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OWJ100001 WCDMA RNP Fundamental


ISSUE 1.0
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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Get familiar with principles of radio wave propagation, and theoretically prepare for the subsequent link budget. Introduce the knowledge about antennas and the meanings of typical indices.

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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Chapter 2 Antenna Chapter 3 RF Basics Chapter 4 Symbol Explanation

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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Section 1 Basic Principles of Radio Wave Section 2 Propagation Features of Radio Wave Section 3 Propagation Model of Radio Wave Section 4 Correction of Propagation Model

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Radio Wave Spectrum


Frequency 3-30Hz 30-300Hz 300-3000Hz 3-30KHz 30-300KHz 300-3000KHz 3-30MHz 30-300MHz 300-3000MHz 3-30GHz 30-300GHz 300-3000GHz
The frequencies in each specific band present unique propagation features.
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Classification Extremely Low Frequency Voice Frequency Very-low Frequency Low Frequency Medium Frequency High Frequency Very High Frequency Ultra High Frequency Super High Frequency Extremely High Frequency

Designation ELF VF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF

The radio waves are distributed in 3Hz ~ 3000GHz. This spectrum is divided into 12 bands, as shown in the above table. The frequencies in each specific band present unique propagation features: The lower the frequency is, the lower the propagation loss will be, the farther the coverage distance will be, and the stronger the diffraction capability will be. However, lower-band frequency resources are stringent and the system capacity is limited, so they are primarily applied to the systems of broadcast, television and paging. The higher-band frequency resources are abundant and the system capacity is large; however, the higher the frequency is, the higher the propagation loss will be, the shorter the coverage distance will be, and the weaker the diffraction capability will be. In addition, the higher the frequency is, the higher the technical difficulty will be, and the higher the system cost will be. The band for purpose of the mobile communication system should allow for both coverage effect and capacity. Compared with other bands, the UHF band achieves a good tradeoff between the coverage effect and the capacity, and is hence widely applied to the mobile communication field. Nevertheless, with the increase of mobile communication demand, more capacity is required. The mobile communication system is bound to develop toward the high-frequency band.

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Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave


When the radio wave propagates in the air, the electric field direction changes regularly. If the electric field direction of radio wave is vertical to the ground, the radio wave is vertical polarization wave. If the electric field direction of radio wave is parallel with the ground, the radio wave is horizontal polarization wave

Dipole Magnetic Field Electric Field Magnetic Field

Electric Field electric wave transmission direction

Electric Field

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Propagation of electromagnetic propagation takes on an energy propagation mode. During the propagation, the electric field is vertical to the magnetic field, both vertical to the propagation direction. Through interaction between the electric field and the magnetic field, the energy is propagated to the distance, just like propagation of water waves.

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Propagation Path

Perpendicular incidence wave and ground refraction wave (most common propagation modes)

Troposphere reflection wave (the propagation is very random)

Mountain diffraction wave (shadow area signal source) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Ionosphere refraction wave (beyond-the-horizon communication path)

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Radio wave can be propagated from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna in many ways: perpendicular incidence wave or ground refraction wave, diffraction wave, troposphere reflection wave, ionosphere reflection wave, as shown in the diagram. As for radio wave, the most simple propagation mode between the transmitter and the receiver is free space propagation. One is perpendicular incidence wave; the other is ground reflection wave. The result of overlaying the perpendicular incidence wave and the reflection wave may strengthen the signal, or weaken the signal, which is known as multi-path effect. Diffraction wave is the main radio wave signal source for shadow areas such building interior. The strength of the diffraction wave is much dependent of the propagation environment. The higher the frequency is, the weaker the diffraction signal will be. The troposphere reflection wave derives from the troposphere. The heterogeneous media in the troposphere changes from time to time for weather reasons. Its reflectance decreases with the increase of height. This slowly changing reflectance causes the radio wave to curve. The troposphere mode is applicable to the wireless communication where the wavelength is less than 10m (i.e., frequency is greater than 30MHz).Ionosphere reflection propagation: When the wavelength of the radio wave is less than 1m (frequency is greater than 300MHz), the ionosphere is the reflector. There may be one or multiple hops in the radio wave reflected from the ionosphere, so this HUAWEI Mexico Training Center propagation is applicable to long-distance7 communication. Like the troposphere, the ionosphere also presents the continuous fluctuation feature.

Propagation Path

Building reflection wave Diffraction wave Direct wave Ground reflection wave
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In a typical cellular mobile communication environment, a mobile station is always far shorter than a BTS. The direct path between the transmitter and the receiver is blocked by buildings or other objects. Therefore, the communication between the cellular BTS and the mobile station is performed via many other paths than the direct path. In the UHF band, the electromagnetic wave from the transmitter to the receiver is primarily propagated by means of scattering, namely, the electromagnetic wave is reflected from the building plane or refracted from the man-made or natural objects.

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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Section 1 Basic Principles of Radio Wave Section 2 Propagation Features of Radio Wave Section 3 Propagation Model of Radio Wave Section 4 Correction of Propagation Model

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Radio Propagation Environment


Radio wave propagation is affected by topographic structure and man-made environment. The radio propagation environment directly decides the selection of propagation models. Main factors that affect environment are: Natural landform (mountain, hill, plains, water area) Quantity, layout and material features of man-made buildings Natural and man-made electromagnetic noise conditions Weather conditions Vegetation features of the region

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The radio wave is largely affected by the topography and man-made environment. The natural landforms such as mountains and hills as well as manmade buildings affect the propagation features of radio waves. Weather and time conditions also affect propagation of radio wave. For example, the ionosphere is relatively stable at night, so the shortwave radio is well received.

