# PART I

SOLID MECHANICS

1.4(a) is perfect whereas the one shown in Fig. 1. two Figure 1. 1. Perfect frames with four and five joints are shown in Fig. in a perfect frame. is called a plane frame. Roof trusses and bridge trusses are the examples of plane frames. the analysis of only plane frame is considered. For example. loads act along the plane of the frame. 1.4 (b) is not capable of retaining Figure 1. In the case of wooden frames.4 (a) and (b) have the same number 1 3 2 of members and joints.1 more members are required. 4 4 2 m = 2j – 3 (1.2 its shape if loaded at the joint marked 6. then the frame is called a space frame.2 and 1. In such a frame. Tripod and transmission towers are examples of space frame. the 5 two frames shown in Fig.1 Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames A pinjointed frame is a structure made up of slender (cross-sectional dimensions quite small compared to length) members pin connected at ends and is capable of taking loads at joints. the following expression may be written as the relationship between number of joints j. A frame in which all the members lie in a single plane.1 PERFECT. and the number of member m. If all the members of a frame do not lie in a single plane. Frames are used as roof trusses to support sloping roofs and as bridge trusses to support deck. steel frames are used. the above equation gives only a necessary. is called a prefect frame. It may be observed that to increase joint in a perfect frame. In many machines. Therefore. 1. Transmission tower is another example of frame. the only 3 .1). The frame shown in Fig. 1.1) However. In this chapter. Triangular frame is the simplest perfect 1 2 frame and it has three joints and three members (Fig.3 1 3 3 respectively. Hence. the ends are connected by making suitable wooden joints or by nailing/bolting whereas steel frames are by riveting or by welding. DEFICIENT AND REDUNDANT FRAMES A pinjointed frame which has got just sufficient number of members to 2 resist the loads without undergoing appreciable deformation in shape. but 1 3 not a sufficient condition of a perfect frame.

A deficient frame is shown in Fig. No special care is taken to ensure perfect pin-connections.4 Solid and Fluid Mechanics necessary and sufficient condition of a perfect frame is that it should retain its shape when load is applied at any joint in any direction.5 in it. the loads act at the joints. In this truss. one diagonal member in each panel is extra. 2 1 1 3 4 4 6 5 3 5 7 P 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 1 3 (a) 5 1 3 (b) 5 Figure 1. Such frames cannot retain their shape when loaded. The frame may be analysed for the joint loads and the local bending effect on the member superposed in the design of that member. Even if a load is not acting at a joint. In most of the frames. riveting or by welding. the centre of gravity of the section is assumed to be located along the same longitudinal line. (2) The loads act only at the joints.5.6 is a typical redundant truss. Such frames cannot be analysed by making use of the equations of equilibrium alone. it is a two-degree redundant frame. the members are connected by bolting. are more than that required in a perfect frame. Figure 1. A frame is said to be redundant if the number of members Figure 1. For the analysis of such members. In reality. (4) Cross-sections of the members are uniform. The truss shown in the Fig. However.6 In this chapter. Hence. 1. (3) Self-weights of the members are negligible. If at all the cross-section varies. the consistency of determinations is to be considered. experiments have shown that assuming pin-connected ends is quite satisfactory since the members used are slender. Thus. Each extra member adds one degree of indeterminancy.3 Figure 1.2 ASSUMPTIONS In the theory that is going to be developed in this chapter. a redundant frame is statically indeterminate. it can be replaced by its reaction at the joint and a local bending effect on the member.pm5 .4 A frame is said to be deficient if the number of members in it are less than that required for a perfect frame. 1. P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. only the analysis of perfect frames is considered. the following assumptions are made: (1) The ends of the members are pin-connected (hinged). 1.

