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Living in a Network Centric World

Network Fundamentals Chapter 1

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Objectives

Describe how networks impact our daily lives.


Describe the role of data networking in the human network. Identify the key components of any data network. Identify the opportunities and challenges posed by converged networks. Describe the characteristics of network architectures: fault tolerance, scalability, quality of service and security. Install and use IRC clients and a Wiki server.

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How Networks Impact Daily Life


Explain the benefits of instantaneous communication and how it supports and improves our lives.

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How Networks Impact Daily Life


Describe the characteristics and purpose of popular communication media such as, IM, Wikis , Blogs, Podcasting, and Collaboration Tools
Instant messaging Real time communication between 2 or more people based on typed text Weblogs (Blogs) Web pages created by an individual Podcasting Website that contains audio files available for downloading
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How Networks Impact Daily Life


Information networks can be used to share and collaborate improves teaching and learning

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How Networks Impact Daily Life


Some ways of communication over a network change the way we work

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How Networks Impact Daily Life


Communication over a network supports the way we play

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Data Networking Role, Components, and Challenges


Basic characteristics of communication
Rules or agreements are 1st established
(Before beginning to communicate with each other, we establish rules or agreements to govern the conversation. These rules, or protocols, must be followed in order for the message to be successfully delivered and understood.)

Important information may need to be repeated


Various modes of communication may impact the effectiveness of getting the message across.

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Data Networking Role, Components, and Challenges


The role of data networking in communications:

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Data Networking Role, Components, and Challenges


Various elements make up a network
Devices These are used to communicate with one another Medium This is how the devices are connected together Messages Information that travels over the medium Rules

Governs how messages flow across network


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Data Networking Role, Components, and Challenges


The role of converged networks in communications
Converged network A type of network that can carry voice, video & data over the same network

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Network Architecture Characteristics


The four characteristics that are addressed by network architecture design
Fault tolerance Scalability

Quality of service
Security

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Network Architecture Characteristics


Packet switching helps improve the resiliency and fault tolerance of the Internet architecture

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Network Architecture Characteristics


Characteristics of the Internet that help it scale to meet user demand
Hierarchical Common standards

Common protocols

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Network Architecture Characteristics


Explain the factors that necessitate Quality of Service and the mechanisms necessary to ensure it

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Network Architecture Characteristics


Describe how QoS mechanisms work to ensure quality of service for applications that require it.

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Network Architecture Characteristics


How to select the appropriate QoS strategy for a given type of traffic

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Network Architecture Characteristics


Why networks must be secure

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Network Architecture Characteristics


Basic measures to secure data networks
Ensure confidentiality through use of User authentication Data encryption Maintain communication integrity through use of Digital signatures Ensure availability through use of Firewalls Redundant network architecture

Hardware without a single


point of failure
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IRC Clients and Wiki Server


Install and use IRC clients and a Wiki server

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Summary

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Communicating over the Network

Network Fundamentals Chapter 2

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Objectives
Describe the structure of a network, including the devices and media that are necessary for successful communications.
Explain the function of protocols in network communications. Explain the advantages of using a layered model to describe network functionality.

Describe the role of each layer in two recognized network models: The TCP/IP model and the OSI model.
Describe the importance of addressing and naming schemes in network communications.
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Network Structure
Define the elements of communication
3 common elements of communication message source

the channel
message destination

Define a network
data or information networks capable of carrying many different types of communications
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Network Structure
Describe how messages are communicated
Data is sent across a network in small chunks called segments

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Network Structure
Define the components of a network
Network components hardware software

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Network Structure

End Devices and their Role in the Network


End devices form interface with human network & communications network Role of end devices:
client server both client and server

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Network Structure
Identify the role of an intermediary device in a data network and be able to contrast that role with the role of an end device Role of an intermediary device provides connectivity and ensures data flows across network

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Network Structure
Define network media and criteria for making a network media choice
Network media this is the channel over which a message travels