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Landform Categories
Quasi-smooth landform The landform with a slightly rugged surface and the surface height difference is less than 20m

T R

Irregular landform The landforms apart from quasi-smooth landform are divided to: hill landform, isolated hills, slant landform, and land & water combined landform.

T R

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The quasi-smooth landform refers to the landform with a slightly rugged surface, and the surface height difference is less than 20m. The average surface height difference is slight. The Okumura propagation model defines the roughness height as the difference between 10% and 90% of the landform roughness in 10km in front of the mobile station antenna. CCIR defines it as the difference between the height over 90% and the height over 10% of landform height at 10~50 km in front of the receiver. Other landforms than abovementioned are called irregular landforms.

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Signal Fading
Receiving power (dBm)

-20

fast fading slow fading

-40

-60

10
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distance (m)

Slow fading: In case shadow effect is caused by obstacles, and the receiving signal strength decreases but the field strength mid-value changes slowly with the change of the topography, the strength decrease is called slow fading or shadow fading. The field strength mid-value of slow fading takes on a logarithmic normal distribution, and is related to location/locale. The fading speed is dependent on the speed of the mobile station. Fast fading: In case the amplitude and phase of the combined wave change sharply with the motion of the mobile station, the change is called fast fading. The spatial distribution of deep fading points is similar to interval of half of wavelength. Since its field strength takes on Rayleigh distribution, the fading is also called Rayleigh fading. The amplitude, phase and angle of the fading are random. Fast fading is subdivided into the following three categories: Time-selective fading: In case the user moves quickly and causes Doppler effect on the frequency domain, and thus results in frequency diffusion, time-selective fading will occur. Space-selective fading: The fading features vary between different places and different transmission paths. Frequency-selective fading: The fading features vary between different frequencies, which results in delay diffusion and frequency-selective fading.
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In order to mitigate the influence of fast fading on wireless communication, typical methods are: space diversity, frequency diversity, and time diversity.

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Signal Diversity
Measures against fast fading --- Diversity Time diversity Space diversity Frequency diversity

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To resist such kind of fast fading, the BTS adopts the time diversify, space diversity (polarization diversity), and frequency diversity. Time diversity uses the methods of symbol interleaving, error check and error correction code. Each code has different anti-fading features. Space diversity uses the main/diversity antenna receiving. The BTS receiver handles the signals received by the main and diversity antennas respectively, typically in a maximum likelihood method. This main/diversity receiving effect is guaranteed by the irrelevance of main antenna receiving and diversity antenna receiving. Here irrelevance means the signals received by the main antenna and the signals received by the diversity antenna do not have the feature of simultaneous attenuation. This requires the interval between the main antenna and the diversity antenna in case of space diversity to be greater than 10 times of the radio signal wavelength (for GSM, the antenna interval should be greater than 4m in a distance of 900m, and greater than 2m in a distance of 1800m). Alternatively, the polarization diversity method should be used to ensure that signals received by the main and diversity antennas do not have the same attenuation features. As for mobile stations (mobile phones), only one antenna exists, so this space diversity function is not supported. The BTS receivers capability of balancing the signals of different delays in a certain time range (time window) is also a mode of space diversity. In case of soft switch in the CDMA communication, the mobile station contacts multiple BTSs concurrently,
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and selects the best signals from them, which is also a mode of space diversity. Frequency diversity is performed primarily by means of spreading. In the GSM communication, it simply uses the frequency hopping to obtain the frequency hop gain; in the CDMA communication, since every channel works at a broad band (WCDMA has a band of 5MHz), the communication itself is a kind of spreading communication.

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Radio Wave Delay Extension


Deriving from reflection, it refers to the co-frequency interference caused by the time difference in the space transmission of main signals and other multi-path signals received by the receiver. The transmitting signals come from the objects far away from the receiving antenna.

Solution

RAKE RAKEtechnology technology

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Radio wave delay extensionAnother type of frequency-selective fading. The spatial distribution of deep fading points is similar to interval of half of a wavelength (17cm for 900MHz, 8cm for 1800/1900MHz). If the mobile station antenna is located at this deep fading point at this time (when the mobile user in a car resides in this deep fading point in case of a red light, we call it read light problem), the voice quality is very poor, and relevant technologies should be used to resolve it, e.g., the Rake technology in CDMA system.

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Diffraction Loss
The electromagnetic wave diffuses around at the diffraction point. The diffraction wave covers all directions except the obstacle. The diffusion loss is most severe

T R

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When analyzing the transmission loss in the mountains or the built-up downtowns, we usually need to analyze the diffraction loss and penetration loss. Diffraction loss is a measure for the obstacle height and the antenna height. The obstacle height must be compared with the propagation wavelength. The diffraction loss generated by the height of the same obstacle for the long wavelength is less than that for short wavelength. Diffraction loss is caused the electromagnetic wave being scattered around at the diffraction point, and the diffraction wave covers all directions except the obstacle. This diffusion loss is most severe, and the calculation formula is complicated and varies with different diffraction constants.

