

_

,

=

2

4

3

1

3

3

3

3

log /

φφ

= ( ) − + − +

¸

¸

_

,

2

4

3

1

2

3

3

3

3

Y r a p Y

Yd

b

b

r

a

log /

3. Solution for the elastic region c < r < b:

σ

rr

Yc

b

b

r

Yd

b

b

r

= −

¸

¸

_

,

− −

¸

¸

_

,

2

3

1

4

3

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

σ σ

θθ φφ

= = +

¸

¸

_

,

− +

2

3

1

2

4

3

1

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Yc

b

b

r

Yd

b

b

r

¸¸

¸

_

,

.

Derivation of stress añer unloading in the cyclic plastic regime a < r < d

1. We anticipate that σ

rr

> 0, σ

θθ

< 0. Te yield criterion then gives

σ

θθ

– σ

rr

= –Y.

2. Substituting this result into the equilibrium equation shows that

d

dr

Y

r

rr

σ

+ = 2 0.

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in222 222 9/9/09 7:27:47 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 223

3. Integrating and using the boundary condition σ

rr

= 0 at r = a together with the yield

condition in step 1 gives

σ σ σ

θθ φφ rr

Y r a Y r a Y = −

( )

= = −

( )

− 2 2 log / log / .

Derivation of stress añer unloading in the shakedown regime d < r < c

1. In this region, the stress at maximum load are given by the expressions for r < c in

4.2.3, i.e.,

σ σ σ

θθ φφ rr a a

Y r a p Y r a p Y = ( ) − = = ( ) − + 2 2 log / log / .

Te solid then unloads elastically while the pressure is removed.

2. Te change in stress during unloading can be calculated quickly by regarding the

region d < r < b as a spherical shell with internal radius d and external radius b,

subjected to radial pressure at r = d. At maximum load, the pressure at r = d is p

a

–

2Ylog(d/a); afer unloading, the pressure follows from the solution for the cyclic plas-

tic regime as 2Ylog(d/a). Te change in pressure at r = d during unloading is thus

Δp = 4Ylog(d/a) – p

a

.

3. Te change in pressure during unloading can also be expressed as Δp = –4Y(1 –

b

3

/d

3

)/3 using the governing equation for d shown below. We then can simply add the

(elastic) stress and displacement induced by this pressure change to the displacement

and stress at maximum load, to obtain the solution given above.

Boundary of the cyclic plastic zone: Te boundary of the cyclic plastic zone is determined

by the condition that the stress in the shakedown regime must just reach yield at r = d when

the pressure reaches zero. Tis gives

σ σ

θθ

− = − = −

( )

+

( ) rr a

Y p Y d b Y d a ⇒ 4 1 3 4

3 3

/ / log / .

Derivation of solution in the elastic region c < r < b: Te solution in this region is derived

in the same way as the solution for the shakedown region, except that the displacement and

stress at maximum load are given by solutions for c < r < b.

4.2.5 Simpliﬁed Equations for Plane Strain Axially

Symmetric Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Solids

An axially symmetric solid is illustrated in Figure 4.16. Te solid is a circular cylinder that

is subjected to axially symmetric loading (i.e., internal body forces, as well as tractions or

displacements applied to the surface, are independent of θ and z and act in the radial direc-

tion only). Temperature changes will be neglected, to simplify calculations. However, the

solid can spin with steady angular velocity about the e

3

axis.

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224 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

We will assume that the cylinder is completely prevented from stretching in the e

3

direc-

tion, so that a state of plane strain exists in the solid.

Te solution is most conveniently expressed using a cylindrical-polar coordinate

system, illustrated in Figure 4.16. A point in the solid is identifed by its cylindrical-

polar coordinates (r, θ, z). All vectors and tensors are expressed as components in the basis

{e

r

,

e

θ

,

e

z

} shown in the fgure. For an axially symmetric problem, the following applies:

Position vector: x = re

r

+ ze

z

Displacement vector: u = u(r)e

r

Body force vector: b = ρ

0

b(r)e

r

Acceleration vector: a = –ω

2

re

r

Here, u(r) and b(r) are scalar functions. Te stress and strain tensors (written as compo-

nents in {e

r

, e

θ

, e

z

}) have the form

σ

σ

σ

σ

ε

ε

ε

ε

θθ θθ

≡ ≡

rr

zz

rr

z

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

zz

¸

1

]

1

1

1

.

For axial symmetry, the governing equations reduce to the following

Strain-displacement relations: ε ε ε

θθ rr zz

du

dr

u

r

= = = 0.

Stress-strain relations (plane strain and generalized plane strain):

in elastic region(s),

σ

σ

σ

ν ν

ν ν ν

ν ν ν

ν

θθ

rr

zz

E

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

+ ( ) − ( )

−

−

1 1 2

1

1

νν ν

ε

ε

ε

θθ

1 −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

rr

zz

σ σ σ σ σ σ

θθ θθ

− ( ) + − ( ) + − ( )

{ }

<

rr zz rr zz

Y

2 2 2

2 / .

•

•

•

•

•

•

e

1

e

2

e

3

θ

z

r

e

θ

e

z

e

r

Plane strain

FIGURE 4.16 Coordinate system used for cylindrically symmetric problems.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in224 224 9/9/09 7:27:48 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 225

in plastic region(s),

yield criterion:

σ σ σ σ σ σ

θθ θθ

− ( ) + − ( ) + − ( )

{ }

=

rr zz rr zz

Y

2 2 2

2 / ;

strain partition:

d d d d d d d d

rr rr

p

rr

e p e p

ε ε ε ε ε ε ε ε

φφ φφ φφ θθ θθ

= + = + = + dd

e

ε

θθ

;

elastic strain:

d d E d d E

d d E d

rr

e

rr zz

e

ε σ ν σ σ

ε σ ν σ

θθ

θθ θθ

= − +

( )

= −

/ /

/

rrr zz

zz

e

zz rr

d E

d d E d d E

+

( )

= − +

( )

σ

ε σ ν σ σ

θθ

/

/ / ;

fow rule:

d d

Y

d d

rr

p p

rr zz

p p

rr

ε ε

σ σ σ

ε ε

σ σ σ

θθ

θθ

θθ

=

− +

( )

=

− +

/2

zzz

zz

p p

zz rr

Y

d d

Y

( )

=

− +

( )

/

/

.

2

2

ε ε

σ σ σ

θθ

Equation of motion:

d

dr r

b r

rr

rr r

σ

σ σ ρ ρ ω

θθ

+ −

( )

+ = −

1

0 0

2

.

Boundary conditions:

prescribed displacements, u

r

(a) = g

a

u

r

(b) = g

b

;

prescribed tractions, σ

rr

(a) = t

a

σ

rr

(b) = t

b

.

Te equilibrium and strain-displacement equations can be derived following the proce-

dure outlined in Section 4.1.2. Te stress-strain relations are derived by substituting the

strain components into the general constitutive equation and simplifying the result.

Unlike the elastic solution in Section 4.1, there is no clean, direct, and general method

for integrating these equations. Instead, solutions must be found using a combination of

physical intuition and some algebraic tricks, as illustrated in the sections below.

•

•

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226 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

4.2.6 Long (Plane Strain) Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure

We consider a long hollow cylinder with internal radius a and external radius b as shown

in Figure 4.17. Assume the following:

No body forces act on the cylinder.

Te cylinder has zero angular velocity.

Te sphere has uniform temperature.

Te inner surface r = a is subjected to pressure p

a

.

Te outer surface r = b is free of pressure.

Te cylinder does not stretch parallel to its axis.

Te solution given below is approximate, because it assumes that both elastic and plastic

axial strains vanish separately (when in fact only the sum of elastic and plastic strains

should be zero).

Solution

1. Preliminaries:

Te cylinder frst reaches yield (at r = a) at an internal pressure:

3 1

2 2

p Y a b

a

/ / ≈ −

( )

.

For pressures in the range

1 3 2

2 2

−

( )

< <

( )

a b p Y b a

a

/ / log /

, the region between

r = a and r = c deforms plastically, whereas the region between c < r < b remains

elastic, in which c satisfes the equation

3 2 1

2 2

p Y c a c b

a

/ log / / =

( )

+ −

.

At a pressure p Y b a

a

/ / log / =

( )

( )

2 3 , the entire cylinder is plastic. At this point,

the sphere collapses; the displacements become infnitely large.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

a

b

p

a

FIGURE 4.17 Internally pressurized thick-walled elastic-plastic cylinder.

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 227

2. Solution in the plastic region a < r < c:

u

E

r Y r a p

Yc

a

=

−

( )

+

( )

( )

( )

−

{ }

+

+

( )

1 2 1

2 2 3

1

ν ν

ν

/ log /

22 2 2 2

2

2 1 1 2

3

−

( )

+ −

( )

−

( ) ( )

ν ν b b c

Eb r

σ σ

θθ rr a a

Y r a p Y r a p =

( )

( )

− =

( )

( )

− + 2 3 2 3 / log / / log / 22 3 Y / .

3. Solution in the elastic region c < r < b:

u

c Y

E r

r

b

r

=

+

( )

+ −

( )

{ }

1

3

1

1 2

2

2

ν

ν

σ σ

θθ rr

Yc

b

b

r

Yc

b

b

r

= −

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= +

¹

,

¹

¹

,

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

1

3

1

¹¹

.

Te stress and displacement felds are plotted in Figure 4.18, for various positions of the

elastic-plastic boundary. Te results are for b/a = 3, and the displacement is shown for a

solid with ν = 0.3.

Derivation: By substituting the stresses for the elastic solution given in Section 4.1.4 into

the von Mises yield criterion, we see that a pressurized elastic cylinder frst reaches yield

at r = a. If the pressure is increased beyond yield, a region a < r < c will deform plastically,

whereas a region c < r < b remains elastic. We must fnd separate solutions in the plastic

and elastic regimes.

r/a

S

t

r

e

s

s

σ

/

Y

1 1.5 2 2.5 3

–2

–1

0

1

σ

θθ

σ

rr

c/a=2.5

c/a=1.5

c/a=2

(a)

r/a

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

u

r

E

/

Y

a

1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0

2

4

6

c/a=1.5

c/a=2

c/a=2.5

(b)

FIGURE 4.18 Stress and displacement felds for a pressurized elastic-plastic cylinder. Stress

(a) and displacement (b) distributions for various positions of the elastic-plastic boundary c/a.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in227 227 9/9/09 7:27:50 PM

228 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

In the plastic regime a < r < c:

1. To simplify the calculation, we assume that d d

zz

p

zz

e

ε ε = = 0. Tis turns out to be

exact for ν = 1/2 but is approximate for other values of Poisson’s ratio. Te plastic fow

rule shows that d d

Y

zz

p p

zz rr

ε ε

σ σ σ

θθ

=

− +

( )

/2

, in which case d

zz

p

ε = 0 requires that

σ σ σ

θθ zz rr

= +

( )

/2

.

2. We anticipate that σ

rr

< 0, σ

θθ

> 0. Substituting the result of item 1 into the yield cri-

terion then gives

σ σ

θθ

− =

rr

Y 2 3

.

3. Substituting this result into the equilibrium equation shows that

d

dr

Y

r

rr

σ

− =

2

3

0.

4. Integrating and using the boundary condition σ

rr

= –p

a

r = a together with the yield

condition 2 gives

σ σ

θθ rr a a

Y r a p Y r a p =

( )

( )

− =

( )

( )

− + 2 3 2 3 / log / / log / 22 3 Y / .

5. Te elastic strains follow as

ε σ νσ νσ ε σ νσ νσ

θθ θθ θθ rr

e

rr zz

e

rr zz

E = − −

( )

= − −

( )

/ / EE.

6. With assumption 1, the fow rule shows that plastic strains satisfy

ε ε

θθ rr

p p

+ = 0

.

Consequently, using the strain partition formula and the strain-displacement rela-

tion shows that

ε ε

ν ν

σ σ

θθ rr rr

du

dr

u

r r

d

dr

ru

E

+ = + =

( )

=

−

( )

+

( )

+

1

1 2 1

θθθ

ν ν

{ }

=

−

( )

+

( )

( )

+

¸

1

]

−

( )

1 2 1

2 2 1 3

E

Y r a p

a

log / / .

7. Integrating gives

u

E

r Y r a p C r

a

=

−

( )

+

( )

( )

( )

−

{ }

+

1 2 1

2 2 3

ν ν

/ log / / ,

where C is a constant of integration

8. Te constant of integration can be found by noting that the radial displacements in

the elastic and plastic regimens must be equal at r = c. Using the expression for the

elastic displacement feld below and solving for C gives

C

c b b c

E b c

p

a

=

+

( )

−

( )

+ −

( )

−

( ) ( )

−

( )

1 2 1 1 2

2 2 2 2

2 2

ν ν ν

−−

( )

( )

{ }

2 3 Y c a / log / .

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in228 228 9/9/09 7:27:50 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 229

Tis result can be simplifed by noting that p Y c a Y c b

a

−

( )

( )

= −

( )

2 3 1

2 2

/ log / / /

3 from the expression for the location of the elastic-plastic boundary given below.

In the elastic regime, the solution can be found directly from the solution to the internally

pressurized elastic cylinder given in Section 4.1.9. From step 4 in the solution for the plastic

regime, we see that the radial pressure at r = c is p p Y c a

c rr a

= − = −

( )

( )

σ 2 3 / log / . We

can simplify the solution by noting p Y c a Y c b

a

−

( )

( )

= −

( )

2 3 1 3

2 2

/ log / / / from the

expression for the location of the elastic-plastic boundary. Substituting into the expressions

for stress and displacement in Section 4.1.9 shows that

σ σ

θθ rr

c c

p c

b c

b

r

p c

b c

b

r

=

−

−

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

−

+

2

2 2

2

2

2

2 2

2

1 1

22

2

2 2

2

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

−

σ ν

zz

pc

b c

u

c b p

E b c r

r

b

r

c

=

+

( )

−

( )

+ −

( )

{ }

1

1

1 2

2 2

2 2 2

ν

ν .

Finally, the elastic-plastic boundary is located by the condition that the stress in the

elastic region must just reach yield at r = c (so there is a smooth transition into the plas-

tic region). Te yield condition is σ σ

θθ

− =

rr

Y 2 3 / , so substituting the expressions for

stress in the elastic region and simplifying yields

σ σ

θθ

− =

−

( )

( )

( )

−

( )

=

⇔

rr

a

p Y c a b

b c

Y

2 2 3

2 3

2

2 2

/ log /

/

33 2 1

2 2

p

Y

c a c b

a

=

( )

+ −

( )

log / / .

If p

a

, Y, a, and b are specifed, this equation can be solved (numerically) for c. For

graphing purposes, it is preferable to choose c and then calculate the corresponding

value of p

a

.

4.3 SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC SOLUTION TO QUASI-STATIC

LARGE STRAIN ELASTICITY PROBLEMS

4.3.1 Summary of Governing Equations of Finite Elasticity in Cartesian Components

Tis section is intended to illustrate the nature of solutions to elasticity problems with

large shape changes.

A representative problem is sketched in Figure 4.19. We are given the following

information:

1. Te geometry of the solid

2. A constitutive law for the material (i.e., the hyperelastic strain energy potential)

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in229 229 9/9/09 7:27:52 PM

230 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3. Te body force density b

i

(per unit mass) (if any)

4. Prescribed boundary tractions t

i

and/or boundary displacements u

i

To simplify the problem, we will assume the following:

Te solid is stress free in its undeformed confguration.

Temperature changes during deformation are neglected.

Te solid is incompressible.

With these assumptions, we want to calculate the displacement feld u

i

, the lef Cauchy–

Green deformation tensor B

ij

, and the stress feld σ

ij

satisfying the following equations:

Displacement-strain relation: B F F F

u

ij ik jk ij ij

i

j

= = +

∂

∂

δ

x

.

Incompressibility condition: J = det(F) = 1.

Stress-strain relation:

σ

ij ij

U

I

I

U

I

B I

U

I

I

U

I

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

2 2

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

__

,

−

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

δ δ

ij

ik kj

ij

U

I

B B p

3 3

2

,

where σ

ij

is the Cauchy stress tensor, U(I

1

,I

2

) is the strain energy potential for the

elastic solid, p is the hydrostatic part of the stress (which must be determined as part

of the solution), and

I B I I B B

kk ik ki 1 2 1

2

2 = = −

( )

/ .

Equilibrium equation:

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ

ij

i

j

y

b 0

.

Traction boundary conditions: σ

ij

n

i

= t

j

on parts of the boundary where tractions are known.

Displacement boundary conditions: u

i

= d

i

on parts of the boundary where displace-

ments are known.

4.3.2 Simpliﬁed Equations for Incompressible Spherically Symmetric Solids

A representative spherically symmetric problem is illustrated in Figure 4.20. We consider

a hollow, spherical solid that is subjected to spherically symmetric loading (i.e., internal

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

e

3

e

1

e

2

Original

Conﬁguration

Deformed

Conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0 b

t

FIGURE 4.19 Typical boundary value problem for an elastic solid experiencing large

deformations.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in230 230 9/9/09 7:27:52 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 231

body forces, as well as tractions or displacements applied to the surface, are independent of

θ and ϕ and act in the radial direction only).

Te solution is most conveniently expressed using a spherical-polar coordinate system,

illustrated in Figure 4.20. For a fnite deformation problem, we need a way to characterize

the position of material particles in both the undeformed and deformed solid. To do this,

we let (R, Θ, Φ) identify a material particle in the undeformed solid. Te coordinates of the

same point in the deformed solid are identifed by a new set of spherical-polar coordinates

(r, θ, ϕ). One way to describe the deformation would be to specify each of the deformed

coordinates (r, θ, ϕ) in terms of the reference coordinates (R, Θ, Φ). For a spherically sym-

metric deformation, points only move radially, so that

r = f(R) θ = Θ ϕ = Φ.

In fnite deformation problems, vectors and tensors can be expressed as components in

a basis {e

R

, e

Θ

, e

Φ

} associated with the position of material points in the undeformed solid

or, if more convenient, in a basis {e

r

, e

θ

, e

ϕ

} associated with material points in the deformed

solid. For spherically symmetric deformations, the two bases are identical; consequently,

we can write the following:

Position vector in the undeformed solid: x = Re

r

Position vector in the deformed solid: y = re

r

= f(R)e

r

Displacement vector: u = y – x = re

r

− Re

r

= (f(R) − R)e

r

Te stress, deformation gradient, and deformation tensors (written as components in

{e

r

, e

θ

, e

φ

}) have the form

σσ ≡ ≡

σ

σ

σ

θθ

φφ

θθ

φ

rr rr

F

F

F

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

F

φφ

θθ

φφ

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

B ≡

B

B

B

rr

0 0

0 0

0 0

and furthermore must satisfy σ

θθ

= σ

φφ

F

rr

= F

θθ

B

θθ

= B

φφ

.

•

•

•

R

θ

φ

e

R

e

e

φ

θ

e

1

e

2

e

3

FIGURE 4.20 Coordinate system used for spherically symmetric problems.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in231 231 9/9/09 7:27:53 PM

232 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

For spherical symmetry, the governing equations reduce to the following:

Strain-displacement relations:

F

df

dR

F F

f R

R

B

df

dR

B B

rr rr

= = =

( )

=

¸

¸

_

,

=

φφ θθ φφ θθ

2

==

¸

¸

_

,

f R

R

( )

.

2

Incompressibility condition:

df

dR

f R

R

¸

¸

_

,

( ) ¸

¸

_

,

=

2

1.

Stress-strain relations:

σ

rr rr

U

I

I

U

I

B

I U

I

I U

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

−

∂

2

3

2

3

1

1

2

1

1

2

∂∂

−

∂

∂

¸

1

]

1

+

= =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

I

U

I

B p

U

I

I

U

I

rr

2 2

2

1

1

2 σ σ

θθ φφ

22

1

1

2

2 2

2

3

2

3

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

B

I U

I

I U

I

U

I

B

θθ θθ

11

]

1

+ p.

Equilibrium equations:

d

dr r

b

rr

rr r

σ

σ σ σ ρ

θθ φφ

+ − −

( )

+ =

1

2 0

0

.

Boundary conditions:

prescribed displacements, u

r

(a) = g

a

u

r

(b) = g

b

;

prescribed tractions: σ

rr

(a) = t

a

σ

rr

(b) = t

b

.

4.3.3 Pressurized Hollow Sphere Made from an Incompressible Rubber

As an example, consider a pressurized hollow rubber shell, as shown in Figure 4.21. Assume

the following:

Before deformation, the sphere has inner radius A and outer radius B.

Afer deformation, the sphere has inner radius a and outer radius b.

Te solid is made from an incompressible Mooney–Rivlin solid, with strain energy

potential:

U I I = −

( )

+ −

( )

µ µ

1

1

2

2

2

3

2

3 .

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

b

p

a

p

b

FIGURE 4.21 Spherical hyperelastic shell subjected to internal and external pressure.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in232 232 9/9/09 7:27:53 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 233

No body forces act on the sphere.

Te inner surface r = a is subjected to pressure p

a

.

Te outer surface r = b is subjected to pressure p

b

.

Te deformed radii a, b of the inner and outer surfaces of the spherical shell are related

to the pressure by

p p

a b

−

= −

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

−

µ β α β α

µ

µ

β

1

4 4

2

1

2

1 1 1

2

1 1 2

−− ( ) + −

¸

¸

_

,

α

µ

µ β α

2

1

2 2

1 1

,

where α = a/A, β = b/B, and α, β are related by

B

A

3

3

3

3

1

1

=

−

−

α

β

.

Provided the pressure is not too large (see below), the preceding two equations can be solved

for α and β given the pressure and properties of the shell (for graphing purposes, it is better

to assume a value for α, calculate the corresponding β, and then determine the pressure).

Te position r of a material particle afer deformation is related to its position R before

deformation by

r

A

R

A

R

A

r

A

= + −

¸

¸

_

,

= − +

¸

¸

_

,

3

3

3

1 3

3

3

3

1 3

1 1 α α

/ /

.

Te deformation tensor distribution in the sphere is

B R r B B r R

rr

= ( ) = = ( ) / / .

4 2

θθ φφ

Te Cauchy stress in the sphere is

σ µ µ

rr

R

r

R

r

r

R

R

r

C = +

¸

¸

_

,

− −

¸

¸

_

,

+

1

4

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

σ µ µ

θθ

= − +

¸

¸

_

,

− −

¸

¸

_

,

1

4

4

2

2

2

4

4

2

2

2 R

r

R

r

r

R

r

R

r

R

++ C

C = − + + +

¸

¸

_

,

+ − + −

µ

α α β β

µ

α

α

β

β

1

4 4

2

2

2

2 1

2

2 1

2 2

2

1

2

1

22

2

¸

¸

_

,

−

+ p p

a b

.

Te variation of the internal radius of the spherical shell with applied pressure is plotted

in Figure 4.22, for µ

2

/µ

1

= 0.04 (a representative value for a typical rubber). For comparison,

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in233 233 9/9/09 7:27:54 PM

234 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

the linear elastic solution (obtained by setting E = 3(µ

1

+ µ

2

) and ν = 1/2 in the formulas

given in Section 4.1.4) is also shown. Note the following:

1. Te small strain solution is accurate for u/A < 0.05.

2. Te relationship between pressure and displacement is nonlinear in the large defor-

mation regimen.

3. As the internal radius of the sphere increases, the pressure reaches a maximum and

thereafer decreases (this will be familiar behavior to anyone who has infated a bal-

loon). Tis is because the wall thickness of the shell decreases as the sphere expands.

Te stress distribution for various displacements in the shell is plotted in Figure 4.23, for

p

b

= 0, µ

2

/µ

1

= 0.04, and B/A = 3. Te radial stress remains close to the linear elastic solution

even in the large deformation regimen. Te hoop stress distribution is signifcantly altered

as the deformation increases, however.

Derivation

1. Integrate the incompressibility condition from the inner radius of the sphere to some

arbitrary point R:

f R df R dR f R f A R A

A

R

f A

f R

( ) .

( )

(

[ ]

= ⇒ ( ) − ( ) = −

∫

2

2

3 3

3 3

))

∫

2. Note that f(R) = r by defnition, and f(A) = a because the point at R = A moves to r = a

afer deformation. Tis gives the relationship between the position r of a point in the

deformed solid and its position R before deformation:

r f R R a A R f r r A a = = + − = = + −

−

( ) ( ) .

3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3

Displacement a/A–1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0

0.5

1

B/A=1.5

Linear elastic

B/A=2

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

(

B

3

–

A

3

)

(

µ

1

+

µ

2

)

(

p

a

–

p

b

)

B

3

B/A=1.001

FIGURE 4.22 Variation of internal pressure with displacement for an internally pressurized

hyperelastic spherical shell.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in234 234 9/9/09 7:27:54 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 235

3. Te components of the lef Cauchy–Green tensor follow as B

rr

= (R/r)

4

, B

θθ

= B

ϕϕ

=

(r/R)

2

.

4. Te stresses follow from the stress-strain equation as

σ µ µ σ σ µ µ

θθ θθ θθ φφ rr rr

B B B p B = +

( )

−

( )

+ = = +

2

3

1

3

1 2 1 2 θθθ θθ ( )

−

( )

+ B B p

rr

.

5. Substituting these stresses into the equilibrium equation leads to the following dif-

ferential equation for σ

rr

:

d

dr r

B B B

rr

rr

σ

µ µ

θθ θθ

+ +

( )

−

( )

=

2

0

1 2

.

6. Afer substituting for B

rr

and B

θθ

and expressing R in terms of r, this equation can be

integrated and simplifed to see that

σ µ µ

rr

R r R

r

r R

r R

C =

+

( )

−

−

( )

+

1

3 3

4

2

3 3

2

4

2

2

.

7. Te boundary conditions require that σ

rr

= –p

a

on (r = a, R = A), whereas σ

rr

= –p

b

on (r = b, R = B), which requires

− = +

¸

¸

_

,

− −

¸

¸

_

,

+

− =

p C

p

a

b

µ

α α

µ α

α

µ

1

4

2

2

1

2 1

2

2

1

2

ββ β

µ β

β

+

¸

¸

_

,

− −

¸

¸

_

,

+

1

2

2

1

4

2

2

C,

(r–a)/(b–a)

R

a

d

i

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

σ

r

r

/

p

0 0.5 1

–1

–0.8

–0.6

–0.4

–0.2

0

a/A=3

Linear elastic

a/A=2

a/A=1.5

(a)

(r-a)/(b-a)

0 0.5 1

0

2

4

6

8

(b)

a/A=3

Linear elastic

a/A=2

a/A=1.5

H

o

o

p

s

t

r

e

s

s

p

B

3

σ

θ

θ

(

B

3

–

A

3

)

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

FIGURE 4.23 Stress distributions in a pressurized hyperelastic spherical shell. a, radial

stress; b, hoop stress.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in235 235 9/9/09 7:27:55 PM

236 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where α = a/A and β = b/B. Te expression that relates α and β to the pressure follows

by subtracting the frst equation from the second. Adding the two equations gives the

expression for C.

8. Finally, the hoop stress follows by noting that, from item 4,

σ

θθ

– σ

rr

= (µ

1

+ µ

2

B

θθ

) (B

θθ

– B

rr

).

4.4 SIMPLE DYNAMIC SOLUTIONS FOR LINEAR ELASTIC MATERIALS

In this section, we summarize and derive the solutions to various elementary problems in

dynamic linear elasticity.

4.4.1 Surface Subjected to Time-Varying Normal Pressure

An isotropic, linear elastic half-space with shear modulus µ, Poisson’s ratio ν, and mass

density ρ

0

occupies the region x

2

> 0. Te solid is at rest and stress free at time t = 0. For

t > 0, it is subjected to a uniform pressure p(t) on x

2

= 0 as shown in Figure 4.24.

Solution: Te displacement and stress felds in the solid (as a function of time and

position) are

u x t

c

E

p d x tc

L

L

t

2 2

2

0

1 1 2

1

0

,

( )

( )

=

+ ( ) − ( )

− ( )

<

ν ν

ν

τ τ

−−

∫

>

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

=

− −

( )

<

x c

L

L

L

L

x tc

p t x c

x tc

2

2

22

2

2

0

/

/

σ

xx tc

L 2

>

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

,

where c E

L

= −

( )

+

( )

−

( )

1 1 1 2

0

ν ρ ν ν / is the speed of longitudinal wave propagation

through the solid. All other displacement and stress components are zero. For the par-

ticular case of a constant (i.e., time independent) pressure, magnitude σ

0

, applied to the

surface

u x t E

c t x x c t

L L

2 2

0

2 2

1 2 1

1

0

,

( )

=

−

( )

+

( )

−

( )

−

( )

<

ν ν

ν

σ

xx c t

L 2

>

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

σ

σ

22

0 2

2

0

=

− <

>

¹

,

¹

x c t

x c t

L

L

.

Evidently, a stress pulse equal in magnitude to the surface pressure propagates vertically

through the half-space with speed c

L

.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in236 236 9/9/09 7:27:55 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 237

Notice that the velocity of the solid is constant in the region 0 < x

2

< tc

L

, and the velocity

is related to the pressure by

v c

E c

L

L

2

0 0

0

1 2 1

1

=

− ( ) + ( )

− ( )

=

ν ν

ν

σ ρ

σ .

Derivation: Te solution can be derived as follows. Te governing equations are as

follows:

Strain-displacement relation: ε

ij i j j i

u x u x = ∂ ∂ +∂ ∂

( )

/ / / . 2

Elastic stress-strain equations:

σ ε νε δ ν ν

ij ij kk ij

E = + −

( ) { }

+

( )

/ / . 1 2 1

Linear momentum balance equation:

∂ ∂ = ∂ ∂ σ ρ

ij i j

x u t / / .

0

2 2

Now,

1. Symmetry considerations indicate that the displacement feld must have the form

u

1

= u

3

= 0 u

2

= u(x

2

, t).

Substituting this equation into the strain-displacement equations shows that the only

nonzero component of strain is ε

22 2

= ∂ ∂ u x / .

2. Te stress-strain law then shows that

σ

ν

ν ν

22

2

1

1 1 2

=

−

( )

+

( )

−

( )

∂

∂

E

u

x

.