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Network Types
Define Local Area Networks (LANs)
- A network serving a home, building or campus is considered a Local Area Network (LAN)

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Network Types
Define Wide Area Networks (WANs)
- LANs separated by geographic distance are connected by a network known as a Wide Area Network (WAN)

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Network Types
Define the Internet
The internet is defined as a global mesh of interconnected networks

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Network Types
Describe network representations

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Function of Protocol in Network Communication


The importance of protocols and how they are used to facilitate communication over data networks
A protocol is a set of predetermined rules

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Function of Protocol in Network Communication


Explain network protocols
Network protocols are used to allow devices to communicate successfully

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Function of Protocol in Network Communication


Describe Protocol suites and industry standards

A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization
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Function of Protocol in Network Communication


Define different protocols and how they interact

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Function of Protocol in Network Communication


Technology independent Protocols
-Many diverse types of devices can communicate using the same sets of protocols. This is because protocols specify network functionality, not the underlying technology to support this functionality.

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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Explain the benefits of using a layered model
Benefits include

assists in protocol design


fosters competition changes in one layer do not affect other layers provides a common language

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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Describe TCP/IP Mode

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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Describe the Communication Process

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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Explain protocol data units (PDU) and encapsulation

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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Describe the process of sending and receiving messages

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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Explain protocol and reference models
A protocol model provides a model that closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite.

A reference model
provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services.
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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Define OSI

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Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model


Compare OSI and TCP/IP model

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Addressing and Naming Schemes


Explain how labels in encapsulation headers are used to manage communication in data networks

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Addressing and Naming Schemes


Describe examples of Ethernet MAC Addresses, IP Addresses, and TCP/UDP Port numbers

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Addressing and Naming Schemes


Explain how labels in encapsulation headers are used to manage communication in data networks

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Addressing and Naming Schemes


Describe how information in the encapsulation header is used to identify the source and destination processes for data communication

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Summary

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Application Layer Functionality and Protocols

Network Fundamentals Chapter 3

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Objectives
Define the application layer as the source and destination of data for communication across networks.
Explain the role of protocols in supporting communication between server and client processes. Describe the features, operation, and use of well-known TCP/IP application layer services (HTTP, DNS, SMTP).

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Applications The Interface Between Human and Data Networks


Explain that applications provide the means for generating and receiving data that can be transported on the network

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Applications The Interface Between Human and Data Networks


Explain the role of applications, services and protocols in converting communication to data that can be transferred across the data network

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Applications The Interface Between Human and Data Networks


Define the separate roles applications, services and protocols play in transporting data through networks

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Applications The Interface Between Human and Data Networks


Describe the role protocols play in networking and be able to identify several message properties that can be defined by a protocol

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The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication


Describe the roles of client and server processes in data networks

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The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication


List common Application Layers services and protocols

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The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication

Compare and contrast client server networking with peer-to-peer networking and peer-to-peer applications

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Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services


Describe the features of the DNS protocol and how this protocol supports DNS services

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Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services


Describe the features of the HTTP protocol and how this protocol supports the delivery of web pages to the client

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Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services


Describe the features of the POP and SMTP protocols, and how these protocols support e-mail services

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Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services


Describe the features of the Telnet protocol and identify several of its uses in examining and managing networks

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Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services


Describe the features of the SMB protocol and the role it plays in supporting file sharing in Microsoft-based networks

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Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services


Describe the features of the Gnutella protocol and the role it plays in supporting P2P services

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Summary

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OSI transport layer

CCNA Exploration Semester 1 Chapter 4

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OSI transport layer


OSI model layer 4 TCP/IP model Transport layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical
HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP etc

Data stream

Application Transport Internet Network Access

Segment TCP, UDP


Packet
Frame Bits

IP
Ethernet, WAN technologies

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Transport layer topics


Roles of the transport layer TCP: Transport Control Protocol

UDP: User Datagram Protocol

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Purpose of transport layer


Responsible for the overall end-to-end transfer of application data.