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Penetration Loss
Penetration loss caused by obstructions:

WdBm

XdBm

Penetration Penetrationloss loss=X-W=B =X-W=BdB dB


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Indoor penetration loss refers to the difference between the average signal strength outside the building and the average signal strength of one layer of the building. Penetration loss represents the capability of the signal penetrating the building. The buildings of different structures affect the signals significantly. The penetration loss generated by the long wavelength is greater than that generated by the short wavelength of the same building. The incidence angle of the electromagnetic wave also affects the penetration loss considerably. Typical Penetration loss:
Wall obstruction : 5~20dB Floor obstruction : >20dB Indoor loss value is the function of the floor number : -1.9dB/floor Obstruction of furniture and other obstacles: 2~15dB Thick glass : 6~10dB Penetration loss of train carriage is Penetration loss of lift is : 30dB Dense tree leaves loss : 10dB HUAWEI Mexico Training Center

15~30dB
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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Section 1 Basic Principles of Radio Wave Section 2 Propagation Features of Radio Wave Section 3 Propagation Model of Radio Wave Section 4 Correction of Propagation Model

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Propagation model is very important. It is the foundation of the mobile communication planning. The propagation model of radio wave is a process of using the actual measurement and computers to develop curves from the measured results in different regions and ultimately outline the propagation formula of the radio wave in different topographic conditions. For example, the Okumura model introduced below is an empiric formula obtained by the Japanese Okumura from measurement of tens of thousands of curves in Tokyo. It is now widely recognized and accepted, plays important roles in guiding the construction of communication networks. This session deals with the typical propagation models currently available.

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Propagation model
Propagation model is used for predicting the medium value of path loss. The formula can be simplified under if the heights of UE and base station are given

PathLoss = f ( d , f )
where:

d is the distance between UE and base station, and f

is the frequency

Propagation environment affect the model, and the main factors are : Natural terrain, such as mountain, hill, plain, water land, etc; Man-made building (height, distribution and material); Vegetation; Weather; External noise
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If the heights of UE and BTS are given and ignore the environment affect, the path loss is just related with the distance between UE and BTS and radio frequency.

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Free Air Space Model

Lo=91.48+20lgd, for f=900MHz Lo=97.98+20lgd, for f=1900MHz Free space propagation model is applicable to the wireless environment with isotropic propagation media (e.g., vacuum), and is a theoretic model. This environment does not exist in real life

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Free space means an infinite space full of even, linear, isotropic ideal media, and is an ideal situation. For example, the radio wave propagation of satellite is very similar to the propagation condition of free space. As seen from the above formula, once the distance is doubled, the loss will increase by 6dB. If the frequency is doubled, as shown in the above example, the 1900MHz loss will be 6dB more than the 900MHz loss.

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Flat Landform Propagation Model

Ploss = L0+10lgd -20lghb - 20lghm

Path loss gradient , usually is 4 h BTS antenna height h mobile station height L parameters related to frequency

b m 0

T R

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In the flat landform propagation model, in addition to the frequency and distance, we also consider the heights of the UE and BTS. Once the BTS antenna height is doubled, the path loss will be compensated for by 6dB.

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Okumura-Hata Model
Application Scope Frequency range BTS antenna height f:150~1500MHz Hb:30~200m

Mobile station height Hm:1~10m Distance Characteristic Macro cell model The BTS antenna is taller than the surrounding buildings Predication is not applicable in 1km Not applicable to the circumstance where the frequency is above 1500MHz
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d:1~20km

The Okumura-Hata model is commonly used in the planning software. It is applicable to the micro cell that covers more than 1km below 1500MHz. In 1960s, Okumura and his men used a broad range of frequencies, heights of several fixed stations and heights of several mobile stations to measure the signal strength in all kinds of irregular landforms and environments, and developed a series of curves, then set up a model by fitting the curves to obtain the empiric formula of propagation model. This model has been widely used across the globe, and is applicable to areas outside Tokyo by use of the correction factor.

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COST 231-Hata Model


Application Scope Frequency range BTS antenna height f:1505~2000MHz Hb:30~200m

Mobile station height Hm:1~10m Distance Characteristic Macro cell model The BTS antenna is taller than the surrounding buildings Predication is not applicable in 1km Not applicable to the circumstance where the frequency is above 2000MHz or below 1500MHz
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d:1~20km

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The COST231 model is applicable 1500-2000MHz, and is not accurate within 1km. The COST231-hata model is based on the test results of Okumura, and works out the suggested formula by analyzing the propagation curve of higher bands.

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COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami Model


Application Scope Frequency range : 800~2000MHz 4~50m

BTS antenna height Hbase :

Mobile station height Hmobile : 1~3m Distance d : Characteristic Urban environment, macro cell or micro cell Not applicable to suburban or rural environment 0.02~5km

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The COST231 propagation model team of the European Research Committee puts forward the following two suggested models: One is based on the Hata model, and works out the frequency coverage extends from 1500MHz to 2000MHz by using some correction items. However, in all the test environments, the BTS is taller than the surrounding buildings, so it is not appropriate to extend the valid range to the circumstance where the BTS antenna is lower than the surrounding buildings. This model is applicable to large-cell macro cell. In the micro cell, the BTS antenna is lower than the roof, so the Committee created the COST-Walfish-Ikegami model according to the results of Walfishs calculation of the urban environment, the Ikegamis corrective function for handling the street direction and the test data. This model is tested in a German city Mannheim, and more improvements are found to be made. When using the model, some parameters that describe the urban environment features may be required: Building height Hroof (m) Pavement width w (m) Building interval b (m) Street direction against the perpendicular incidence wave direction ( )