In addition, the shear stresses are all zero (because the shear strains are zero), and,

whereas σ

11

, σ

22

are nonzero, they are independent of x

1

and x

3

.

3. Te only nonzero linear momentum balance equation is therefore

∂ ∂ = ∂ ∂ σ ρ

22 2 0

2 2

/ / . x u t

Substituting for stress from item 2 yields

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

2

2

2 2

2

2

1 u

x c

u

t

L

,

•

•

•

p(t)

e

1

e

2

FIGURE 4.24 Surface subjected to time-varying pressure.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in237 237 9/9/09 7:27:56 PM

238 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where

c

E

L

2

0

1

1 1 2

=

−

( )

+

( )

−

( )

ν

ρ ν ν

.

4. Tis is a one-dimensional (1D) wave equation with general solution

u(x

2

, t) = f(t − x

2

/c

L

) + g(t + x

2

/c

L

),

where f and g are two functions that must be chosen to satisfy boundary and initial

conditions.

5. Te initial conditions are

u x f x c g x c

u

t

f x c

L L

L

2 2 2

2

0 0 , / /

/

( )

= −

( )

+

( )

=

∂

∂

= −

( )

Ј ++

( )

=

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

≥

g x c

x

L

Ј

2

2

0

0

/

,

where the prime denotes diferentiation with respect to its argument. Solving these

equations (diferentiate the frst equation and then solve for f Ј, g Ј and integrate)

shows that

f(–x

2

/c

L

) = –g(x

2

/c

L

) = A,

where A is some constant.

6. Observe that t + x

2

/c

L

≥ 0 for t > 0, so that g(t + x

2

/c

L

) = –A. Substituting this result

back into the solution in item 4 gives u(x

2

, t) = f(t – x

2

/c

L

) – A.

7. Next, use the boundary condition σ

22

= –p(t) at x

2

= 0 to see that

σ

ν

ν ν

ν

ν

22

2

1

1 1 2

1

1

=

− ( )

+ ( ) − ( )

∂

∂

= − ( ) ⇒

− ( )

+ (

E u

x

p t

E

)) − ( )

− ¸

¸

_

,

( ) = − ( )

⇒ − ( ) =

1 2

1

2

ν c

f t p t

f t x c

c

L

L

L

Ј

/

EE

p d B

t x c

L

1 1 2

1

0

2

+ ( ) − ( )

− ( )

( ) +

−

∫

ν ν

ν

τ τ

/

,

where B is a constant of integration.

8. Finally, B can be determined by setting t = 0 in the result of step 7 and recalling from

step 5 that f (–x

2

/c

L

) = A. Tis shows that B = –A and so

u x t

c

E

p d

L

t x c

L

2 2

0

1 1 2

1

2

,

/

( )

=

+ ( ) − ( )

− ( )

( )

−

∫

ν ν

ν

τ τ

σσ

22 2

= − − ( ) p t x c

L

/

as stated.

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Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 239

4.4.2 Surface Subjected to Time-Varying Shear Traction

An isotropic, linear elastic half-space with shear modulus µ, Poisson’s ratio ν, and mass

density ρ

0

occupies the region x

2

> 0, as shown in Figure 4.25. Te solid is at rest and stress

free at time t = 0. For t > 0, it is subjected to a uniform antiplane shear traction p(t) on

x

2

= 0. Calculate the displacement, stress, and strain felds in the solid.

It is straightforward to show that, in this case,

u x t

c

E

p d

S

t x c

S

3 2

0

2 1

2

,

/

( )

=

+

( )

( )

−

∫

ν

τ τ

σ

32 2

= − −

( )

p t x c

S

/ ,

where c

E

S

2

0

2 1

=

+ ( ) ν ρ

is the speed of shear waves propagating through the solid. Te details

are lef as an exercise.

4.4.3 One-Dimensional Bar Subjected to End Loading

Tis solution is a cheat, because it does not satisfy the full 3D equations of elasticity, but it

turns out to be quite accurate.

A long thin rod occupies the region x

1

> 0, as shown in Figure 4.26. It is made from a

homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic material with Young’s modulus E and mass density

ρ

0

. At time t < 0, it is at rest and free of stress. At time t = 0, it is subjected to a pressure p(t)

at one end. Calculate the displacement and stress felds in the solid.

We cheat by modeling this as a 1D problem. We assume that σ

11

is the only nonzero stress

component, in which case the constitutive law and balance of linear momentum require that

σ

σ

ρ

11

1

1

11

1

0

2

1

2

2

1

1

2 2

1

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

⇒

∂

∂

=

E

u

x x

u

t

a

u

x c

B

∂∂

∂

2

1

2

u

t

,

where c E

B

2

0

= /ρ is the wave speed. Tis equation is exact for ν = 0 but cannot be correct in

general, because transverse motion is neglected. In practice, waves are repeatedly refected

of the sides of the bar, which behaves as a wave guide (for more discussion of wave guides,

see Section 5.6.5).

e

1

e

2

p(t)

FIGURE 4.25 Surface subjected to time-varying tangential traction.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in239 239 9/9/09 7:27:57 PM

240 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

It is straightforward to solve the equation to see that

u x t

c

E

p d

B

t x c

B

1 2

0

1

,

/

( )

=

( )

−

∫

τ τ

σ

11 1

= − −

( )

p t x c

B

/ .

4.4.4 Plane Waves in an Inﬁnite Solid

A plane wave that travels in direction p at speed c has a displacement feld of the form

u

i

= a

i

f (ct – x

k

p

k

),

where p is a unit vector. Again, to visualize this motion, consider the special case

u =

<

= − ( ) ≥

¹

,

¹

0 ct x p

u a ct x p c ct x p

k k

i i k k k k

/ .

In this solution, the wave has a planar front, with normal vector p. Te wave travels in

direction p at speed c. Ahead of the front, the solid is at rest. Behind it, the solid has velocity

a. For a

.

p = 0, the particle velocity is perpendicular to the wave velocity. For a = αp, the

particle velocity is parallel to the wave velocity. Tese two cases are like the shear and lon-

gitudinal waves discussed in the preceding sections.

We seek plane wave solutions of the Cauchy–Navier equation of motion

C

u

x x

u

t

ijkl

k

j l

i

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂

2

0

2

2

ρ .

Substituting a plane wave solution for u we see that

A

ik

a

k

f (ct – x

j

p

j

) = ρ

0

a

i

c

2

f(ct – x

j

p

j

),

where

A

jk

= C

ijkl

p

i

p

l

is a symmetric, positive defnite tensor known as the “acoustic tensor.” Plane wave solu-

tions to the Cauchy–Navier equation must therefore satisfy

( ) . A c a

ik ik k

− = ρ δ

0

2

0

p(t)

e

1

FIGURE 4.26 One-dimensional bar subjected to time-varying pressure on one end.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in240 240 9/9/09 7:27:57 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 241

Tis requires

det . A c

ik ik

−

( )

= ρ δ

0

2

0

Evidently, for any wave propagation direction, there are three wave speeds and three cor-

responding displacement directions that follow from the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of

A

ij

/ρ

0

. For the special case of an isotropic solid,

C

ijkl il jk ik jl ij kl

= +

( )

+

−

µ δ δ δ δ

µν

ν

δ δ

2

1 2

,

where µ is the shear modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio of the solid. Te acoustic tensor

follows as

A p p p p

ik l l ik i k

= +

−

µ δ

µ

ν 1 2

so that

µ ρ

µ

ν

−

( )

+

−

=

0

2

1 2

0 c a p a p

k i i k

.

By inspection, there are two eigenvectors that satisfy this equation:

1. a p c c

i i S

= ⇒ = = 0

2 2

0

ρ µ / (shear wave, or S-wave)

2. a p c c

i i L

= ⇒ = = − ( ) − ( ) η µ ν ρ ν

2 2

0

2 1 1 2 / (longitudinal, or P-wave).

Te two wave speeds are evidently those we found in our 1D calculation previously. So

there are two types of plane wave in an isotropic solid. Te S-wave travels at speed c

S

, and

material particles are displaced perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. Te

P-wave travels at speed c

L

, and material particles are displaced parallel to the direction of

motion of the wave.

4.4.5 Summary of Wave Speeds in Isotropic Elastic Solids

It is worth summarizing the three wave speeds calculated in the preceding sections.

Recall that

c

E

c

L S

2

0 0

2

1

1 1 2

2 1

1 2

=

− ( )

+ ( ) − ( )

=

− ( )

− ( )

=

ν

ρ ν ν

µ ν

ρ ν

EE

c

E

B

2 1

0 0

2

0

+ ( )

= =

ν ρ

µ

ρ ρ

.

It is straightforward to show that, for all positive defnite materials (those with positive

defnite strain energy density, a thermodynamic constraint), c

L

> c

S

. For most real materi-

als, c

L

> c

B

> c

S

.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in241 241 9/9/09 7:27:58 PM

242 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Tere are also special kinds of waves (called Rayleigh and Stoneley waves) that travel

near the surface of a solid or near the interface between two dissimilar solids, respec-

tively. Tese waves have their own speeds. Rayleigh waves are discussed in more detail

in Section 5.5.3.

4.4.6 Reﬂection of Waves Traveling Normal to a Free Surface

Suppose that a longitudinal wave with stress state and displacement

u x t

c

E

f d

u

L

t x c

L

1 1

0

2

1 1 2

1

2

,

/

( )

= −

+ ( ) − ( )

− ( )

( )

=

−

∫

ν ν

ν

τ τ

uu

f t x c

L

3

11 1

0 =

= −

( )

σ /

is incident on a free surface at x

1

= a, as shown in Figure 4.27. Our objective is to calculate

the state of stress in the solid as a function of time, accounting for the stress-free surface.

To visualize the wave, imagine that it is a front, such as would be generated by applying

a constant uniform pressure at x

1

= 0 at time t = 0. Te material ahead of the front is at

rest and stress free, whereas behind the front, material has a constant stress and velocity.

At time t = a/c

L

, the front would reach the free surface and be refected. Let the horizontal

stress associated with the refected wave be

σ

11

= g(t + x

1

/c

L

)

(we need a + in the argument because the wave travels to the lef and has negative velocity).

For the stress to vanish at the free surface, we must have

f(t – a/c

L

) + g(t + a/c

L

) = 0,

so,

g(t + x

1

/c

L

) = –f(t – a/c

L

+ (x

1

– a)/c

L

)

and the full solution consists of both incident and refected waves:

e

1

e

2

Incident wave

f(t-x

1

/c

L

)

Reﬂected wave (t+x

1

/c

L

)

Surface

a

FIGURE 4.27 Refection of a longitudinal wave at a free surface.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in242 242 9/9/09 7:27:58 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 243

u x t

c

E

f d

L

t x c

L

1 1

0

1 1 2

1

2

, ( )

/

( )

= −

+

( )

−

( )

−

+

−

∫

ν ν

ν

τ τ ff d

u u

t a c x a c

L L

τ τ

σ

( )

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

= =

− + − ( )

∫

0

2 3

2

0

/ /

111 1 1

= −

( )

− − + −

( ) ( )

f t x c f t a c x a c

L L L

/ / / .

As a specifc example, consider a plane, constant-stress wave that is incident on a free sur-

face. Te histories of stress and velocity in the solid are illustrated in Figure 4.28. In this case,

1. Behind the incident stress wave, the stress is constant, with magnitude σ

0

. Te velocity

of the solid is constant and related to the stress by v

1

= –ρσ

0

/c

L

.

2. At time, t = a/c

L

the stress wave reaches the free surface. At this time, an equal and

opposite stress pulse –σ

0

is refected from the free surface and propagates away from

the surface.

3. Behind the refected wave, the solid is stress free and the solid has constant velocity

v

1

= –2ρσ

0

/c

L

.

4.4.7 Reﬂection and Transmission of Waves Normal to an Interface

Te problem to be solved is illustrated in Figure 4.29. Te material on the lef has mass

density ρ

0

and elastic properties that give a longitudinal wave speed c

L

. Te corresponding

properties for the material on the right are ρ

B L

B

c , . Suppose that a longitudinal wave with

displacement and stress state and displacement

u x t

c

E

f d

u

L

t x c

L

1 1

0

1 1 2

1

2

, ( )

/

( )

= −

+

( )

−

( )

−

−

∫

ν ν

ν

τ τ

22 3

11 1

0 = =

= −

( )

u

f t x c

L

σ /

FIGURE 4.28 Solutions for refection of a wave at a free surface. (a) Stress; (b) velocity.

σ

0

σ

0

c

L

c

L

Incident wave

Incident wave

Reﬂected wave

Stress (a)

Surface

c

L

c

L

c

L

Incident wave

Incident wave

Reﬂected wave

2v

0

v

0

v

0

Velocity

Surface

(b)

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in243 243 9/9/09 7:27:58 PM

244 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

is incident on a bimaterial interface at x

1

= a. Calculate the state of stress in the solid as a

function of time, accounting for the interface.

As before, waves will be refected at the bimaterial interface. Tis time, however, some

of the energy will be refected, whereas some will be transmitted into the adjacent solid.

Guided by the solution to the preceding problem, we assume that the stress associated with

the refected and transmitted waves have the form

σ

σ

11 1

11 1

= − + −

( ) ( )

= − − −

( )

g t a c x a c

h t a c x a c

L L

L

/ /

/ /

LL

B

( )

.

Te functions g and h must be chosen to satisfy stress and displacement continuity at the

interface. Stress continuity requires the following:

f t a c g t a c h t a c

L L L

− ( )

+ − ( )

= − ( )

/ / / .

To satisfy displacement continuity, we make the acceleration continuous

ρ

σ

ρ

0

2

1

2

11

1

0

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

⇒ −

−

( )

+

−

(

u

t x

f t a c

c

g t a c

L

L

L

Ј Ј / /

))

= −

−

( )

ρ ρ

0

c

h t a c

c

L

L

B

B L

B

Ј /

,

which may be integrated to give

−

−

( )

+

−

( )

= −

−

f t a c

c

g t a c

c

h t a c

c

L

L

L

L

L

B

B

/ /

( / )

ρ ρ ρ

0 0 LL

B

C + ,

where C is a constant of integration. Setting t = 0 shows that C must vanish, because f = g =

h = 0 at t = 0. Te conditions of stress and displacement continuity may now be solved for

g and h to see the following:

refected wave: σ β

11 1

( )

/ / ,

r

r L L

f t a c x a c = − + −

( ) ( )

transmitted wave: σ β

11 1

( )

/

t

t L L

B

f t a c x a c = − − −

( ) ( )

,

x

1

=a

f(t–x

1

/c

L

)

g (t-a/c

L

+(x

1

–a)/c

L

)

h(t-a/c

L

–(x

1

–a)/c

L

)

e

1

e

2

FIGURE 4.29 Refection and transmission of a longitudinal wave at a bimaterial interface.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in244 244 9/9/09 7:27:59 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 245

where the coem cients of refection and transmission are given by

β

ρ ρ

ρ ρ

β

ρ

ρ ρ

r

B L

B

L

B L

B

L

t

B L

B

B L

B

L

c c

c c

c

c c

=

−

+

=

+

0

0 0

2

.

Results for a shear wave approaching the interface follow immediately from the preced-

ing calculation, by simply setting c

L

= c

S

.

4.4.8 Simple Example Involving Plane Wave Propagation:

Plate Impact Experiment

A plate impact experiment is used to measure the plastic properties of materials at high rates

of strain. In typical experiment, a large, elastic fyer plate is fred (e.g., by a gas gun) at a station-

ary target plate. Te specimen is a thin flm of material that is usually deposited on the surface

of the fyer plate. When the fyer plate impacts the target, plane pressure and shear waves begin

to propagate through both plates, as shown in Figure 4.30. Te experiment is designed so that

the target and fyer plates remain elastic, whereas the thin flm specimen deforms plastically.

A laser interferometer is used to monitor the velocity of the back face of the target plate: these

measurements enable the history of stress and strain in the flm to be reconstructed.

A full analysis of the plate impact experiment will not be attempted here; instead, we

illustrate the general procedure for modeling plane wave propagation in the plate impact

experiment using a simple example. Suppose the following:

Two elastic plates with Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s ratio ν and density ρ are caused

to collide, as shown in Figure 4.31.

As a representative example, we suppose that the target has thickness h, whereas the

projectile has thickness 2h, as shown in Figure 4.31. Te thickness of both fyer and

target are assumed to be much smaller than any other relevant dimension (so wave

refection of lateral boundaries can be neglected).

For simplicity, we assume that the faces of fyer and target are perpendicular to the

direction of motion. Tis means that the particle velocity in both fyer and target

remains perpendicular to their surfaces throughout.

•

•

•

Target Flyer plate

Specimen

v

0

Laser

Interferometer

FIGURE 4.30 Te pressure-shear plate impact experiment.

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246 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Just before impact, the projectile has a uniform velocity ν

0

, whereas the target is

stationary.

At impact, plane pressure waves are initiated at the impact surface and propagate (in

opposite directions) through both target and projectile. Our objective is to calculate

the history of stress and velocitity in both plates.

Te resulting stress and motion in the plate is most conveniently displayed on “(x – t)

diagrams” as shown in Figure 4.32. Te graphs can be used to deduce the velocity and

stress in both fyer and target at any position x and time t in both plates. Te solution con-

sists of triangular regions (of time and position) of constant velocity and stress, separated

by lines with slope equal to the longitudinal wave speed c

L

in the two plates (these lines

are called “characteristics”). Note that the stress and velocity have constant discontinuities

across each characteristic. Figure 4.32 illustrates the following sequence of events:

•

•

2h

h

v

0

Flyer

Target

e

1

e

2

FIGURE 4.31 Normal impact between a fyer and a target plate.

0

0

0

0

c

L

x

1

Flyer back

face

Target back

face

Interface

t

h

2h

Reﬂection

Reﬂection

v

0

v

0

v

0

/2

v

0

/2

v

0

/2

h/c

L

Velocity

v

0

v

0

v

0

(a)

0

0

0

−σ

0

0 0

σ

0

−σ

0

0 0

0 0

c

L

x

1

Flyer back

face

Target back

face

Interface

t

h

2h

Reﬂection

Reﬂection

h/c

L

Stress

(b)

FIGURE 4.32 Characteristic diagrams for wave propagation during normal impact between

a fyer and target plate, showing histories of velocity (a) and stress (b).

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in246 246 9/9/09 7:28:00 PM

Solutions to Simple Boundary and Initial Value Problems ◾ 247

1. Just afer impact, plane pressure waves propagate in opposite directions through the

fyer and target. Behind the traveling wave fronts, both plates have velocity ν

1

= ν

0

/2

and are subjected to a stress state σ

11

= σ

22

= σ

33

= –σ

0

, where σ

0

= ν

0

c

L

/2ρ.

2. At time t = h/c

L

, the wave propagating in the target plate reaches the free surfaces on

the back side of the target. Te wave is refected from the free surface. Behind this

refected wave, the target is stress free and has velocity ν

0

. Te target thereafer con-

tinues to travel at constant speed and remains free of stress indefnitely.

3. At time t = 2h/c

L

, there are two simultaneous events. (1) Te plane wave in the fyer is

refected of the back surface; behind the refected wave, the fyer is stress free and has

zero velocity. (2) Te refected wave in the target reaches the interface. Because the

interface is in compression and the stress merely drops to zero behind the refected

wave, it passes freely through the interface without refection.

4. At time t = 3h/c

L

, the two refected waves in the fyer meet at the midpoint of the fyer.

Tereafer, the region between the two refected waves in the fyer becomes tensile. In

addition, the fyer plate has speed ν

0

/2 between the two wavefronts.

5. At time t = 4h/c

L

, the refected wave from the back surface of the fyer reaches the

interface. Te stress is tensile behind this wave front and, because the interface

between fyer and target cannot support tension, it behaves like a free surface, and the

wave is refected of the interface back into the fyer. At the same time, the refected

wave from the target reaches the back face of the fyer and is refected for a second

time.

6. Tereafer, the target continues to propagate with constant velocity ν

0

, whereas the

fyer contains two plane waves that are repeatedly refected from its two surfaces.

Tese waves efectively cause the fyer to vibrate, while traveling with average speed

ν

0

/2.

Derivation: Te solution can be constructed using the simple 1D solutions given in Sections

4.4.1 and 4.4.6. For example, to fnd the stress and velocity associated with the waves gen-

erated by the initial impact, note the following:

1. At the moment of impact, both fyer and target are subjected to a sudden pressure.

Wave motion in both solids can be analyzed using the solution given in Section

4.4.1.

2. Let Δν

f

, Δν

t

denote the change in velocity of the fyer and target, respectively, as a

result of impact.

3. Let σ

11

= σ

f

and σ

11

= σ

t

denote the horizontal stress component behind the wave-

fronts in the fyer and target just afer impact.

4. From Section 4.4.1, we know that the velocity change and stress are related by

Δν

f

= –ρσ

f

/c

L

Δν

t

= –ρσ

t

/c

L

.

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248 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5. Te target and fyer must have the same velocity at the impact surface. Terefore,

ν

0

– Δν

f

= Δν

t

.

6. Te horizontal stress must be equal in both solids at the impact surface. Terefore,

σ

f

= σ

t

.

7. Te four equations in steps 4–6 can be solved to yield Δν

f

= Δν

t

= ν

0

/2, σ

f

= σ

t

= –σ

0

,

with σ

0

= ν

0

c

L

/2ρ.

Te changes in stress and velocity that occur at each refection can then be deduced using

the results at the end of Section 4.4.6. Alternatively, the (x – t) diagrams can be constructed

directly, by frst drawing all the characteristic lines and then deducing the velocity and

stress in each sector of the diagram by noting that (1) the change in stress and velocity

across each line must be constant, (2) the overall momentum of the solid must be con-

served, and (3) the total energy of the solid must be conserved.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C004.in248 248 9/9/09 7:28:00 PM

249

5

Solutions for Linear

Elastic Solids

In the preceding chapter, we solved some simple linear elastic boundary value problems.

Te problems were trivial, however, in that the stress, strain, and displacement felds were

axially or spherically symmetric. Most problems of practical interest involve fully 3D stress

and displacement felds.

It is extremely dim cult to solve general boundary value problems. However, some of the

best mathematicians over the past 200 years have turned their attention to this matter and

have developed several very elegant techniques. None of these are completely general, but

solutions derived using these techniques have provided invaluable insight into the behav-

ior of deformable solids.

Sadly, these days any fool with a personal computer and a fnite element package can

solve virtually any linear elastic boundary value problem, so you will not be able to make a

living calculating exact elasticity solutions. Nevertheless, some exact solutions are of fun-

damental practical importance. Examples include contact problems, solutions for cracks,

stress concentrations, thermal stress problems, and problems involving defects such as

dislocations in solids. It is worth seeing how such solutions were derived.

In addition, there are some very powerful theorems in linear elasticity (such as the prin-

ciple of minimum potential energy and the reciprocal theorem) that can be used to calcu-

late quantities of interest without necessarily having to solve all the governing equations.

In this chapter, we present a very brief survey of the feld of linear elasticity.

Specifcally,

1. We will outline some important general features of solutions to boundary and initial

value problems.

2. We will discuss some solution techniques and present solutions to selected boundary

value problems of interest.

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250 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3. We will discuss energy methods for solving problems involving linear elastic sol-

ids, including the principle of minimum potential energy, the reciprocal theorem,

and the Rayleigh–Ritz method for estimating natural frequencies of vibrating elastic

solids.

5.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES

5.1.1 Summary of the Governing Equations of Linear Elasticity

Static problems: We already listed the governing equations of linear elasticity in our

discussion of simple axisymmetric problems. Tey are repeated here for convenience.

A representative problem is sketched in Figure 5.1. We are given the following:

1. Te shape of the solid in its unloaded condition R

2. Te initial stress feld in the solid (we will take this to be zero)

3. Te elastic constants for the solid C

ijkl

and its mass density ρ

0

4. Te thermal expansion coem cients α

ij

for the solid and temperature change from the

initial confguration ΔT

5. A body force distribution b (per unit mass) acting on the solid

6. Boundary conditions, specifying displacements u

*

(x) on a portion ∂

1

R or tractions on

a portion ∂

2

R of the boundary of R

With this information, our goal is to calculate displacements, strains, and stresses satisfy-

ing the governing equations of linear elastostatics:

ε σ ε α

ij

i

j

j

i

ij ijkl kl kl

u

x

u

x

C =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= − ∆

1

2

( TT

x

b

u u R n t

ij

i

j

i i ij i j

)

* *

∂

∂

+ =

= ∂ = ∂

σ

ρ

σ

0

2

0

on on

1

RR.

FIGURE 5.1 A representative boundary value problem for an elastic solid.

e

3

e

1

e

2

Original

conﬁguration

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

R

0

S

0

b

t

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 251

Dynamic problems: Dynamic problems are essentially identical, except that the boundary

conditions must be specifed as functions of time, and the initial displacement and velocity

feld must be specifed. In this case, the governing equations are

ε σ ε α

ij

i

j

j

i

ij ijkl kl kl

u

x

u

x

C =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= − ∆

1

2

( TT

x

b

u

t

u u t R

ij

i

j

j

i i ij

)

( )

*

∂

∂

+ =

∂

∂

= ∂

σ

ρ ρ

σ

0 0

2

2

on

1

nn t t R

i j

= ∂

*

( ) . on

2

5.1.2 Alternative Form of the Governing Equations: Navier Equation

Te governing equations can be simplifed by eliminating stress and strain from the

governing equations and solving directly for the displacements. In this case, the linear

momentum balance equation (in terms of displacement) reduces to

C

x

u

x

T b

u

t

ijkl

i

k

i

kl j

j

∂

∂

∂

∂

− ∆

¸

¸

_

,

+ =

∂

∂

α ρ ρ

0 0

2

2

.

For the special case of an isotropic solid with shear modulus μ and Poisson’s ratio v and

uniform temperature ΔT = 0, this equation reduces to

1

1 2

2 2

0

0

2

2

−

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

+ =

∂

∂ ν

u

x x

u

x x

b u

t

k

k i

i

k k

i i

ρ

µ

ρ

µ

..

Tese are known as the Navier (or Cauchy–Navier) equations of elasticity. Te boundary

conditions remain as given in the preceding section.

5.1.3 Superposition and Linearity of Solutions

Te governing equations of elasticity are linear. Tis has two important consequences:

1. Te stresses, strains, and displacements in a solid are directly proportional to the

loads (or displacements) applied to the solid.

2. If you can fnd two sets of displacements, strains, and stresses that satisfy the govern-

ing equations, you can add them to create more solutions.

Tese principles can be illustrated clearly using some of the simple solutions derived

in Section 4.1. For example, examine the solution to the pressurized sphere illustrated in

Figure 5.2. As an example, the radial stress induced by pressure p

a

on the interior and zero

pressure on the exterior surface is

σ

rr

a

p a

b a

b

r

=

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

( )

( )

.

3

3 3

3

2

1

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252 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te radial stress induced by pressure p

b

on the exterior surface with zero pressure on the

interior surface is

σ

rr

b

p b

b a

a

r

= −

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

( )

( )

.

3

3 3

3

3

1

Note that, in both cases, the stress is directly proportional to the pressure. In addition,

to fnd the radial stress by combined pressures p

a

on the interior and p

b

on the exterior

surface, you can just add these two solutions. Additional examples of superposition and

linearity will be given in subsequent sections.

5.1.4 Uniqueness and Existence of Solutions to the Linear Elasticity Equations

Te following results are useful:

1. If only displacements are prescribed on the boundary of the solid, the governing

equations of linear elasticity always have a solution, and the solution is unique.

2. If mixed boundary conditions are specified, a static solution exists and is unique

if the displacements constrain rigid motions. A dynamic solution always exists

and is unique, provided the velocity field and displacement field at time t = 0 are

known.

3. If only tractions are prescribed on the boundary, a static solution exists only if the

tractions are in equilibrium. In this case, the stresses and strains are unique, but the

displacements are not. A dynamic solution always exists and is unique, again, provid-

ing initial conditions are known.

5.1.5 Saint-Venant’s Principle

Saint-Venant’s principle (SVP) is ofen invoked to justify approximate solutions to

boundary value problems in linear elasticity. For example, when we solve problems

involving bending or axial deformation of slender beams and rods in elementary strength

of materials courses, we only specify the resultant forces acting on the ends of a rod or

the magnitudes of point forces acting on a beam; we don’t specify the distribution of

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

b

p

a

p

b

FIGURE 5.2 Spherical shell subjected to internal and external pressure.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 253

traction in detail. We rely on SVP to justify this approach. In this context, the principle

states the following:

Te stresses, strains, and displacements far from the ends of a rod or beam

subjected to end loading depend only on the resultant forces and moments acting

on its ends and do not depend on how the tractions themselves are distributed.

Although SVP is widely used, it turns out to be remarkably dim cult to prove mathemati-

cally. Te dim culty is partly that it is not easy to state the principle itself precisely enough

to apply any mathematical machinery to it. A rigorous statement is given by Sternberg

[1954], among several other versions. Here, we will just illustrate the most common appli-

cations of the principle through specifc examples.

One version of SVP can be stated as follows:

Suppose that we calculate the stress, strain, and displacement induced in a solid

by two diferent traction distributions t

(1)

and t

(2)

that act on some small region of

a solid with characteristic size a. If the tractions exert the same resultant force and

moment, then the stresses, strains, and displacements induced by the two traction

distributions at a distance r from the loaded region are identical for large r/a.

In practice, “large” usually means r/a > 3. Tis principle can be illustrated using a simple

example. Consider a large solid with a fat surface, as shown in Figure 5.3. It is possible to

calculate formulas for the stresses and displacements induced by various pressure distribu-

tions acting on the fat surface; the procedure to do this will be outlined later. For now, we

will compare the stresses induced by the following:

1. A uniform pressure: p r P a r a ( ) / ( ) ; = ≤ π

2

2. A parabolic pressure: p r

P

a

r a r a ( ) ( / ) .

/

= − ≤

3

2

1

2

2 2 1 2

π

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

e

1

e

3

e

2

FIGURE 5.3 Surfaces subjected to uniform and parabolic pressure distributions exerting

equal resultant forces.