It is the duty of construction engineer to see that the centroid of all cross-sections lie along a single axis so that the member is held in equilibrium by the two forces acting at its ends. we mark Compression the forces on the joints.Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames 5 Chapter 1 In most of the trusses. the self-weight is really small compared to the loads they carry. A typical truss ABCDE loaded at joint E is shown in Fig. Because of the assumption of pin-connected ends. P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.7(a) Figure 1. In other words. Hence. The first two are analytical methods. In the analysis of frame.pm5 . The member BC is subjected to compressive force C as shown in Fig. 1. 1. C B C C C C T A E T D T T Figure 1. 1. it is more appropriate to call the theory that is going to be developed in this chapter as stability and equilibrium of pin-connected plane trusses.7(b) The member AE is subjected to tensile force T. 1. only method of joints is dealt in this chapter. 1. This is quite logical considering the fact that the markings on the members represent the internal reactive forces developed which are opposite in direction to the applied forces. Analysis of rigid frames is not covered in this book.7(a).7(c) other.7(c). 1. Effect of this force on the joint B (or C) is equal and opposite to the force C as shown in Fig.7(b). Its effect on the joints A and E are as shown in Fig. instead of the forces in the members as shown in Fig.7(b). self-weight of the members may be neglected. if the arrows are towards joint member force is compressive and if it is away from joints the member force is tensile.3 NATURE OF FORCES IN MEMBERS The members of a truss are subjected to either tensile or compressive forces. It may be noted that compressive force in a member is represented in a figure by two arrows going away from each other and Tension a tensile force by two arrows coming towards each Figure 1.7(b). 1.4 METHODS OF ANALYSIS The following three methods are available for the analysis of pin-connected frames: (1) Method of joints (2) Method of section (3) Graphical method.

there are only two unknowns. if any.2) This equation is the same as Equation 4. the two unknown forces are found.8(b) balances the vertical downward load at C. FCB Note: Usually in cantilever type frames. The force in each member is unknown. Hence. Many times such a joint can be identified only after finding the reaction at the support by considering the equilibrium of the entire frame. a deficient frame is not stable. If such a joint is not available. Hence. If m > 2j – 3. At joint C [Ref: Fig. i. a redundant frame is indeterminate. P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. Tabulate the results.e. Since a set of solutions can satisfy such equations. Thus. constitute a system of concurrent forces. A problem can be analysed if there are as many equations as there are unknowns. a perfect frame is determinate. Hence. if there are m number of members. the analysis proceeds from joint to joint to find the forces in all the members. 45° C Step 3: Now there are two equations of equilibrium for the forces FCD meeting at the joints and two unknown forces. the forces in the members meeting and the loads acting. a frame analysis problem is determinate if: 2j = m + 3 (1. Hence. Step 1: Determine the inclinations of all inclined members.1 to 1.8(a) Step 2: Look for a joint at which there are only two unknowns.pm5 . 1. Then making use of the two equations of equilibrium at that joint. then the number of unknowns is more than the number of equations. then the number of equations is more than the number of unknowns. we find such joints without the need to find reactions. tan θ = A B 3m q D q C 3 E 3m 3m =1 3 40 kN 40 kN ∴ θ = 45° Figure 1. a joint is selected where there are only two unknown forces. Example 1.6 1. Hence. Then. It may be noted that if there are j number of joints. Now at joints C. the unknown forces can be determined. There will be three reactions in a general determinate truss. Hence. If m < 2j – 3. the total number of unknowns will be m + 3. say FCB and FCD. 1. First. two independent equations of equilibrium can be formed at each joint.8(b)] ΣV = 0 condition shows that the force FCB 40 kN should act away from the joint C so that its vertical component Figure 1. Find the forces in all the members of the truss shown in Fig. and then at the supports the unknowns may reduce to only two. it shows instability of the structure.1. The method of joints is illustrated with the examples 1..5 METHOD OF JOINTS Solid and Fluid Mechanics At each joint. determine the reactions at the supports. In this case.5. forces in members CB and CD. Solution.8(a). 2j number of equations can be formed. Hence. the next joint is selected for analysis where there are now only two unknown forces.1 which was derived on the consideration of a perfect frame.