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Standard Propagation
Experimental formula

PathLoss = K1 + K 2 log (D ) + K 3 log (H Txeff ) + K 4 Diffraction loss + K 5 log(D ) log (H Txeff ) + K 6 (H Rxeff ) + K clutter f (clutter )
Explanation

Propagation path loss constant value log(d) correction factor Distatnce between receiver and transmitter (m); log(HTxeff) correction factor; Transmitter antenna height (m); Diffraction loss correction factor; log(HTxeff)log(D) correction factor; H Correction factor; Receiver antenna height (m); H K :clutter correction factor;
K1 K2 D K3 HTxeff K4 K5 K6
Rxeff
Rxeff

clutter

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Using the multiplier factor configured by customer, the propagation model can be made by order totally. It can support using different K1 and K2 according to distance and LOS or NLOS. It also can use different diffraction loss algorithm and effective BTS height algorithm. One optional amendment condition is that U-net can amend the path loss of hilly terrains environments under it is LOS between transmitter and receiver.

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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Section 1 Basic Principles of Radio Wave Section 2 Propagation Features of Radio Wave Section 3 Propagation model of Radio Wave Section 4 Correction of Propagation Model

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Propagation model of radio wave have close relation with concrete terrain and clutter. Usually, classical theoretical analysis of propagation model have biggish error. So, in practice, we use test statistics method, namely, using a great deal test data to amend the classical model. Here we use the CW test.

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Basic Principles and Procedures


Target propagation environment Selected propagated environment

CW data collection

parameter setting

Measured propagation path loss

Forecast propagation path loss

Comparison

Error compliant with requirements?

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Due to difference of propagation environment, the propagation model parameters must be corrected based on measured values, so as to embody the radio wave propagation features of the actual environment. Generally, we use the Continuous Wave (CW) test method to measure the propagation path loss in the actual environment. By comparing the actual value with the forecast value, we adjust the parameters in the model. The process recurs until the error meets the requirements.

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Site Selection
Criteria for selecting a site: The antenna height is greater than 20m. The antenna is at least 5m taller than the nearest obstacle

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If the antenna is taller than the nearest obstacle by 5m or more, the data in GSM will be inherited, as defined according to the first Fresnel zone. This condition is sufficiently compliant with the WCDMA requirements. Obstacle here means the tallest building on the roof of the antenna. The building serving as a site should be taller than the average height of the surrounding buildings

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5m
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Test Platform
Transmitting subsystems transmitting antenna, feeder, high-frequency signal source, antenna bracket

Antenna bracket

Omni-Antenna

Feeder

Transmitter
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After the test platform is set up, switch on the signal source to transmit the RF signal, and begin drive test. To perform the CW test, it is necessary to select an appropriate site for transmitting the RF signal. In case of CW test data handling, it is necessary to be aware of the EIRP of the test BTS, and record the data of signal gain attributable to each part, including signal source transmitting power, RF cable loss, transmitting antenna gain, and receiving antenna gain.

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Test Platform
Receiving subsystem Test receiver, GPS receiver, test software, portable

GPS-Antenna
Positioning Receiver System

Antenna

Data Acquisition System

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After the test platform is set up, switch on the signal source to transmit the RF signal, and begin drive test. To perform the CW test, it is necessary to select an appropriate site for transmitting the RF signal.In case of CW test data handling, it is necessary to be aware of the EIRP of the test BTS, and record the data of signal gain attributable to each part, including signal source transmitting power, RF cable loss, transmitting antenna gain, and receiving antenna gain.

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Test Path
Rules of selecting a test path: Landform: the test path must consider all main landforms in the region. Height: If the landform is very rugged, the test path must consider the landforms of different heights in the region. Distance: The test path must consider the positions differently away from the site in the region. Direction: The test points on the lengthways path must be identical with that on the widthways path. Length: The total length of the distance in one CW test should be greater than 60km. Number of test points: The more the test points are, the better (>10000 points, >4 hours as a minimum)

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The distance corrected in the CW test primarily falls within the impact range of this cell, so the test distance is not necessarily more than twice of the cell radius. The total length of the test distance in a CW test should be greater than 60km.Generally, the number of test points for each site is more than 10000, or the test duration is more than 4 hours. According to the sampling rate of 1 point/6m after smoothing the sampling data, it takes at least 60km as a test distance for 10000 sampling points.

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Test Path
Rules of selecting a test path:

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Overlaying: The test path of different test sites can be preferably overlapped to increase the reliability of the model Obstacles: When the antenna signals are obstructed by one side of the building, do not run to the shadow area behind this side of building

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Drive Test
The sampling law is meets the Richard Law :40 wavelengths, 50 sampling points Upper limit of drive speed: Vmax=0.8/Tsample The test results obtained in exceptional circumstances must be removed from the sampling data. Sampling point with too high fading (more than 30dB) ; In a tunnel Under a viaduct If using a directional antenna for CW test, the test path is selected from the main lobe coverage area.