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254 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

You can verify for yourself that both pressure distributions exert a resultant force P acting

in the vertical direction on the surface and exert zero moment about the origin. Te varia-

tion of stress down the axis of symmetry ( r x x = + =

1

2

2

2

0 ), expressed in cylindrical-polar

coordinates, can be derived as follows:

Case 1, uniform pressure:

σ

π

σ σ

π

θθ zz rr

P

a

z

a z

P

a

= − −

+

¸

¸

_

,

= = −

2

3

2 2 3 2 2

1

1

( )

/

++

−

+

+

+

+

¸

¸

_

,

2

2

1

2

2 2 1 2

3

2 2 3 2

v v z

a z

z

a z

( )

( ) ( )

/ /

Case 2, parabolic pressure:

σ σ σ

π

θθ zz rr

P

a

a

a z

P

a

z

= −

+

= = − + −

3

2

3

2

1 1

2

2

2 2 2

π

ν

( )

( )

aa

a

z

a

a z

tan

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

+

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

1

2

2 2

1

2

.

Now, to demonstrate SVP, we want to show that the stresses are equal for large z/a. We can

do this graphically. Figure 5.4 compares the variation of vertical and radial stress down the

axis of symmetry with z/a.

Te stresses induced by the two diferent pressures are clearly indistinguishable for z/a > 3.

Tis example helps to quantify what we mean by a large distance. Te second commonly

used application of SVP is a rather vague statement:

A localized geometrical feature with characteristic size R in a large solid only

infuences the stress in a region with size approximately 3R surrounding the feature.

Tis is more a rule of thumb than a precise mathematical statement. It can be illustrated

by looking at specifc solutions. For example, Figure 5.5 shows the von Mises stress con-

•

•

FIGURE 5.4 Variation of stress with depth on the axis of symmetry for the surfaces shown

in Figure 5.3. (a) Vertical stress; (b) radial stress.

z/a

R

a

d

i

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

σ

r

r

π

a

2

/

P

0 1 2 3 4

–1

–0.5

(a) 0

Parabolic

Uniform

z/a

R

a

d

i

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

σ

r

r

π

a

2

/

P

0 2 4 6 8

–1.5

–1

–0.5

(b) 0

Parabolic

Uniform

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 255

tours surrounding a circular hole in a thin rectangular plate that is subjected to extensional

loading (calculated using the FEM). Far from the hole, the stress is uniform. Te contours

deviate from the uniform solution in a region that is about three times the hole radius.

5.2 AIRY FUNCTION SOLUTION TO PLANE STRESS AND

STRAIN STATIC LINEAR ELASTIC PROBLEMS

In this section, we outline a general technique for solving 2D static linear elasticity prob-

lems. Te technique is known as the “Airy stress function” method.

A typical plane elasticity problem is illustrated in Figure 5.6. Te solid is two dimen-

sional, which means either of the following:

1. Te solid is a thin sheet, with small thickness h, and is loaded only in the {e

1

, e

2

}

plane. In this case, the plane stress solution is applicable.

2. Te solid is very long in the e

3

direction and is prevented from stretching parallel to

the e

3

axis, and every cross-section is loaded identically and only in the {e

1

, e

2

} plane.

In this case, the plane strain solution is applicable.

Some additional basic assumptions and restrictions are as follows:

Te Airy stress function is applicable only to isotropic solids. We will assume that the

solid has Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s ratio v, and mass density ρ

0

.

•

FIGURE 5.5 Contours of horizontal stress near a hole in a strip subjected to uniaxial

tension.

e

1

e

3

e

2

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

b

t

FIGURE 5.6 A 2D elastic solid subjected to external forces.

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256 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te Airy stress function can only be used if the body force has a special form.

Specifcally, the requirement is

ρ ρ

0 1

1

0 2

2

3

0 b

x

b

x

b =

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=

Ω Ω

,

where Ω(x

1

, x

2

) is a scalar function of position. Fortunately, most practical body forces

can be expressed in this form, including gravity.

Te Airy stress function approach works best for problems in which a solid is subjected to

prescribed tractions on its boundary rather than prescribed displacements. Specifcally,

we will assume that the solid is loaded by boundary tractions t

1

(x

1

, x

2

), t

2

(x

1

, x

2

), t

3

= 0.

5.2.1 The Airy Solution in Rectangular Coordinates

Te Airy function procedure can then be summarized as follows:

1. Begin by fnding a scalar function ϕ(x

1

, x

2

) (known as the Airy potential) that

satisfes

∇ ≡

∂

∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

4

4

1

4

4

1

2

2

2

4

2

4

1

2 φ

φ φ φ

ρ

x x x x

C

b

(ν)

0

xx

b

x

1

2

2

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

where

C(

(

ν

−ν

− ν

−ν

) =

1

1 2

1

1

Plane Strain)

(Plane Stress s).

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

In addition, ϕ must satisfy the following traction boundary conditions on the surface

of the solid:

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

2

2

2

1

2

1 2

2 1

2

1

2

2

2

1 2

φ φ φ φ

x

n

x x

n t

x

n

x x

nn t

1 2

= ,

where (n

1

, n

2

) are the components of a unit vector normal to the boundary.

2. Given ϕ, the stress feld within the region of interest can be calculated from the

formulas

σ

φ

σ

φ

σ σ

φ

σ

11

2

2

2

22

2

1

2

12 21

2

1 2

33

=

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

− = = −

∂

∂ ∂ x x x x

Ω Ω

==

= +

0

33 11 22

2

(Plane Stress)

(Plane Strain) σ σ σ

σ

ν( )

33 13

0 = = σ .

•

•

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 257

3. If the strains are needed, they may be computed from the stresses using the elastic

stress-strain relations.

4. If the displacement feld is needed, it may be computed by integrating the strains, fol-

lowing the procedure described in Section 2.1.20. An example (in polar coordinates)

is given in Section 5.2.4 below.

Although it is easier to solve for ϕ than it is to solve for stress directly, this is still not a

trivial exercise. Usually, one guesses a suitable form for ϕ, as illustrated below. Tis may

seem highly unsatisfactory, but remember that we are essentially integrating a system of

partial diferential equations. Te general procedure to evaluate any integral is to guess a

solution, diferentiate it, and see whether the guess was correct.

5.2.2 Demonstration That the Airy Solution Satisﬁes the Governing Equations

Recall that, to solve a linear elasticity problem, we need to satisfy the following equations:

Displacement-strain relation: ε

ij

i

j

j

i

u

x

u

x

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

Stress-strain relation: ε σ σ δ

ij ij kk ij

E E

=

+

−

1 ν ν

Equilibrium equation:

∂

∂

+ =

σ

ρ

ij

i

j

x

b

0

0

where we have neglected thermal expansion, for simplicity. We proceed to show that these

equations are satisfed:

1. We show frst that the Airy function satisfes the equilibrium equations automatically.

For plane stress or plane strain conditions, the equilibrium equations reduce to

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ =

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ =

σ σ

ρ

σ σ

ρ

11

1

12

2

0 1

12

1

22

2

0 2

0

x x

b

x x

b 00.

2. Substitute for the stresses in terms of ϕ to see that

∂

∂

∂

∂

−

¸

¸

_

,

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

¸

¸

_

,

+ =

x x x x x

b

1

2

2

2

2

2

1 2

0 1

0

φ φ

ρ Ω

∂∂

∂

∂

∂ ∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

−

¸

¸

_

,

+ =

x x x x x

b

1

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

0 2

0

φ φ

ρ Ω ,,

so that the equilibrium equations are satisfed automatically for any choice of ϕ.

To show that the strain-displacement equation and the strain-displacement equation are

satisfed, we frst compute the strains using the elastic stress-strain equations. Recall that

•

•

•

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258 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

σ β σ σ

33 11 22

= + ν( ),

with β = 0 for plane stress and β = 1 for plane strain. Hence,

ε σ σ δ

ε σ β σ

ij ij kk ij

E E

E E

=

+

−

⇒ =

+

− +

1

1

1

11 11

ν ν

ν ν

ν ( )(

111 22

22 22 11 22

12

1

1

1

+

=

+

− + +

=

+

σ

ε σ β σ σ

ε

)

( )( )

ν ν

ν

E E

νν

E

σ

12

.

Next, recall that the strain-displacement relation is satisfed provided that the strains obey

the compatibility conditions

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂

2

11

2

2

2

22

1

2

2

12

1 2

2

11

3

2

2 0

ε ε ε

ε

x x x x

x

++

∂

∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

2

33

1

2

2

13

1 3

2

22

3

2

2

33

2 0

ε ε

ε ε

x x x

x x

22

2

2

23

2 3

2 0 −

∂

∂ ∂

=

ε

x x

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

2

11

2 3 1

23

1

31

2

12

3

ε ε ε ε

x x x x x x

00

2

22

3 1 2

31

2

12

3

23

1

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

ε ε ε ε

x x x x x x

=

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

0

2

33

1 2 3

12

3

23

1

31

2

ε ε ε ε

x x x x x x

__

,

= 0.

All but the frst of these equations are satisfed automatically by any plane strain or plane

stress feld. We therefore need to show that the Airy representation satisfes the frst equa-

tion. To see this, substitute into the frst compatibility equation in terms of stress to see

that

1

1

2

11

2

2

2

22

1

2

2

1

+ ∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

− + ( )

∂

∂

ν ν

ν

E x x E x

σ σ

β

22

2

2

2

11 22

2

12

1 2

2

1

0 +

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

+ ∂

∂ ∂

=

x E x x

( ) σ σ

σ ν

..

Finally, substitute into this horrible looking equation for stress in terms of ϕ and rearrange

to see that

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

−

+ ( )

+

∂

4

2

4

2

2

2

4

1

4

2

1

2

1

1

φ φ β

x x x x

Ω Ω ν ν

ν

22

1

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

2

2

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

¸

¸

_

,

x x x x

φ φ

Ω ++

∂

∂ ∂

= 2 0

4

1

2

2

2

φ

x x

.

A few more weeks of algebra reduces this to

∂

∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

=

−

− −

∂

4

1

4

4

1

2

2

2

4

2

4 2

1

1 2

φ φ φ β

β x x x x

2

∂ ν

ν ν

2 22

1

2

2

2

2

Ω

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

x x

Ω

.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 259

Tis is the governing equation for the Airy function so, if the governing equation is satis-

fed, then the compatibility equation is also satisfed.

Tis proves that the Airy representation satisfes the governing equations. A second

important question is this: is it possible to fnd an Airy function for all 2D plane stress and

plane strain problems? If not, the method would be useless, because you couldn’t tell ahead

of time whether ϕ existed for the problem you were trying to solve. Fortunately, it is possible

to prove that all properly posed 2D elasticity problems do have an Airy representation.

5.2.3 Airy Solution in Cylindrical-Polar Coordinates

Boundary value problems involving cylindrical regions are best solved using cylindrical-

polar coordinates. It is worth recording the Airy function equations for this coordinate

system.

In a 2D cylindrical-polar coordinate system, a point in the solid is specifed by its radial

distance r x x = +

1

2

2

2

from the origin and the angle θ = tan

−1

x

2

/x

1

. Te solution is inde-

pendent of z. Te Airy function is written as a function of the coordinates as ϕ(r, θ). Vector

quantities (displacement, body force) and tensor quantities (strain, stress) are expressed as

components in the basis {e

r

, e

θ

, e

z

} shown in Figure 5.7.

Te governing equation for the Airy function in this coordinate system is

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

∂

+

2

2 2

2

2

2

1 1 1

r r r r

C

b

r r

r

θ

φ (ν) ρ

0

∂∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

b

θ

θ

C ν

ν

ν

ν

( ) =

−

−

−

1

1 2

(Plane Strain)

1

1

(Plane Stress) ).

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Te state of stress is related to the Airy function by

σ

φ φ

θ

σ

φ

σ

φ

θθ θ rr r

r r r r r r

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

− =−

∂

∂

∂

∂

1 1 1

2

2

2

2

2

Ω Ω

θθ

¸

¸

_

,

.

e

1

e

2

e

3

'

z

r

e

'

e

z

e

r

FIGURE 5.7 Cylindrical-polar coordinate system.

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260 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

In polar coordinates, the strains are related to the stresses by

ε

ε

ε

θθ

θ

rr

r

E

2

1

1 0

1 0

0 0 2

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

+

− −

− −

( ) ν

ν ν

ν ν

¸¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

σ

σ

σ

θθ

θ

rr

r

for plane strain, whereas

ε

ε

ε

θθ

θ

rr

r

E

2

1

1 0

1 0

0 0 2 1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

−

−

+

¸

ν

ν

ν ( )

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

σ

σ

σ

θθ

θ

rr

r

for plane stress. Te displacements must be determined by integrating these strains fol-

lowing the procedure similar to that outlined in Section 2.1.20. To this end, let u = u

r

e

r

+

u

θ

e

θ

denote the displacement vector. Te strain-displacement relations in polar coordi-

nates are

ε ε

θ

ε

θ

θθ

θ

θ

θ θ

rr

r r

r

r

u

r

u

r r

u

r

u u

r

u

r

=

∂

∂

= +

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

1 1

2

1

¸¸

¸

_

,

.

Tese can be integrated using a procedure analogous to that outlined in Section 2.1.20. An

example is given in Section 5.2.5.

In the following sections, we give several examples of Airy function solutions to bound-

ary value problems.

5.2.4 Airy Function Solution to the End-Loaded Cantilever

Consider a cantilever beam, with length L, height 2a, and out-of-plane thickness b, as

shown in Figure 5.8. Te beam is made from an isotropic linear elastic solid with Young’s

modulus E and Poisson’s ratio v. Te top and bottom of the beam x

2

= ± a are traction free,

the lef-hand end is subjected to a resultant force P, and the right-hand end is clamped.

Assume that b < a, so that a state of plane stress is developed in the beam. An approximate

solution to the stress in the beam can be calculated from the Airy function

φ =− +

3

4 4

1 2

3

1 2

3

P

ab

x x

P

a b

x x .

e

1

e

2

P

L

a

a

b

FIGURE 5.8 Cantilever beam subjected to end loading.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 261

You can easily show that this function satisfes the governing equation for the Airy function.

Te stresses follow as

σ

φ

σ

φ

σ

11

2

2

2 3

1 2 22

2

1

2

12

3

2

0 =

∂

∂

− = =

∂

∂

− = =

x

P

a b

x x

x

Ω Ω σσ

φ

21

2

1 2

2

2

2

3

4

1 = −

∂

∂ ∂

= −

¸

¸

_

,

x x

P

ab

x

a

.

To see that this solution satisfes the boundary conditions, note the following:

1. Te top and bottom surfaces of the beam x

2

= ± a are traction free (σ

ij

n

i

=0). Because

the normal is in the e

2

direction on these surfaces, this requires that σ

22

= σ

21

= 0. Te

stress feld clearly satisfes this condition.

2. Te plane stress assumption automatically satisfes boundary conditions on x

3

= ± b/2.

3. Te traction boundary condition on the lef-hand end of the beam (x

1

= 0) was not

specifed in detail: instead, we only required that the resultant of the traction acting

on the surface is −Pe

2

. Te normal to the surface at the lef-hand end of the beam is

in the −e

1

direction, so the traction vector is

t n

P

ab

x

a

i ij i i i

= = − = − −

¸

¸

_

,

σ σ δ δ

12 2

2

2

2

2

3

4

1 .

Te resultant force can be calculated by integrating the traction over the end of the

beam:

F b

P

ab

x

a

dx P

i i i

a

a

= − −

¸

¸

_

,

= −

−

∫

3

4

1

2

2

2

2 2 2

δ δ .

Te stresses thus satisfy the boundary condition. Note that, by SVP, other distribu-

tions of traction with the same resultant will induce the same stresses sum ciently far

(x

1

> 3a) from the end of the beam.

4. Te boundary conditions on the right-hand end of the beam are not satisfed exactly.

Te exact solution should satisfy both u

1

= 0 and u

2

= 0 on x

1

= L. Te displacement

feld corresponding to the stress distribution was calculated in the example problem

in Section 2.1.20, where we found that

u

P

Ea b

x x

P

Ea b

x

P

Ea b

1

3

1

2

2

3

2

3

3

3

4 4

2

3

2

1 = − + + + ( ) ( ) ν ν aa x x c

u

P

Ea b

x x

P

Ea b

x x

2

2 2

2

3

1 2

2

3

1

3

1

3

4 4

− +

= − − + +

ω

ω ν dd,

where c, d, ω are constants that may be selected to satisfy the boundary condition as

far as possible. We can satisfy u

1

= 0 and u

2

= 0 at some, but not all, points on x

1

= L. Te

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in261 261 9/9/09 7:30:45 PM

262 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

choice is arbitrary. Usually the boundary condition is approximated by requiring

u

1

= u

2

= ∂u

2

/∂x

1

= 0 at x

1

= L, x

1

= 0. Tis gives c = 0, d PL Ea b = −

3 3

2 / and

ω = 3 4

2 3

PL Ea b / . By SVP, applying other boundary conditions (including the exact

boundary condition) will not infuence the stresses and displacements sum ciently far

from the end.

5.2.5 2D Line Load Acting Perpendicular to the Surface of an Inﬁnite Solid

As a second example, the stress felds attributable to a line load magnitude P per unit out-

of-plane length acting on the surface of a homogeneous, isotropic half-space can be gener-

ated from the Airy function

φ

π

θ θ =−

P

r sin ,

where (r, θ) are cylindrical polar coordinates illustrated in Figure 5.9. Te formulas in the

preceding section yield

σ

π

θ

σ σ

θθ θ rr r

P

r

=− = =

2

0

cos

.

Te stresses in the {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} basis are

σ

π

σ

π

11

1

3

1

2

2

2 2

22

1 2

2

1

2

2

2

2 2

= −

+

= −

+

P x

x x

P x x

x x ( ) ( )

22

12

1

2

2

1

2

2

2 2

2

σ

π

= −

+

P x x

x x ( )

.

Te method outlined in Section 5.2.3 can be used to calculate the displacements: the

procedure is described in detail below to provide a representative example. For plane strain

deformation, we fnd

u

E

P r

E

P

u

r

= −

−

−

+ − 2 1 1 1 2

2

( )

cos log

( )( )

sin

ν ν ν

π

θ

π

θ θ

θθ

π

θ θ =

−

+

+

−

− + 2 1 1 2 1 2 1

2

( )

sin log sin

( )( ν ν

πΕ

ν

E

P r P

νν)

cos

π

θ θ

E

P

P

r

θ

e

1

e

2

FIGURE 5.9 Line force acting normal to a surface.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 263

to within an arbitrary rigid motion. Note that the displacements vary as log(r) so they are

unbounded at both the origin and infnity. Moreover, the displacements attributable to

any distribution of traction that exerts a nonzero resultant force on the surface will also be

unbounded at infnity.

It is easy to see that this solution satisfes all the relevant boundary conditions. Te

surface is traction free (σ

22

= σ

12

= 0 on x

1

= 0) except at r = 0. To see that the stresses

are consistent with a vertical point force, note that the resultant vertical force exerted by

the tractions acting on the dashed curve shown in Figure 5.9 can be calculated as

F rd

P

r

rd P

rr 1

2

2

2

= = − = −

−

∫

σ θ θ

π

θ

θ θ

π

π

cos

cos

cos .

/

/

−−

∫

π

π

/

/

2

2

Te expressions for displacement can be derived as follows. Substituting the expression

for stress into the stress-strain laws and using the strain-displacement relations yields

ε σ σ

π

θθ rr

r

rr

u

r E

P

E

=

∂

∂

=

+

− − [ ] = −

− ( )

( )

( ) 1

1

2 1

2

ν

ν ν

ν ccos

.

θ

r

Integrate

u

P

E

r f

r r

= −

−

+

2 1

2

( )

cos log( ) ( ),

ν

π

θ θ

where f

r

(θ) is a function of θ to be determined. Similarly, considering the hoop stresses gives

ε σ σ

θθ

θ

θ

θθ

= +

∂

∂

=

+

− − [ ] =

u

r r

u

E

P

r

rr

1 1

1

2 1 ( )

( )

( ν

ν ν

ν ++ν) cos

.

π

θ

E r

Rearrange and integrate with respect to θ :

u

P

E

r f d f

r θ θ

π

θ θ θ =

−

− − +

2 1 ( )

sin [ log( )] ( )

ν

ν ν +( ) 1 (( ), r

∫

where f

θ

(r) is a function of r to be determined. Finally, substituting for stresses into the

expression for shear strain shows that

ε

θ

σ

θ

θ θ

θ r

r

r

r

u u

r

u

r E

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

¸

¸

_

,

=

+

=

1

2

1 1

0

( )

.

ν

Inserting the expressions for displacement and simplifying gives

1 2 1 1 2

r

f

f d

P

r

r

∂

∂

+ +

+ −

¹

,

¹

∫

( )

( )

(

sin

θ

θ

θ θ

π

θ

ν ν )( )

E

¹¹

,

¹

+

∂

∂

−

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

f r

r

f r

r

θ θ

( ) ( )

. 0

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264 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te two terms in parentheses are functions of θ and r, respectively, and so must both

be separately equal to zero to satisfy this expression for all possible values of θ and r.

Terefore,

∂

∂

+ = −

+

2

2

2 1 f

f

P

r

r

( )

( )

( (

cos .

θ

θ

θ

π

θ

ν − ν ) 1 2 )

E

Tis ordinary diferential equation (ODE) has solution

f

P

E

A B

r

( )

(

sin sin cos . θ

π

θ θ θ θ = −

+

+

1 ν − ν )(1 2 )

+

Te second equation gives

∂

∂

− =

f r

r

f r

r

θ θ

( ) ( )

, 0

which has solution f

θ

(r) = Cr. Te constants A, B, and C represent an arbitrary rigid dis-

placement and can be taken to be zero. Tis gives the required answer.

5.2.6 2D Line Load Acting Parallel to the Surface of an Inﬁnite Solid

Similarly, the stress felds attributable to a line load magnitude P per unit out-of-plane

length acting tangent to the surface of a homogeneous, isotropic half-space (Figure 5.10)

can be generated from the Airy function

φ

π

θ θ =−

P

r cos .

Te formulas in the preceding section yield

σ

π

θ

σ σ

θθ θ rr r

P

r

=− = =

2

0

sin

.

P

r

'

e

1

e

2

FIGURE 5.10 Line force acting tangent to a surface.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in264 264 9/9/09 7:30:47 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 265

Te method outlined in the preceding section can be used to calculate the displacements.

Te procedure gives

u

E

P r

E

P

u

r

= −

−

−

+ − 2 1 1 1 2

2

( )

sin log

( )( )

cos

ν ν ν

π

θ

π

θ θ

θθ

π

θ θ =

−

+

+

−

− + 2 1 1 2 1 2 1

2

( )

cos log cos

( )( ν ν

πΕ

ν

E

P r P

νν)

sin

π

θ θ

E

P

to within an arbitrary rigid motion.

Te stresses and displacements in the {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} basis are

σ

π

σ

π

11

1

2

2

1

2

2

2 2

22

2

3

1

2

2

2

2 2

= −

+

= −

+

P x x

x x

P x

x x ( ) ( )

22

12

1 2

2

1

2

2

2 2

2

σ

π

= −

+

P x x

x x ( )

.

5.2.7 Arbitrary Pressure Acting on a Flat Surface

Te principle of superposition can be used to extend the point force solutions to arbitrary

pressures acting on a surface. For example, we can fnd the solution for a uniform pressure

acting on the strip of width 2a on the surface of a half-space by distributing the point force

solution appropriately. Figure 5.11 illustrates the problem to be solved.

Distributing point forces with magnitude p(s)dse

1

+q(s)dse

2

over the loaded region

shows that

σ

π

11

1

2

1 2

1

2

2

2 2

2

= −

+ −

+ −

x x p s x s q s

x x s

( ( ) ( ) ( ))

( ( ) )

dds

x s x p s x s q s

x

A

∫

= −

− + −

+

σ

π

22

2

2

1 2

1

2

2 ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ))

( (( ) )

( )( ( ) ( )

x s

ds

x x s x p s x s

A

2

2 2

12

1 2 1 2

2

−

= −

− + −

∫

σ

π

qq s

x x s

ds

A

( ))

( ( ) )

.

1

2

2

2 2

+ −

∫

p(s)

e

1

e

2

q(s)

FIGURE 5.11 Pressure and traction acting on a surface.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in265 265 9/9/09 7:30:47 PM

266 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5.2.8 Uniform Normal Pressure Acting on a Strip

For the particular case of a uniform pressure, the integrals can be evaluated to show that

σ

π

θ θ θ θ

σ

π

θ

22 1 2 1 2

11 1

2

2 2 2

2

2

=− − + −

( )

=− −

p

p

( ) (sin sin )

( θθ θ θ

σ

π

θ θ

2 1 2

12 1 2

2 2

2

2 2

) (sin sin )

(cos cos ),

− −

( )

= −

p

where 0 ≤ θ

α

≤ π and θ

1

= tan

−1

x

1

/(x

2

– a) θ

2

= tan

−1

x

1

/(x

2

+ a) as shown in Figure 5.12.

5.2.9 Stresses near the Tip of a Crack

Consider an infnite solid that contains a semi-infnite crack on the (x

1

, x

3

) plane, as illus-

trated in Figure 5.13. Suppose that the solid deforms in plane strain and is subjected to

bounded stress at infnity. Te stress feld near the tip of the crack can be derived from the

Airy function

φ

π

θ θ

π

θ

= +

− +

K

r

K

r

I

II

3 2

3 2 3 2

2

3 2

3 2

3 2

/

/

(cos / cos / )

(sin / ssin / ). θ 2

Here, K

I

and K

II

are two constants, known as mode I and mode II stress intensity factors,

respectively. Tey quantify the magnitudes of the stresses near the crack tip, as shown

below. Teir role will be discussed in more detail when we discuss fracture mechanics. Te

stresses can be calculated as

σ

π

θ θ

π

θ

rr

I II

K

r

K

r

= −

¸

¸

_

,

+ − +

2

5

4 2

1

4

3

2 2

5

4 2

cos cos sin

33

4

3

2

2

3

4 2

1

4

3

2

sin

cos cos

θ

σ

π

θ θ

θθ

¸

¸

_

,

= +

¸

¸

_

,

−

K

r

I

KK

r

K

r

II

r

I

2

3

4 2

3

4

3

2

2

1

4 2

1

π

θ θ

σ

π

θ

θ

sin sin

sin

+

¸

¸

_

,

= +

44

3

2 2

1

4 2

3

4

3

2

sin cos cos .

θ

π

θ θ

¸

¸

_

,

+ +

¸

¸

_

,

K

r

II

p

a

a

e

2

e

1

'

2

'

1

FIGURE 5.12 Uniform pressure acting on a strip.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 267

Equivalent expressions in rectangular coordinates are

σ

π

θ θ θ

π

θ

11

2 2

1

2

3

2 2 2

2 = −

¸

¸

_

,

−

K

r

K

r

I II

cos sin sin sin ++

¸

¸

_

,

= +

¸

cos cos

cos sin sin

θ θ

σ

π

θ θ θ

2

3

2

2 2

1

2

3

2

22

K

r

I

¸¸

_

,

+

=

cos sin cos

cos sin

K

r

K

r

II

I

2 2 2

3

2

2 2

12

π

θ θ θ

σ

π

θ θθ θ

π

θ θ θ

2

3

2 2 2

1

2

3

2

cos cos sin sin , + −

¸

¸

_

,

K

r

II

whereas the displacements can be calculated by integrating the strains, with the result

u

K r K r

I II

1

2

2

1 2

2 2 2

2 2 = − −

¸

1

]

1

+ −

µ π

θ θ

µ π

ν ν sin cos ++

¸

1

]

1

= − −

¸

1

cos sin

cos

2

2

2

2 2

2

2 2

2

θ θ

µ π

θ

u

K r

I

ν

]]

1

+ − + +

¸

1

]

1

sin sin cos ,

θ

µ π

θ θ

2 2

1 2

2 2

2

K r

II

ν

where μ and ν denote the shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the solid. Note that this dis-

placement feld is valid for plane strain deformation only. Observe that the stress intensity

factor has the bizarre units of Nm

−3/2

.

5.3 COMPLEX VARIABLE SOLUTION TO PLANE STRAIN

STATIC LINEAR ELASTIC PROBLEMS

Airy functions have been used to fnd many useful solutions to plane elastostatic boundary

value problems. Te method does have some limitations, however. Te biharmonic equa-

tion is not the easiest feld equation to solve, for one thing. Another limitation is that dis-

placement components are dim cult to determine from Airy functions, so that the method

is not well suited to displacement boundary value problems.

In this section, we outline a more versatile representation for 2D static linear elastic-

ity problems, based on complex potentials. Te main goal is to provide you with enough

background to be able to interpret solutions that use the complex variable formulation. Te

techniques to derive the complex potentials are beyond the scope of this book but can be

found in most linear elasticity texts.

σ

θθ

σ

rr σ

rθ

r

θ

e

2

e

1

FIGURE 5.13 Coordinate system near the tip of a crack in an infnite solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in267 267 9/9/09 7:30:48 PM

268 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

A typical plane elasticity problem is illustrated in Figure 5.14. Just as in the preceding

section, the solid is two dimensional, which means that either of the following apply:

1. Te solid is a thin sheet, with small thickness h, and is loaded only in the {e

1

, e

2

}

plane. In this case, the plane stress solution is applicable.

2. Te solid is very long in the e

3

direction and is prevented from stretching parallel to

the e

3

axis, and every cross section is loaded identically and only in the {e

1

, e

2

} plane.

In this case, the plane strain solution is applicable.

Some additional basic assumptions and restrictions are as follows:

Te complex variable method outlined below is applicable only to isotropic solids. We

will assume that the solid has Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s ratio v, and mass density ρ

0

.

We will assume no body forces and constant temperature.

5.3.1 Complex Variable Solutions to Elasticity Problems

Figure 5.15 shows a 2D solid. In the complex variable formalism:

Te position of a point in the solid is specifed by a complex number z = x

1

+ ix

2

.

Te position of a point can also be expressed as z = re

iθ

, where

r x x = +

1

2

2

2

θ =

−

tan / .

