Cambridge IELTS 1

READING PASSAGE 1
A spark, a flint: How fire
leapt to life
- spark
‫ جرقه‌ زدن‬،‌‫ بارقه‬،‌‫ جرقه‬،‫ اخگر‬،‫‌ژابيژ‬
v. produce sparks, emit sparks; flash, sparkle; excite, stimulate, activate, incite
(Informal)
n. fiery particle thrown out by a burning substance; bright flash; sudden discharge of
electricity; flicker, gleam; small but important amount; vain young man who is overly
concerned with his appearance; lover, beau
- flint
‫ سنگريزه‬،‌‫ چيز سخت‬،‌‫ اتش‌ زنه‬،‌‫گ فندك‬
‌ ‫ سن‬،‌‫‌سنگ‌ چخماق‬
n. type of hard stone, variety of silica; stone which is struck together to produce
sparks and start a fire; something hard and stony
- leap
‫ خيز زدن‬،‌‫ دويدن‬،‌‫ جستن‬،‫ خيز‬،‌‫ پرش‬،‌‫‌جست‬
v. jump, hop, lunge, spring into the air; move suddenly, act quickly
n. act of jumping, lunge, spring; distance jumped; sudden change, abrupt transition
- divine
‫ غيب‌ گويي‌كردن‬،‌‫ استنباط كردن‬،‌‫ كشيش‬،‌‫ الهي‬،‌‫ يزداني‬،‌‫خدايي‬
adj. pertaining to God (or a god); like God (or a god); heavenly; religious, sacred;
especially good or beautiful
v. foretell the future; find water or another substance using a divining rod; sense,
intuitively understand
n. theologian, scholar of religion; priest, member of the clergy
- Log ‫ سفرنامه‌كشتي‬،‌‫ صورت‌ عمليات‬،‌‫ كارنامه‬،‌‫ سرعت‌سنج‌كشتي‬،‌‫ قطعه‌اي‌ازدرخت‌ كه‌اره‌نشده‬،‌‫‌كنده‬
v. cut down a tree or trees; cut a tree into sections; write in a log, make entries in a
journal; travel at a certain speed, travel for a certain period of time
n. block of wood; journal of a voyage; journal; logarithm; (Computers) record of
operations which occur in a computer or between two computers; heavy object
- charcoal ‫‌زغال‌ چوب‬
n. carbon prepared by imperfect burning; piece of charcoal used for drawing;
charcoal drawing
- pot

،‌‫ ماري‌ جوانا وسايرمواد مخدره‬،‫ هرچيز برجسته‌ وديگ‌مانند‬،‌‫ب پاش‬
‌ ‫ ا‬،‌‫ كتري‬،‌‫ قوري‬،‌‫ ديگچه‬،‌‫ديگ‬
‫گ پختن‬
‌ ‫ در دي‬،‌‫‌گلدان‬
- invention ‫ابتکار‬، ‫اختراع‬، ‫جعل‬
n. act of inventing; something invented; creativity, resourcefulness; fabrication,
falsehood;
- through ،‌‫ تمام‌ شده‬،‫ كامل‬،‫ از اغاز تا انتها‬،‫سرتاسر‬،‌‫ بواسطه‬،‫ بخاطر‬،‌‫ از توي‬،‫ از وسط‬،‌‫از ميان‬
‫‌تمام‬
prep. in from one side and out of the other; inward
adv. by way of; in from one side and out of the other side; to the point of completion,
to the end
adj. direct, non-stop
- friction ‫ حساسيت‬،‌‫ اختلف‬،‌‫ مالش‬،‌‫ اصطكاك‬،‌‫‌سايش‬
n. abrasion, scraping; discord, conflict

1

- peasant ‫ رعيت‬،‫ كشاورز‬،‌‫ دهقاني‬،‌‫ دهاتي‬،‌‫‌روستايي‬
n. farmer, agriculturalist; rustic, person who lives in a rural area; hillbilly, ignorant
person
- drill ‫ تمرين‌كردن‬،‌‫ تعليم‌ دادن‬،‌‫ مته‬،‌‫ مته‌ زدن‬،‌‫ مشق‌ نظامي‬،‌‫‌تمرين‬
v. bore a hole; practice, train; sow seeds in rows
n. tool for drilling holes; practice, training; furrow; seeding machine; row of seeds in a
furrow
- brisk ‫ پاكيزه‬،‌‫اراسته‬،‫ تيز‬،‌‫ چست‬،‌‫ رايج‬،‌‫ باروح‬،‌‫ چابك‬،‫ تند‬،‌‫‌سرزنده‌ وبشاش‬
adv. quickly, briskly, energetically
- palm