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Sampling distance: The distance between adjacent sampling points should be /4 so as to eliminate the impact of Raylaigh fading. Suppose the sampling frequency of the drive test equipment is: 1000HzThe 2G band bearer wavelength is: 0.15m (50 sampling points are required per 6m)Upper limit of drive speed: 0.8*0.15*1000=120m/s

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Test Data Processing

The test data needs to be processed before being able to be identified by the planning software. The processing procedure is : Data filtering Data dispersion Geographic averaging Format conversion

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The CW test data obtained after reasonable design are basis of our model correction, and are input of the first step. The reasonableness of the CW test data directly affects the correctness of the correction result. However, even the design is reasonable, the measured data is not perfect, and needs further processing. Typical processing steps include: Data filtering, data dispersion, geographical averaging, and format conversion. In the actual test, some test data may be inconsistent with the model correction requirements. In order to avoid such data from affecting the model correction result adversely, such data should be filtered. 1. Since we need to know the accurate position of each test point in the model correction, for the data obtained from measuring the places where GPS cannot position accurately should be filtered. Such circumstances include: 1) under a viaduct; 2) in a tunnel; 3) in the narrow street with tall buildings on both sides; 4) in the narrow street covered by dense tree leaves. 2. Generally, we regard the distance 0.1R~2R away from the antenna is reasonable, where R is the forecast cell radius. The signal strength distribution and the propagation distance do not form a strict linear relationship. If too near, the test data will be less, and average distribution will be impossible. 3. If the receiving signal is too weak, exceptional value point may occur, because the receiver is located at the critical status of resolving the signal at this time, and its value is vulnerable to influence of transient fluctuation. To prevent the deeply faded signals from being filtered, we use the homocentric circle technology to filter out circular rings at the test point lower than-121dbm, e.g., above 20% of the site ring. That is because the
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receiver speed is far greater than the GPS signal collection speed, and will result in multiple test data at one location point. Suppose the vehicle runs at equal speeds, such data should be distributed to the two fixed points on average, which is a process of data dispersion. The main function of geographic averaging is to eliminate the influence of fast fading and slow fading.

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Questions
Which band of radio wave is used for the mobile communication system? What are the two modes of signal fading in the radio propagation environment? What are their characteristics and reasons of generation?

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Summary
This chapter deals with radio wave. The learning points include: Propagation path of radio wave Loss and dispersion characteristics of radio wave, and main compensation solutions Typical radio wave models, main parameters involved Methods of correcting radio propagation models

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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Chapter 2 Antenna Chapter 3 RF Basics Chapter 4 Symbol Explanation

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Positions and Functions of Antenna


BTS antenna & feeder system diagram
Antenna adjustment bracket radio mast (50~114mm) 3-connector seal component insulation sealing tape, PVC insulation tape GSM/CDMA plate-shape antenna

Grounding device main (7/8) feeder Indoor super flexible feeder

Outdoor feeder Cabling rack Lightning protection device Feeder cabling window main device of BTS

Feeder clip

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Positions and functions of antenna: In the radio communication system, antenna is an interface between the transceiver and the outside communication media. An antenna may both emit and receive radio waves; it converts the highfrequency current to electromagnetic wave when transmitting; and converts the electromagnetic wave to high-frequency current when receiving. Other parts of the antenna & feeder are shown in the diagram.

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Working Principles of Mobile Antenna


Dipole Dipole Feed network Feed network Feed network

Antenna Connector

Antenna Connector

Directional antenna
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omni antenna
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The BTS antenna in mobile communication system is antenna array consist of a lot of basic dipole units. The dipole unit is half wave dipole that the length of dipole is half wave of electromagnetic wave. The feed network usually use equal power network. For directional antenna, there is a metal flat at the back of dipole units as a reflection plane to increase the antenna gain. The tie-in of antenna usually is DIN type (7/16''). Usually it is at the bottom of antenna, sometimes at the back of antenna. Structurally, the dipole units and feed network are covered by antenna casing to protect the antenna. Usually, the antenna casing is made by PVC material or tempered glass, and the loss for electromagnetic wave is less and the strength is better.

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Categories of Antenna
Categorize by emission direction

Directional antenna
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omni antenna
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By emission direction, antennas are categorized into directional antenna and omni antenna. Directional antenna usually is used in urban area, and omni antenna is used in rural area for wide coverage.

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Categories of Antenna
Categorize by appearance

Plate-shape antenna

Cap-shape antenna

Whip-shape
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Paraboloid antenna
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The installed antennas can be categorized into plate-shape antenna, cap-shape antenna, whip-shape, and paraboloid antenna. As shown in the above diagram, the cap-shape antenna is generally used in indoor distribution system, while the paraboloid antenna is mainly used for satellite communication and radar.

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Categories of Antenna
Categorize by polarization mode

Omni antenna

Uni-polarization Directional antenna


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Dual polarization Directional antenna


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By polarization mode, antennas are categorized into: vertical polarization antenna (or unipolarization antenna), cross polarization antenna (or dual polarization antenna). The foregoing two polarization modes are both line polarization mode. Circle polarization and oval antenna are usually not used in GSM. Unipolarization antennas are mostly vertical polarization antennas. The polarization direction of their dipole unit is in the vertical direction. Dual polarization antennas are mostly 45-degree slant polarization antennas. Their dipole unit is a dipole that crosses the leftward tilt 45-degree polarization and rightward tilt 45-degree polarization, as shown in the above diagram. The dual polarization antennas are equivalent to two unipolarization antennas combined into one. Use of dual polarization antennas can reduce the number of antennas on the tower, and reduce the workload of installation, hence reduces the system cost, so they are popularly applied now.