1

2 1

x x

•

•

•

•

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

b

t

e

1

e

3

e

2

FIGURE 5.14 A representative plane boundary value problem in linear elasticity.

x

1

ix

2

r

'

FIGURE 5.15 Coordinate system for the complex plane.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 269

You can show that these are equivalent using Euler’s formula e

iθ

= cosθ + i sinθ, which

gives

z re x x i

x x

x

x x

ix

i

= = + +

= +

+

+

θ

θ θ

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

2 1

1

2

2

2

2

(cos sin )

xx x

x ix

1

2

2

2

1 2

+

¸

¸

_

,

= + .

Te displacement of a point is specifed using a second complex number D = u

1

+ iu

2

.

Te displacement and stress felds in rectangular coordinates are generated from two

complex potentials Ω(z) and ω(z), which are diferentiable (also called “analytic” or

“holomorphic”) functions of z (e.g., a polynomial), using the following formulas:

E

v

D v z z z z

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1

3 4

+

= − − − Ω ΩЈ ω

σ σ

σ σ σ

11 22

11 22 12

2

2 2

+ = +

− + = −

( ( ) ( ))

( (

Ω Ω

Ω

Ј Ј

Љ

z z

i z zz z ) ( )). +ωЈ

Here, ΩЈ(z) denotes the derivative of Ω(z) with respect to z, and Ω( ) z denotes the

complex conjugate of Ω(z). Recall that, to calculate the complex conjugate of a com-

plex number, you simply change the sign of its imaginary part, i.e., a ib a ib + = − .

Te displacement and stress in polar coordinates can be derived as

E

v

u iu v z z z z e

r

i

( )

( ) [( ) ( ) ( ) ( )]

1

3 4

+

+ = − − −

−

θ

θ

ω Ω ΩЈ

σ σ

σ σ σ

rr

rr r

z z

i z

+ = +

− + = −

θθ

θθ θ

2

2 2

( ( ) ( ))

( (

Ω Ω

Ω

Ј Ј

Љ zz z e ) ( )) . + ωЈ

− θ 2i

Te formulas given here for displacements and stresses are the most general repre-

sentation, but other special formulas are sometimes used for particular problems.

For example, if the solid is a half-space in the region x

2

≥ 0 with a boundary at

x

2

= 0, the solution can be generated from a single complex potential Ω(z), using

the formulas

2 3 4 µD z z z z z = − + + − ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ν Ω Ω ΩЈ

σ σ

σ σ

11 22

22 12

2 + = +

− = − +

( ( ) ( ))

( ) ( )

Ω Ω

Ω Ω

Ј

Ј Ј

z z

i z z

Ј

(( ) ( ). z z z − ΩЉ

•

•

•

•

•

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270 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

For example, you can use these formulas to calculate stresses from the potentials given in

Sections 5.3.8 through 5.3.12. Te conventional representation gives the same results, of

course.

5.3.2 Demonstration That the Complex Variable Solution

Satisﬁes the Governing Equations

We need to show two things:

1. Tat the displacement feld satisfes the equilibrium equation (Section 5.1.2)

1

1 2

0

2 2

−

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

=

ν

.

u

x x

u

x x

k

k i

i

k k

2. Tat the stresses are related to the displacements by the elastic stress-strain equations.

To do this, we need to review some basic results from the theory of complex variables.

Recall that we have set z = x

1

+ ix

2

, so that a diferentiable function f(z) can be decomposed

into real and imaginary parts, each of which are functions of x

1

, x

2

, as

f z v x x iw x x v

z z

i

z z

i ( ) ( , ) ( , ) , = + =

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

+

1 2 1 2

2 2

ww

z z

i

z z + −

¸

¸

_

,

2 2

, .

Tis shows that

∂

∂

≡

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

≡

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

, z x

i

x z x

i

x

1

2

1

2

1 2 1 2

.

Next, recall that, if f(z) is diferentiable with respect to z, its real and imaginary parts must

satisfy the Cauchy–Riemann equations

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

= −

∂

∂

v

x

w

x

w

x

v

x

1 2 1 2

.

We can then show that the derivative of f(z) with respect to z is zero, and similarly, the deriva-

tive of f z ( ) with respect to z is zero. To see these, use the defnitions and the Cauchy–Riemann

equations

2

1 2 1 2

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+ =

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

f z

z x

i

x

v iw

v

x

w

x

( )

( ) ++

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

i

v

x

w

x

f z

z x

i

x

2 1

1 2

0

2

( )

_

,

− =

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

= ( ) v iw

v

x

w

x

i

v

x

w

x

1 2 2 1

00.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 271

We can now proceed with the proof. Te equilibrium equations for plane deformation

reduce to

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

2

1

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1 2 x x

u

x

u

x

u

x ν

22

2

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

1

1 2

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

∂

∂

∂

x x

u

x

u

ν

11

1

2

2

0

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

x

u

x

.

Tese equations can be written in a combined, complex, form as

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+ +

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

2

1

2

2

2

2

1 2

1 2

1

1 2 x x

u iu

x

i

x

( )

ν

¸¸

¸

_

,

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

u

x

u

x

1

1

2

2

0.

It is easy to show (simply substitute D = u

1

+ iu

2

and use the defnitions of diferentiation

with respect to z and z ) that this can be rewritten as

4

2

1 2

0

2

∂

∂ ∂

+

−

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

z z

D

z

D

z

D

z ν

.

Finally, substituting

D

E

z z z z =

+ ( )

− − − { }

1

3 4

ν

ν ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Ω ΩЈ ω

and noting that ∂ ∂ = Ω/ z 0 and ∂ ∂ = ∂ ∂ = Ω/ / z z ω 0 shows that this equation is indeed

satisfed.

To show that the stress-strain relations are satisfed, note that the stress-strain relations

for plane strain deformation (Section 3.1.4) can be written as

σ σ

11 22

1

1

2

2

1 1 2

+ =

+ −

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

=

E u

x

u

x

E

( )( )

( ν ν 11 1 2

2

1

11 22 12

+ −

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

− + =

ν ν )( )

(

D

z

D

z

i

E

σ σ σ

++

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+ =

+

∂

∂ ν ν )

( )

( )

.

x

i

x

u iu

E D

z

1 2

1 2

2

1

Substituting for D in terms of the complex potentials and evaluating the derivatives gives

the required results.

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272 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5.3.3 Complex Variable Solution for a Line Force in an

Inﬁnite Solid (Plane Strain Deformation)

Figure 5.16 shows a line load with force per unit out-of-plane distance F = F

1

e

1

+ F

2

e

2

acting

at the origin of a large (infnite) solid. Te displacements and stresses are calculated from

the complex potentials

Ω( )

( )

log( ) ( )

( )(

z

F iF

z z

F iF

= −

+

−

=

− +

1 2 1 2

8 1

3 4

π

ω

ν

ν ))

( )

log( ).

8 1 π −ν

z

Te displacements can be calculated from these potentials as

u

F

E

r

1

1

1

8 1

2 3 4 2

1

= −

+

−

− +

{ }

−

( )

( )

( )log( ) cos

( ν

ν

ν

π

θ

++

−

= −

+

−

−

ν

ν

ν

ν

)

( )

sin

( )

( )

(

F

E

u

F

E

2

2

2

8 1

2

1

8 1

2 3 4

π

θ

π

νν

ν

ν

)log( ) sin

( )

( )

cos r

F

E

−

{ }

+

+

−

2

1

8 1

2

1

θ

π

θ

σ

π

θ θ

σ

θθ

rr

r

F F = −

−

−

+ ( )

=

−

3 2

4 1

1 2

4

1 2

ν

ν

ν

( )

cos sin

( )

ππ

θ θ

σ

π

θ

( )

cos sin

( )

( )

1

1 2

4 1

1 2

1

−

+ ( )

=

−

−

ν

ν

ν

r

F F

r

F

r

ssin cos θ θ − ( ) F

2

σ

θ

π

θ

θ

π

11

1 2 2

4 1

1 2 2

4 1

= −

−

− + +

−

F

r

F

r

cos

( )

( cos )

sin

( ) ν

ν

ν

(( cos )

cos

( )

( cos )

1 2 2

4 1

1 2 2

2

22

1 2

− −

= −

−

+ − −

ν

ν

ν

θ

σ

θ

π

θ

F

r

FF

r

F

r

2 2

12

1

4 1

3 2 2

4 1

sin

( )

( cos )

sin

( )

θ

π

θ

σ

θ

π

−

− −

= −

−

ν

ν

ν

(( cos )

cos

( )

( cos ) . 1 2 2

4 1

3 2 2

2 2 2

− + −

−

− − ν

ν

ν θ

θ

π

θ

F

r

We will work through the algebra required to calculate these formulae for displace-

ment and stress as a representative example. In practice, a symbolic manipulation program

makes the calculations painless. To begin, note that

log(z) = log(re

iθ

) = log(r) + iθ

x

1

ix

2

r

'

F

1

F

2

FIGURE 5.16 Line load acting at the origin of an infnite solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in272 272 9/9/09 7:30:51 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 273

and

d

dz

z

z

(log( )) . =

1

Te displacements are thus

E

D z z z z

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) '( )

( )

(

1

3 4

3 4

8 1

+

= − − −

=−

−

−

ν

ν

ν

Ω Ω ω

π νν)

( )log( ) log( ) F iF z F iF z

F iF

1 2 1 2

1 2

8

+ + −

( ) ( )

−

+

π(( )

( )

( )

( )log( )

(

1

2 3 4

8 1

1 2

1

−

=−

−

−

+ −

−

ν

ν

ν

z

z

F iF r

F

π

iiF re

re

F iF

i

i

2

1

8 1

2 3 4

8 1

)

( )

( )

( )

(

π

π

θ

θ

−

=−

−

−

+

−

ν

ν

ν

22

1 2 2

8 1

)log( )

( )

( )

. r

F iF

e

i

−

−

− π

θ

ν

Finally, using Euler’s formula and taking real and imaginary parts gives the answer listed

previously. Similarly, the formulas for stress give

σ σ

π

θθ rr

z z

F iF

z

F

+ = + = −

−

+

+

−

2

1

4 1

1 2 1

( ( ) ( ))

( )

Ω Ω Ј Ј

ν

iiF

z

F iF e F iF e

i i

2 1 2 1 2

4 1

¸

¸

_

,

= −

+ + −

−

−

( ) ( )

(

θ θ

π ν))

( ( ) ( ))

r

i z z z e

e

rr r

i

σ σ σ ω

θθ θ

θ

− + = − +

= −

−

−

2 2

2

2

ΩЉ Ј

ii i

i

F iF

re

r e

F iF

θ θ

θ

π 4 1

3 4

1 2

2 2

1 2

( )

( )(

−

− ( ) + − +

−

ν

ν ))

( )

( )

1

1

4 1

3 4

1 2

re

r

F iF e

i

i

−

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= −

−

− ( ) + −

θ

θ

π ν

ν (( ) . F iF e

i

1 2

+

{ }

− θ

Adding the two formulas for stress shows that

2 2

1

4 1

2 4 1

1 2 1

σ σ

π

θ

θ

rr r

i

i

r

F iF e F + = −

−

− + −

( )

( ) ( )(

ν

ν ++

{ }

−

iF e

i

2

) .

θ

Using Euler’s formula and taking real and imaginary parts of this expression gives the

formulas for σ

rr

and σ

rθ

.

Finally, we need to verify that the stresses are consistent with a point force acting at the

origin. To do this, we can evaluate the resultant force exerted by tractions acting on a circle

enclosing the point force, as shown in Figure 5.17. Because the solid is in static equilibrium,

the total force acting on this circular region must sum to zero. Recall that the resultant

force exerted by stresses on an internal surface can be calculated as

R n = ⋅

∫

σσdA

A

.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in273 273 9/9/09 7:30:52 PM

274 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

A unit normal to the circle is n = cosθ e

1

+ sinθ e

2

; multiplying by the stress tensor (in the

{e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} basis) gives

R rd R

1 11 12

0

2

2 22 12

= + = +

∫

( cos sin ) ( sin c σ θ σ θ θ σ θ σ

π

oos ) . θ θ

π

0

2

∫

rd

Evaluating the integrals shows that R

1

= −F

1

and R

2

= −F

2

, so R + F

1

e

1

+ F

2

e

2

= 0 as

required.

5.3.4 Complex Variable Solution for an Edge Dislocation in an Inﬁnite Solid

A dislocation is an atomic-scale defect in a crystal. Te defect can be detected directly

in high-resolution transmission electron microscope pictures, which can show the posi-

tions of individual atoms in a crystal. Figure 5.18 shows a typical example (an edge dis-

location in a step-graded thin flm of AlGaAsSb; kindly provided by Prof. David Paine of

Brown University, Providence, RI). Te dislocation is not easy to see but can be identifed

by describing a “Burger’s circuit” around the dislocation, as shown by the solid line. Each

straight portion of the circuit connects eight atoms. In a perfect crystal, the circuit would

start and end at the same atom. (Try this for yourself for any path that does not encircle the

x

1

ix

2

r

'

F

1

F

2

FIGURE 5.17 Circular contour enclosing a line load in an infnite solid.

b

FIGURE 5.18 A Burger’s circuit around a dislocation on the interface between a thin flm

and a substrate. Te transmission electron microscope image was provided by Professor

David Paine.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in274 274 9/9/09 7:30:52 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 275

dislocation.) Because the curve encircles the dislocation, it does not start and end on the

same atom. Te “Burger’s vector” for the dislocation is the diference in position vector of

the start and end atom, as shown in Figure 5.18.

A continuum model of a dislocation can be created using the procedure illustrated in

Figure 5.19. Take an elastic solid and cut partway through it. Te edge of the cut defnes

a dislocation line ξ. Next, displace the two material surfaces created by the cut by the

Burger’s vector b and fll in the (infnitesimal) gap. Note that (by convention) the Burger’s

vector specifes the displacement of a point at the end of the Burger’s circuit as seen by an

observer who sits on the start of the circuit, as shown in Figure 5.19.

HEALTH WARNING: Some texts defne the Burger’s vector to be the negative of the

vector defned here, that is to say, the vector pointing from the end of the circuit back to

the start.

A general Burger’s vector has three components: the component b

s

= b · ξ parallel to the

dislocation line is known as the screw component of b, whereas the two remaining compo-

nents b

e

= b − b

s

ξ are known as the edge components of b. Te stress feld induced by the

dislocation depends only on ξ and b and is independent of the cut that created it.

Figure 5.20 illustrates a pure edge dislocation, with line direction parallel to the e

3

axis

and Burger’s vector b = b

1

e

1

+ b

2

e

2

at the origin of an infnite solid. Te displacements and

stresses can be derived from the complex potentials

Ω( )

( )

( )

log( ) ( )

(

z i

E b ib

z z i

E b ib

=−

+

−

=

−

1 2

2

1

8 1 π

ω

ν

22

2

8 1

)

( )

log( ).

π −ν

z

b

ξ

Burger's

circuit

Dislocation line

Burger's

vector

FIGURE 5.19 Burger’s circuit convention used to describe displacement discontinuity for

a dislocation.

'

r

e

1

e

2

b

FIGURE 5.20 Burger’s circuit around an edge dislocation in an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in275 275 9/9/09 7:30:53 PM

276 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te displacement and stresses (in polar coordinates) can be derived from these poten-

tials as

u

b

b r b

1

1

2 2

2

1 2

4 1

1

8 1

= +

−

−

−

−

θ

π π π

ν

ν ν ( )

log( )

( )

( cos22 2

2

1 2

4 1

1

8

1

2

2

1

θ θ

θ

π π

−

= −

−

−

−

b

u

b

b r

sin )

( )

log( )

ν

ν ππ

θ θ

( )

( cos sin )

1

2 2

1 2

−

+

ν

b b

σ σ

θ θ

π

σ

θθ θ rr r

E b b

r

E b

= = −

−

−

=

( sin cos )

( )

( c

1 2

2

1

4 1 ν

oos sin )

( )

θ θ

π

+

−

b

r

2

2

4 1 ν

σ

θ θ

π

θ

11

1

2

2

3 3

8 1

3

= −

+

−

+

+ Eb

r

Eb ( sin sin )

( )

( cos co

ν

ss )

( )

(sin sin )

( )

3

8 1

3

8 1

2

22

1

2

θ

π

σ

θ θ

π

−

= −

−

−

ν

ν

r

Eb

r

++

−

−

= +

+

Eb

r

Eb

2

2

12

1

3 3

8 1

( cos cos )

( )

(cos co

θ θ

π

σ

θ

ν

ss )

( )

(sin sin )

( )

3

8 1

3

8 1

2

2

2

θ

π

θ θ

π −

−

−

− ν ν r

Eb

r

Te displacement components are plotted in Figure 5.21, for a dislocation with b

2

= 0. Te

contours show a sudden jump in u

1

at x

2

= 0, x

1

> 0. (Tis is caused by the term involving

θ in the formula for u

1

; we assumed that 0 < θ < 2π when plotting the displacement con-

tours.) Physically, the plane x

2

= 0, x

1

> 0 corresponds to the “cut” that created the disloca-

tion, and the jump in displacement across the cut is equal to the Burger’s vector.

Contours of stress are plotted in Figure 5.22. Te radial and hoop stresses are compres-

sive above the dislocation and tensile below it, as one would expect. Shear stress is positive

FIGURE 5.21 Displacement felds around an edge dislocation. (a) Horizontal displace-

ments; (b) vertical displacements.

x

1

x

t

–2 0 2

–2

–1

0

1

2

(a)

0.90

0.84

0.78

0.72

0.66

0.60

0.54

0.48

0.42

0.36

0.30

0.24

0.18

0.12

0.06

b

u

1

/b

x

1

x

2

–2 0 2

–2

–1

0

1

2

(b)

0.08

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

–0.01

–0.02

–0.03

–0.04

–0.05

–0.07

–0.08

–0

u

2

/b

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in276 276 9/9/09 7:30:54 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 277

to the right of the dislocation and negative to the lef, again, in concord with our physical

intuition. Te stresses are infnite at the dislocation itself, but of course in this region linear

elasticity does not accurately model material behavior, because the atomic bonds are very

severely distorted.

5.3.5 Cylindrical Hole in an Inﬁnite Solid under Remote Loading

Figure 5.23 shows a circular cylindrical cavity with radius a in an infnite, isotropic linear

elastic solid. Far from the cavity, the solid is subjected to a tensile stress σ

11

= σ

0

, with all

other stress components zero.

Te solution is generated by complex potentials

Ω( ) ( ) . z z

a

z

z z

a

z

a

z

= +

¸

¸

_

,

=

−

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

σ

ω

σ

0

2

0

2 4

3

4

2

2

FIGURE 5.22 Stress distribution around a dislocation. (a) Hoop or radial stress; (b) shear

stress.

x

1

x

2

–2 0 2

–2

–1

0

1

2

(a)

1.75

1.50

1.25

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00

–0.25

–0.50

–0.75

–1.00

–1.25

–1.50

–1.75

4π(1–ν

2

)σ

θθ

/Eb

x

1

x

2

–2 0 2

–2

–1

0

1

2

(b)

1.75

1.50

1.25

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00

–0.25

–0.50

–0.75

–1.00

–1.25

–1.50

–1.75

4π(1–ν

2

)σ

rθ

/Eb

a

e

2

e

1

r

'

FIGURE 5.23 Cylindrical hole in an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in277 277 9/9/09 7:30:55 PM

278 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te displacement and stress state is easily calculated as

u

a

E

r

a

a

r

a

r

a

r

1

0

3

3

1

2

2 1

2

=

+

− +

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

σ

θ

( )

( ) cos

ν

ν

¸¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

+

− −

cos

( )

( ) si

3

1

2

2 1 2

2

0

θ

σ

u

a

E

a

r

ν

ν nn sin sin θ θ θ − + −

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

2 3

3

3

ν

r

a

a

r

a

r

σ σ θ θ

11 0

4

4

2

2

2

2

1

3

2

4

3

2

2 = + −

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

a

r

a

r

a

r

cos cos

¸¸

_

,

= −

¸

¸

_

,

− σ σ θ

22 0

2

2

4

4

2

2

3

2

4

2

a

r

a

r

a

r

cos cos22

3

2

4

2

12 0

4

4

2

2

2

2

θ

σ σ θ

¸

¸

_

,

= −

¸

¸

_

,

−

a

r

a

r

a

r

sin ssin . 2θ

¸

¸

_

,

**5.3.6 Crack in an Inﬁnite Elastic Solid under Remote Loading
**

Figure 5.24 shows a 2D crack with length 2a in an infnite solid, which is subjected to

a uniform state of stress σ σ

22 12

∞ ∞

, at infnity. Te solution can be generated by complex

potentials

Ω( ) ( ) ( )( )

( )

z z i z a z

z

= + − − −

=

∞ ∞ ∞

1

4

1

2

22 22 12

2 2

σ σ σ

ω ΩΩ Ω ( ) ( ) / . z z z z i z − + +

∞ ∞

Ј σ σ

22 12

2

Here, the notation Ω( ) z indicates that you should substitute z into the function Ω and

then take the conjugate of the whole function. Because z gets conjugated twice, Ω( ) z is

actually a function of z. It is an analytic function, and its derivative with respect to z can

be calculated as ΩЈ( ) z .

Some care is required to evaluate the square root in the complex potentials properly

(square roots are multiple valued, and you need to know which value, or “branch,” to use.

a a

e

2

e

1

'

1

'

2

r

2

r

1

r

'

FIGURE 5.24 Slit crack in an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in278 278 9/9/09 7:30:55 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 279

Multiple valued functions are made single valued by introducing a “branch cut” in which

the function is discontinuous. In crack problems, the branch cut is always along the line

of the crack). For this purpose, it is helpful to note that the appropriate branch can be

obtained by setting

z a z a z a r e r e

i i 2 2

1

2

2

2

1 2

− = − + = ( )( ) ,

/ / θ θ

where the angles and distances r

1

, θ

1

and r

2

, θ

2

are shown in Figure 5.24, and the angles

θ

1

and θ

2

must lie in the ranges −π ≤ θ

1

≤ π 0 ≤ θ

2

≤ 2π, respectively.

Te solution is most conveniently expressed in terms of the polar coordinates (r, θ) centered

at the origin, together with the auxiliary angles r

1

, θ

1

and r

2

, θ

2

. If the algebra is correct,

(which is unlikely because the algebra involved in getting these results from the complex

potentials is unbelievably tedious and unfortunately beyond the capabilities of most sym-

bolic manipulation programs), then the displacement and stress felds are

u

r r

E

r

r

1

22 1 2

1 2

1

1

4

4 1 2 2

4 1

=

+

− + −

−

∞

( )

( )cos( )/

( ) ν

ν

ν σ

θ θ

rr

2

cos

θ

¹

,

¹

−− + − − −

¹

,

¹

+

2

2 2 2 2

2

1 2

1 2 1 2

r

r r

(cos( )/ cos( / / ))

θ θ θ θ θ

(( )

( )sin( )/ ( ) s

1

2 1 2 2 2 1

12 1 2

1 2

1 2

+

− + − −

∞

ν

ν ν

σ

θ θ

r r

E

r

r r

iin

s

θ

¹

,

¹

+

r

r r

2

1 2

iin cos( / / )

( )

( )

θ θ θ θ

σ

− −

¹

,

¹

=

+

−

∞

1 2

2

22 1 2

2 2

1

4

8 1 u

r r

E

ν

ν ssin( )/ sin

θ θ θ

1 2

1 2

2

4

+ −

¹

,

¹

νr

r r

(sin( )/ sin( / − + + −

2

2 2

2

1 2

1 2 1

r

r r

θ θ θ θ 22 2

1

1 2 2 2

2

12 1 2

1 2

−

¹

,

¹

+

+

−

( )

+ +

∞

θ

σ

θ θ

/ ))

( )

cos( )/

ν

ν

r r

E

(( ) cos

1

1 2

−

¹

,

¹

ν

r

r r

θ

sin sin( / / ) − − −

¹

,

¹

r

r r

2

1 2

1 2

2 2 θ θ θ θ

σ

σ

θ θ θ θ

11

22

1 2

1 2

2

1 2

2 2 1 3 = − − − −

∞

r

r r

a

r r

cos( / / ) sin sin (θθ θ

σ

θ θ θ

1 2

12

1 2

1 2

2

2 2 2

+

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

+ − −

∞

)/

sin( / /

r

r r

)) sin cos ( )/ − +

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

a

r r

2

1 2

1 2

3 2 θ θ θ

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in279 279 9/9/09 7:30:56 PM

280 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

σ

σ

θ θ θ θ θ

22

22

1 2

1 2

2

1 2

1

2 2 3 = − − +

∞

r

r r

a

r r

cos( / / ) sin sin ( ++

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

+ +

∞

θ

σ

θ θ

2

12

1 2

2

1 2

1

2

3

)/

sin cos (

r

r r

a

r r

θθ

σ

σ

θ θ θ

2

12

22

1 2

2

1 2

1 2

2

3 2

)/

sin cos ( )/

= +

∞

r

r r

a

r r

cos( / / ) sin sin ( + − − + +

∞

σ

θ θ θ θ θ

12

1 2

1 2

2

1 2

1

2 2 3

r

r r

a

r r

θθ

2

2 )/ .

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

5.3.7 Fields near the Tip of a Crack on Bimaterial Interface

Figure 5.25 shows a semi-infnite crack, which lies in the x

1

, x

3

plane, with crack tip aligned

with the x

3

axis. Te material above the crack has shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio μ

1

, v

1

;

the material below the crack has shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio μ

2

, v

2

. In this section,

we give the complex variable solution that governs the variation of stress and displace-

ment near the crack tip. Te solution is signifcant because all interface cracks (regardless

of their geometry and the way the solid is loaded) have the same stress and displacement

distribution near the crack tip.

5.3.7.1 Additional Elastic Constants for Bimaterial Problems

To simplify the solution, we defne additional elastic constants as follows:

1. Plane strain moduli: E v

1 1 1

2 1

Ј

= − µ / ( ), E v

2 2 2

2 1

Ј

= − µ / ( ).

2. Bimaterial modulus:

1 1 1

1 2

E E E

*

. = +

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

Ј Ј

3. Dundurs’ elastic constants:

α β

µ µ

=

−

+

=

− − −

−

E E

E E

1 2

1 2

2 1 1

1 2 1 2

2 1

Ј Ј

Ј Ј

( )/ ( )/

(

ν ν

2

νν ν

2

)/ ( )/

.

µ µ

2 1 1

2 1 + −

σ

θθ

σ

rr

σ

rθ

r

x

2

θ

µ

1

ν

1

µ

2

ν

2

x

1

FIGURE 5.25 Crack on a bimaterial interface.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in280 280 9/9/09 7:30:56 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 281

Evidently, α is a measure of the relative stifness of the two materials. It must lie in

the range −1 < α < 1 for all possible material combinations, with α = 1 signifying

that material 1 is rigid, whereas α = − 1 signifes that material 2 is rigid. Te second

parameter does not have such a nice physical interpretation: it is a rough measure of

the relative compressibilities of the two materials. For Poisson’s ratios in the range

0 < v < 1/2, one can show that −1 < α − 4β < 1.

4. Crack-tip singularity parameter:

ε

π

β

β

=

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

1

2

1

1

log

.

For most material combinations the value of ε is very small—typically of order 0.01

or so.

Te full displacement and stress felds in the two materials are calculated from two sets

of complex potentials:

Ω

1 1 2

1 2 2

1

1 2 2

0 ( )

( )

( ) Im( )

( )/

z

i

K iK z z

i

=

+

−

− >

−

β

ε π

ε

ΩΩ

2 1 2

1 2 2

1

1 2 2

( )

( )

( ) Im( )

( )/

z

i

K iK z z

i

=

−

−

− >

−

β

ε π

ε

00

0

1 2 1

2 1

ω

ω

( ) ( ) ( ) Im( )

( ) ( )

z z z z z

z z z

= − ′ >

= − ′

Ω Ω

Ω Ω

22

0 ( ) Im( ) , z z <

where K

1

and K

2

are parameters that resemble the mode I and mode II stress inten-

sity factors that characterize the crack-tip stresses in a homogeneous solid. In practice,

these parameters are not usually used in fracture criteria for interface cracks; instead,

the crack-tip loading is characterized the magnitude of the stress intensity factor |K|, a

characteristic length L, and a phase angle ψ, defned as

| | tan

Im[( ) ]

Re[( )

K K K

K K L

K iK

i

= + =

+

+

−

1

2

2

2 1 1 2

1 2

ψ

ε

LL

iε

]

.

Tis means that (K

1

+iK

2

)L

iε

= |K|e

iψ

⇒ (K

1

− iK

2

)=|K|e

−iψ

L

iε

. Complete expressions for

the displacement components and stress components at a point r, θ in the solid can be

calculated from these potentials. To simplify the results, it is helpful to note that

cosh( ) ( ) π ε

β

β

β

β

πε πε

= + =

−

+

+

+

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

1

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

e e ==

− +

1

1 1 ( ) ( )

.