،‌‫ كف‌ هرچيزي‬،‌‫ف پاي‌ پستانداران‬
‌ ‫ك‬،‌‫ كف‌ دست‌ انسان‬،‌‫ كاميابي‬،‌‫ نشانه‌پيروزي‬،‫ نخل‌ خرما‬،‌‫نخل‬
‫ رشوه‌ دادن‬،‌‫ كش‌ رفتن‬،‌‫ با كف‌دست‌ لمس‌ كردن‬،‌‫ وجب‬،‌‫‌پهنه‬
v. hide in one's hand; steal, pilfer, filch; bribe, offer money in exchange for a service
(Slang)
n. inner surface of the hand; type of tree that grows in tropical areas
- Speed Up
- Concave

‫‌تسريع‬

increase velocity

‫ واگرا‬، ‫ كاو‬، ‫مقعر‬

adj. curving inward

- concentrate ، ‫تمرکز دادن‬، ‫متمرکز کردن‬، ‫سير کردن‬، ‫متمرکز شدن اشباع کردن‬، ‫غليظ کردن‬
‫تغليظ‬
v. focus, pay attention; collect in one place; make stronger, make more intense
- Paleolithic ‫ وابسته‌ به‌ دوره‌ دوم‌ عصر حجر قديم‌ ياكهنه‌ سنگي‬،‌‫‌پارينه‌ سنگي‬
adj. of the earlier Stone Age
- Chip ‫ قطعه‬،‫ ورقه ورقه شدن‬،‫ كندهكاري‬،‫ قلمكاري‬،‫ حجاري‬،‫ خرد كردن‬، ‫ تكه‬، ‫كندن تكه اي از چيزي‬
‫ تراشه‬، ‫كوچك‬
chipping
‫سنگريزه‬
v. cut a fragment from, flake; be broken off in small pieces; sculpt, engrave
- arctic ‫ شمالگان‬،‫ سرد‬،‌‫ وابسته‌ بقطب‌ شمال‬،‌‫ شمالي‬،‫‌قطب شمال‬
adj. of the North Pole, of the Arctic region
adj. of ice; of the Great and Little Bear constellations (Astronomy)
- Pyrites

‫ سنگ‌ اتش‌ زنه‬،‌‫‌سنگ‌ چخماق‬

- lit
Light ‫‌زمان‌ گذشته‌ فعل‬
adj. illuminated, made light; aflame
- porcelain ‫ پورسلين‬،‌‫ف چيني‬
‌ ‫ ظرو‬،‌‫‌چيني‬
n. type of hard white ceramic produced using a special process
- bamboo (‫ساخته‌ شده‌ از ني‬،‌‫ عصاي‌ خيزران‬،‌‫ چوب‌ خيزران‬،‌‫ ني‌ هندي‬،‌‫( خيزران‬.‌‫ش‬.‌‫‌گ‬
n. tall tropical grass having a hollow woody stem; stem of the bamboo plant
- Steel ‫ مانند فولد محكم‌ كردن‬،‌‫ اب‌ فولددادن‬،‫ استوار‬،‌‫محكم‬،‌‌‫ پولدي‬،‫ شمشير‬،‌‫ پولدين‬،‫‌پولد‬
v. make strong, toughen, make inflexible; fit or edge with steel
adj. of or pertaining to steel; resembling steel, having the properties of steel
n. hard and strong metal alloy made up of iron and carbon; object made of steel
- Tinder