the member is in compression [Ref. ΣV = 0 FDB = 40 kN ΣH = 0 FDE = 40 kN Step 6: Repeat steps 4 and 5 till forces in all the members are found. mark arrow on the member near the joint analysed to indicate the force on the joint.pm5 .8(d). Fig. In the present case. Step 4: On the diagram of the truss. In this case. In this case. Then reverse the direction and proceed. respectively. In the present case. Figure 1. 1 2 Figure 1. after marking the forces in the members DB and DE.3.Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames FCB sin 45° = 40 ∴ FCB = 40 FCD – FCB cos 45° = 0 FCD = FCB cos 45° = 40 2 × = 40 kN Note: If the assumed direction of unknown forces is opposite.8(e) P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. 1. Then opposite directions are marked in the members CB and CD near joints B and D.8(d) 1 2 + 40 × 1 2 The directions of these forces are marked on the diagram. Step 5: Look for the next joint where there are only two unknown forces and analyse that joint. Step 7: Determine the nature of forces in each member and tabulate the results. 1. then the member is in tension and if the arrow marks are away from joints. 1. Referring to Fig.8(e)] as discussed in 1. the arrows are marked on the members CB and CD to indicate forces FCB and FCD directions as found in the analysis of joint C. Now the analysis is complete since the forces in all the members are determined.8(c). we find that analysis of joint B can be taken up. the value will be negative. mark the arrow in the opposite direction. ΣV = 0 FBE sin 45° – 40 – 40 ∴ × sin 45° = 0 FBE = 80 2 kN ΣH = 0 FBA – FBE cos 45° – 40 2 × cos 45° = 0 FBA = 80 2 × ∴ FBA = 120 kN Tension Compression 7 Chapter 1 2 FDB FDE D 40 kN 40 kN kN Now ΣH = 0 indicates that FCD should act towards C.8(c) FBA B 45° FBE 40 kN 45° 40 2 Figure 1. there are only two unknown forces at joint D as shown in Fig. near the joint C. At the other end. Note that if the arrow marks on a member are towards joints.

40 kN 50 kN All inclined members are at 60° to horizontal and length of each member is 2 m.858 kN (Tension) Joint D: ΣV = 0 FDC sin 60° = RD = 77.2.9(b) Figure 1.9(a) and indicate the magnitude and nature of forces on the diagram of the truss. Now.9(a) 2 ∴ Reaction at A is vertical only RA = 72. since RD = 77.5 ∴ FDC = 89. Solution.489 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FDE = 89.5 kN.489 cos 60° = 0 ∴ Joint B: ΣV = 0 FDE = 44. Σ MA = 0 RD × 4 – 40 × 1 – 60 × 2 – 50 × 3 = 0 ∴ ∴ RD = 77.716 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FAE = 83.8 Member AB BC CD DE BE BD Magnitude of force in kN 120 40 40 40 80 2 40 Solid and Fluid Mechanics Nature Tension Tension Compression Compression Compression Tension Example 1.745 kN (Tension) FDE RD 60° D FDC RA A FAE B C A 60° 2m RA 60° E 60° 2m 60 kN 60° D RD Figure 1. Consider the equilibrium of the entire frame. 1.5 FAB = 83.9(c) P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.716 cos 60° = 0 FAE = 41.5 kN ΣH=0 HA = 0 ΣV = 0 RA + RD = 40 + 60 + 50 ∴ Joint A: ΣV = 0 FAB sin 60° = RA = 72. we cannot find a joint with only two unknown forces without finding reactions. Determine the forces in all the members of the truss shown in Fig.pm5 .5 kN FAB 60° Figure 1.