β β

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in281 281 9/9/09 7:30:57 PM

282 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Ten, in material 1,

2

2

1

1 2

1 1 2

µ

π ε π ε

ε

( )

| |

cosh( )

u iu

K r

i

r

L

i

+ =

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

(( )

( / ) ( ) ( / ) ( )

3 4

1

2 2

− −

− − − + − −

v e e e e

i i θ ψ ε θ π θ ψ ε θ π

¸

1

]

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

−

¸

¸

_

,

¹

+ −

r

L

i e e

i

i

ε

θ ψ ε θ π

θ sin

( / ) ( ) 2

,,

¹

¹

¹

σ σ

π

β

εθ

ε

θ ψ

11 22

2

2

1 + = +

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

− +

K

r

e

r

L

e

r

i

i

( )

( / )

LL

e

i

i

i

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

− + =

+

ε

θ ψ

σ σ σ

( / ) 2

11 22 12

2

KK e

r

r

L

e e e

i

i

i i

θ

ε

ψ εθ θ

π

β θ ε

2

1 2

2

¸

¸

_

,

+ +

/

( )(cos siin )

( )

/

θ

β

ε

ψ εθ θ

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

¹

,

−

− − −

r

L

e e e

i

i i 2

1

¹¹

¹

¹

,

whereas in material 2,

2

2

1

1 2

2 1 2

µ

πε π ε

ε

( )

| |

cosh( )

u iu

K r

i

r

L

i

+ =

−

¸

¸

_

,

−

(( )

( / ) ( ) ( / ) ( )

3 4

2

2 2

− −

− + − + − +

v e e e e

i i θ ψ ε θ π θ ψ ε θ π

¸

1

]

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

−

¸

¸

_

,

¹

+ +

r

L

i e e

i

i

ε

θ ψ ε θ π

θ sin

( / ) ( ) 2

,,

¹

¹

¹

σ σ

π

β

εθ

ε

θ ψ

11 22

2

2

1 + = −

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

− +

K

r

e

r

L

e

r

i

i

( )

( / )

LL

e

i

i

i

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

− + =

+

ε

θ ψ

σ σ σ

( / ) 2

11 22 12

2

KK e

r

r

L

e e e

i

i

i i

θ

ε

ψ εθ θ

π

β θ ε

2

1 2

2

¸

¸

_

,

− +

/

( )(cos siin )

( )

/

θ

β

ε

ψ εθ θ

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

−

¸

¸

_

,

+

¹

,

−

− − −

r

L

e e e

i

i i 2

1

¹¹

¹

¹

.

Te individual stress components can be determined by adding/subtracting the last

two equations and taking real and imaginary parts. Note that (r/L)

iε

= exp(iεlog

(r/L)) = cos(εlog r/L) + isin(εlogr/L). Features of this solution are discussed in more

detail in Section 9.6.1.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 283

5.3.8 Frictionless Rigid Flat Indenter in Contact with a Half-Space

Figure 5.26 shows a rigid, fat punch with width 2a and infnite length perpendicular to

the plane of the fgure. It is pushed into an elastic half-space with a force F

2

per unit out-of-

plane distance. Te half-space is a linear elastic solid with shear modulus μ and Poisson’s

ratio v. Te interface between the two solids is frictionless.

Te solution is generated from the following complex potentials:

Ω Ω ( ) log

( )

( ) ( z

iF

z z a

id

v

z z =

−

+ −

( )

+

−

= −

2 2 2 2

2 2 1 π

µ

ω )) ( ), − ′ z z Ω

where d

2

is an arbitrary constant, representing an unknown rigid displacement. Note that

the solution is valid only for Im(z)>0.

Stresses and displacements can be determined by substituting for Ω and ω into the

general formulas or, alternatively, by substituting Ω into the simplifed representation for

half-space problems given in Section 5.3.1. Some care is required to evaluate the square

root in the complex potentials, particularly when calculating Ω(z

–

) and Ω′(z

–

). Te solution

assumes that

z a z a z a r e r e

z a z a

i i 2 2

1

2

2

2

2 2

1 2

− = − + =

− = −

( )( )

(

/ / θ θ

))( )

( )( )

/ /

z a r e r e

z a z a z a

i i

+ =

− = − + =

− −

1

2

2

2

2 2

1 2

θ θ

rr e r e

i i

1

2

2

2

1 2

− − θ θ / /

,

where the angles and distances r

1

,θ

1

and r

2

,θ

2

are shown in Figure 5.26, and θ

1

and θ

2

must

lie in the ranges 0 ≤ θ

1

≤ π 0 ≤ θ

2

≤ π.

Te full displacement and stress felds can be determined without dim culty but are too

lengthy to write out in full. However, important features of the solution can be extracted,

such as the following:

a a

e

2

e

1

'

1

'

2 r

2

r

1

F

2

FIGURE 5.26 Rigid fat punch indenting an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in283 283 9/9/09 7:30:58 PM

284 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

1. Contact pressure: Te pressure exerted by the indenter on the elastic solid follows as

p x x x

F

a x

( ) ( , ) .

1 22 1 2

2

2

1

2

0 = − = =

−

σ

π

2. Surface displacement: Te displacement of the surface is

u

F v

x x a d x a

F v

2

2

1 1

2 2

2 1

2

1

1

=

−

−

+ −

( )

+ >

−

−

( )

log

( )

log

πµ

πµ

(( ) . a d x a + <

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

2 1

Note that there is no unambiguous way to determine the value of d

2

. It is tempting,

for example, to attempt to calculate d

2

by assuming that the surface remains fxed at

some point far from the indenter. However, in this case, d

2

increases without limit as

the distance of the fxed point from the indenter increases.

3. Contact stiñness: Te stifness of a contact is defned as the ratio of the force acting

on the indenter to its displacement k

c

= F

2

/u

2

(z=0) and is of considerable interest in

practical applications. Un fortunately, the solution for an infnite solid cannot be used

to estimate the stifness of a 2D contact (the stifness depends on d

2

). Of course, the

stifness of a contact between two fnite-sized elastic solids is well defned, but the

stifness depends on the overall geometry of the two contacting solids and varies as

k

c

= μ /[(1 − v) log(R/a)], where R is a characteristic length comparable with the speci-

men size, and a is the contact width.

5.3.9 Frictionless Parabolic (Cylindrical) Indenter in Contact with a Half-Space

Figure 5.27 shows a rigid, parabolic punch with profle

f(r)= r

2

/(2R)

(and infnite length perpendicular to the plane of the fgure), which is pushed into an elas-

tic half-space by a force F

2

. Tis profle is ofen used to approximate a cylinder with radius

a a

e

2

e

1

θ

1

θ

2 r

2

r

1

F

2

R

FIGURE 5.27 Rigid cylindrical punch indenting an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in284 284 9/9/09 7:30:59 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 285

R. Te interface between the two solids is frictionless and cannot withstand any tensile

stress. Te indenter sinks into the elastic solid so that the two solids make contact over a

fnite region −a < x

1

< a, where

a RF E = 4

2

/

*

π E

*

= E/(1 − v

2

).

Te solution is generated from the following complex potentials:

Ω( ) log( ) z

iF

a

z z a z a z z a

Eid

= − − − + −

{ }

+

2

2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2π 44 1

2

( )

( ) ( ) ( ),

−

= − − ′

v

z z z z ω Ω Ω

where d

2

is an arbitrary constant, representing an unknown rigid displacement. Note that

the solution is valid only for Im(z) > 0. You can use the formulas given at the end of Section

5.3.1 to determine displacements and stress directly from Ω(z). In addition, the formulas

in Section 5.3.8 should be used to determine correct sign for the square root.

Important features of the solution are as follows:

1. Contact pressure: Te pressure exerted by the indenter on the elastic solid follows as

p x x x

F

a

a x ( ) ( , ) .

1 22 1 2

2

2

2

1

2

0

2

=− = = − σ

π

2. Surface displacement: Te vertical displacement of the surface is

u

F

E a

x x a x a x x a

2

2

2

1 1

2 2

1

2 2

1 1

2 2

2

=

− − − + −

( ) { }

+

π

*

log dd x a

F

E a

a x d x a

2 1

2

2

1

2

2 1

2

>

− +

( )

+ <

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

π

*

log( ) .

As discussed in Section 5.3.8, d

2

or the contact stifness cannot be determined

uniquely.

3. Stress held: Te stress feld is

σ

π

11

2

2

2

2 2

2 2

2

2

1 2 = − +

+

+

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

¸

_

F

a

m

x n

m n

x

( )

( )

,,

= − −

+

+

¸

¸

_

,

= − σ

π

σ

22

2

2

2

2 2

2 2

12

2

1

F

a

m

x n

m n

( )

( )

22

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

F

a

n

m x

m n π

( )

( )

−

+

m c c n x c c x c x x c = + = − = − − ( )/ ( )/ ( )

1 2 1 1 2 1

2

1 1

2

2

2

2

2 2 1 == + c x x

1

2

1

2

2

2

4 .

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286 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

4. Critical load required to cause yield: Te elastic limit is best calculated using the

Tresca yield criterion, which gives

F

2

/ a = 2.616Y,

where Y is the tensile yield stress of the solid. To derive this result, note that the

stresses are proportional to F

2

/a. Tis means we can write

σ σ

ij ij i

F a x a =( / )

ˆ

( / ),

2

where

ˆ

σ

ij

is the stress induced at x

i

for a contact with a = 1 subjected to load F

2

= 1.

Te yield criterion can therefore be expressed as

F

a

Y

x x

2

1 2 11 22

2

12

2

4 max (

ˆ ˆ

)

ˆ

,

( , )

σ σ σ − + { }=

where max

(x1,x2)

denotes maximizing with respect to position in the solid. Figure 5.28

shows contours of (

ˆ ˆ

)

ˆ

σ σ σ

11 22

2

12

2

4 − + : the maximum value is approximately 0.3823

and occurs on the symmetry axis at a depth of about 0.78a. Substituting this value

back into the yield criterion gives the result.

5.3.10 Line Contact between Two Nonconformal Frictionless Elastic Solids

Te solution in the preceding section can be generalized to fnd stress and displacement

caused by contact between two elastic solids. Te solution assumes the following:

x

1

/a

x

2

/

a

-2 -1 0 1 2

-3.5

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.36

0.33

0.31

0.29

0.26

0.24

0.21

0.19

0.17

0.14

0.12

0.10

0.07

0.05

0.02

Contact area

a"

e

/F

2

FIGURE 5.28 Contours of von Mises efective stress under a cylindrical contact.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in286 286 9/9/09 7:31:00 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 287

1. Te two contacting solids initially meet at along a line perpendicular to the plane of

the fgure (the line of initial contact lies on the line connecting the centers of curva-

ture of the two solids).

2. Te two contacting solids have radii of curvature R

1

and R

2

at the point of initial con-

tact. A convex surface has a positive radius of curvature; a concave surface (like the

internal surface of a hole) has a negative radius of curvature.

3. Te two solids have Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio E

1

,v

1

and E

2

,v

2

.

4. Te two solids are pushed into contact by a force F

2

.

Te solution is expressed in terms of an efective contact radius and an efective modu-

lus, defned as

R

R R

R R

E

E E

v E v E

=

+

=

− + −

1 2

1 2

1 2

1

2

2 2

2

1

1 1

*

( ) ( )

.

Te contact width and contact pressure can be determined by substituting these values

into the formulas given in the preceding section. Te full stress and displacement feld in

each solid can be calculated from the potential given in the preceding section, by adopting

a coordinate system that points into the solid of interest.

5.3.11 Sliding Contact between Two Rough Elastic Cylinders

Figure 5.29 shows two elastic cylinders with elastic constants E

1

,v

1

,E

2

,v

2

, radii R

1

, R

2

, and

infnite length perpendicular to the plane of the fgure, which are pushed into contact by

a forces F

2

acting perpendicular to the line of contact and F

1

acting parallel to the tangent

plane. Te interface between the two solids has a coem cient of friction f and cannot with-

stand any tensile stress. Te tangential force is sum cient to cause the two solids to slide

b

a

e

2

e

1

'

1 '

2

r

2

r

1

F

2

R

2 F

1

R

1

E

2

(

2

E

1

(

1

FIGURE 5.29 Sliding contact between two elastic solids.

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288 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

against each other, so that F

1

= fF

2

. We give the solution for solid 1 only: the solution for the

second solid can be found by exchanging the moduli appropriately.

Te coordinate system has origin at the initial point of contact between the two solids.

Te two solids make contact over a fnite region −a < x

1

< b, where

a RF E b RF E = + − = − + 4 1 2 1 2 4 1 2 1 2

2 2

( )/ ( ) ( )/ ( )

*

γ π γ γ γ π

**

and

R

R R

R R

E

E E

v E v E

=

+

=

− + −

=

−

1 2

1 2

1 2

1

2

2 2

2

1

1 1

1 2

*

( ) ( )

(

β

vv v

v v

2 2 1 1

2 2 1 1

1 2

2 1 2 1

1 )/ ( )/

( )/ ( )/

µ µ

µ µ

γ

− −

− + −

= −

ππ

β tan ( ).

−1

f

Only the derivatives of the complex potentials for this solution can be found analytically:

they are

′ = −

+

− + − { }

− +

Ω ( )

( )

( ) ( )

/ /

z

f i F

ab

z z a z b

2 1 2 1 2

π

ω

γ γ

′(( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). z z z z z = − ′ − ′′ − ′ Ω Ω Ω

Note that the solution is valid only for Im(z) > 0. You can use the formulas given at the

end of Section 5.3.1 to determine stresses directly from Ω′(z). In addition, the branch of

(z + a)

½ −γ

(z −b)

½ + γ

must be selected so that

( ) ( )

/ / / ( / ) /

z b z a r e r

i

− + =

+ − − − 1 2 1 2

1

1 2 1 2

2

1

1

γ γ γ γ θ 22 1 2

1 2 1 2

1

1 2

2

+ +

+ − −

− + =

γ γ θ

γ γ γ

e

z b z a r

i( / )

/ / /

( ) ( ) ee r e

z b

i i − − + − +

+

−

( / ) / ( / )

/

( ) (

1 2

2

1 2 1 2

1 2

1 2

γ θ γ γ θ

γ

zz a r e r e

i i

+ =

− − − − + −

)

/ / ( / ) / ( / 1 2

1

1 2 1 2

2

1 2 1

1

γ γ γ θ γ 22

2

+γ θ )

,

where the angles and distances r

1

,θ

1

and r

2

,θ

2

are shown in Figure 5.29, and θ

1

and θ

2

must

lie in the ranges 0 ≤ θ

1

≤ π, 0 ≤ θ

2

≤ π.

Important features of the solution are as follows:

1. Contact pressure: Te tractions exerted by the indenter on the elastic solid follow as

p x x x

F

ab f

a x x b

x

( ) ( , )

1 22 1 2

2

2 2

1 1

1

0

2

1

= − = =

+

+ −

+

σ

π β

aa

x b

q x fp x

1

1 12 1

−

¸

¸

_

,

= =

γ

σ ( ) ( ).

In practice, the value of γ is very small (generally less than 0.05), and you can approxi-

mate the solution by assuming that γ = 0 without signifcant error.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 289

2. Approximate expressions for stresses: For γ = 0, the stresses can be written in a

simple form. Te stresses induced by the vertical force are given in Section 5.3.9. Te

stresses induced by the friction force are

σ

π

11

2

2

2

2 2

2 2

1

2

2 2 = − −

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

¸

f F

a

n

x m

m n

x

( )

( )

__

,

= −

−

+

= −

σ

π

σ

π

22

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

12

2

2

2

f F

a

n

m x

m n

f F

a

( )

( )

22

2

2 2

2 2

1 m

x n

m n

−

+

+

¸

¸

_

,

( )

( )

m c c n x c c x c x x c = + = − = − − ( )/ ( )/ ( )

1 2 1 1 2 1

2

1 1

2

2

2

2

2 2 1 == + c x x

1

2

1

2

2

2

4 .

5.3.12 Dislocation near the Surface of a Half-Space

Figure 5.30 shows a dislocation with Burger’s vector b = b

1

e

1

+ b

2

e

2

located at a depth h

below the surface of an isotropic linear elastic half-space, with Young’s modulus E and

Poisson’s ratio v. Te surface of the half-space is traction free.

Te solution is given by the sum of two potentials:

Ω(z) = Ω

0

(z) + Ω

1

(z) ω(z) = ω

0

(z) + ω

1

(z)

where

Ω

0

1 2

2

0

8 1

( )

( )

( )

log( ) ( )

(

z i

E b ib

v

z ih z i

E

= −

+

−

− =

π

ω

bb ib

v

z ih

E b ib

v

1 2

2

1 2

2

8 1 8 1

−

−

− +

+

−

)

( )

log( )

( )

( ) π π

hh

z ih −

is the solution for a dislocation at position z

0

= ih in an infnite solid and

Ω Ω

Ω Ω

1 0 0

1 0 0 0

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

z z z z

z z z z z z

= − ′ −

= ′ − + ′

ω

ω ω ++ ′′ z z

2

0

Ω ( )

corrects the solution to satisfy the traction-free boundary condition at the surface.

Te displacement and stress felds can be computed by substituting Ω and ω into the

standard formulas given in Section 5.3.1 (do not use the half-space representation). A

symbolic manipulation program makes the calculation painless. Most symbolic manipu-

lation programs will not be able to diferentiate the complex conjugate of a function, so the

x

1

x

2

h

FIGURE 5.30 Edge dislocation near the surface of an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in289 289 9/9/09 7:31:01 PM

290 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

derivatives of Ω

1

and ω

1

should be calculated by substituting appropriate derivatives of Ω

0

and ω

0

into the following formulas:

Ω Ω Ω

Ω Ω

Ј Љ Ј Ј

Љ ٞ

1

0

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) (

z z z z z

z z z

= − − −

= −

0 0 0

0

ω

)) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

− −

= + +

2

3

1

Ω

Ω

Љ Љ

Ј Љ Ј Љ

0

0

z z

z z z z z

ω

ω ω ω

0

0 00

( ) ( ). z z z +

2

0

Ωٞ

As an example, the variation of stress along the line x

1

= 0 is given by

σ

π

σ

π

22

1

2

2

2

2

3

2

11

1

1

2

1

=

− + −

=

−

Eb

v

hx

x h x h

Eb

( ) ( ) ( ) ( vv

h x

x h x h

2

2

2

2

3

2

2

) ( ) ( ) + −

σ

π

12

2

2

2

2

2

3

2

1

2

=

−

−

+ −

Eb

v

h x

x h x h ( ) ( ) ( )

.

5.4 SOLUTIONS TO 3D STATIC PROBLEMS IN LINEAR ELASTICITY

Te feld equations of linear elasticity are much more dim cult to solve in three dimensions

than in two dimensions. Nevertheless, several important problems have been solved. In

this section, we outline a common representation for 3D problems and give solutions to

selected 3D problems.

5.4.1 Papkovich–Neuber Potential Representations

for 3D Solutions for Isotropic Solids

In this section, we outline a general technique for solving 3D static linear elasticity prob-

lems. Te technique is similar to the 2D Airy function method, in that the solution is

derived by diferentiating a potential, which is governed by a partial diferential equation.

Many other potential representations are used in 3D elasticity, but most are simply special

cases of the general Papkovich–Neuber representation. Figure 5.31 illustrates a generic lin-

ear elasticity problem. Assume the following:

Te solid has Young’s modulus E, mass density ρ

0

, and Poisson’s ratio v.

Te solid is subjected to body force distribution b

i

(x

1

,x

2

,x

3

) (per unit mass).

•

•

Deformed

conﬁguration

S

R

b

t

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 5.31 Representative boundary value problem for an elastic solid.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 291

Part of the boundary S

1

is subjected to prescribed displacements u

i

*

.

A second part of the boundary S

2

is subjected to prescribed tractions t

i

*

.

Te Papkovich–Neuber procedure can be summarized as follows:

1. Begin by fnding a vector function Ψ

i

(x

1

,x

2

,x

3

) and scalar function ϕ(x

1

,x

2

,x

3

) that satisfy

∂

∂ ∂

= −

∂

∂ ∂

= −

2

0

2

0

Ψ

i

j j

i

k k

i i

x x

b

x x

b x ρ

φ

ρ ,

as well as boundary conditions

2 1 1

4 1

2

1

( )

( )

( )

*

+

+

−

∂

∂

−

¸

¸

_

,

=

∂

v

E v x

x u S

v

i

j

k k i

Ψ Ψ φ on

ΨΨ Ψ Ψ Ψ

k

k

i

i

j

j

i

j k

k

i

x

n v

x x

n x

x ∂

+ −

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂ ∂

( ) 1 2

2

xx

n

x x

n v t S

j

j

i j

j i

+

∂

∂ ∂

= −

2

2

2 1

φ

( ) .

*

on

2. Calculate displacements from the formula

u

v

E v x

x

i i

i

k k

=

+

+

− ( )

∂

∂

−

¸

¸

_

,

2 1 1

4 1

( )

( ) . Ψ Ψ φ

3. Calculate stresses from the formula

2 1 2 1 2 ( ) ( ) − =

∂

∂

+ −

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

v v

x

v

x x

ij

k

k

ij

i

j

j

i

σ δ

Ψ Ψ Ψ

_

,

−

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

x

x x x x

k

k

i j i j

2 2

Ψ φ

.

HEALTH WARNING: Although the displacements and stresses that solve a linear elastic-

ity problem are unique, the Papkovich–Neuber potentials that generate a particular solution are

not. Consequently, if you fnd several diferent sets of potentials in the literature that claim to

solve the same problem, don’t panic. It is likely that they really do solve the same problem.

5.4.2 Demonstration That the Papkovich–Neuber Solution

Satisﬁes the Governing Equations

We need to show two things:

1. Tat the displacement feld satisfes the equilibrium equation (Section 5.1.2)

1

1 2

2 1

2 2

0

−

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

= − +

v

u

x x

u

x x

v

b

E

k

k i

i

k k

i

( ) ; ρ

2. Tat the stresses are related to the displacements by the elastic stress-strain equations.

•

•

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292 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

To show the frst result, diferentiate the formula relating potentials to the displacement to

see that

∂

∂ ∂

=

+

−

−

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

2 2 2

1

2 1

3 4

u

x x

v

E v

v

x x

k

i j

k

i j

( )

( )

( )

Ψ Ψ

jj

k i

i

k j

m

m

k i j k

x x x x

x

x x x x ∂ ∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂ ∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

2 2 2

Ψ Ψ φ

xx x

i j

∂

¸

¸

_

,

.

Substitute this result into the governing equation to see that

1

1 2

1

2 1 1 2

2

2 2

−

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

=

+

− −

v

u

x x

u

x x

v

E v v

k

k i

i

k k

( )

( )( )

(11 2

2 2 3 3

−

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂ ∂ ∂

+

∂

v

x x x x

x

x x x

k

i k

i

k k

m

m

k i k

)

Ψ Ψ Ψ φ

∂∂ ∂ ∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

+

−

−

∂

∂ ∂

−

x x x

v

E v

v

x x

k i k

i

k k

( )

( )

( )

1

2 1

3 4 2

2

Ψ ∂∂

∂ ∂

−

∂

∂ ∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂ ∂

¸

¸

_

,

2 3 3

Ψ Ψ

k

k i

m

m

k i k k i k

x x

x

x x x x x x

φ

.

Finally, substitute the governing equations for the potentials

∂

∂ ∂

= −

∂

∂ ∂

= −

2

0

2

0

Ψ

i

j j

i

k k

i i

x x

b

x x

b x ρ

φ

ρ

and simplify the result to verify that the governing equation is indeed satisfed. Te second

result can be derived by substituting the formula for displacement into the elastic stress-

strain equations and simplifying.

5.4.3 Point Force in an Inﬁnite Solid

Te displacements and stresses induced by a point force P = P

1

e

1

+ P

2

e

2

+ P

3

e

3

acting at the

origin of a large (infnite) elastic solid with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio v are

generated by the Papkovich–Neuber potentials

Ψ

i

i

P

R

= =

4

0

π

φ ,

where R x x

i i

= . Te displacements, strains, and stresses follow as

u

v

E v R

P x x

R

v P

i

k k i

i

ij

=

+

−

+ −

{ }

=

−

( )

( )

( )

(

1

8 1

3 4

1

2

π

ε

++

−

− + −

v

E v R

P x x x

R

P x

R

v

P

k k i j k k ij i

)

( )

( )

8 1

3

1 2

2 3

π

δ xx P x

R

v R

P x x x

R

j j i

ij

k k i j

+

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

=

−

−

+ σ

π

1

8 1

3

2 3

( )

(11 2 −

+ −

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

v

Px P x P x

R

i j j i ij k k

) .

δ

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 293

5.4.4 Point Force Normal to the Surface of an Inﬁnite Half-Space

Figure 5.32 shows a point force P = Pe

3

acting normal to the surface of a semi-infnite solid

with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio ν. Te displacements and stresses in the half-

space are generated by the Papkovich–Neuber potentials

Ψ

i

i

v

R

v v

R x =

−

= −

− −

+

( ) ( )( )

log( ),

1 1 2 1

3

3

δ

π

φ

π

where R x x

k k

= .

Te displacements and stresses follow as

u

v P

E

x x

R

v

R

v

R x

i

i i

i

=

+

+ − −

−

+

( )

( )

( ) 1

2

3 4

1 2

3

3

3

3

3

π

δ

δ ++

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

x

R

i

σ

π

ij

i j

i

P

R

x x x

R

v R x

R R x

x = − +

− +

+ 2

3

1 2 2

2

3

3

3

3

2

( )( )

( )

xx x x x x

v R

R

j ij i j j i

+ − +

( )

¹

,

¹

+

−

+

δ δ δ

3

2

3 3 3

2

1 2

( )

( )

( xx

i j ij

3

2

3 3

)

( )

.

δ δ δ −

¹

,

¹

5.4.5 Point Force Tangent to the Surface of an Inﬁnite Half-Space

Figure 5.33 shows a point force P = Pe

1

acting tangent to the surface of a semi-infnite solid

with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio ν. Te stresses and displacements in the solids

are generated by the Papkovich–Neuber potentials

e

1

P

e

3

R

FIGURE 5.32 Point force acting normal to the surface of an elastic solid.

e

1

P

e

3

R

FIGURE 5.33 Point force acting tangent to the surface of an elastic solid.

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294 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Ψ

i i

i i

P

R x

x

R R x

x x

R R x

=

+

−

+

+

+ 2

3

1

2

2

1

3

1 2 2

3

π

δ

δ δ

( ) ( ) ( ))

( )

( ( ) )

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

= + −

+

2 1

2

1 4 1

1 3

2 1

3

v

x

R

P

v

x

R x

i

δ

φ

π

..

Te displacements and stresses can be calculated from these potentials as

u

P v

ER

x x

R

v

R

R x

Rx

i i

i

=

+

+ + −

+

−

( )

( )

1

2

1 2

1

1 2

2

1

3

1

π

δ

δ δ

ii i

R x

x x

R x

3

3

2

1

3

2

( ) ( ) +

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

σ

π

ij

i j i j

P x x x

R

v

x x x

R R x

x

= − + −

+

+

2

3

1 2

2

1

5

1

3

3

2

1

( )

( )

xx x

R R x

v

i j

i j

2

3

3

3 3

1 1

1 2

( )

( )( )

(

+

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

− −

¸

+ −

δ δ

))

( )

( )

( )

x x R x

R R x

x

i j i j

i 1 3 3

3

3

2

1 1 2 2

1

2 2 +

+

+ − δ δ δ δ

δ

11 1

3

2

2 1 2 2 1

3

2

δ δ δ δ δ

j i j i j

R R x

x

R R x ( )

( )

( ) +

−

+

+

¹

,

¹

¹

,,

¹

1

]

1

( ). no sumon or i j

5.4.6 The Eshelby Inclusion Problem

Te Eshelby problem [Eshelby, 1957] is posed as follows:

1. Consider an infnite, isotropic, linear elastic solid, with (homogeneous) Young’s

modulus and Poisson’s ratio E,v.

2. Te solid is initially stress free, with displacements, strains, and stresses: u

i

= ε

ij

= σ

ij

= 0.

3. Some unspecifed external agency then induces a uniform “transformation strain”

ε

ij

T

inside an ellipsoidal region, with semi-axes (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

) centered at the origin (see

Figure 5.34). Te transformation strain can be visualized as an anisotropic thermal

expansion; if the ellipsoidal region were separated from the surrounding elastic solid,

it would be stress free and would change its shape according to the strain tensor ε

ij

T

.

4. Because the ellipsoid is encapsulated within the surrounding elastic solid, stress,

strain, and displacement felds are induced throughout the elastic solid. Tese felds

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

2

a

1

a

3

FIGURE 5.34 Ellipsoidal inclusion in an infnite solid.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 295

must be defned carefully because the initial confguration for the solid could be cho-

sen in a number of diferent ways. In the following, u

i

will denote the displacement of

a material particle from the initial, unstressed confguration, as the transformation

strain is introduced. Te total strain is defned as

ε

ij

= (∂u

i

/ ∂x

j

+ ∂u

j

/ ∂x

i

)/2.

5. Inside the ellipsoid, the total strain consists of the transformation strain (which does

not induce stress); together with an additional elastic strain ε ε ε

ij ij

T

ij

e

= + . Outside the

ellipsoid, ε ε

ij ij

e

= . Te stress in the solid is related to the elastic part of the strain by

the usual linear elastic equations

σ ε ε δ

ij ij

e

kk

e

ij

E

v

v

v

=

+

+

−

{ }

1 1 2

.

Te Eshelby solution gives full expressions for these felds. It has proved to be one of the

most important solutions in all of linear elasticity: it is of some interest in its own right,

because it provides some insight into the mechanics of phase transformations in crystals.

More importantly, a number of very important boundary value problems can be solved by

manipulating the Eshelby solution. Tese include (1) the solution for an ellipsoidal inclu-

sion embedded within an elastically mismatched matrix, (2) the solution for an ellipsoidal

cavity in an elastic solid, and (3) solutions for circular and elliptical cracks in an elastic

solid. In addition, the Eshelby solution is used extensively in theories that provide esti-

mates of elastic properties of composite materials.

Te displacement feld is generated by Papkovich–Neuber potentials

Ψ

i k

ji

T

j

S

k

i ji

T

x

p n

R

dA x

p

( )

( )

( , )

( ) ( ) = =

∫

v

v

v

4π

φ

ξ

x

nn

R

dA

j

S

( )

( ,

( ),

v

v

v

4π x )

∫

where the integral is taken over the surface of the ellipsoid, n

j

(ξ) denotes the compo-

nents of a unit vector perpendicular to the surface of the ellipsoid (pointing outward),

R x x

k k k k

= − − ( )( ) ξ ξ

, and

p

E

v

v

v

ij

T

ij

T

kk

T

ij

=

+

+

−

{ }

1 1 2

ε ε δ

is the transformation stress (i.e., the stress that would be induced by applying an elastic

strain to the inclusion that is equal to the transformation strain). Te stresses outside the

inclusion can be calculated using the standard Papkovich–Neuber representation given in

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296 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Section 5.4.1. To calculate stresses inside the inclusion, the formula must be modifed to

account for the transformation strain, which gives

2 1 2 1 2 1 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) − = − − +

∂

∂

+ −

∂

v v p v

x

v

ij ij

T k

k

ij

i

σ δ

Ψ Ψ

∂∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

−

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂ x x

x

x x x x

j

j

i

k

k

i j i j

Ψ Ψ

2 2

φ

.