‫ گيرانه‬،‌‫ فتيله‌ فندك‬،‫ اتش‌ افروز‬،‌‫اتش‌ زنه‬

2

n. easily flammable material
- Alchemist ‫ كيمياشناس‬،‫‌كيمياگر‬
n. one who deals with alchemy (medieval form of chemistry which focused on the
transmutation of base metals into gold)
- Transmute ‫ تغيير هيئت‌ دادن‬،‌‫كيمياگري‌ كردن‬،‌‫ تغيير شكل‌ دادن‌ قلب‌ ماهيت‌ كردن‬،‌‫تبديل‌ كردن‬
v. change form, be transformed from one condition to another
- Combustibility ‫( برانگيختني‬.‫ )مج‬،‌‫ قابلت‌ احتراق‬،‌‫‌سوختني‬
n. inflammability, state of being easily set on fire
- equivalent ‫م ارز‬
‌ ‫ ه‬،‫ همچند‬،‌‫ هم‌معني‬،‌‫ مترادف‬،‌‫ هم‌ قيمت‬،‌‫ مشابه‬،‫ برابر‬،‫ هم‌ بها‬،‌‫ معادل‬،‫همسنگ‬
adj. equal in worth or value, equal in importance; corresponding
n. something equivalent, something equal in value or importance; equivalent
proportion (Chemistry)
- quest ‫ جستجو كردن‬،‌‫ تحقيق‬،‌‫ بازجويي‬،‌‫ طلب‬،‌‫ جويش‬،‌‫ تلش‬،‫‌جستجو‬
n. search, pursuit of something; expedition made in order to attain or achieve
something; participants in an expedition; inquest, investigation (British)
v. seek, search for, look for; pursue, go in search of
- ethereal ‫ علوي‬،‌‫سماوي‬،‌‫ اثيري‬،‌‫ روحاني‬،‌‫ اسماني‬،‌‫ لطف‬،‌‫ نازك‬،‌‫ رقيق‬،‌‫‌اتري‬
adj. heavenly; light, airy; delicate
- seal ‫ درزگيري‌ كردن‬،‌‫ بستن‬،‌‫ مهر و موم‌ كردن‬،‌‫ صحه‌ گذاشتن‬،‌‫ مهر كردن‬،‌‫تضمين‬،‌‫ نشان‬،‫‌مهر‬
v. fasten, secure, close tightly; imprint, stamp; approve, authorize; determine, set,
decide
Sealed ‫ مهر و موم‌ شده‬،‌‫م چسبيده‬
‌ ‫ محك‬،‌‫مهر شده‬
- twist ‫ پيچ‌ دار كردن‬،‌‫ تابيدن‬،‌‫ پيچيدن‬،‌‫ پيچ‌ خوردگي‬،‌‫ نخ‌ يا ريسمان‌ تابيده‬،‌‫ تاب‬،‌‫‌پيچ‬
v. coil, curl, spin, turn; rotate opposite ends of an object in opposing directions;
entwine; distort, pervert; sprain (ankle, etc.); produce a spiral shape
n. curve, bend, spin, turn, coil; interlacing (rope); deviation from the standard; spiral
form; strong silk thread; sprain; type of bread; abrupt change of course; odd
tendency; variation
- tip ‫ تيزي‬،‌‫راس‬،‌‫ سرقلم‬،‌‫ نوك‬،‌‌‫ انعام‌ دادن‬،‌‌‫ سرازير كردن‬،‌‫ كج‌ كردن‬،‌‫ نوك‌گذاشتن‬،‌‌‫ انعام‬،‌‫‌ ‌پول‌ چاي‬
v. give a gratuity; spill; cause to slant
tipped adj. having a particular kind of tip (i.e. steel-tipped); having a point; edged
- rush ‫هجوم بردن‬،‫جويبار‬، ‫جوى‬، ‫ازدحام مردم‬،‫حرکت شديد‬، ‫يورش‬، ‫حمله‬
v. hurry, make haste; act or move quickly; cause to hurry
n. speed, haste; sudden increase in activity or speed; any species of marsh grass
from the genus Juncus
rushed adj. hurried, performed quickly, done hastily
rushed in jumped in, leaped ahead, led, pushed his way into the first place
- instantaneous ‫انى‬،‫دفعتا‬، ‫هردم‬، ‫ناگهانى‬، ‫لحظه اى‬
adj. instant, immediate; of or occurring at a particular moment
- splint ‫ نوار يا تراشه‌اي براي‌ بستن‌استخوان‌ شكسته‬،‌‫ تراشه‬،‌‫تراشه‌ كردن‬،‌‫ خردكردن‬،‌‫‌برامدگي‌ كوچك‬
v. apply a splint, immobilize a broken bone by means of a splint