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Transport layer
Enables multiple applications on the same device to send data over the network at the same time Provides reliability and error handling if required. (Checks if data has arrived and re-sends if it has not.)

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Transport Layer TCP and UDP

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Why two transport protocols?


Some applications need their data to be complete with no errors or gaps and they can accept a slight delay to ensure this. Reliable They use TCP. Some applications can accept occasional errors or gaps in the data but they cannot accept any delay. They use UDP.

Fast

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TCP
Sets up a connection with the receiving host before sending data. Checks if segments have arrived and resends if they were lost. (Reliability) Sorts segments into the right order before reassembling the data. Sends at a speed to suit the receiving host. (Flow control) But this takes time and resources.

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UDP
Connectionless. Does not contact receiving host before sending data. Does not check if data arrived and does not re-send. Does not sort into the right order. Best effort.

Low overhead.
Used for VoIP, streaming video, DNS, TFTP

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TCP and UDP headers

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Port numbers
Used by TCP and UDP as a form of addressing. Identifies the application and the conversation.

Common application protocols have default port numbers e.g. 80 for HTTP 110 for POP3 mail 20/21 for FTP 23 for Telnet

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Port numbers

Client PC uses port 49152. Chosen at random. Remembers this to identify application and conversation.

Client PC uses port 80. Identifies HTTP as application. Requesting a web page.

Port + IP address = socket. E.g. 192.168.2.12:80

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Port numbers
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigns port numbers. Well Known Ports (0 to 1023) - Reserved for common services and applications such as HTTP, FTP, Telnet, POP3, SMTP. Registered Ports (1024 to 49151) - Assigned to user processes or applications. Can be dynamically selected by a client as its source port. Dynamic or Private or Ephemeral Ports (49152 to 65535) Can be assigned dynamically to client applications when initiating a connection.

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Netstat

Shows protocol, local address and port number, foreign address and port number.

Unexpected connections may mean there is a security problem.

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Segment and sequence


Both TCP and UDP split application data into suitably sized pieces for transport and re-assemble them on arrival.

TCP has sequence numbers in the segment headers. It re-assembles segments in the right order.
UDP has no sequence numbers. It assembles datagrams in the order they arrive.

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Connection oriented
TCP sets up a connection between end hosts before sending data The two hosts go through a synchronization process to ensure that both hosts are ready and know the initial sequence numbers. This process is the Three-way handshake When data transfer is finished, the hosts send signals to end the session.

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Three way handshake

Send SYN seq = x Receive SYN ack = y seq = x+1

Receive SYN seq = x Send SYN ack = y seq = x+1

Send ACK ack = y+1

Receive ACK ack = y+1

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Terminating connection

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Expectational acknowledgement
TCP checks that data has been received. The receiving host sends an acknowledgement giving the sequence number of the byte that it expects next.

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Window size
Controls how many bytes are sent before an acknowledgement is expected.

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Lost segments
Send bytes 1 to 2999 Receive 1 to 2999, send ACK 3000

Send bytes 3000 to 4999


Receive 3000 to 3999, send ACK 4000 (bytes 4000 to 4999 were lost)

Send bytes 4000 to 5999


Lost segments are re-sent. If no ACK send them all again

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Flow control
The initial window size is agreed during the three-way handshake. If this is too much for the receiver and it loses data (e.g. buffer overflow) then it can decrease the window size. If all is well then the receiver will increase the window size.