For the general ellipsoid, the expressions for displacement and stress can be reduced to

elliptic integrals, with the following results.

Solution inside the ellipsoid: Remarkably, it turns out that the stresses and strains are

uniform inside the ellipsoid. Te displacements, strains, and stresses can be expressed as

follows:

1. Displacement: u S x

i ijkl ijkl kl

T

j

= + ( )

*

Π ε

2. Strain:

ε ε ε ε

ij ij

e

ij

T

ijkl kl

T

S = + =

*

3. Stress: σ ε δ ε

ij ijkl kl

T

ij ppkl kl

T

E

v

S

v

v

S =

+

+

−

¸

¸

_

,

1 1 2

* *

−− p

ij

T

Here, S

ijkl

*

is a constant called the “Eshelby tensor,” and Π

ijkl

is a second (anonymous) con-

stant tensor. Tese tensors can be calculated as follows. Choose the coordinate system so

that a

1

> a

2

> a

3

. Defne

I

a a a

a a a a

F k E k

1

1 2 3

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

2

4

=

− −

−

π

θ θ

( ) ( )

( ( , ) ( , )))

( ) ( )

( )

I

a a a

a a a a

a a a

3

1 2 3

2

2

3

2

1

2

3

2

2 1

2

3

2 1

4

=

− −

− π

//

( , )

2

1 3

a a

E k −

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

θ

I I I I I I a a i j

ij j i i j 2 1 3

2 2

4 3 = − − = − − ≠ π ( )/ ( ) ( , no su umon i j

I a I I I a I

, )

/ /

11

2

12 13 22

2

23

4 3 4 3 = − − = − π π −− = − − I I a I I

21 33

2

31 32

4 3 π / ,

where

θ = − = − −

−

sin ( / ) ( )/ ( ).

1

3

2

1

2 2

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

2

1 a a k a a a a

and

F k

dw

k w

E k k w dw ( , )

( sin )

( , ) ( sin )

/

/

θ θ =

−

= −

1

1

2 2 1 2

2 2 1 2

0

θθ θ

∫ ∫

0

are elliptic integrals of the frst and second kinds. Ten

S

v

a I

v

v

I S

1111 1

2

11 1 1122

3

8 1

1 2

8 1

3

* *

( ) ( )

=

−

+

−

−

=

π π 88 1

1 2

8 1

3

8 1

2

2

12 1

1133

π π

π

( ) ( )

( )

*

−

−

−

−

=

−

v

a I

v

v

I

S

v

aa I

v

v

I S

a a

v

3

2

13 1 1212

1

2

2

2

1 2

8 1 16 1

−

−

−

=

+

− π π ( ) ( )

*

II

v

v

I I

I I i j

ijij i j

12 1 2

1 2

16 1

8

+

−

−

+

= − ≠

π

π

( )

( )

( )/ Π ..

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 297

Te remaining components of

S

ijkl

*

can be calculated by cyclic permutations of (1,2,3).

Any components that cannot be obtained from these formulas are zero: thus,

S S S

1112 1223 1232

0

* * *

= = = , Π

1112

= 0, etc. Note that S

ijkl

*

has many of the symmetries of the elas-

tic compliance tensor (e.g., S S

ijkl jikl

* *

= ) but does not have major symmetry S S

ijkl klij

* *

≠ .

For certain special shapes, the expressions given for I

k

break down and simplifed for-

mulas must be used:

Oblate spheroid, a

1

> a

2

= a

3

:

I I

a a a

a a

a

a

a

a

a

1 2

1 2 3

1

2

3

2 3 2

1 3

1

3

1

2

1 = =

−

− −

−

π

( )

cos

/

33

2

1

2

1 2

12 21

2

13

3

a

I I a I

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

= = −

/

/ / π 44

Prolate spheroid, a

1

= a

2

> a

3

:

I I

a a a

a a

a

a

a

a

2 3

1 2 3

1

2

3

2 3 2

1

3

1

2

3

2

2

1 = =

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

π

( )

/

−

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

= = −

−

1 2

1 1

3

13 31

2

12

3

/

cosh /

a

a

I I a I π // 4

Sphere, a

1

= a

2

= a

3

. In this case, the Eshelby tensor can be calculated analytically:

S S S

v

v

S S

1111 2222 3333 1212 232

7 5

15 1

* * * *

( )

= = =

−

−

=

33 3131

1122 2233 3311

4 5

15 1

* *

* * *

( )

= =

−

−

= = =

S

v

v

S S S SS S

v

v

1133 3322

5 1

15 1

* *

( )

. = =

−

−

Additional terms follow from the symmetry conditions S

ijkl

= S

jikl

= S

ijlk

= S

jilk

. Te

remaining terms are zero.

Cylinder, a

3

→ ∞. For this case the Eshelby tensor reduces to

S

a v a a a

v a a

S

1111

2 1 2 1

1 2

2

2

2 1

2 1

*

[ ( )( ) ]

( )( )

=

− + +

− +

2222

1 1 2 2

1 2

2

33

2 1

2 1

*

[ ( )( ) ]

( )( )

=

− + +

− +

a v a a a

v a a

S

333

1122

2 1 2

1 2

0

2 1 2

2 1

*

*

[( ) ]

( )( )

=

=

− +

− +

S

a v a va

v a a

22

2211

1 2 1

1 2

2

11

2 1 2

2 1

S

a v a va

v a a

S

*

[( ) ]

( )( )

=

− +

− +

333

2

1 2

3311 2233

1

1

0

1

*

* *

( )( )

( )

=

− +

= =

−

va

v a a

S S

va

v (( )

[( )( ) (

* *

a a

S S

v a a

1 2

3322 1212

1

2

2

2

0

1 1 2

+

= =

− + + − vv a a

v a a

S

a v

v

) ]

( )( )

( )

( )(

*

1 2

1 2

2

1313

2

2 1

2

2 1

− +

=

−

− aa a

S

a v

v a a

1 2

2323

1

1 2

2

2 1 +

=

−

− + )

( )

( )( )

.

*

Additional terms follow from the symmetry conditions S

ijkl

= S

jikl

= S

ijlk

= S

jilk

. Te remaining

terms are zero.

•

•

•

•

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in297 297 9/9/09 7:31:06 PM

298 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Solution outside the ellipsoid: Te solution outside the ellipsoid can also be expressed

in simplifed form: Eshelby [1959] shows that the displacement can be obtained from a

single scalar potential ω (x

i

). For actual calculations, only the derivatives of the potential

are required, which can be reduced to

d

dx

x a a a

l k

E k F k

d

dx

x a

ω

θ θ

ω

1

1 1 2 3

3 2

2

2 1

= − { }

=

( , ) ( , )

aa a

l k k

k F k E k lA k A A

2 3

3 2 2

2

3

2

1 2

ˆ

ˆ

( , ) ( , ) / ( ) θ θ − +

{ }

dd

dx

x a a a

l k

E k lA A A

ω

θ

3

3 1 2 3

3 2

2 1 3

= − { }

ˆ

( , ) / ( )

A a l a a k a a a a k a

i i

= + = − = − − =

2

1

2

3

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

2

λ ( )/ ( )

ˆ

(

22

2

3

2

1

2

3

2

− − a a a )/ ( ),

where λ is the greatest positive root of λ

3

− Lλ

2

+ Mλ − N = 0, with

L r R M a x a a a a a a r R N a

i i

= − = − − − + =

2 2 2

1

2

2

2

2

2

3

2

1

2

3

2 2 2

11

2

2

2

3

2

2

2

1

3

1

3

1 a a

x

a

i

i

i i

−

¸

¸

_

,

= =

∑ ∑

and r x x R a a

k k k k

= = . Additional derivatives can be computed using the relations

dF d l A A A dE d lA A A d dx

i

/ / ( ) / / ( ) / λ λ λ = − = − = 2

1 2 3 2 1

3

3

22

2 2 4

1

3

x Ah h x A

i i i i

i

/ ( ) / . =

=

∑

Te displacements follow as

2 1

1

11 22

1

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

1

2

2

( ) − =

−

−

∂

∂

∂

∂

− v u

a a x

a x

x

a

T T

ε ε ω

xx

x a a x

a x

T T

1

2

33 11

3

2

1

2

3

3

2

1

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

−

∂

∂

∂

∂

ω ε ε ω

xx

a x

x

v v

T T T

3

1

2

3

3

11 11 22

2 1

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

− − + +

ω

ε ε ε ( ) ( )) ( )

{ }

∂

∂

− −

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

∂ ω

ε

ω

ε

ω

x

v

x x

T T

1

12

2

13

3

4 1

ββ

∂x

1

,

where

β

ε ω ω

=

−

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

2 2

12

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

1

2

2

1

T

a a

a x

x

a x

x

2

εε ω ω

ε

23

2

2

3

2

2

2

3

2

3

2

2

3

3

2

T

a a

a x

x

a x

x −

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

11

3

2

1

2

3

2

1

3

1

2

3

1

T

a a

a x

x

a x

x −

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

¸

¸

_

,

ω ω

.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 299

Te remaining displacement components can be calculated by cyclic permutations of

(1,2,3), and strains and stresses can be calculated by diferentiating the displacements

appropriately. Te results are far too complicated to write out in full, and, in practice, the

algebra can only be done with the aid of a symbolic manipulation program. However, some

special results can be reduced to a tractable form.

Displacements far from the ellipsoid, R x x a

k k

= >

1

u

a a a

v R

x x x

R

v

x

i

jk

T

i j k ik

T

=

−

+ −

1 2 3

2 3

8 1

3

1 2

2

( )

( )

ε ε

kk kk

T

i

x

R

−

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

ε

.

Solution outside a spherical inclusion: For this case, the Papkovich–Neuber potentials

can be reduced to

Ψ

i

ik

T

k ij

T

ij

i

a p x

R

a p

R

R a a

x

= = − +

3

3

3

3

2 2 2

3 15

5 3 φ δ ( )

xx

R

j

2

¸

¸

_

,

.

Te displacements and stresses follow as

u

v a

v E

p x p x

R

a

i

ik

T

k kk

T

i

=

+

−

+

−

( )

( )

( )

(

1

2 1

2

15

3 5

3

2

2

RR

p x x x

R

R a

v p x

R

jk

T

j k i ik

T

k 2

7

2 2

3

4 1

3

) ( )

( )

+ − +

−

¹

,

¹

¹¹

,

¹

σ

ij

ij

T

ik

T

a

v R

p

v

a

R

p x

=

−

− ( )+

¸

¸

_

,

+

3

3

2

2

2 1 15

10 1 2 6

( )

(

kk j jk

T

k i

ij kk

T

x p x x

R

v

a

R

p a

R

+

−

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

+

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

15

3

δ

−− −

¸

¸

_

,

+ − −

¸

¸

_

,

−

5 1 2

1 2

2

2

2

( )

( )

v

p x x

R

v

a

R

ij kl

T

k l

δ xx x p x x

R

a

R

x x p

R

a

R

i j kl

T

k l i j kk

T

4

2

2 2

2

2

5 7 1 −

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

,

where R x x

k k

= and p E v v v

ij

T

ij

T

kk

T

ij

= + { } + −

{ }

/ ( ) / ( ) . 1 1 2 ε ε δ

5.4.7 Elastically Mismatched Ellipsoidal Inclusion in an

Inﬁnite Solid Subjected to Remote Stress

Figure 5.35 shows an ellipsoidal inclusion, with semi-axes (a

1

,a

2

,a

3

). Te inclusion is

made from an isotropic, elastic solid with Young’s modulus E

I

and Poisson’s ratio v

I

.

It is embedded in an infnite, isotropic elastic matrix with Young’s modulus E

M

and

Poisson’s ratio v

M

. Te solid is loaded at infnity by a uniform stress state

σ

ij

∞

, strains

ε σ σ δ

ij

M

ij

M

kk ij

M

v v E

∞ ∞ ∞

= + − (( ) )/ 1 , and displacements u x

i ij j

∞ ∞

= ε . Te solution is constructed

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in299 299 9/9/09 7:31:07 PM

300 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

by superposing the Eshelby solution to the uniform stress state. To represent the Eshelby

solution, we introduce the following:

1. Te Eshelby transformation strain: ε

ij

T

2. Te Eshelby tensor: S

ijkl

*

3. Te displacement induced by the Eshelby transformation: u U x

i ikl m kl

T

= ( )ε

4. Te stresses induced by the Eshelby transformation:

σ ε

ij ijkl m kl

T

x = Σ ( )

Te functions S

ijkl

*

U

ikl

and Σ

ijkl

can be calculated using the results given in Section 5.4.6

(the elastic properties of the matrix should be used when evaluating the formulas). Te

solution for the solid containing the inclusion follows as

u U x u x

i ikl m kl

T

i ij ijkl m kl

T

ij

= + = +

∞ ∞

( ) ( ) , ε σ ε σ Σ

where the transformation strain is calculated by solving

( ) ( (

,

C C C C C

ijkl

M

ijkl

I

k l ijpq

M

ijkl

M

ijkl

I

− = − −

∞

ε )) )

*

S

klpq pq

T

ε

for ε

ij

T

. Here,

C

E

v

E v

v

ijkl

M

M

M

il jk ik jl

M M

M

=

+

+ +

+ 2 1 1 ( )

( )

( )(

δ δ δ δ

11 2 − v

M

ij kl

)

δ δ

is the stifness of the matrix, with a similar expression for the stifness of the inclusion.

5.4.8 Spherical Cavity in an Inﬁnite Solid Subjected to Remote Stress

Figure 5.36 shows a spherical cavity with radius a in an infnite, isotropic linear elastic

solid. Far from the cavity, the solid is subjected to a tensile stress σ

33

= σ

0

, with all other

stress components zero.

e

1

e

2

e

3

a

2

a

1

a

3

FIGURE 5.35 Elastically mismatched ellipsoidal inclusion in an infnite solid.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 301

Te solution is generated by potentials

Ψ

i i

v

v

x

a v

R v

v

=

−

+

+

−

−

− ( )

( )

( )

( )

( 1

1

1

7 5

5 1

0

3 3

3

0

3

σ

δ

σ ))

( )

( )

( )

(

2 1 2

5

1

1

3

3 3

0

3

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

=

−

+

v

x x

v v

v

x

i i

δ

φ

σ

22 2

3

0

3

2 2

1

7 5

7 5

2 1 2

− +

−

−

−

−

− + R

a v

R v

v

v

R a )

( )

( )

( )

( )

σ 33

3

2 2

2

x a

R

¸

¸

_

,

.

Te displacements and stresses follow as

u

v

E

v

v

a

R v

a

R

i

=

+

+

−

−

+

−

¸

1 ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

1

2

2

5 5 4

7 5

6

7 5

0

3

3

5

5

σ

]]

1

¸

¸

+

−

+

+

−

−

+

−

x

v

v

v

v

a

R v

a

i 3 3

3

3

5

2

1

5 6

7 5

3

7 5

δ

( )

( )

( ) ( ) RR

x

R

x

i

5

3

2

2

1

5

−

¸

¸

_

,

¸

1

]

1

_

,

σ

σ

δ

ij

ij

i

a

v R

v

a

R

a x

0

3

3

2

2

3

3

2 7 5

3 5 4

3

=

−

− −

¸

¸

_

,

+

( )

xx

v R

v

a

R

x

R

j

i j

2 7 5

6 5 5 10

5

2

2

3

2

2

3 3

( ) −

− − +

¸

¸

_

,

+

δ δ

(( )

( ) ( )

7 5

7 5 5 1 2 3

15

3

3

5

5

3

−

− + − +

¸

¸

_

,

−

v

v v

a

R

a

R

a x

33 3 3

5

2

2

7 5

( )

( )

.

x x

v R

a

R

v

j i i j

δ δ +

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

**Derivation: Tis solution can be derived by superposing two solutions:
**

1. A uniform state of stress σ

ij

= σ

0

δ

i3

δ

j3

, which can be generated from potentials

Ψ

i

= (1 − v)σ

0

x

3

δ

i3

/(1+ v), φ σ = − − + v v x R v ( ) ( )/ ( ). 1 3 1

0 3

2 2

2. Te Eshelby solution for a sphere with transformation stress p A B

ij

T

ij i j

= + δ δ δ

3 3

.

a

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 5.36 Spherical hole in an infnite solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in301 301 9/9/09 7:31:08 PM

302 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te unknown coem cients A and B must be chosen to satisfy the traction-free

boundary condition σ

ij

n

j

= 0 on the surface of the hole R = a. Noting that n

j

= −x

j

/ a

and working through some tedious algebra shows that

A

v v

v v

B

v

=

− −

− −

=

−

−

3 1 5 1

2 7 5 1 2

15 1

7

0 0

σ σ ( )( )

( )( )

( )

( 55v)

.

Substituting back into the Eshelby potentials and simplifying yields the results given. Te

same approach can be used to derive the solution for a rigid inclusion in an infnite solid

subjected to remote stress, as well as the solution to an elastically mismatched spherical

inclusion in an infnite solid.

5.4.9 Flat-Ended Cylindrical Indenter in Contact with an Elastic Half-Space

Figure 5.37 shows a rigid, fat-ended, cylindrical punch with radius a, which is pushed into

the surface of an elastic half-space with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio v by a force

P. Te indenter sinks into the surface by a depth h. Te interface between the contacting

surfaces is frictionless.

Te load is related to the displacement of the punch by

P

Ea

v

h =

−

2

1

2

( )

.

Te solution can be generated from Papkovich–Neuber potentials

Ψ

k

k

Eh

v

R x ia

v E

=

+

+ + { } = −

− 2

1

2 1 2

3

3

δ

π

φ

( )

Im log( )

( )

*

hh

v

x ia R x ia R

( )

Im ( )log( ) ,

* *

1

3 3

+

+ + + − { }

π

where R x x x ia

*

( ) = + + +

1

2

2

2

3

2

,

i = −1

, and Im{z} denotes the imaginary part of z. Te

displacements and stresses follow as

u

h

v

v R x ia

x

R

k k

k

=

−

− + + − +

π

δ

δ

( )

Im ( ) log( )

*

*

1

2 1

3 3

3 3

xx x

R x ia

v

x

R

k k 1 1 2 2

3

3

1 2

δ δ +

+ +

− −

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

* *

σ

π

11

2

3

3

1

2

1

2 1 2

=

−

+

− −

+ +

−

Eh

v

v

R

v x R

R x ia

x

R ( )

Im

/

*

*

* ** *

*

*

( )

(

R x ia

x R x ia

R + +

+

+ + + ¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

3

2

3 3

2

1

1 2

¹¹

=

−

+

− −

+ +

− σ

π

22

2

3

3

2

1

2 1 2 Eh

v

v

R

v x R

R x ia

x

( )

Im

/

*

*

*

22

3

2

3 3

2

1

1 2

R R x ia

x R x ia

R

* *

*

*

( )

(

+ +

+

+ + + ¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹¹

,

¹

=

−

+

+

{ }

= σ

π

σ

33

2

3 3

3

13

1

1 Eh

v R

x ia x

R

Eh

( )

Im

( )

* *

(( )

Im

( )

Im

* *

1 1

2

1 3

3

23

2

2 3

3

−

{ }

=

−

{ }

v

x x

R

Eh

v

x x

R π

σ

π

σσ

π

12

2

1 2

3

3

1

1 2 =

− + +

− − +

Eh

v

x x

R R x ia

v

x

( )

Im

( )

( )

(

* *

22

3

3

R x ia

R R x ia

*

* *

)

( )

.

+ +

+ +

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 303

A symbolic manipulation program can handle the complex arithmetic in these formulas

without dim culty. If you want to fnd analytical formulas for the displacement or stress,

the following expressions are helpful:

R R a i a R R x ia

* *

Im log( ) = + − + + −

( )

+ + { }=

1

2

2 2 2 2 2 2

3

ρ ρ ttan ,

−

+ − +

+ − +

¸

¸

_

,

1

2 2 2

2 2 2

3

2

2

ρ

ρ

a R a

R a x

where R x x R a x a

k k

= = − + ρ ([ ] )

/ 2 2 2

3

2 2 1 4

4 . Important features of these results include

the following:

1. Contact pressure: Te pressure exerted by the indenter on the elastic solid

follows as

p x r x

P

a a r

( ) ( , ) .

1 33 3

2 2

0

2

= − = =

−

σ

π

2. Surface displacement: Te vertical displacement of the surface is

u

h a

r a

r a

h r a

3

1

2 2

2

=

−

>

<

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

−

π

tan

.

3. Contact stiñness: Te stifness of a contact is defned as the ratio of the force acting on

the indenter to its displacement k

c

= P/h and is of interest in practical applications. Te

stifness of a 3D contact is well defned (unlike 2D contacts discussed in Section 5.3)

and is given by k

c

= 2Ea /(1−v

2

). Tis turns out to be a universal relation for any

axisymmetric contact with contact radius a.

x

3

x

1

a

P

h

FIGURE 5.37 Flat-ended cylinder indenting the surface of an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in303 303 9/9/09 7:31:09 PM

304 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5.4.10 Frictionless Contact between Two Elastic Spheres

Tis solution is known as the “Hertz contact problem” afer its author. Figure 5.38 illus-

trates the problem to be solved. Two elastic spheres, with radii R

A

, R

B

and elastic constants

E

A

,v

A

, E

B

,v

B

, initially meet at a point and are pushed into contact by a force P. Te two

spheres deform so as to make contact over a small circular patch with radius a < R

A

, R

B

,

and the centers of the two spheres approach one another by a distance h.

Te solution is conveniently expressed in terms of an efective modulus and radius for

the contact pair:

E

E E

v E v E

R

R R

R R

A B

A B B A

A B

A B

* *

( ) ( )

. =

− + −

=

+ 1 1

2 2

Relations between P,h,a: Te force P, approach of distant points h, and contact area a are

related by

a

PR

E

h

a

R

P

RE

=

¸

¸

_

,

= =

¸

¸

_

,

3

4

9

16

1 3

2 2

2

1 3

*

/

*

/

.

Contact pressure: Te two solids are subjected to a repulsive pressure p r p r a ( ) / = −

0

2 2

1

within the contact area. Te maximum contact pressure is related to the load applied to

the spheres by

p

P

a

PE

R

0

2

2

3 2

1 3

3

2

6

=

¸

¸

_

,

=

¸

¸

_

,

π π

*

/

.

Contact stiñness: Te stifness of a contact is defned as the ratio of the force acting on

the indenter to its displacement k

c

= dP/dh and is of interest in practical applications. Te

stifness of a 3D contact is well defned (unlike 2D contacts discussed in Section 5.4) and

P

R

A

P

R

B

e

1

e

2

e

3

FIGURE 5.38 Contact between two elastic spheres.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in304 304 9/9/09 7:31:10 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 305

is given by k

c

= 2E

*

a. Tis turns out to be a universal relation for any axisymmetric contact

with contact radius a.

Stress held: Te two spheres are subjected to the same contact pressure and are both

assumed to deform like a half-space (with a fat surface). Consequently, the stress feld is

identical inside both spheres and can be calculated from formulas derived by Hamilton

[1983]:

σ φ

11

0

2

1

2

2

2

2

1

1

1 2

3

= +

− ¹

,

¹

¸

− −

−

+

p

a r

x x

r

v N

v

NS ( ) ( 22

2

3

3

1

2

2

2 1

2

3

AN a vMx a

N x vx

Mx x a

S

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

− + −

¹

)

( )

,,

¹

1

]

1

= +

−

− −

−

+ σ φ

22

0

2

2

2

1

2

2

1

1

1 2

3

p

a r

x x

r

v N

v

NS ( ) ( 2 2

2

3

3

2

2

1

2 2

AN a vMx a

N x vx

Mx

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¸

− + −

)

( )

22

3

33

0 3

13

3 1

x a

S

p

a

N

ax M

S

x x p

¹

,

¹

1

]

1

= − +

¸

¸

_

,

= − σ σ

00 3

2 2

23

3 2 0 3

2 2

a

N

S

x H

G H

x x p

a

N

S

x H

G H

−

+

¸

¸

_

,

= − −

+

σ

¸¸

¸

_

,

= − − + + − σ

12

0 1 2

4

2

3

1 2

2

3

2

p x x

ar

v Nr N S A x ( ) ( ) (( ) x N aM a

x

aMr

S

x N aM

3

3

3

2

3

2

3

+ +

{ }

¸

+ − − +

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

1

]

11

,

where

r x x A r x a S A a x M S A N = + = + − = + = + =

1

2

2

2 2

3

2 2 2 2

3

2

4 2 ( )/ (SS A

G M N x M aN H MN aM x N v x

−

= − + − = + + = +

)/

( ) t

2

2 1

2 2

3 3 3

φ aan ( / ).

−1

a M

Te stresses on r = 0 must be computed using a limiting process, with the result

σ σ

11 22

0

3

1

3

3

2

3

2

1

2

= = + − +

+

¸

−

p

a

v x a x a

a

a x

( )( tan ( / ) )

( )

1

]

1

= −

+

σ

33

0

2

2

3

2

p a

a x

.

Conditions to initiate yield: Te material under the contact yields when the maximum

von Mises efective stress σ

e ij ij

S S = 3 2 / reaches the uniaxial tensile yield stress Y. Te

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306 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

location of the maximum von Mises stress can be found by plotting contours of σ

e

/ p

0

as

a function of x

1

/ a,x

3

/ a. For v = 0.3, the maximum value occurs at x

1

= x

2

= 0, x

3

= 0.481a

and has value σ

e

/ p

0

= 0.6200. Yield occurs when p

0

= 1.61Y.

5.4.11 Contact Area, Pressure, Stiffness, and Elastic Limit

for General Nonconformal Contacts

A nonconformal contact has the following properties: (1) the two contacting solids initially

touch at a point or along a line, (2) both contacting solids are smooth in the neighborhood

of the contact, so that their local geometry can be approximated as ellipsoids, and (3) the

size of the contact patch between the two solids is much smaller than either solid.

Complete solutions for such contacts can be found in the work by Bryant and Keer

[1982] or Sackfeld and Hills [1983]. Tese works also account for the efects of friction

under sliding contacts. Te results are lengthy. Here, we give formulas that predict the

most important features of frictionless nonconformal contacts.

Contact geometry: Te geometry of the contacting solids is illustrated in Figure 5.39 and

is characterized as follows:

1. Te principal radii of curvature of the two solids at the point of initial contact are

denoted by ρ ρ

1 2

A A

, ,

ρ ρ

1 2

B B

,

. Te radii of curvature are positive if convex and negative

if concave.

2. Te angle between the principal directions of curvature of the two solids is denoted

by α. Note that, although labels 1 and 2 can be assigned to the radii of curvature

of the two surfaces arbitrarily, α must specify the angle between the two planes

containing the radii ρ

1

A

and ρ

1

B

.

3. Defne the principal relative contact radii R

1

,R

2

as

1

2

1

2

1 1

1 2

1 2

R

A B

R

A B

A

A A

=

+

=

−

= +

ρ ρ

++ +

¸

¸

_

,

= −

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

1 1

1 1 1

1 2

1 2

2

1

ρ ρ

ρ ρ ρ

B B

A A B

B

11

2

1 1 1 1

2

2

1 2 1 2

ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ

B A A B B

¸

¸

_

,

+ −

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

¸

_

,

cos2α

4. Introduce an efective contact radius

R R R

e

=

1 2 .

Elastic constants: Te two contacting solids are isotropic, with Young’s modulus E

A

, E

B

and Poisson’s ratio v

A

,v

B

. Defne the efective modulus

E

E E

v E v E

A B

A B B A

*

( ) ( )

. =

− + − 1 1

2 2

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 307

Contact area: Te area of contact between the two solids is elliptical, with semi-axes a.b, as

shown in Figure 5.40. Te dimensions of the contact area may be calculated as follows:

1. Solve the following equation (numerically) for e b a = − 1

2 2

/ , with 0 ≤ e ≤ 1

R

R

K e E e e

E e K e

2

1

2

1

=

− −

−

( ) ( )/ ( )

( ) ( )

,

where K(e) and E(e) are complete elliptic integrals of the frst and second kind:

K e e d E e e d ( ) [ sin ] ( ) [ sin ]

/ /

= − = −

−

1 1

2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2

θ θ θ θ..

/ /

0

2

0

2 π π

∫ ∫

2. Calculate the contact area from

A ab

PR

E

R

R

e

e

= =

¸

¸

_

,

¸

¸

_

,

−

π π

π

3 1

2 3

2

1

1 3

2

4 *

/

/

/

e

33

2 3

{ ( ) ( )}

/

K e E e −

(Te limit lim

e→0

{K(e)−E(e)}

2 / 3

/e

4 / 3

=(π/4)

2 / 3

is helpful).

3. Te dimensions of the contact patch follow as a A e b A e = − = − / / ( ) / ( )

/ /

π π 1 1

2 1 4 2 1 4

Contact pressure: Te contact pressure distribution is ellipsoidal, with the form

p x x P A x a x b ( , ) ( / ) / / .

1 2 1

2 2

2

2 2

3 2 1 = − −

ρ

1

B

ρ

2

B

ρ

2

A

ρ

1

A

P

P

α

δ

FIGURE 5.39 Contact between two ellipsoidal surfaces.

x

1

x

2

a

b

FIGURE 5.40 Area of contact between two elastic solids.

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308 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Approach of contacting solids: Points distant from the contact in the two solids approach

one another by a displacement

δ

π

= −

3

2

1

2 1 4

P

E A

e K e

*

/

( ) ( ).

Contact stiñness: Te contact stifness is defned as k = dP/dδ and is given by

k

E R P

R

R

K e E e

e

=( )

¸

¸

_

,

− { }

3

2 2

1 3

2

1

1 6

1 3

π

*

/

/

/

( ) ( )

ee K e

2 3 /

( )

.

Elastic limit: Te stresses in both solids are identical, and therefore yield occurs frst in the

solid with the lower yield stress. Figure 5.41 shows the critical load required to cause yield

in a solid with von Mises yield criterion and uniaxial tensile yield stress Y, based on tabular

values in the work of Johnson [1985].