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Categories of Antenna
Smart antenna

Smart directional antenna

Smart directional antenna

Smart omni-antenna

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Smart antenna techniques are already used in many wireless systems, but UMTS is the first system where they are considered already in the system specification phase. Smart antennas are especially attractive in WCDMA networks, as they could be used to reduce the intracell interference levels considerably. Interference is one of the most important and difficult issues in the WCDMA air interface, and any improvement in the interference level management will bring increased capacity. Generally, a smart antenna is an antenna structure consisting of more than one physical antenna element, and a signal processing unit that controls these elements and combines or distributes the signals among these elements. Note that the antenna elements are not smart as such, but the smartness of the device lies in the controlling signal processing unit.

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Categories of Antenna
Electric down tilt Antenna

Electrical down tilt Antenna


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The main parts of electric down tilt antenna: 1. RCU (Remote Control Unit) 2. SBT (Smart Bias-Tee) 3. BT (Bias-Tee) 4. STMA (Smart TMA)

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Electric Indices of Antenna

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Electric performances include: working band, gain, polarization mode, lobe width, preset tilt angle, down tilt mode, down tilt angle adjustment range, front and back suppression ratios, side lobe suppression ratio, zero point filling, echo loss, power capacity, impedance, third order inter-modulation.

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Antenna Direction Diagram


Symmetric halfhalf-wave dipole

Top view

side view

omni antenna direction diagram

directional antenna direction diagram


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Direction ability of antenna refers to the capability of the antenna emitting electromagnetic waves toward a certain direction. For a receiving antenna, the direction ability means the capability of the antenna receiving radio waves from different directions. The characteristic curve of direction ability of antenna is generally represented in a direction diagram. Direction diagram is used for describing the capability of the antenna receiving/emitting electromagnetic waves in different directions of the air.

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Antenna Gain

2.15dB

dBi

dBd

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Gain means a ratio of the power density generated by the antenna at a certain point in the maximum emission direction to the power density generated by the ideal point source antenna at the same point. Gain reflects the capability of the antenna emitting the radio waves in a certain direction in a centralized way. Generally, the higher of the antenna gain is, the narrower the lobe width will be, and more centralized the energy emitted by the antenna will be. The unit of antenna gain is dBi or dBd. dBi uses the ideal point source antenna gain as a reference, and dBd uses the half-wave dipole antenna gain as a reference. The difference of values represented by the two kinds of unit is 2.15 dB. For example, if the antenna gain is 11dBi, it can be said as 8.85dBd, as shown in the above diagram. dBi is defined as the energy centralization capability of the actual direction antenna (including omni antenna) relative to the isotropic antenna, where i represents Isotropic.dBd is defined as the energy centralization capability of the actual direction antenna (including omni antenna) relative to the half-wave dipole antenna, where d represents Dipole.

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Antenna Pattern

Antenna pattern HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 50

It is a three-dimensional solid pattern. It show the theoretic pattern of one directional antenna.

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Antenna Pattern

Side lobe Zero point filling Back lobe Main lobe Max value Front to back ratio Zero point filling horizontal half-power angles

Vertical pattern

Horizontal pattern

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Beam width is one of the key indices of antenna. It consists of horizontal halfpower angle and vertical half-power angle. Horizontal half-power angle/vertical half-power angle is defined as beam width between the two points where the power is reduced by half (3dB) in the horizontal/vertical directional relative to the maximum emission direction. Typical horizontal half-power angles of BTS antenna are 360, 210, 120, 90, 65, 60, 45 and 33. Typical vertical half-power angles of BTS antenna are 6.5, 13, 25 and 78. The front/back suppression ratio means the ratio of signal emission strength of the antenna in the main lobe direction and in the side lobe direction, and the difference between the side lobe level and the maximum beam within backward 18030. Generally, the front/back ratio of antenna falls within 18~45dB. For dense urban areas, the antenna with great front/back suppression ratio is preferred. Zero point filling: When the BTS antenna vertical plane adopts the shaped-beam design, in order to make the emission level in the service are more even, the first zero point of the lower side lobe should be filled, rather than leaving an obvious zero depth. High-gain antennas have narrow vertical halfpower angles, so especially need the zero point filling technology to improve the nearby coverage. Generally, if the zero depth is -26dB greater than the main beam, it indicates that the antenna has zero point filling. Some suppliers adopt percentage notation. For example, when an antenna zero point filling is 10%. The relationship between the
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two notation methods is: Y dB=20log(X%/100%) For example, zero point filling 10%, namely, X=10; using dB to notate it: Y=20log(10%/100%)=-20dBUpper side lobe suppression: For the cellular system based on minor cell system, in order to improve the frequency multiplexing and reduce the co-frequency interference between adjacent cells, the BTS antenna lobe shaping should lower the side lobe aimed at the interference area, and increase the D/U value. The first side lobe level should be less than 18dB. For the BTS antenna based on major cell system, this requirement is not imposed.

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Mechanical Down Tilt and Electric Down Tilt


Mechanical down tilt

Electric down tilt

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Three kinds of methods and their combinations are usually used for antenna beam downtilt: Mechanical downtilt, preset electricity downtilt and electrically controlled downtilt (for electrically controlled antennas). During adjustment of the electrically controlled antenna downtilt angle, the antenna itself will not move, but the phase of the antenna dipole is adjusted through electricity signals to change the field intensity so that the antenna emission energy deviates from the zero-degree direction. The filed intensity of the antenna is increased or decreased in each direction so that there will be little change in the antenna pattern after the downtilt angle is changed. The horizontal semi-power width is unrelated with the downtilt angle. However, during mechanical adjustment of the downtilt angle, the antenna itself will be moved. It is necessary to change the downtilt angle by adjusting the location of the back support of the antenna. When the downtilt angle is very large, although the coverage distance in the main lobe direction changes obviously, yet signals in the direction perpendicular to the main lobe almost keep not change, the antenna pattern deforms seriously, and the horizontal beam width becomes greater as the downtilt angle is increased. A preset downtilt antenna is similar to an electrically controlled antenna in working principle, but a preset angle can not be adjusted.