9(f) Example 1.5 FBC = 60. 528 489 E 44. If joint E is analysed.9(f).9(e) A 41.13° C 37.10(a) P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. Figure 1.pm5 . Analyse the truss shown in Fig.622 C Compression Tension 89.716 + 37.10(a).745 60 kN D 4m B 4m HA A q F q E q q D 3m VA 3m 20 kN Figure 1. All inclined members have the same inclination to horizontal.754 kN (Tension) sin 60 ° FBC B 60° 60° 60° FAB FBE Figure 1.716 sin 60 ° − 40 = 37.489 sin 60 ° − 50 ° = 31.528 (Tension) sin 60 ° ΣH = 0 40 kN 9 Chapter 1 FBC = FAB cos 60° – FBE cos 60° = 0 FBC = (83. 754 Figure 1.858 83.3.9(d) 50 kN FBC 60° 60° FCE FDC C Now the forces in all the members are known. 40 kN B 716 50 kN 60.527) × 0. 31.Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames FBE sin 60° – FAB sin 60° + 40 = 0 ∴ FBE = 83. 1. 1. tan θ = ∴ 4 3 θ = 53. The results are shown on the diagram of the truss in Fig.622 kN (Comp) Joint C: ΣV = 0 FCE sin 60° + 50 – FDC sin 60° = 0 FCE = 89. it will give the check for the analysis.

the forces on the joint are marked on members [Fig.10(b)] Joint E: ΣV=0 FED × sin 53.13 – 20 = 0 ∴ FED = 25 kN (Tension) ΣH=0 FEF – FED cos θ = 0 FEF = 25 × cos 53.13 = 20 kN (Tension) Joint B: ΣV = 0 FBF × sin 53.10(d) 15 cos 53.10 As soon as a joint is analysed.13 + FAB = 0 = 25 kN (Comp) Figure 1. Figure 1. 1.13 – RC = 0 FCB = ΣV = 0 FCD = FCB sin θ = 25 × sin 53.10(b) no further progress is possible.13 = 15 kN (Comp) HA Solid and Fluid Mechanics RC kN 20 kN 25 20 kN q 15 kN 25 O q kN q O 15 kN VA 15 kN 20 kN At this stage as.13 – FBC × sin 53.10(c) FAB P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.13 A HA VA FAF FED q FEF C 20 kN Figure 1. Let the reaction be as shown in Fig.pm5 . ΣM A = 0 RC × 8 – 20 × 6 = 0 RC = 15 kN ΣV = 0 VA = 20 kN ΣH = 0 HA = RC = 15 kN Joint A: ΣV = 0 FAB – VA = 0 FAB = 20 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FAF – HA = 0 FAF = 15 kN (Comp) Joint C: ΣH = 0 FCB × cos 53. 1. Let us find the reactions at the supports considering the whole structure.10(b). no other joint is having only two unknowns.

Find the forces in all the members of the truss shown in Fig. A 15 kN B 15 kN D 15 kN 18 . 1.10(e) FBF = 0 q FAF FFE FFD = 0 Figure 1. Then nature of the force in the members is determined.10(g) (h) Example 1.13° H 3K 12 kN 20 kN H Compression Tension Figure 1.13 = 25 × sin 53.pm5 . 1. then the force in third member will be zero.4. 1.13° C FG 4 IJ = 53.13 – 20 = 0 ∴ FBF = 0 ΣH = 0 FBD – 25 × cos 53.11 (a).10 (g) and (h).69° θ2 = tan–1 θ3 = tan–1 = 53. kN028 G RG Figure 1. A B q q FBF FBD FBC 11 Chapter 1 4m E G FAB Figure 1.Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames FBF × sin 53.11(b) P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.13 = 0 FBD = 15 kN (Tension) Joint F: ΣV = 0 FFD = 0 (since FBF = 0) Note: When three members are meeting at an unloaded joint and out of them two are collinear. kN028 F 15 kN 0 C 0 RA 0 E1 18 . Such situations are illustrated in Fig.11(a) Joint-by-joint analysis is carried out as given below and the joint forces are marked in Fig.10(f) A C B D C B D Figure 1.11(b). kN028 0 12 25 kN 8. tan θ1 = ∴ 4 6 FG 8 × 1 IJ H 3 2K 2m A q1 B 2m q1 D 12 kN 20 kN 3m 2m F q2 q3 H θ1 = 33.