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Comparison of TCP and UDP


Both TCP and UDP use port numbers Both split up application data if necessary

TCP sets up a connection


TCP uses acknowledgements and re-sends TCP uses flow control

TCP can re-assemble segments in the right order if they arrive out of sequence
UDP has less overhead so is faster

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Summary
Hierarchical Design model addresses performance, scalability, maintainability & manageability issues.
Traffic Analysis is used to monitor network performance. Hierarchical Design Model is composed of 3 layers:
Access Distribution

Core

Switches selected for each layer must meet the needs of each hierarchical layer as well as the needs of the business.
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Labs & Activities


Type PT Lab PT Lab Detail 1.2.4 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3

Mandatory* Mandatory Mandatory Review carefully

* If no previous Packet Tracer experience, else strongly recommended

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OSI network layer

CCNA Exploration Semester 1 Chapter 5

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OSI network layer


OSI model layer 3 TCP/IP model Internet layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical
HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP etc

Data stream Segment

Application Transport Internet Network Access

TCP, UDP

Packet
Frame Bits

IP
Ethernet, WAN technologies

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Network layer topics


IP version 4 the most common layer 3 routed protocol Dividing hosts into groups why and how

Routing sending packets the right way


Routing how routers learn routes IP addressing in chapter 6

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Purpose of layer 3
Decide how to get the data from source to destination, then route it.

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Layer 3 protocol
A layer 3 protocol such as IP version 4 must: Provide an addressing scheme to identify networks and individual hosts Encapsulate a segment from layer 4 into a packet and include addresses Direct the packet across one or many networks to the destination host Decapsulate (remove the packet header) and give the segment to layer 4.

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Network layer protocols


Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) the most common Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) designed to replace version 4 eventually Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) AppleTalk

Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet)

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IP characteristics
Designed with low overhead for speed it does only what it needs to do. Connectionless does not set up connection with destination before sending packet. Best effort (unreliable) no guarantee of safe delivery, no checking or resending.

Independent of media, but does need to know maximum packet size.

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Network layer encapsulation

Segment from transport layer

Packet header added to make IP packet

Sent to data link layer for further encapsulation into frame

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IPv4 packet header fields


IP address of source host, needed so reply can be sent. IP address of destination host, needed so routers can find route.

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IPv4 packet header fields


Reduced by 1 at each router. Packet dropped if it goes to 0. TCP or UDP used in Transport layer.

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IPv4 packet header fields


Priority for QoS. E.g. voice data has higher priority than e-mail. For checking if header has been corrupted.

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IPv4 packet header fields


Shows if packet has been fragmented or must not be fragmented. If router has to split a packet, this gives order for putting pieces together.

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IPv4 packet header fields


Version 4. Header length. Length of whole packet.

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IP header

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Splitting up networks
Fully switched network, each device has its own bandwidth. You could have hundreds of computers. Why split it up? Too large to manage efficiently Too much broadcast traffic - congestion Too many addresses for switches to remember

Lack of security
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How to split the network


Geographically different sites Purpose what software and shared resources do people use? How much bandwidth do they use? Ownership different companies or departments in a company, security requirements

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Use a router
Limits broadcasts Can provide security Addressing scheme based on networks - hierarchical

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IPv4 hierarchical address


32 bits in four 8-bit octets, written in decimal Network part then host part Here network part (prefix) is 24 bits /24 Length of network part can vary.

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Message to same network

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Message to different network

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Default gateway
Each PC is configured with an IP address and a default gateway. The default gateway is the IP address of a router port on the same network as the PC. It is the routers job to handle messages to other networks.

Each router port is on a different network and has a different IP address.

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Hops
A packet may pass through many routers on its journey. The trip from one router to the next is called a hop and the next router is called the next hop router. Each router looks at the IP address in the packet header and decides what to do with the packet next.

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Routing table and forwarding


Each router has a routing table. This contains a list of known networks and the best way to get there outgoing port and address of next-hop router. The router looks at the IP address of a packet. It decides which network this address is on. If it knows the network it forwards the packet. If it does not know the network it drops the packet.

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Directly connected

The networks of the routers own interfaces go into the routing table.

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Other networks
Routes to other networks can be configured by an administrator (static routes) Or they can be learned from another router using a routing protocol (dynamic routes) A router can have a default route. Packets for unknown networks go on this route instead of being dropped.