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The advantages of an electrically controlled antenna are as follows: When the downtilt angle is very large, the coverage distance in the main lobe direction will be shortened obviously and the antenna pattern will not remarkably change, so the interference can be reduced. On the other hand, mechanical downtilt may deform the pattern. The larger the angle is, the more serious the deformation is. Hence it is difficult to control the interference. In addition, electrically controlled downtilt and the mechanical downtilt have different influence on the back lobe. Electrically controlled downtilt allows further control of the influence on the back lobe, while mechanical downtilt enlarges the influence on the back lobe. If the mechanical downtilt angle is very large, the emission signals of the antenna will propagate to high buildings in backward direction through the back lobe, thus resulting in additional interference. In addition, during network optimization, management and maintenance, when we need to adjust the downtilt angle of an electrically controlled antenna, it is unnecessary to shut down the entire system. So we can monitor the adjustment of the antenna downtilt angle using special test equipment for mobile communication, so as to ensure the optimum value of the downtilt angle value of the antenna.

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Questions
How are antennas categorized by emission direction, and by appearance? What are electric indices of antenna? What are mechanical indices of antenna? Into which types does the distributed antenna system break down?

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Summary

Working principles of antenna Categories of antenna Electric indices of antenna Mechanical indices of antenna New technologies of antenna

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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Chapter 2 Antenna Chapter 3 RF Basics Chapter 4 Symbol Explanation

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Introduction to Power Unit


Absolute power(dBm) The absolute power of RF signals is notated by dBm and dBW. Their conversion relationships with mW and W are: e.g., the signal power is x W, its size notated by dBm is:

PW *1000mw p (dBm) = 10 lg 1mw


For example, 1W=30dBm=0dBW. Relative power(dB) It is the logarithmic notation of the ratio of any two powers

For example If P , 2 1 = 2w P
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P1 mw p ( dB ) = 10 lg P mW 2

= 1w so P1 is 3dB greater than P2


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Most spectrum analyzers use the dB notation to display the measurement results. dB is so popularly used because it can use the logarithmic mode to compress the signal level that changes in a wide range. For example, 1V signal and 10uV signal can appear on the monitor whose dynamic range is 100dB, while the linear scale cannot display the two signals simultaneously in a clear picture. Therefore, dB is determines the power ratio and voltage ratio in the logarithmic mode. In this case, the multiplication operation changes to convenient addition operation. It is typically used in calculating the gain and loss in the electronic systems.

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Noise-Related Concepts
Noise Noise means the unpredictable interference signal that occur during the signal processing (the point frequency interference is not counted as noise) Noise figure Noise figure is used for measuring the processing capability of the RF component for small signals, and is usually defined as: output SNR divided by unit input SNR.

Si NF Ni So No
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Typical noises are: external sky and electric noise, vehicle start-up noise, heat noise from inside systems, scattered noise of transistor during operation, intermodulation product of signal and noise.

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Noise-Related Concepts
Noise figure formula of cascaded network

G1 NF1

G2 NF2

Gn NFn

NFtotal = NF 1 +

NF 2 1 NFn 1 + ... + G1 G1 G 2 ... Gn 1

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As seen from the above formula, in the system noise, the noise figure of the level-1 component imposes the greatest influence, the noise figure of level-2 component imposes less influence, and so on. This explains why the cascaded noise figure is reduced after installing the tower amplifier. Usually, the NF of TMA is 1.5 . The NF of the level-1 component of BTS is 2.2 .

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Receiving Sensitivity
Receiving sensitivity Expressed with power:

Smin=10log(KTB)+ Ft +(S/N), unit: dBm


K is a Boltzmann constant, unit: J/K (joule /K) , K=1.38066*10-19 J/K T represents absolute temperature, unit: K B represents signal bandwidth, unit: Hz Ft represents noise figure, unit: dB (S/N) represents required signal-to-noise ratio, unit: dB If B=1Hz, 10log(KTB)=-174dBm/Hz

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Receiving sensitivity refers to the minimum receiving signal strength under a certain signal-to-noise ratio. It is an index that reflects the receiving capability of the equipment.

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RF Components
Tower Mounted Amplifier Enlarge uplink signal, but its a loss for downlink

Duplexer Sharing antenna for receiving and transmitting Sharing antenna for multi-system

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The core of a TMA is a low noise amplifier, which can be used to solve a limited uplink coverage problem and increase the uplink coverage area. For uplink, the gain is around 13dB. For downlink, the loss is around 0.3dB. Duplexer : A device that permits the simultaneous use of a transmitter and a receiver in connection with a common element such as an antenna system.

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RF Components
Splitter

Coupler

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Both couplers and power splitters are components for power distribution. The difference is: a power splitter is for equal power distribution, while a coupler is for non-equal power distribution. Therefore, couplers and power splitters are used in different applications. In general, to distribute power to different antennas within the same storey, a power splitter is used; to distribute power from the trunk to tributaries of different stories, a coupler is used. If couplers and power splitters are used in coordination, the transmit power of the signal source can be distributed as evenly as possible to various antenna ports of the system, namely, the transmit power of each antenna in the entire distribution system is almost the same. During power splitter selection, priority should be given to 1/2 power splitters, not 1/4 power splitters. When using a 1/3 power splitter, make sure that the power splitter is not too close to the antenna, and the feeder cable connecting them should be over 20m long.