pm5 .028 (Comp) Joint D: ΣV = 0 FDE = 0 ΣH = 0 FDF = FDB = 15kN (Tension) Joint E: Σ Forces normal to CG = 0.12 Joint H: ΣV = 0 FHG sin θ3 = 20 FHG sin 53. gives FCD = 0 since FBC = 0 Σ Forces parallel to CE = 0 FCE = FCA = 18.13 = 15 kN (Tension) Now ΣM G = 0 RA × 6 – 20 × 3 = 0 RA = 10 kN Downward ΣV = 0 RG – 10 – 12 – 20 = 0 RG = 42 kN Joint A: ΣV = 0 FAC sin θ1 – 10 = 0 FAC = 18.13 = 20 = 25 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FHF – FHG cos θ2 = 0 FHF = 25 × cos 53.028 kN (Comp) Solid and Fluid Mechanics P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. gives FEF = 0 and Σ Forces in the direction of CG = 0 gives FEG = FCE = 18.028 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FAB – FAC cos θ1 = 0 FAB = 15 kN (Tension) Joint B: ΣV = 0 FBC = 0 ΣH = 0 FBD = FBA = 15 kN (Tension) Joint C: Σ Forces normal to AC = 0.

Then nature of the force is determined.6603 38 . All the members are of 3 m length.547 G VA Compression Tension 20 kN Figure 1.09 4 HA A 8.830 kN ΣH=0 HA = 10 kN ∴ P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. 1.094 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FFD + 10 – FGF cos 60° – FFE cos 60° = 0 FFD = 13. Joint-by-joint analysis is carried out and the forces are represented in Fig.4 33 7 9.4 33 7 30 kN D 13.094 kN (Tension) ΣH = 0 FGE – FGF cos 60° = 0 FGE = 11.5 – 30 × 4.0566 E RE 23 . Since all members are 3 m long. consider equilibrium of the entire truss.094 44 .5. Hence. without finding reaction we cannot proceed.07 47 F 23 10 kN .75 43 9.09 4 11. Joint G: ΣV = 0 FGF sin 60° = 20 FGF = 23. all triangles are equilateral and hence all inclined members are at 60° to horizontal.5 – 20 × 9 = 0 RE = 58. 1. 1.12(a) 20 kN ΣV = 0 FFE sin 60° – FGF sin 60° = 0 FFE = FGF = 23.094 kN (Tension) Now.547 kN (Comp) Joint F: A 40 kN B 30 kN D F 13 Chapter 1 10 kN 60° 60° C 60° 60° 3×3=9m 60° E 60° G Figure 1.12(b) Σ MA = 0 RE × 6 + 10 × 3 × sin 60° – 40 × 1.12 (a). 40 kN B 13.3771 C 1.12(b).Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames Joint F: ΣV = 0 FFG – 12 = 0 FFG = 12 kN (Comp) Example.170 kN ΣV = 0 VA = 40 + 30 + 20 – RE = 31. Solution. Analyse the truss shown in Fig.pm5 .

Equations: In a perfect frame.14 Joint A: ΣV = 0 FAB sin 60° – 31.434 kN (Tension) ΣH = 0 FCE + FAC – FCD cos 60° – FBC cos 60° = 0 FCE = 2 × 9.377 kN (Tension) Joint B: ΣV = 0 FBC sin 60° + FAB sin 60° – 40 = 0 FBC = 9. They are statically indeterminate.754 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FAC – FAB cos 60° + 10 = 0 FAC = 8. Such frames cannot retain their shape when loaded. A pinjointed frame which has got just sufficient number of members to resist the loads without undergoing appreciable deformation in shape.pm5 .434 kN (Comp) ΣH = 0 FBD + FBC cos 60° – FBA cos 60° = 0 FBD = 13. A frame is said to be deficient if the number of members in it. are more than that required for a perfect frame. A frame is said to be redundant if the number of members in it. P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.434 × Joint D: ΣV = 0 FDE sin 60° – FCD sin 60° – 30 = 0 FDE = 44.660 kN (Comp) Joint C: ΣV = 0 FCD sin 60° – FBC sin 60° = 0 FCD = FBC = 9. 2.830 = 0 FAB = 36.377 = 1.075 kN (Comp) Solid and Fluid Mechanics 1 – 8. 3. m = 2j – 3 where m = number of members j = number of joints.057 kN (Comp) 2 IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS AND FORMULAE 1. are less than that required for a perfect frame. is called a perfect frame.