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Routing table entries


Directly connected shown by C

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Routing table entries


Static, configured by administrator, shown by S

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Routing table entries


Default, configured by administrator, shown by S*

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Routing table entries


Learned from another router using RIP routing protocol, shown by R

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Router has a route

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Routing protocols
Routers learn routes from each other and put them in their routing tables. A routing protocol is the set of rules they use to swap information. These routes are dynamic routes

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Static routes
Entered by administrator

Dynamic routes
Learned from other routers Start the protocol then it runs by itself

Time consuming, different for each router

Must be updated if routes change


Little processing No bandwidth used Gives nothing away

Automatically updates when routes change


More processing Uses bandwidth Gives away information

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Summary
Hierarchical Design model addresses performance, scalability, maintainability & manageability issues.
Traffic Analysis is used to monitor network performance. Hierarchical Design Model is composed of 3 layers:
Access Distribution

Core

Switches selected for each layer must meet the needs of each hierarchical layer as well as the needs of the business.
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Labs & Activities


Type PT Lab PT Lab Detail 1.2.4 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3

Mandatory* Mandatory Mandatory Review carefully

* If no previous Packet Tracer experience, else strongly recommended

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Addressing the network IPv4

CCNA Exploration Semester 1 Chapter 6

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IP addressing works at
OSI model layer 3 TCP/IP model Internet layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical
HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP etc

Data stream Segment

Application Transport Internet Network Access

TCP, UDP

Packet
Frame Bits

IP
Ethernet, WAN technologies

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Addressing topics
Binary and decimal Types of IP addresses

Assigning addresses
Network part and subnet masks Calculating addresses

Ping and Traceroute Utilities

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Binary and decimal


Convert to 8-bit binary 248

187
89 Convert to decimal

00110100
01010101 11001111

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248 to binary
128 1 64 1 32 1 16 1 8 1 4 0 2 0 1 0

248 -128 120

120 -64 56

56 -32 24

24 -16 8

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187 to binary
128 1 64 0 32 1 16 1 8 1 4 0 2 1 1 1

187 -128 59

59 -32 27

27 -16 11

11 -8 3

3 -2 1

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89 to binary
128 0 64 1 32 0 16 1 8 1 4 0 2 0 1 1

89 -64 25

25 -16 9

9 -8 1

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00110100 to decimal
128 0 64 0 32 1 32 16 1 16 8 0 4 1 4 2 0 1 0

32 +16 + 4 52

52

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01010101 to decimal
128 0 64 1 64 32 0 16 1 16 8 0 4 1 4 2 0 1 1 1

64 +16 + 4 + 1 85

85

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11001111 to decimal
128 1 128 64 1 64 32 0 16 0 8 1 8 4 1 4 2 1 2 1 1 1

128 + 64 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 207
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207

Binary and decimal


Convert to 8-bit binary 248 11111000

187
89

10111011
01011001

Convert to decimal

00110100
01010101 11001111

52
85 207

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IPv4 address
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

octet

octet

octet

octet

network part

host part

Prefix /24 Subnet mask:


255. 11111111 255. 11111111 255. 11111111 0 00000000

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Find the network address


192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

In a network address, all the host bits are 0.


192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 0 00000000

The router needs to do this for every packet.

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Logical AND
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

255.
11111111 192. 11000000

255.
11111111 168. 10101000

255.
11111111 21. 00010101

0
00000000 0 00000000

Do a logical AND at each position


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Find the broadcast address


192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

In a broadcast address, all the host bits are 1.


192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 255 11111111

The broadcast is the last address in the network.

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3 types of address
Every network has: Network address the first one

Broadcast address the last one


Host addresses everything in between

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Classful addressing
A
10. 17. 53. 60

network part

host part
16. 38. 201

172.

network part

host part

192.

168.

21.

17

network part

host part

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Classful addressing
Easy to work out but very wasteful. Routers and hosts still assume class subnet masks by default Class A Class B /8 /16 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0

Class C

/24

255.255.255.0

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Classless addressing
Any suitable prefix can be used We (and devices) need to know what the prefix is.