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Distribution System
Splitter Splitter

Splitter

Coupler

Trunk

Tx/Rx

Trunk
Splitter

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In the tunnel/subway/indoor, if we cover it just by outdoor NodeBs, because of the blocking of the obstacle, the QoS will be very bad, even cause call drop. In addition, in large building, we usually use micro cell system to cover it. But the indoor environment is different with outdoor and it is hard to use one fixed antenna to cover the whole building because of the blocking of the wall and other obstacle. The indoor distribution system (IDS) can solve these problems and increase the coverage of the micro NodeB. So the IDS is necessary in some buildings. In general, when selecting feeder cable types, select 7/8" cable for the trunk, and 1/2" common cables or super flexible cable for tributaries. During the trunk cabling process, if the curvature radius does not meet the requirement, the trunk can be disconnected at corners, and a section of 1/2" super flexible cable can be used for cabling around the corners.

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Splitter Splitter

Coupler

Trunk
Splitter

Coupler Splitter

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Summary

Summary

Definition about dBm, dB Noise-Related Concepts Receiving Sensitivity RF Components

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Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction Chapter 2 Antenna Chapter 3 RF Basics Chapter 4 Symbol Explanation

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Symbol Explanation
Ec Average energy per Chip Not considered individually, but used for Ec/Io Pilot Ec is measured by the UE (for HO) or the Pilot scanner, in the form of Received Signal Code Power (RSCP) For CPICH Ec: Depends on power and path loss. Constant for a given power and path loss. Ec is not dependent on load For DPCH Ec: Depends on power and path loss

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The same could be said for the Dedicated Channel as for the pilot. The Ec remains constant for a given power and path loss. The main difference between the pilot and the DCH is that the DCH is power controlled.

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Symbol Explanation
Eb Average energy per information bit for the PCCPCH, SCCPCH, and DPCH, at the UE antenna connector. Typically not considered individually, but used for Eb/Nt Depends on channel power (can be variable), path loss, and spreading gain (Gp) Constant for a given bit rate, channel power, and path loss Can be estimated form Ec and processing gain Speech 12.2kbps example Ec = -80 dBm 12.2kbps data rate => Processing gain = 24.98 dB Eb~ -80 + 24.98 = -55.02 dBm
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Symbol Explanation
Io The total received power spectral density, including signal and interference, as measured at the UE antenna connector. Similar to UTRA carrier Receive Strength Signal Indicator (RSSI), at least for practical consideration (SC scanner) RSSI in W or dBm Io in W/Hz or dBm/Hz Measured by the UE (for HO) or Pilot scanner in the form of RSSI Depends on All channel power, All cells, and path loss Depends on same-cell and other cell loading Depends on external interferences
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This is different form other Io definitions: other users interferences Io = total receive power per-channel receive power This latest definition of Io is more in line with the ISCP (Interference Signal Code Power) defined in the standard

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Symbol Explanation
No common RF definition Thermal noise density Typically not considered individually, but used for Eb/No Can be calculated No = KT K is the Bolzman constant, 1.38*10^-23 T is the temperature, 290 K No = 174 dBm/Hz under typical conditions Typically the bandwidth noise and the receiver noise figure are also considered No = KTBNF, where NF is noise figure To avoid confusion, NF should be used when referring to thermal noise
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For a WCDMA system, the bandwidth is 3.84Mcps. For WCDMA, the typical noise figure is 3dB Uplink (NodeB, but Huaweis NodeB is 2.2 dB in RND) and 7 dB downlink (UE). These figures should always be checked against the vendor specification, because implementation affects them

Based on the previous formula, this gives the total noise power (noise floor) as Uplink: -174+66+3= -105dBm (RTWP value without subscriber) Downlink: -174+66+7= -101dBm

These values are not the receiver sensitivity but the power measured at the reference point, in the absence of signal. As WCDMA allows the extraction of signals below the noise floor, the sensitivity can not be deducted from these values.

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Symbol Explanation
No for WCDMA system Total one-sided noise power spectral density due to all noise sources Typically not considered individually, but used for Eb/No Defined this way, No and Io are substituted for one another: On the uplink the substitution is valid On the downlink, differentiating between Noise and Interference is more challenging

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Originally, Eb/No meant simply bit energy divided by noise spectral density. However, over time the expression Eb/No has acquired an additional meaning. One reason is the fact that in CDMA the interference spectral density is added to the noise spectral density, since the interference is noise, due, for example, to spreading. Thus, No can usually be replaced by Io, interference plus noise density.

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Symbol Explanation
RTWP Received Total Wide Bandwidth power To describe uplink interference level When uplink load increase 50%, RTWP value will increase 3dB RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator To describe downlink interference level at UE side

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Symbol Explanation
RSCP Revived Signal Code Power (Ec) Ec/Io = RSCP/RSSI, to describe downlink CPICH quality ISCP Interference Signal Code Power; can be estimated by: ISCP = RSSI RSCP

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Summary

Summary
Ec, Eb, Io and No RTWP, RSSI, RSCP and ISCP

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Thank You
www.huawei.com

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