29.5 kN.3) [Ans. to 1.1.185 kN. A C E 30° F D 3m 3m 3m 100 kN G Figure 1.13 to 1. FDE = – 30 kN. 1. FBD = + 25 kN] 1. FBC = + 15 kN. FFG = – 67.13 (Prob. 1. 1. FFC = + 24.15 (Prob. FCD = – 25 kN. FBD = FDE = FFG = – 193.pm5 .866 kN.5 kN. FCE = 0. FEF = – 45 kN.5 kN. FDE = – 45 kN. FBC = + 73.622 kN. All others are zero members] P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.5 kN. FAB = + 82. FAC = FCE = FEG = + 193. 6m A B 30 kN 6m C 4m F 3m E 6m D 20 kN Figure 1. 1. FBG = – 10.1) [Ans.2.2) [Ans. FAE = + 62.074 kN.14 (Prob. FCD = 49.3.1. Determine the forces in all the members of the frames shown in Fig. A B 4m 20 kN C D G F 3m 3m E 3m 20 kN Figure 1.185 kN.Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames PROBLEMS FOR EXERCISE 15 Chapter 1 1. FBF = 10 kN] 1.0 kN.244 kN. FEF = – 105 kN. FAB = + 67. FBE = – 62. Indicate the nature of the forces also (Tension as + ve and compression as – ve). 1.17.

1. FBC = + 50 kN. F D 90° 3m 3m 3m E C 10 kN 3m 3m A 3m 3m B 5 kN Figure 1. FCD = 0. 2m C 2m D 4m B 4m A E 200 kN Solid and Fluid Mechanics Figure 1. FCE = – 120 kN. FCB = – 200 kN] 1. 1.214 kN.16 1. FDF = – 266. FAB = – 30 kN. 30 kN A B 160 kN 160 kN 4m 20 kN C D 4m E 3m F Figure 1. FCA = + 400 kN.887 kN. FAB = – 447. FCE = – 14.4) [Ans.5.16 (Prob. 1.67 kN. FBC = FDE = – 5.17 (Prob.214 kN.6) [Ans. FDE = + 83.6. FAC = – 2.0 kN] 1. FDB = FBA = + 5.18 (Prob. FDC = + 17. FBD = – 400 kN.33 kN] P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.773 kN. FBD = – 200 kN. FEC = + 447. FDF = + 20.434 kN. FCD = – 50 kN.5) [Ans.320 kN.4. FAC = – 160 kN.pm5 .774 kN.

FFH = – 4 kN. FCE = – 335. FAB = – 200 kN. FBD = 141. FCF = – 1. FAC = – 223.Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames 1.414 kN. FBD = + 200 kN. FBF = – 141.20 (Prob.9) [Ans. FEG = + 141. FBD = – 2. FDE = – 100 kN. FEH = – 1.8) [Ans. FGH = + 1 kN] 1.243 kN.3 kN. FDE = + 35.9.0 kN. 200 kN 100 kN 2m A B 2m C 2m D E F 2m G H 17 Chapter 1 Figure 1. FBA = + 3 kN. FDC = – 2 kN. 1. FDG = 0.4 kN. 1. FEF = + 100 kN.8 kN. FGH = + 100 kN] 1.42 kN. FCD = + 111.7) [Ans.19 (Prob.21 (Prob. FCE = + 6 kN. FFE = + 1 kN.7.828 kN. FAC = + 4. FDF = – 5 kN. A 100 kN B D 100 kN C E 5m 5m 5m 5m F Figure 1.42 kN.42 kN. 1. FEF = – 300 kN] P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. FAC = – 100 kN.8. FDF = 424.pm5 .42 kN. FBC = – 100 kN. FEH = – 141. FBC = FCF = 0. 2m C 2m E 2m G 2m H 2m F D A B 1 kN 2 kN Figure 1.414 kN. FAD = – 3 kN.6 kN. FEG = + 5 kN. FAB = + 200 kN.