More flexible, less wasteful.

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Classless addressing /16


172.16.0.0/16 mask 255.255.0.0 Broadcast address 172.16.255.255
172.
10101100

16.
00010000

0.
00000000

0
00000000

Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.255.254


65534 host addresses

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Classless addressing /24


172.16.0.0/24 mask 255.255.255.0 Broadcast address 172.16.0.255
172.
10101100

16.
00010000

0.
00000000

0
00000000

Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.254


254 host addresses

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Classless addressing /22


172.16.0.0/22 mask 255.255.252.0 Broadcast address 172.16.3.255
172.
10101100

16.
00010000

0.
00000000

0
00000000

Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.3.254


1022 host addresses

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Classless addressing /26


172.16.0.0/22 mask 255.255.255.192 Broadcast address 172.16.0.63
172. 10101100 16. 00010000 0. 00000000 0 00000000

Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.62 62 host addresses

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Classless addressing /28


172.16.0.0/28 mask 255.255.255.240 Broadcast address 172.16.0.15
172. 10101100 16. 00010000 0. 00000000 0 00000000

Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.14 14 host addresses

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Calculating addresses
A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/24 What is the subnet mask?

What is the network address?


What is the broadcast address? What is the range of host addresses in the network?

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192.168.1.70/24 fill in the table


Last octet binary Host Last octet decimal Full

Subnet mask
Network Broadcast First host Last host

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192.168.1.70/24
Last octet binary Host 01000110 Last octet decimal 70 Full 192.168.1.70

Subnet mask
Network Broadcast First host Last host

00000000
00000000 11111111 00000001 11111110

0
0 255 1 254

255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.255 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.254

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Calculating addresses
A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/26 What is the subnet mask?

What is the network address?


What is the broadcast address? What is the range of host addresses in the network?

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192.168.1.70/26 fill in the table


Last octet binary Host Last octet decimal Full

Subnet mask
Network Broadcast First host Last host

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192.168.1.70/26
Last octet binary 01000110 Last octet decimal 70 Full 192.168.1.70

Host

Subnet mask
Network Broadcast First host Last host

11000000
01000000 01111111 01000001 01111110

192
64 127 65 126

255.255.255.192
192.168.1.64 192.168.1.127 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.126

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Calculating addresses
A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/28 What is the subnet mask?

What is the network address?


What is the broadcast address? What is the range of host addresses in the network?

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192.168.1.70/28 fill in the table


Last octet binary Host Last octet decimal Full

Subnet mask
Network Broadcast First host Last host

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192.168.1.70/28
Last octet binary 01000110 Last octet decimal 70 Full 192.168.1.70

Host

Subnet mask
Network Broadcast First host Last host

11110000
01000000 01001111 01000001 01001110

240
64 79 65 78

255.255.255.240
192.168.1.64 192.168.1.79 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.78

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Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast


Unicast a message addressed to one host Broadcast a message addressed to all hosts on a network. Uses networks broadcast address or 255.255.255.255 locally Multicast a message addressed to a group of hosts. Uses an address starting 224 - 239

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Private IP addresses
Unrestricted use on private networks. Not routed across the Internet. 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0/8) 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0/20) 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0/24)

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Public IP addresses
Routed over the Internet Master holder is IANA

Assigned to regional registries and then to ISPs


ISPs allocate them to organisations and individual users

Use is strictly controlled as duplicate addresses are not allowed

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Special addresses
0.0.0.0 all addresses in default route. Hosts cannot be given addresses starting 0. 127.0.0.1 is loopback. Hosts cannot be given addresses starting 127. 240.0.0.0 and higher reserved for experimental purposes.