5.4.12 Load Displacement–Contact Area Relations for

Arbitrarily Shaped Axisymmetric Contacts

Te most important properties of general frictionless axisymmetric contacts can be cal-

culated from simple formulas, even when full expressions for the stress and displacement

felds cannot be calculated.

FIGURE 5.41 Critical load required to induce yield under the contact between ellipsoidal

solids.

b/a

3

P

/

2

)

a

b

Y

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 309

Figure 5.42 illustrates the problem to be solved. Assume the following:

1. Te two contacting solids have elastic constants E

1

,v

1

, E

2

,v

2

. Defne an efective elastic

constant as

E

v

E

v

E

*

. =

−

+

−

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

−

1 1

1

2

1

2

2

2

1

2. Te surfaces of the two solids are axisymmetric near the point of initial contact.

3. When the two solids just touch, the gap between them can be described by a mono-

tonically increasing function g(r), where r is the distance from the point of ini-

tial contact. For example, a cone contacting a fat surface would have g(r) = r/tanβ,

where β is the cone angle; a sphere contacting a fat surface could be approximated

using g(r) = r

2

/D, where D is the sphere diameter. In the following, we will use

g′(r) ≡ dg/dr.

4. Te two solids are pushed into contact by a force P. Te solids deform so as to make

contact over a circular region with radius a and move together by a distance h as the

load is applied.

5. Te relationship between h and the contact radius a will be specifed by a functional

relationship of the form h = H(a). Te derivative of this function with respect to its

argument will be denoted by H′(a).

Tese quantities are related by the following formulas:

1. Approach as a function of contact radius: H a a

g

a

d

a

( )

( )

=

′

−

∫

ξ

ξ

ξ

2 2

0

2. Applied force as a function of contact radius: P E aH a H d

a

= −

¸

¸

_

,

∫

2

0

*

( ) ( ) ξ ξ

P

r

g(r)

P

FIGURE 5.42 Contact between two axisymmetric solids.

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310 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

3. Contact stifness:

dP

dh

E a =2

*

4. Contact pressure distribution:

p r

E H

r

d

r

a

( )

( )

*

=

′

−

∫

π

ξ

ξ

ξ

2 2

Once these formulas have been evaluated for a given contact geometry, the results can be

combined to determine other relationships, such as contact radius or stifness as a function

of load or approach h.

5.5 SOLUTIONS TO GENERALIZED PLANE PROBLEMS

FOR ANISOTROPIC LINEAR ELASTIC SOLIDS

Materials such as wood, laminated composites, and single crystal metals are stifer when

loaded along some material directions than others. Such materials are said to be anisotro-

pic and cannot be modeled using the procedures described in the preceding sections. In

this chapter, we describe briefy the most widely used method for calculating elastic defor-

mation and stress in 2D anisotropic solids. As you might expect, these calculations are

dim cult, and, although the solutions can be expressed in a surprisingly compact form, the

resulting expressions can usually only be evaluated using a computer. In many practical

situations, it is simplest to calculate solutions for anisotropic materials using direct numer-

ical computations (e.g., using the FEM, as discussed in Chapters 7 and 8). Nevertheless,

analytical solutions are useful: for example, the FEM cannot easily be applied to problems

involving cracks, dislocations, or point forces because they contain singularities; in addi-

tion, exact calculations can show how the solutions vary parametrically with elastic con-

stants and material orientation.

5.5.1 Governing Equations of Elasticity for Anisotropic Solids

A typical plane elasticity problem is illustrated in Figure 5.43. Te solid is two dimensional:

in this case, we are concerned with plane strain solutions, which means that the solid is very

long in the e

3

direction, and every cross section is loaded identically and only in the {e

1

,e

2

}

plane. Te material is an anisotropic, linear elastic solid, whose properties can be character-

ized by the elasticity tensor C

ijkl

(or an equivalent matrix) as discussed in Chapter 3.

S

R

t e

2

e

1

e

3

Deformed

conﬁguration

FIGURE 5.43 A representative boundary value problem for an elastic solid.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 311

To simplify calculations, we shall assume that (1) the solid is free of body forces, and (2)

thermal strains can be neglected. Under these conditions, the general equations of elastic-

ity listed in Section 5.1.2 reduce to

C

u

x x

ijkl

k

i l

∂

∂ ∂

=

2

0,

subject to the usual boundary conditions. In subsequent discussions, it will be convenient

to write the equilibrium equations in matrix form as

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

x x x

x x x

x x

1 2 3

2 1 3

3 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

xx

c c c c c c

c c

2

11 12 13 14 15 16

12

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

222 23 24 25 26

13 23 33 34 35 36

14 24 34

c c c c

c c c c c c

c c c c

444 45 46

15 25 35 45 55 56

16 26 36 46 56

c c

c c c c c c

c c c c c c

666

1 1

2 2

3 3

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

∂ ∂

∂ ∂

∂ ∂

∂

u x

u x

u x

/

/

/

uu x u x

u x u x

u x u

2 3 3 2

1 3 3 1

1 2 2

/ /

/ /

/ /

∂ +∂ ∂

∂ ∂ +∂ ∂

∂ ∂ +∂ ∂xx

1

0

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

= .

5.5.1.1 Conditions Necessary for Strict Plane Strain Deformation of Anisotropic Solids

For plane strain deformations, the displacement feld has the form u e = + u x x

1 1 2 1

( , )

e u x x

2 1 2 2

( , ) . Under these conditions, the equilibrium equations reduce to

c

u

x

c

u

x

c

u

x x

c

11

2

1

1

2

66

2

1

2

2

16

2

1

1 2

16

2

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

22

2

1

2

26

2

2

2

2

12 66

2

2

1 2

0

u

x

c

u

x

c c

u

x x

c

∂

+

∂

∂

+ +

∂

∂ ∂

= ( )

116

2

1

1

2

26

2

1

2

2

66 12

2

1

1 2

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ +

∂

∂ ∂

u

x

c

u

x

c c

u

x x

( ) ++

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

= c

u

x

c

u

x

c

u

x x

c

66

2

2

1

2

22

2

2

2

2

26

2

2

1 2

2 0

115

2

1

1

2

46

2

1

2

2

56 14

2

1

1 2

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ +

∂

∂ ∂

u

x

c

u

x

c c

u

x x

( ) ++

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ +

∂

∂ ∂

c

u

x

c

u

x

c c

u

x

56

2

2

1

2

24

2

2

2

2

25 46

2

2

1

( )

xx

2

0 = .

In this case, u

αβ

can be chosen to satisfy two, but not all three, of the three equations. Te

elastic constants must satisfy c

11

> 0, c

22

> 0, c

66

> 0. Consequently, the third equation can

only be satisfed by setting

c

15

= c

46

= c

14

= c

56

= c

24

= c

25

= 0.

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312 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Strict plane deformations therefore only exist in a material with elastic constants and ori-

entation satisfying

c c c c

c c c c

c c c c c

11 12 13 16

12 22 33 26

13 23 23 34 35

0 0

0 0

cc

c c c

c c c

c c c c

36

34 44 45

35 45 55

16 26 36 66

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

¸¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

.

Te most common class of crystals, cubic materials, satisfes these conditions for appropri-

ate orientations.

5.5.1.2 Generalized Plane Strain Deformations

A generalized plane strain displacement feld can exist in any general anisotropic crystal.

In this case, the displacement feld has the form

u = u

1

(x

1

,x

2

)e

1

+ u

2

(x

1

,x

2

) e

2

+ u

3

(x

1

,x

2

)e

3

,

i.e., the displacement is independent of position along the length of the cylindrical solid,

but points may move out of their original plane when the solid is loaded.

5.5.2 Stroh Representation for Fields in Anisotropic Solids

Te Stroh solution is a compact, complex variable, representation for generalized plane

strain solutions to elastically anisotropic solids. To write the solution, we need to defne

several new quantities:

1. We defne three new 3 × 3 matrices of elastic constants, as follows:

Q= R=

c c c

c c c

c c c

c

11 16 15

16 66 56

15 56 55

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

66 12 14

66 26 46

56 25 45

66 2

c c

c c c

c c c

c c

¸

1

]

1

1

1

T=

66 46

26 22 24

46 24 44

c

c c c

c c c

¸

1

]

1

1

1

.

2. We introduce three complex valued eigenvalues p

i

(i=1…3) and eigenvectors a

(i)

that

satisfy

[Q + p(R + R

T

) + p

2

T]a

(i)

= 0.

Te eigenvalues can be computed by solving the equation

det [Q + p(R + R

T

) + p

2

T] = 0.

Because Q, R, and T are 3 × 3 matrices, this is a sextic equation for p, with six roots.

It is possible to show that, for a material with physically admissible elastic constants,

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in312 312 9/9/09 7:31:14 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 313

p is always complex, so the six roots are pairs of complex conjugates

( , ) p p

. Each pair

of complex roots has a corresponding pair of complex valued eigenvectors (a, a

–

). We

defne p

i

to be the roots with positive imaginary part and a

(i)

to be the corresponding

eigenvector.

3. To calculate the stresses, it is helpful to introduce three additional vectors b

(i)

defned as

[R

T

+ p

i

T]a

(i)

= b

(i)

.

4. It is ofen convenient to collect the eigenvectors a

(i)

and b

(i)

and the eigenvalues p

i

into

matrices A, B, P as follows:

A ≡

a a a

a a a

a a a

1

1

1

2

1

3

2

1

2

2

2

3

3

1

3

2

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

33

3

1

1

1

2

1

3

2

1

2

2

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

¸

1

]

1

1

1

≡ B

b b b

b b b

22

3

3

1

3

2

3

3

1

2

0 0

0 0

0 0

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

b b b

p

p

p

¸

1

]

1

1

1

≡ P

33

¸

1

]

1

1

1

.

Note also that, as always, although the eigenvalues p

i

are uniquely defned for a partic-

ular set of elastic constants, the eigenvectors a

(i)

(and consequently the vectors b

(i)

) are

not unique, because they may be multiplied by any arbitrary complex number and will

remain eigenvectors. It is helpful to normalize the eigenvectors so that the matrices A and

B satisfy

B A A B I B A A B I

T T T T

, + = + =

where I is the identity matrix.

General representation of displacements: Te displacement u = u

1

(x

1

, x

2

)e

1

+ u

2

(x

1

, x

2

)e

2

+ u

3

(x

1

, x

2

)e

3

at a point (x

1

, x

2

) in the solid is

u a a ( , ) ( ) ( ),

( ) ( )

x x f z f z

i

i i

i

i i

i

1 2

1

3

= +

=

∑

where

p p

i i

,

are the three pairs of complex roots of the characteristic equation, a

(i)

are the

corresponding eigenvalues, z

i

= x

1

+ p

i

x

2

, and f

i

(z

i

) are analytic functions, which are analo-

gous to the complex potentials Ω(z),ω(z) for isotropic solids.

General representation of stresses: Te stresses can be expressed in terms of a vector val-

ued stress function φ (you can think of this as a generalized Airy function) defned as

j = +

=

∑

b b

( ) ( )

( ) ( ).

i

i i

i

i i

i

f z f z

1

3

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314 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te stresses can be calculated from the three components of φ as

σ σ

i

i

i

i

x x

1

2

2

1

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

φ φ

.

Combined matrix representation for displacement and stresses: Te solution for the dis-

placement feld and stress function can be expressed in the form

u A A

B B

f

f

j

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

,

where f ≡ [f

1

(z

1

), f

2

(z

2

), f

3

(z

3

)]

T

.

Simpler representation for stresses and displacements: Te solutions for displacement

and stress can also be expressed as

u = 2Re(Af) ϕ = 2Re(Bf) t

2

= 2Re(Bfʹ) t

1

= − 2Re(BPfʹ),

where Re(z) denotes the real part of z,

t t

1

11

21

31

2

12

22

32

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

=

¸

1

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

σ

]]

1

1

1

1

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

′ =

′

f f

f z

f z

f z

f

1 1

2 2

3 3

( )

( )

( )

11 1

2 2

3 3

( )

( )

( )

,

z

f z

f z

′

′

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

and f Ј(z) ≡ ∂f/∂z.

5.5.3 Demonstration That the Stroh Representation Satisﬁes the Governing Equations

Our frst objective is to show that a displacement feld of the form u

i

= a

i

f(z), with z = x

1

+

px

2

, and (p, a

i

) any one of the eigenvalues p

i

and eigenvectors a

(i)

defned in the preceding

section, satisfy the governing equations

C

u

x x

ijkl

k

i l

∂

∂ ∂

=

2

0.

To see this,

1. Note that ∂z/∂x

i

= δ

i1

+ pδ

i2

, where δ

ij

is the Kronecker delta. Terefore, it follows

that

∂

∂

= +

∂

∂

= +

u

x

a p f z

u

x

a p

k

l

k l l

k

lj

k l l

( ) ( ) ( δ δ δ δ

1 2 1 2

Ј ))( ) ( ). δ δ

j j

p f z

1 2

+ Љ

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 315

2. Substituting this result into the governing equation shows that

C p p a f z

ijkl l l j j k

( )( ) ( ) . δ δ δ δ

1 2 1 2

0 + + = Љ

3. Tis can be rewritten as

( ( ) ) C p C C p C a

i k i k i k i k k 1 1 1 2 2 1

2

2 2

0 + + + =

or in matrix form as

[Q + p(R + R

T

) + p

2

T]a = 0,

where Q, R, and T are the matrices defned in Section 5.5.2. Te eigenvalue/eigenvec-

tor pairs (p, a) satisfy this equation by defnition, which shows that the governing

equation is indeed satisfed.

Our next objective is to show that stresses can be computed from the formulas given in

Section 5.5.2. To see this,

1. Note that the stresses can be obtained from the constitutive equation σ

ij ijkl

k

l

C

u

x

=

∂

∂

.

2. Recall that, for each of the six characteristic solutions, we may obtain displacements

as ∂u

k

/∂x

l

= (δ

l1

+pδ

l2

)a

k

f Ј(z),

so that

σ

i i k i k k ik ik k

C pC a f z Q pR a f z

1 1 1 2

= + ( ) = +

[ ]

1

Ј Ј ( ) ( )

σσ

i i k i k k ki ik k

C pC a f z R pT a f z

2 2 2 2

= + ( ) = +

[ ]

1

Ј Ј ( ) ( )),

where Q, R, and T are the matrices defned in the preceding section.

3. To simplify this result, defne

[R

T

+ pT]a = b [Q + pR]a = c

and note that the governing equations require that

[Q + p(R + R

T

) + p

2

T]a = c + pb = 0.

4. Combining the results of steps 2 and 3 shows that stresses can be computed from

σ

i1

= −pb

i

f Ј(z) σ

i2

= −b

i

f Ј(z).

5. Finally, recall that the stress function ϕ has components φ

i

= b

i

f(z) and ∂z/∂x

i

=

δ

i1

+ pδ

i2

. Consequently, the stresses are related to the stress function by σ

i1

= −∂φ

i

/∂x

2

σ

i2

= ∂ϕ

i

/∂x

1

as required.

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316 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5.5.4 Stroh Eigenvalues and Anisotropy Matrices for Cubic Materials

Because the eigenvalues p for a general anisotropic material involve the solution to a sextic

equation, an explicit general solution cannot be found. Even monoclinic materials (which

have a single symmetry plane) give solutions that are so cumbersome that many symbolic

manipulation programs cannot handle them. Te solution for cubic materials is manage-

able, as long as one of the coordinate axes is parallel to the x

3

direction. If the cube axes

coincide with the coordinate directions, the elasticity matrix reduces to

c c c

c c c

c c c

c

11 12 12

12 11 12

12 12 11

44

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

44

44

c

c

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

,

where

Q R =

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

c

c

c

c

c

11

44

44

12

44

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

00

0 0

0 0

0 0

44

11

44

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

. T

c

c

c

Te characteristic equation therefore has the form

det

c p c p c c

p c c c c p

11

2

44 12 44

12 44 44 11

2

0

0

+ +

+ +

( )

( )

00 0 1

0

44

2

c p ( )

,

+

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

giving

( )( ) 1 1 0

2

2 4 2 11

2

12

2

12 44

11 44

+ + + = =

− −

p p p

c c c c

c c

η η ,,

where

p i p i p i

1 2 3

1

2

2 2

1

2

2 2 = − + + = − − + + = ( ) ( ) . η η η η

For η > 2, the eigenvalues are purely imaginary. Te special case η = 2 corresponds to an

isotropic material.

Te matrices A and B can be expressed as

A =

− + − +

+

p c c p c c

c p c

1 12 44 1 2 12 44 2

11 1

2

4

0 ( )/ ( )/

(

β β

44 1 11 2

2

44 2

0

0 0 1 2

)/ ( )/

( )/

β β c p c

i

+

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 317

BB=

− − c c c p c c c p

p

44 11 12 1

2

1 44 11 12 2

2

2

1

0 ( )/ ( )/

(

β β

cc c p c c c c p c c p

11 44 1

2

11

2

12

2

12 44 1 2 11 44 2

2

+ − − )/ ( β ++ − −

+

¸

1

]

1

1

1

c c c c

i

11

2

12

2

12 44 2

0

0 0 1 2

)/

( )/

β

11

= + − +

( )

β

i i i

c p c p c c c 2

11 11

2

44

2

12 44

2

( ) ( )

5.5.5 Degenerate Materials

Tere are some materials for which the general procedure outlined in the preceding sec-

tions breaks down. We can illustrate this by attempting to apply it to an isotropic material.

In this case, we fnd that p

1

= p

2

= p

3

= i, and there are only two independent eigenvectors

a associated with the repeated eigenvalue p

i

. In addition, if you attempt to substitute mate-

rial constants representing an isotropic material into the formulas for A and B given in the

preceding section, you will fnd that the terms in the matrices are infnite.

Te physical signifcance of this degeneracy is not known. Although isotropic materi-

als are degenerate, isotropy does not appear to be a necessary condition for degeneracy,

because fully anisotropic materials may exhibit the same degeneracy for appropriate values

of their stifnesses.

Choi, Shin, and Earmme [2003] have found a way to rewrite the complex variable for-

mulation for isotropic materials into a form that is identical in structure to the Stroh for-

mulation. Tis approach is very useful, because it enables us to solve problems involving

interfaces between isotropic and anisotropic materials, but it does not provide any fun-

damental insight into the cause of degeneracy, nor does it provide a general fx for the

problem.

In many practical situations, the problems associated with degeneracy can be avoided by

rewriting the solution in terms of special tensors (to be defned below), which can be com-

puted directly from the elastic constants, without needing to determine A and B.

5.5.6 Fundamental Elasticity Matrix

Te vector [a

(i)

, b

(i)

] and corresponding eigenvector p

i

can be shown to be the right eigen-

vectors and eigenvalues of a real, unsymmetric matrix known as the fundamental elasticity

matrix, defned as

N

N N

N N

N T R N T N RT R Q =

¸

1

]

1

= − = = −

− − −

1 2

3 1

1

1

2

1

3

1

T

T T

,,

where the matrices Q, R, and T are the elasticity matrices defned in Section 5.5.2. Similarly,

[b

(i)

, a

(i)

] can be shown to be the lef eigenvector of N.

To see this, note that the expressions relating vectors a and b

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318 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

[R

T

+ pT]a = b [Q + pR]a = −pb

can be expressed as

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

Q 0

R I

a

b

R I

T 0

a

b

T

p .

Because T is positive defnite and symmetric, its inverse can always be computed. Terefore,

we may write

0 T

I RT

R I

T 0

I 0

0 I

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

,

and therefore

0 T

I RT

Q 0

R I

a

b

a

b

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

1

1

T

p

¸

1

]

1

.

Tis is an eigenvalue equation, and multiplying out the matrices gives the required result.

Te second identity may be proved in exactly the same way. Note that

b a b a

0

T

0

T

[ ]

− −

¸

1

]

1

=

[ ]

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

0 I

Q R

I

R

I

R

p

T

T 11

−

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1 − −

,

I

R

I

I

0

T T

0

0

1 1 T

so

b a

0 I

Q R

I 0

T R T

b a

¸

1

]

− −

¸

1

]

1

−

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

] − − 1 1 T

p ,,

again, giving the required answer.

For nondegenerate materials, N has six distinct eigenvectors. A matrix of this kind is

called simple. For some materials, N has repeated eigenvalues but still has six distinct

eigenvectors. A matrix of this kind is called semi-simple. For degenerate materials, N does

not have six distinct eigenvectors. A matrix of this kind is called non-semi-simple.

5.5.7 Orthogonal Properties of Stroh Matrices A and B

Te observation that [a

(i)

, b

(i)

] and [b

(i)

, a

(i)

] are right and lef eigenvectors of N has an

important consequence. If the eigenvalues are distinct (i.e., the material is not degenerate),

the lef and right eigenvectors of a matrix are orthogonal. Tis implies that

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 319

[ ]

[

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

b a

a

b

b

i i

j

j

i

i j

¸

1

]

1

1

= ≠ 0

] [ ]

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

(

a

a

b

b a

a

i

j

j

i i

¸

1

]

1

1

=

jj

j

)

( )

.

b

¸

1

]

1

1

= 0

In addition, the vectors can always be normalized so that

[ ]

.

( ) ( )

( )

( )

b a

a

b

i i

i

i

¸

1

]

1

1

=1

If this is done, we see that the matrices A and B must satisfy

B A

B A

A A

B B

I 0

0 I

T T

T T

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

.

Clearly, the two matrices are inverses of each other, and therefore we also have that

A A

B B

B A

B A

I 0

0 I

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

T T

T T

.

Tese results give the following relations between A and B:

B A A B B A A B AB AB BA BA

B A A B B

T T T T T T T T

T T T

+ = + = + = + =

+ =

I

AA A B AA AA BB BB + = + = + =

T T T T T

0.

5.5.8 Barnett–Lothe Tensors and the Impedance Tensor

In this section, we defne four important tensors that can be calculated from the Stroh

matrices A and B. Specifcally, we introduce the following:

Te Barnett–Lothe tensors: S = i(2AB

T

−I) H = 2iAA

T

L = −2iBB

T

Te impedance tensor with properties: M = −iBA

−1

M

−1

= iAB

−1

B = iMA

Te following relations between the Barnett–Lothe tensors and the impedance tensor are

also useful:

M = −iBA

−1

= H

−1

+iH

−1

S M

−1

= iAB

−1

= L

−1

+ iSL

−1

.

Many solutions can be expressed in terms of S, H, and L directly, rather than in terms

of A and B. In addition, Barnett and Lothe devised a procedure for computing S, H, and L

•

•

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320 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

without needing to calculate A and B (see Section 5.5.11). Consequently, these tensors can

be calculated even for degenerate materials.

As an example, for cubic materials, with coordinate axes aligned with coordinate

directions,

M=

− −

+

−

+

γ

ic c c

c c

ic c c

c c

44 11 12

11 44

44 11 12

11

0

( )

( )

444

11 44 11 12

0

0 0 1

γ γ

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

− c c c c ( )(( )

.

c c c

c c

11 44 12

11 44

2 + +

+

5.5.9 Useful Properties of Matrices in Anisotropic Elasticity

We collect below various useful algebraic relations between the various matrices that were

introduced in the preceding sections.

By defnition, a matrix M satisfying M M

T

= is Hermitian. A matrix satisfying M M

T

=−

is skew-Hermitian:

B A

T

is skew-Hermitian. To see this, note that the orthogonality relations for A and

B require that B A A B

T T

+ = 0.

i

T

B A is Hermitian. Tis follows trivially from the preceding expression.

M and

M

−1

are both Hermitian. To see this, note M B B A B = −

−

( ) i

T T 1

M =

−1

A A B A

−

( ) i

T T 1

and use the preceding result.

Te matrices i i B B A A

− −

−

1 1

and are Hermitian. To show the frst expression, note

that i i

T

T

T

B B B

BB

B B L B

−

−

−

=

( )

=

1

1

1

2

and recall that L is real. A similar technique

shows the second.

i i B B A A

− −

−

1 1

and are both orthogonal matrices. To see this for the frst matrix, note

that i i

T

T T T T

B B B B B BB B B BB B

− − − − − −

( )

= − = =

1 1 1 1

I,

where we have used the orthog-

onality properties of B. A similar procedure shows the second result.

Te Barnett–Lothe tensors are real (i.e., they have zero imaginary part). To see this,

note that the orthogonality of A and B (see Section 5.5.7) implies that

AB AB I AA AA BB BB

T T T T T T

+ = + = = = 0.

Terefore, AA

T

and BB

T

are pure imaginary, whereas the real part of AB

T

= 1/2I.

•

•

•

•

•

•

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 321

Te impedance tensor can be expressed in terms of the Barnett–Lothe tensors as

M = − iBA

−1

= H

−1

+iH

−1

S M

−1

= iAB

−1

= L

−1

+ iSL

−1

.

To see the frst result, note that BA

−1

= (AB

T

)

T

(AA

T

)

−1

and use the defnitions of H

and S. Te second result follows in the same way. Note that H, L, and S are all real,

so this gives a decomposition of M and its inverse into real and imaginary parts. In

addition, because we can compute the Barnett–Lothe tensors for degenerate materi-

als, M can also be determined without needing to compute A and B explicitly.

H

−1

S + S

T

H

−1

= 0 SL

−1

+ L

−1

S

T

= 0. To see these, note that M and its inverse are

Hermitian and that the imaginary part of a Hermitian matrix is skew symmetric and

use the preceding result.

BP N A N B = +

3 1

T

, where P = diag(p

1

, p

2

, p

3

). To see this, recall that the fundamental

elasticity tensor satisfes

N N

N N

a

b

a

b

1 2

3 1

T

i

i

i

i

i

p

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

( )

( )

( )

( )

11

]

1

⇒

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

N N

N N

A

B

A 0

0 B

P

P

1 2

3 1

T

1

]

1

.

Te second row of this equation is

N A N B BP

3 1

+ =

T

.

5.5.10 Basis Change Formulas for Matrices Used in Anisotropic Elasticity

Te various tensors and matrices defned in the preceding sections are all functions of the

elastic constants for the material. Because the elastic constants depend on the orientation

of the material with respect to the coordinate axes, the matrices are functions of the direc-

tion of the coordinate system.

To this end,

1. Let {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} and {ê

1

, ê

2

, ê

3

} be two Cartesian bases, as indicated in the fgure.

2. Let n

i

, m

i

denote the components of ê

1

, ê

2

in {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

}, i.e. ê

1

= n

i

e

i

ê

2

= m

i

e

i

.

3. Let C

ijkl

be the components of the elasticity tensor in {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} and let matrices Q, R,

and T be matrices of elastic constants defned in Section 5.5.2.

•

•

•

e

1

θ

e

2

e

1

e

2

FIGURE 5.44 Coordinate systems for change of basis formulas for elastic constants.

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322 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

4. Let p, A,B denote any one of the three Stroh eigenvalues and the matrices of Stroh

eigenvectors, computed for the coordinate system {e

1

, e

2

, e

3

}.

5. Let S, H, L, and M denote the Barnett–Lothe tensors and impedance tensor in the

{e

1

, e

2

, e

3

} basis.

6. Similarly, let

ˆ

,

ˆ

,

ˆ

Q R T ,

ˆ

,

ˆ

,

ˆ

p A B, etc. denote the various matrices and tensors in the

{ê

1

, ê

2

, ê

3

} basis.

In addition, defne rotation matrices Ω, Q(θ), R(θ), T(θ) as follows:

0 ≡ −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

cos sin

sin cos

θ θ

θ θ

0

0

0 0 1

Q R

R T

I I

I

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

cos sin

sin cos

θ θ

θ θ

θ θ

θ

T

¸

1

]

1

=

− θθ

θ θ

θ θ I

Q R

R T

I I

I I

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

−

¸

T

cos sin

sin cos

1

]

1

.

Te following alternative expressions for Q(θ), R(θ), T(θ) are also useful:

Q

ij

(θ) = C

ikjl

n

k

n

l

R

ij

(θ) = C

ikjl

n

k

m

l

T

ij

(θ) = C

ikjl

m

k

m

l

Q Q R R T

R R

( ) cos ( )sin cos sin

( ) cos

θ θ θ θ θ

θ

= + + +

=

2 2

2

T

θθ θ θ θ

θ θ

+ − −

= − +

( )sin cos sin

( ) cos ( )s

T Q R

T T R R

T

T

2

2

iin cos sin

.

θ θ θ +Q

2

Te basis change formulas can then be expressed as

ˆ

( )

cos sin

sin cos

ˆ ˆ

ˆ

p p

p

p

≡ =

−

+

= =

=

θ

θ θ

θ θ

A A B B

Q Q

0 0

0 (( )

ˆ

( )

ˆ

( )

ˆ ˆ ˆ

θ θ θ 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

T T T

T T

R= =

= = =

R T T

S S H H L 00 0 0 0 L M M

T T

ˆ

. =

Derivation: Tese results can be derived as follows:

1. Note that the displacements transform as vectors, so that û = Ωu. Consequently,

ˆ ˆ

( )

ˆ

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

u a a a a = + = +

i

i i

i

i i

i

i i

i

f z f z f z 0 ff z

i i

i i

( ) ,

= =

∑ ∑

¸

¸

_

,

1

3

1

3

which shows that

ˆ

( ) ( )

a a

i i

= 0 and directly gives the basis change formula for A.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 323

2. To fnd the expression for p, we note that

ˆ ˆ

ˆ

ˆ ˆ

cos

ˆ

sin (

ˆ

si z x px x px x x p x = + = + = − +

1 2 1 2 1 2 1

θ θ nn

ˆ

cos )

(cos sin )

ˆ

( cos sin )

co

θ θ

θ θ

θ θ

+

= + +

−

x

p x

p

2

1

ss sin

ˆ

.

θ θ +

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

p

x

2

Terefore, we may write

ˆ

(

ˆ

) ([cos sin ]

ˆ

) f z f p z

i i i i i

= + θ θ with

ˆ ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

z x p x

i i

= +

1 2

and

ˆ

( )

cos sin

sin cos

, p p

p

p

i i

i

i

≡ =

−

+

θ

θ θ

θ θ

as required.