symmetry] P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.14 kN] 1.2 kN. 1.11) [Ans.10.24 (Prob.89 kN.97 kN.32 kN. FBC = – 20 kN. 1. FCD = + 21. 1.96 kN. FAC = – 5 kN. FFH = + 14. FBD = + 5 kN.22 (Prob. FDF = + 28.28 kN. FAB = – 17.68 kN.pm5 .23 (Prob. FAB = 60 kN. 2m F 2m G 2m 2m H 2m 2m E C 10 kN A 5 kN D B Solid and Fluid Mechanics Figure 1. FDE = – 30 kN] 20 kN 20 kN 10 kN B 30° C 3m 3m D 20 kN E 30° 10 kN F 1.12) [Ans.43 kN. FAC = + 5 kN. FBD = – 40 kN. FCE = – 20 kN.89 kN] 1. FBC = – 5 kN.18 1. FAC = + 16. D 20 kN 2m 20 kN B 2m 30° 20 kN A E 60° C Figure 1. FAB = + 7.13) [Ans. FED = – 38.10) [Ans.07 kN. FCD = + 40 kN. F BD = – 38. 1. FEH = – 15 kN. FCD = + 25 kN. FEF = – 20 kN. FAC = + 51. FCD = + 20 kN. F BC = – 17. 40 kN 45° B D 30 kN 45° 2m A 2m C 2m E Figure 1. FCE = – 15 kN.11. FCE = 0. FDE = – 15 kN.32 kN. FAB = – 15 kN.12. FBD = – 17. FFG = + 42. FBC = – 20 kN. A Figure 1.25 (Prob.13.

28 (Prob.80 kN.75 kN. C A B D 6 kN 6 kN 3 × 4 = 12 m G 6 kN E F H 1m 2m 19 Chapter 1 Figure 1.75 kN.52 kN. FBC = + 40 kN.55 kN] P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1. FCE = – 20 kN.Stability and Equilibrium of Plane Frames 1. FDE = 8 kN] 1. FCD = – 7. 15 kN B 30 kN D 3m A 2m 30 kN C 2m E 2m F Figure 1. FAB = + 36.65 kN.55 kN. FAC = – 16. FEF = + 31. FDF = – 13. FDE = – 63.91 kN.pm5 . FBF = + 23.5 kN.5 kN. FCD = – 1. FBD = + 13. FBD = – 23. FDF = + 23.91 kN. FCB = – 48.91 kN.06 kN. FBE = + 22.1 kN. FFE = – 7.14) [Ans. FBC = + 6 kN. C 40 kN B D 60° A 60° 60° F 3m 40 kN 3m 60° 60° E Figure 1. FAC = – 20 kN. 1. FCE = – 12. FAB = + 13.5 kN.15.91 kN.16. FCD = – 40 kN. FAF = + 31.15) [Ans.27 (Prob.16) [Ans. FDE = 18. 1. 1.26 (Prob. FAB = 16.5 kN] 1.14.53 kN.22 kN.

15 kN. FED = + 52. FCD = – 8. E 30 kN C 1.81 kN. FFD = + 47.5 m F 30° D G 3m 2m 2m B 10 kN A Solid and Fluid Mechanics 3m Figure 1.32 kN] P-2\D:\N-fluid\ANA1-1.33 kN.pm5 . FAC = – 67.17) [Ans.64 kN.21 kN. FEF = – 24. FCE = – 59.20 1. FBC = + 10 kN. FAB = + 53.5 kN. FDG = + 47. FFG = – 34.17.99 kN.48 kN.29 (Prob. 1.

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