169.254.0.0 - 169.254.255.255 local only


192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 for teaching

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Network address translation


A large number of hosts on a network use private addresses to communicate with each other. The ISP allocates one or a few public addresses. NAT allows the hosts to share the public addresses when they want to use the Internet

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Addressing hosts
Static addressing address is configured by an administrator Servers, printers, routers, switches need static addresses Dynamic addressing address is allocated automatically by DHCP by leasing addresses from a pool Dynamic addressing is best for workstations

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Blocks of addresses
Use Network address User hosts Address range 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1-127 Summary 192.168.1.0/25

Servers
Peripherals Network devices Router Broadcast

192.168.1.128 - 191
192.168.1.192 - 223 192.168.1.224 - 253 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

192.168.1.128/26
192.168.1.192/27 192.168.1.224/27

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Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Last octet binary
Address Subnet mask 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 00000000 00000000

Borrow 1 bit from host part, give it to network part, /25


Addresses 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.128 255.255.255.128 00000000 10000000 10000000

Subnet mask

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Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Borrow 2 bits from host part, give to network part, /26
Addresses 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.192 255.255.255.192 00000000 01000000 10000000 11000000 11000000

Subnet mask

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Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Borrow 3 bits from host part, give to network part, /27
Addresses 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.224 255.255.255.224 00000000 00100000 01000000 01100000 10000000 10100000 11000000 11100000 11100000

Subnet mask

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Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Borrow 4 bits from host part, give to network part, /28
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.16 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.48 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.80 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.112 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.144 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.176 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.208 192.168.1.224 192.168.1.240 11110000 00000000 00010000 00100000 00110000 01000000 01010000 01100000 01110000 10000000 10010000 10100000 10110000 11000000 11010000 11100000 11110000

Subnet mask 255.255.255.240

And so on
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Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Every time you borrow another bit you: Double the number of subnets

Halve the size of the subnets


Each subnet has a network address, a broadcast address, and everything in between is a host address. Here are some ways of visualising the process.

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Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Bits borrowed No of networks Prefix 1 2 /25 2 4 /26 3 8 /27 4 16 /28 5 32 /29 6 64 /30

Bit value/ network size


No of hosts Subnet mask

128
126 128

64
62 192

32
30 224

16
14 240

8
6 248

4
2 252

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Address space
Make a spreadsheet or table with numbers 0 to 255 Link to show table

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Subnet chart

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Subnetting
There are many subnet calculators, but you will not be able to use them in exams. Start with the biggest subnet and work down to the smallest. Make sure the subnets are valid sizes with valid subnet masks.

Make sure that there are no overlaps.

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Ping and traceroute


Ping sends an ICMP message. If all is well, the destination replies. If not, a router may reply to say the destination is unreachable, or the ping may time out.

Traceroute sends a series of messages so that each router along the path replies. You get a list of addresses of all the routers.

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IPv6
Development started in 1990s because of concerns about IPv4 addresses running out A whole new protocol suite not just layer 3 Uses 128-bit hierarchical addressing, written using hexadecimal Simpler header Integrated security authentication, privacy Quality of service mechanisms

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Subnetting - visual

CCNA Exploration Semester 1

Chapter 6

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Prefix /24
Three octets in network part, last octet in host part.

All possible numbers 0 255 in last octet belong in the same network. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0

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Prefix /25
First bit of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.128

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Prefix /26
2 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.192

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Prefix /27
3 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.224

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Prefix /28
4 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.240

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Prefix /29
5 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.248

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Prefix /30
6 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.252

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Variable length
/27

/26

/25 Networks do not need to be all the same size.

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Summary
Hierarchical Design model addresses performance, scalability, maintainability & manageability issues.
Traffic Analysis is used to monitor network performance. Hierarchical Design Model is composed of 3 layers:
Access Distribution

Core

Switches selected for each layer must meet the needs of each hierarchical layer as well as the needs of the business.
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Labs & Activities


Type PT Lab PT Lab Detail 1.2.4 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3

Mandatory* Mandatory Mandatory Review carefully

* If no previous Packet Tracer experience, else strongly recommended

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