3

n. thin piece of wood or other material used to immobilize a broken bone while it is
healing
- dip ‫ غسل‬،‌‫ فرو رفتگي‬،‫ جيب‌ بر‬،‌‫ پايين‌امدن‬،‌‫ غوطه‌ور شدن‬،‌‫ تعميد دادن‬،‌‫‌شيب‬
v. immerse in a liquid; decrease, decline; reduce, lower
- resemble ‫همانند كردن‌ يا بودن‬،‌‫ مانند بودن‬،‌‫ تشبيه‌ كردن‬،‌‫ مانستن‬،‌‫‌شباهت‌ داشتن‬
v. be similar to, be akin to; look like, have a similar appearance to
- military ‫ ارتشي‬،‌‫ ارتش‬،‌‫ جنگي‬،‌‫ نظام‬،‌‫ سربازي‬،‌‫‌نظامي‬
adj. of or pertaining to the military; befitting or characteristic of a soldier; performed
by the defense force of a nation
n. army, armed forces, defense force of a nation
- rocket
‫ موشك‌ وار رفتن‬،‌‫بطور عمودي‌ از زمين‌ بلندشدن‬،‌‫ راكت‬،‌‫ فشفشه‬،‌‫ موشك‬،‌‫‌پرتابه‬
n. rocket propelled missile; spaceship; airborne firework
v. go up, ascend; soar to the heavens
- patent ‫ حق‌ ثبت‌ اختراع‬،‌‫ داراي‌ حق‌ انحصاري‬،‌‫ بوسيله‌ حق‌ امتيازمحفوظ مانده‬،‫‌اشكار‬
n. exclusive right to an invention or design; invention or design that is protected by a
patent
adj. protected by a patent; clear; obvious, evident; ingenious, innovative
v. receive a patent, receive exclusive rights to an invention or design
- Lucifer ‫ ستاره بامدادى‬: ‫ نجوم‬،‫شيطان‬،‫لوسيفر‬
n. rebellious archangel who cast from heaven, Satan; morning star, planet Venus
when seen in the sky before sunrise
- fume
‫باغضب‌ حرف‌ زدن‬،‌‫ دود دادن‬،‌‫ بخار دادن‬،‌‫ غضب‬،‫ گاز‬،‫ بخور‬،‫ بخار‬،‫‌دود‬
n. smog, particles hanging in the air; smoke; angry mood, irritation
v. make fumes; smoke; pollute; stink up; rage, rant
- succumb ‫ سرفرود اوردن‬،‌‫ تسليم‌ شدن‬،‫ مردن‬،‌‫‌از پاي‌ در امدن‬
v. give in, surrender, yield, submit; die
- jaw ‫ پرچانگي‌ كردن‬،‌‫ هرزه‌درايي‌ كردن‬،‫ تنگنا‬،‌‫ وراجي‬،‌‫م گيره‬
‌ ‫ د‬،‌‫ گيره‬،‌‫ ارواره‬،‌‫‌فك‬
n. one or both of the bones which form the framework of the mouth; mouth; gossip,
idle chatter
v. talk, chat idly, gossip; scold, insult
- prevail ‫ شايع‌ شدن‬،‌‫ مستولي‌ شدن‬،‌‫ غالب‌ امدن‬،‌‫‌چربيدن‬
v. win, succeed; overcome, surpass, prove superior; predominate, rule, reign
prevailing adj. common, widespread, predominant, current
- claim
‫ ادعا كردن‬،‌‫ مطالبه‬،‌‫ دعوي‬،‫‌ادعا‬
v. demand; sue; plea; assert
n. lawsuit; plea
- pioneer ‫ پيشقدم‌ شدن‬،‌‫ پيشقدم‬،‌‫پيشگام‬
v. pave the way, create a path; guide, lead the way; initiate, originate
- match ،‌‫ بهم‌ امدن‬،‫ جور بودن‌ با‬،‌‫ وصلت‌ دادن‬،‌‫ زورازمايي‬،‌‫ جفت‬،‫ همسر‬،‌‫ لنگه‬،‫ نظير‬،‫ همتا‬،‌‫حريف‬
‫ مطابقت‬،‌‫ تطابق‬،‌‫ب كبريت‌تطبيق‬
‌ ‫ چو‬،‌‫ كبريت‬،‌‫‌مسابقه‬
v. be compatible, be suitable; be an equal competitor; compare; be compared; find
something that matches another; marry off; pair, mate