3. Te basis change formulas for Q, R, and T follow directly from the defnitions of

these matrices.

4. Te basis change formula for B is a bit more cumbersome. By defnition,

ˆ

(

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

)

ˆ

( )

ˆ

( ) ( b R T a R T a R = + = +

( )

=

T T T T

p p 0 0 0 0 0 0 θ θ θ))

ˆ

( ) .

T

p +

( )

T a θ

Substituting for R T ( ), ( ),

ˆ

θ θ p gives

ˆ

cos ( )sin cos sin

cos sin

b R T Q R = + − −

(

+

−

0

T

p

2 2

θ θ θ θ

θ θθ

θ θ

θ θ θ θ

p

T

sin cos

cos ( ) sin cos sin

+

− + +

¸

1 T R R Q

2 2

]]

)

=

+

+ − −

(

a

R T R Q

0

p

p p

T

sin cos

cos sin sin cos

θ θ

θ θ θ θ

))

a

and, fnally, recalling that [R

T

+pT]a = b, [Q + pR]a = −pb, we obtain the required

result.

5. Te basis change formulas for the Barnett–Lothe tensors and impedance tensor fol-

low trivially from their defnitions. Te basis change formulas justify our previous

assertion that these quantities are tensors.

5.5.11 Barnett–Lothe Integrals

Te basis change formulas in the preceding section lead to a remarkable direct procedure

for computing the Barnett–Lothe tensors, without needing to calculate A and B. Te sig-

nifcance of this result is that, whereas A and B break down for degenerate materials, S,

H, and L are well-behaved. Consequently, if a solution can be expressed in terms of these

tensors, it can be computed for any combination of material parameters.

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324 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Specifcally, we shall show that S, H, and L can be computed by integrating the subma-

trices of the fundamental elasticity matrix over orientation space, as follows. Let

Q Q R R T

R R

( ) cos ( )sin cos sin

( ) cos

θ θ θ θ θ

θ

= + + +

=

2 2

2

T

θθ θ θ θ

θ θ

+ − −

= − +

( )sin cos sin

( ) cos ( )s

T Q R

T T R R

T

T

2

2

iin cos sin θ θ θ +Q

2

and defne

N

N N

N N

N T

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) (

θ

θ θ

θ θ

θ

=

¸

1

]

1

= −

−

1 2

3 1

1

1

T

θθ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) R N T N R T R Q

T T

2

1

3

1

= = −

− −

(( ) . θ

Ten,

S H

L S

N

S T R

−

¸

1

]

1

=

= −

∫

−

T

T

d

d

1

1

0

1

0

π

θ θ

π

θ θ θ

π

( )

( ) ( )

ππ

π

π

θ θ

π

θ θ θ θ

∫ ∫

= = − −

− −

H T L R T R Q

1 1

1

0

1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) d

T

{{ }

∫

dθ

π

.

0

Derivation: To see this, we show frst that N(θ) can be diagonalized as

N

A A

B B

P 0

0 P

B A

B A

( )

( )

( )

θ

θ

θ

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

T T

T T

]]

1

,

where

P( )

( )

( )

( )

θ

θ

θ

θ

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

p

p

p

1

2

2

0 0

0 0

0 0

and p(θ ) was defned previously. From the preceding section, we note that

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

b R T a

b Q R

= +

( )

= − + ( )

θ θ θ

θ θ θ θ

T

p

p p aa,

which can be expressed as

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

Q 0

R I

a

b

R I

T 0

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

θ

θ

θ

θ

θ

T

p

¸¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

a

b

,

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in324 324 9/9/09 7:31:20 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 325

and as before, we can arrange this into an Eigenvalue problem by writing

0 T

I R T

R I

T 0

I

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

1

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

θ

θ θ

θ

θ

1

00

0 I

¸

1

]

1

where

N N

N N

a

b

a

b

1 2

3 1

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

θ θ

θ θ

θ

T

p

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸¸

1

]

1

= − = =

− −

N T R N T N R

1

1

2

1

3

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) θ θ θ θ θ θ

T

(( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). θ θ θ θ T R Q

−

−

1 T

Tis shows that [a, b] are eigenvectors of the rotated elasticity matrix. Following standard

procedure, we obtain the diagonalization stated.

Now, we examine p(θ) more closely. Recall that

p

p

p p

d

d

p ( )

cos sin

sin cos sin cos

( s θ

θ θ

θ θ θ θ θ

=

−

+

=

+

1

iin cos ). θ θ +

Integrating gives

p d p

p d

i p

i

( ) (cos sin )

( )

( )

θ θ θ θ

θ θ

π

π

θ

= +

=

>

−

∫

ln

Im

0

0

IIm( ) p <

¹

,

¹

∫

0

0

π

(the sign of the integral is determined by Im(p) because the branch cut for ln (cosθ + psinθ)

is taken to lie along the negative real axis). Tus,

1

0

π

θ θ

π

N

A A

B B

I 0

0 I

B A

B A

( )d

i

i

T T

T T

=

¸

1

]

1

−

¸

1

]

1

∫

¸

1

]

1

=

−

−

¸

−

−

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

T

T

I

T

T

T

T

AB

BB

AB

BB

AA

BA

AA

ii

T T

BA

S H

L S

1

]

1

=

−

¸

1

]

1

.

5.5.12 Stroh Representation for a State of Uniform Stress

A uniform state of stress (with generalized plane strain deformation) provides a very sim-

ple example of the Stroh representation. Te solution can be expressed in several diferent

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in325 325 9/9/09 7:31:21 PM

326 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

forms. Note that, for a uniform state of stress σ

ij

and corresponding strain ε

ij

, we may

write

u t t

u

= + = −

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

εε εε

εε

1 1 2 2 1 2

1

2

3

1

x x x x

u

u

u

j

2 1

εε

ε

ε

ε

ε

ε

11

12

31

1

2

11

12

32

2 2

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

∂

∂

=

¸

u

x

εε

1

]

1

1

1

=

∂

∂

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

= −

∂

∂

u

t

x

x

2

1

11

12

31

2

σ

σ

σ

j

tt

2

12

22

32

1

=

¸

1

]

1

1

1

=

∂

∂

σ

σ

σ

j

x

.

In terms of these vectors, the Stroh representation is given by

u AZq BZq

Z q A t

= =

= = +

2 2

2 3 2

Re( ) Re( )

, , )

j

diag(

1

z z z

T

BB

T

i i

z x p x

εε

1

1 2

= +

,

or, in matrix form,

u A A

B B

Z 0

Z

B A

B A

j

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

0

T T

T T

ee

1

2

t

¸

1

]

1

.

Derivation: To see this, recall that a and b form eigenvectors of the fundamental elasticity

matrix N as

N

a

b

a

b

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

p ;

therefore, we can write (for each pair of eigenvectors/values)

a

b

a

b

N

a

b

¸

1

]

1

+ =

¸

1

]

1

+

¸

1

]

1

( ) . x px x x

1 2 1 2

Hence,

AZ AZ

BZ BZ

A A

B B

N

A A

B B

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

+

¸

1

]

1

x x

1 2

.

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Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 327

Recall that

A A

B B

B A

B A

I 0

0 I

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

T T

T T

so

AZ AZ

BZ BZ

B A

B A

I 0

0 I

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

+

T T

T T

x x

1 22

N

AZ AZ

BZ BZ

B A

B A

t

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

T T

T T

x

εε εε

1

2

1

1

tt

N

t

2

2

1

2

¸

1

]

1

+

¸

1

]

1

x

εε

,

and fnally, defning

N

t t

εε εε

1

2

2

1

¸

1

]

1

=

−

¸

1

]

1

gives the required result.

5.5.13 Line Load and Dislocation in an Inﬁnite Anisotropic Solid

Figure 5.45 illustrates the problem to be solved. We consider an infnite, anisotropic, lin-

ear elastic solid, whose elastic properties will be characterized using the Stroh matrices

A and B.

Te solid contains a straight dislocation, with line direction e

3

, perpendicular to the

plane of the fgure. Te dislocation has Burger’s vector b = b

i

e

i

.

At the same time, the solid is subjected to a line of force (with line direction extending

out of the plane of the fgure). Te force per unit length acting on the solid will be denoted

by F = F

i

e

i

.

Te displacement and stress function can be expressed in terms of the Stroh matrices as

u A A

B B

0

0

B A

B A

j

l

l

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

2πi

T T

T T

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

b

F

,

x

1

ix

2

r

θ

F

1

F

2

F

3

FIGURE 5.45 Line load acting in an infnite anisotropic elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in327 327 9/9/09 7:31:21 PM

328 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where λ = diag(ln(z

1

), ln(z

2

), ln(z

3

)), in which diag denotes a diagonal matrix, and

b = [b

1

, b

2

, b

3

]

T

F = [F

1

, F

2

, F

3

]

T

.

Te solution can also be expressed as

u = 2Re(Af) ϕ = 2Re(Bf) t

2

= 2Re(Bf') t

1

= −2Re(BPf') f = λ(B

T

b +A

T

F)/(2πi).

Derivation: We must show that the solution satisfes the following conditions:

1. Te displacement feld for a dislocation with Burger’s vector b must satisfy u(r, θ =

π) − u(r, θ = −π) = b (this corresponds to taking a counterclockwise Burger’s circuit

around the dislocation, as described in Section 5.3.4).

2. Te resultant force exerted by the stresses acting on any contour surrounding the

point force must balance the external force F. For example, taking a circular contour

with radius r centered at the origin, we see that

F n rd F

x

r

x

r

i ij j i

i i

+ = ⇒ + −

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

¸

¸

σ θ

φ

θ

φ

θ 0

2 1

cos sin

_

,

=

⇒ + −

∂

∂

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

∂

− −

∫ ∫

π

π

π

π

θ

φ

θ

φ

d

F

x

x

x

x

i

i i

0

2

2

1

1

∂∂

¸

¸

_

,

= ⇒ = = − = − =

−

∫

θ

θ φ θ π φ θ π

π

π

d F

i i i

0 0 ( ) ( ) .

3. We can create the required solution using properties of log(z). We try a solution of the

form

u A A

B B

0

0

q

q j

l

l

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

,

where λ = diag(ln(z

1

), ln(z

2

), ln(z

3

)) and q is a vector to be determined. Recall that we may

write z = re

iθ

, whence log(z) = log(r) + iθ. Tis, in turn, implies that log(z(r, π))–log(z(r, –π))

= 2πi. Terefore,

b

F

A A

B B

0

0

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

− −

−

l l

l

( , ) ( , )

( , )

r r

r

π π

π ll( , ) r −

¸

1

]

1

1

¸

1

]

1

π

q

q

⇒

¸

1

]

1

1

=

¸

1

]

1

1 −

¸

1

]

1

1

b

F

A A

B B

I 0

0 I

2

2

π

π

i

i

qq

q

¸

1

]

1

1

4. Recalling the orthogonality properties of A and B,

B A

B A

A A

B B

I 0

0 I

T T

T T

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

,

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in328 328 9/9/09 7:31:22 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 329

we can solve for q:

1

2πi

T T

T T

B A

B A

b

F

q

q

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

,

giving

u A A

B B

0

0

B A

B A

ϕϕ

¸

1

]

1

=

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

2πi

T T

T T

l

l

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

b

F

.

5.5.14 Line Load and Dislocation below the Surface of an Anisotropic Half-Space

Figure 5.46 shows an anisotropic, linear elastic half-space. Te elastic properties of the

solid are characterized by the Stroh matrices A, B, and P defned in Section 5.5.2. Te

solid contains a dislocation with Burger’s vector b and is also subjected to a line load

with force per unit length F at a point (d

1

, d

2

), whereas the surface of the solid is traction

free.

Te solution can be computed from the simplifed Stroh representation

u = 2Re(Af) ϕ = 2Re(Bf) t

2

= 2Re(Bf Ј) t

1

= −2Re(BPf Ј),

where

f B b A F B B B b A F = + − +

−

l l ( )( ) ( )( ) z z

i

T T

i

T T 1

and

λ

π

( )

log( ( ))

log( ( z

i

z d p d

z d p

i

=

− +

− +

1

2

0 0

0

1 1 1 2

2 1 2

dd

z d p d

2

3 1 3 2

0

0 0

))

log( ( ))

.

− +

¸

1

]

1

1

1

Te frst term in the expression for f will be recognized as the solution for a dislocation

and point force in an infnite solid; the second term corrects this solution for the presence

of the free surface.

FIGURE 5.46 Line load and dislocation below the surface of an anisotropic elastic solid.

F

2

x

1

x

2

F

1

F

3

d

1

d2

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in329 329 9/9/09 7:31:22 PM

330 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

5.6 SOLUTIONS TO DYNAMIC PROBLEMS FOR

ISOTROPIC LINEAR ELASTIC SOLIDS

Dynamic problems are even more dim cult to solve than static problems. Nevertheless,

analytical solutions have been determined for a wide range of important problems. Tere

is not space here to do justice to the subject, but a few solutions will be listed to give a sense

of the general features of solutions to dynamic problems.

5.6.1 Love Potentials for Dynamic Solutions for Isotropic Solids

In this section, we outline a general potential representation for 3D dynamic linear elas-

ticity problems. Te technique is similar to the 3D Papkovich–Neuber representation for

static solutions outlined in Section 5.5.

Figure 5.47 shows a generic problem of interest. Assume the following:

Te solid has Young’s modulus E, mass density ρ

0

, and Poisson’s ratio v.

Defne longitudinal and shear wave speeds (see Section 4.4.5)

c

E

c

E

L s

=

−

+ −

=

+

( )

( )( ) ( )

.

1

1 1 2 2 1

0 0

ν

ν ν ν ρ ρ

Body forces are neglected (a rather convoluted procedure exists for problems involv-

ing body force).

Te solid is assumed to be at rest for t < 0.

Part of the boundary S

1

is subjected to time-dependent prescribed displacements

u

1

*

A second part of the boundary S

2

is subjected to prescribed tractions t

i

*

.

Te procedure can be summarized as follows:

1. Find a vector function Ψ

i

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, t) and a scalar function ϕ(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, t) that satisfy

∂

∂

=

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂

∂

∂ ∂

=

Ψ Ψ Ψ

i

i

i

j j s

i

k k L

x x x c t x x c

0

1 1

2

2

2

2

2

φ

22

2

2

∂

∂

φ

t

,

•

•

•

•

•

•

S

R

t

e

2

e

1

e

3

Deformed

conﬁguration

FIGURE 5.47 Representative dynamic problem in linear elasticity.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in330 330 9/9/09 7:31:23 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 331

as well as boundary conditions

∂

∂

+ ∈

∂

∂

=

∂

∂ ∂

+ ∈

∂

φ

φ

x x

u S

x x

n

i

ijk

k

j

i

i j

j ilk

k

Ψ

Ψ

*

on

1

2 2

1

2 ∂∂ ∂

+ ∈

∂

∂ ∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

∂

∂ ∂ x x x x

n

n

x x

l j

jlk

k

l i

j

i

k k

2 2

1 2

Ψ ν

ν

φ

==

+ ( )

*

1

2

ν

E

t S

i

on

and initial conditions Ψ

i

= ϕ = 0.

2. Calculate displacements from the formula

u

x x

i

i

ijk

k

ij

=

∂

∂

+ ∈

∂

∂

φ Ψ

.

3. Calculate stresses from the formula

( ) 1 1

2

2 2 2

+

=

∂

∂ ∂

+ ∈

∂

∂ ∂

+ ∈

∂ ν

E x x x x

ij

i j

ilk

k

l j

jlk

σ

φ Ψ ΨΨ

k

l i

ij

k k

x x x x ∂ ∂

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

∂

∂ ∂

ν

ν

δ φ

1 2

2

.

You can easily show that this solution satisfes the equations of motion for an elastic solid,

by substituting the formula for displacements into the Cauchy–Navier equation

1

1 2

2 2

0

2

2

−

∂

∂ ∂

+

∂

∂ ∂

=

∂

∂ ν

u

x x

u

x x

u

t

k

k i

i

k k

i

ρ

µ

.

Te details are lef as an exercise. More importantly, one can also show that the representa-

tion is complete, i.e., all dynamic solutions can be derived from some appropriate combi-

nation of potentials.

5.6.2 Pressure Suddenly Applied to the Surface of a

Spherical Cavity in an Inﬁnite Solid

Figure 5.48 shows a spherical cavity with radius a in an infnite elastic solid with Young’s

modulus E and Poisson’s ratio v. Te solid is at rest for t < 0. A time t = 0, a pressure p is

applied to the surface of the hole and thereafer held fxed.

Te solution is generated by Love potentials:

Ψ

i

a p

ER

e s

s

= = −

+

− − +

{ }

−

0

1

2

1 2 1

3

φ β γ

α

( )

( ) sin( ) ,

ν

ν

where

α β γ =

−

−

=

−

−

= − =

=

−

−

1 2

1

1 2

1

1 2

1

ν

ν

ν

ν

ν cot

(

R x x

s

c t R

k k

L

++ − <

− >

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

a a R a c t

R a c t

L

L

)/

. 0

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in331 331 9/9/09 7:31:24 PM

332 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te displacements and stresses follow as

u

a px

ER

e s

R

i

i s

=

+

− − +

−

( )

( ) sin( )

cot 1

2

1 2 1

3

3

ν

ν

α

β γ

β (( ) β γ α

σ

s R

a

a p

R

x x

R

ij

i j

+ −

+

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

= −

1

2

3

3

3 2

−−

¸

¸

_

,

− − +

+

−

δ β γ

β β γ

α

ij

s

e s

R s

1 2 1 ( ) sin( )

cot( )

ν

−−

+

¸

¸

_

,

¹

,

¹

¹

,

¹

+ +

−

¸

¸

_

α

δ

R

a

ap

R

x x

R

i j ij

1

2 1 2

2

ν

ν,,

− + − − + {

−

2 1 2

2 2

( ) sin( ) ( ) cot( ) ν e s s

s α

β γ α β βα β γ }}.

Te radial and hoop stresses at several time intervals are plotted in Figure 5.49. Observe

the following:

1. A wave front propagates out from the cavity at the longitudinal wave speed c

L

.

2. Unlike the simple 2D wave problems discussed in Section 4.4, the stress is

not constant behind the front. Instead, each point in the solid experiences a

a

e

2

e

1

e

3

FIGURE 5.48 Cylindrical hole in an infnite solid subjected to a step change in internal

pressure.

FIGURE 5.49 Variation of stress around a cylindrical hole in an infnite solid at various

time intervals. (a) Radial stress; (b) hoop stress.

R/a

R

a

d

i

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

σ

r

r

/

p

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

–1

–0.8

–0.6

–0.4

–0.2

0

(a)

tc

L

/a=1

tc

L

/a=2

tc

L

/a=5

Static

R/a

H

o

o

p

s

t

r

e

s

s

σ

θ

θ

/

p

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

–0.4

–0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

(b)

tc

L

/a=2

tc

L

/a=1

tc

L

/a=5

Static

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in332 332 9/9/09 7:31:24 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 333

damped oscillation in displacement and stress that eventually decays to the static

solution.

3. Both the radial and hoop stress reverse sign as the wave passes by. For this reason,

dynamic loading can cause failures to occur in very unexpected places.

4. Te maximum stress induced by dynamic loading substantially exceeds the static

solution.

5.6.3 Rayleigh Waves

A Rayleigh wave is a special type of wave that propagates near the surface of an elastic

solid. Assume the following:

Te solid is an isotropic, linear elastic material with Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s

ratio ν, and mass density ρ

0

.

Te solid has shear wave speed c

s

and longitudinal wave speed c

L

.

Te surface is free of tractions.

A Rayleigh wave with wavelength λ propagates in the x

1

direction, as shown in

Figure 5.50.

Te displacement and stress attributable can be derived from Love potentials:

φ

β

β β

β =

+

−

− −

U k

k

x ik x c

T

L T

L

0

2 2

2 2

2 1

( )

( )

exp( )exp( (

RR k

k

T

T

t

ikU

k

x ik x ))

( )

exp( )exp( ( Ψ =

−

−

2

0 3

2 2

2 1

δ

β

β −−c t

R

)),

where i = −1, U

0

is the amplitude of the vertical displacement at the free surface, k = 2π/λ

is the wave number,

β

L R L

k c c = − 1

2 2

/ ,

β

T R s

k c c = − 1

2 2

/ ,

and c

R

is the Rayleigh wave speed,

which is the positive real root of

2 4 1

1 2

2 1

2

2

2

2

2

−

¸

¸

_

,

− −

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

c

c

c

c

R

s

R

s

( )

( )

v

v

11 2

2

2

1 2

1 0

/ /

. −

¸

¸

_

,

=

c

c

R

s

Tis equation can easily be solved for c

R

/c

s

with a symbolic manipulation program, which

will most likely return six roots. Te root of interest lies in the range 0.65 < c /c <

R s

1 for

•

•

•

•

e

1

e

2

U

0

λ

FIGURE 5.50 Rayleigh wave propagating at the surface of an elastic solid.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in333 333 9/9/09 7:31:25 PM

334 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

−1 < ν < 0.5. Te solution can be approximated by c

R

/c

s

= 0.875 − 0.2ν − 0.05(ν + 0.25)

3

with

an error of less than 0.6% over the full range of Poisson’s ratio.

Te nonzero components of displacement and stress follow as

u

U ik

k

ik x c t k

T

R T 1

0

2 2

1

2 2

=

−

− +

( )

exp( ( )) ( )exp

β β

β

L

(( ) exp( )

( )

exp(

− − −

{ }

=

−

β β β β

β

L L T T

T

x x

u

U

k

2 2

2

0

2 2

2

iik x c t k x k x

R T T L

( )) exp( ) ( )exp(

1

2

2

2 2

2

2 − − − + − β β β ))

{ }

σ

β β

11

0 1

2 2

1 1 2

=

− ( )

− + −

U E ik x c t

k

R

T L

exp ( )

( )( )( ) ν ν

kk k x

k

L T T L

2 2 2 2 2

2

1

2

[ ( ) ( )( )]exp ν ν β β β β + − − + − ( )

{

+

22

2

22

0 1

1 2 β β β

σ

T L T

R

x

U E ik x c t

( )exp

exp ( )

− − ( )

}

=

−

ν

(( )

− + −

+ − −

( )( )( )

( )[( )

k

k

T L

T L

2 2

2 2 2

1 1 2

1

β β

β β

ν ν

ν νkk x

k x

L

T L T

2

2

2

2

12

2 1 2

)exp

( )exp

− ( )

{

− − − ( )

}

β

β β β

σ

ν

==

+

( )

− +

−

iU kE k

k

ik x c t

T

T

R

0

2 2

2 2

1

1

β

β ( )( )

exp( ( ))

ν

eexp exp( ) . − ( )− −

{ }

β β

T L

x x

2 2

You can use either the real or imaginary part of these expressions for the displacement

and stress felds (they are identical, except for a phase diference). Of course, if you choose

to take the real part of one of the functions, you must take the real part for all the others

as well. Note that substituting x

2

= 0 in the expression for σ

22

and setting σ

22

= 0 yields

the equation for the Rayleigh wave speed, so the boundary condition σ

22

= 0 is satisfed.

Te variations with depth of stress amplitude and displacement amplitude are plotted in

Figure 5.51.

Important features of this solution are as follows:

1. Te wave is confned to a layer near the surface with thickness about twice the

wavelength.

2. Te horizontal and vertical components of displacement are 90° out of phase. Material

particles therefore describe elliptical orbits as the wave passes by.

3. Te speed of the wave is independent of its wavelength, that is to say, the wave is

nondispersive.

4. Rayleigh waves are exploited in a range of engineering applications, including sur-

face acoustic wave devices, touch sensors, and miniature linear motors. Tey are also

observed in earthquakes, although these waves are observed to be dispersive, because

of density variations of the earth’s surface.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in334 334 9/9/09 7:31:25 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 335

5.6.4 Love Waves

Love waves are a second form of surface wave, somewhat similar to Rayleigh waves, which

propagate through a thin elastic layer bonded to the surface of an elastic half-space (Figure

5.52). Love waves involve motion perpendicular to the plane of the fgure. Assume the

following:

Te layer has thickness H, shear modulus μ

f

, and shear wave speed c

sf

.

Te substrate has shear modulus μ and shear wave speed c

s

.

Te wave speeds satisfy c

sf

< c

s

.

Te displacement and stress associated with a harmonic Love wave with wavelength λ,

which propagates in the x

1

direction can be derived from Love potentials:

Ψ

k

f k

f

U x

H H

=

− −

+

0 1 2

µ γ δ β

β µβ γ µ γ γ

exp( )

( sin cos )

exp( ( ( ))

cos( ) sin( )

ik x ct x

U x x

k f

1 2

0 1 2 2

0 − >

+ δ µβ γ µ γ γ

(( )

+

( )

− <

¹

,

γ µβ γ µ γ γ sin cos

exp( ( )) ,

H H

ik x ct x

f

1 2

0

¹¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

•

•

•

FIGURE 5.51 Variation of displacement and stress below the peak of a Rayleigh wave on an

elastic solid. (a) Displacement felds; (b) stress felds.

µ

f

,c

sf

µ,c

s

H

e

2

e

1

FIGURE 5.52 Elastic layer on the surface of a half-space.

x

2

/a

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

u

/

U

0

0 0.5 1 1.5

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(a)

u

2

u

1

x

2

/a

S

t

r

e

s

s

σ

λ

/

U

0

E

0 0.5 1 1.5

0

1

2

3

4

5

(b)

σ

22

σ

11

σ

12

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in335 335 9/9/09 7:31:26 PM

336 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

where U

0

is the amplitude of the vertical displacement at the free surface, k = 2π/λ is the

wave number, β = − k c c

s

1

2 2

/ , γ = − k c c

sf

2 2

1 / , and c is the wave speed (also known as the

phase velocity) of the wave, which is given by the positive real roots of

tan

/

/

kH

c

c

c c

c c sf f

s

sf

2

2

2 2

2 2

1

1

−

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

−

−

−

µ

µ

11

0 = .

Tis relationship is very unlike the equations for wave speeds in unbounded or semi-infnite

solids and leads to a number of counter-intuitive results. Note the following:

1. Te wave speed depends on its wavelength. A wave with these properties is said to

be dispersive, because a pulse consisting of a spectrum of harmonic waves tends to

spread out.

2. Te wave speed is always faster than the shear wave speed of the layer but less than

the wave speed in the substrate.

3. If a wave with wave number k

0

propagates at speed c, then waves with wave number

k k n H c c

n sf

= + −

0

2 2

1 π / / , where n is any integer, also propagate at the same speed.

Tese waves are associated with diferent propagation modes for the wave. Each prop-

agation mode has a characteristic displacement distribution through the thickness of

the layer, as discussed below.

4. A wave with a particular wave number can propagate at several diferent speeds,

depending on the mode. Te number of modes that can exist at a particular wave

number increases with the wave number. You can see this in the plot of wave speed-

versus-wave number in Figure 5.53a.

5. Dispersive wave motion is ofen characterized by relating the frequency of the wave to its

wave number rather than by relating wave speed to wave number. Te (angular) frequency

is related to wave number and wave speed by the usual formula ω = ck. Substituting this

result into the equation for wave speed yields the dispersion relation for the wave:

tan ( / ) ( )

( ) ( / )

( /

ω

µ

µ

ω

ω

H c kH

f

kH H c

H c

sf

s

2 2

2 2

−

{ }

−

−

ssf

kH ) ( )

.

2 2

0

−

=

Te nonzero displacement component is

u

U x x

H

f

f

3

0 2 2

=

− −

( )

+

µβ γ µ γ γ

µβ γ µ γ

sin( ) cos( )

sin coss

exp( ( ))

exp

sin

γ

µ γ β

µβ

H

ik x ct x

U x

f

( )

− <

− ( )

1 2

0 2

0

γγ µ γ γ H H

ik x ct x

f

+

( )

− >

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

cos

exp( ( )) .

1 2

0

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in336 336 9/9/09 7:31:26 PM

Solutions for Linear Elastic Solids ◾ 337

Te nonzero stresses in the layer can be determined from σ

3i

= μ

f

∂u

3

/∂x

i

, but the calcula-

tion is so trivial that the result will not be written out here. Te wave speed is plotted as a

function of wave number in Figure 5.53a, for the particular case μ = μ

f

, c

s

/c

sf

= 2. Te dis-

placement amplitude as function of depth is shown for several modes in Figure 5.53b.

5.6.5 Elastic Waves in Waveguides

Te surface layer discussed in the preceding section is an example of a wave guide: it is a

structure that causes waves to propagate in a particular direction, as a result of the confn-

ing efect of its geometry. Figure 5.54 shows a much simpler example of a wave guide: it is a

thin sheet of material, with thickness H and infnite length in the x

1

and x

3

directions. Te

strip can guide three types of wave:

1. Transverse waves, which propagate in the x

1

direction with particle motion in the x

3

direction

2. Flexural waves, which propagate in the x

1

direction with particle motion in the x

2

direction

3. Longitudinal waves, which propagate in the x

1

direction with particle motion in the

x

2

direction

FIGURE 5.53 Propagation modes for a Love wave. (a) Wave speeds; (b) displacement

distributions.

kH

W

a

v

e

s

p

e

e

d

c

/

c

s

0 5 10 15 20

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

(a)

1

n=3

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=0 n=1 n=2

Layer

(b)

Propagation mode

*,c

s

H

e

2

e

1

H

FIGURE 5.54 An elastic strip acting as a wave guide.

TAF-K10131-BOWER-09-0202-C005.in337 337 9/9/09 7:31:27 PM

338 ◾ Applied Mechanics of Solids

Te solutions for cases 2 and 3 are lengthy, but the solution for case 1 is simple and can be

used to illustrate the general features of waves in wave guides. For transverse waves,

1. Te wave can be any member of the following family of possible displacement

distributions:

u

3

=U

0

{sin

2

(πn/2)sin(nπx

2

/2H)+cos

2

(πn/2)cos(nπx

2

/2H)}exp(ik(x

1

–ct)),

where n = 0, 1, 2 … , and you can use either the real or imaginary part as the solution.

Tis displacement represents