4

n. small combustible stick designed for lighting things afire; competition, game
(Sports); equal opponent; partner; something similar; counterweight; person
considered suitable for marriage
- brewery ‫ كارخانه‌ ابجو سازي‬،‌‫‌ابجوسازي‬
n. beer factory
- advertise ‫ انتشار دادن‬،‌‫ اعلن‌ كردن‬،‌‫‌اگهي‌ دادن‬
v. publicize, promote, draw attention to (generally in order to sell goods or services);
publicly announce
- handed out

‫منتشر شدن‬gave out, distributed

- Smoulder
‫ه كردن‬
‌ ‫ خف‬،‌‫ خاموش‌كردن‬،‌‫ بي‌ اتش‌ سوختن‬،‌‫‌سوختن‌ ودود كردن‬
v. burn or smoke without flame; display repressed feelings of anger; continue in a
suppressed state
n. small slow-burning fire, ashes of a fire (also smolder)
- blow out

‫خاموش شدن‬

turn out, turn off, extinguish (e.g. a candle)

READING PASSAGE 2
Zoo conservation
programmes
- Conservation ‫ حفظ منابع‌ طبيعي‬،‌‫ حفاظت‬،‌‫‌نگهداري‬
n. guarding, preservation, protection from decay and destruction
advertisement ‫ اگاهي‬،‫ خبر‬،‌‫ اعلن‬،‌‫اگهي‬
n. act of advertising, act of promoting (generally in order to sell goods or services);
public announcement or printed notice designed to attract attention
- patently
‫بطور اشکار‬
adj. openly, in an exposed manner, manifestly; clearly, obviously, evidently
- distort ‫ ازشكل‌ طبيعي‌ انداختن‬،‌‫ تحريف‌ كردن‬،‌‫‌كج‌كردن‬
v. deform; falsify; twist; contort
- reality ‫ اصالت‌ وجود‬،‌‫ اصليت‬،‌‫ هستي‬،‌‫ واقعيت‬،‌‫حقيقت‬
n. state of being real; real thing or fact; actuality
- stuff ‫ انباشتن‬،‌‫ چپاندن‬،‌‫تپاندن‬،‌‫ پركردن‬،‫ چرند‬،‌‫ پارچه‬،‌‫ مصالح‬،‌‫ جنس‬،‫ كال‬،‌‫ ماده‬،‫‌چيز‬
n. material of which something is made; essence; objects, things; personal
belongings; cloth, fabric (British); nonsense (Informal)
v. force into a container or opening, cram; fill with some type of stuffing; fill an animal
hide with material that preserves its shape; eat a large amount of food, gorge
- endanger ‫ در معرض‌ خطر گذاشتن‬،‌‫‌به‌مخاطره‌ انداختن‬
v. put in danger, put at risk, imperil

5

- extol (extol) ‫ ستودن‬،‌‫ اغراق‌ گفتن‬،‌‫ ارتقاء‌دادن‬،‌‫‌بلندكردن‬
v. exalt, glorify, praise, laud
- myth ‫ اسطوره‬،‌‫‌افسانه‬
n. traditional story about supernatural beings or imaginary people that narrates a
common belief or explains some natural phenomenon; fable, folk tale; legendary
character; commonly held but unsubstantiated belief
- mediocre ‫ وسط‬،‌‫ ميانحال‬،‫ متوسط‬،‫حد وسط‬
adj. of medium quality, regular, ordinary, neither good nor bad; low-grade, poor
- skeptical ‫ايرادگير‬،‫کم باور‬، ‫شکاک‬
adj. doubtful, hesitant
- entertainment ‫سرگرمى‬، ‫پذيرايى‬، ‫پذيرايى کردن‬، ‫تفريحات‬، ‫مهمانى‬
n. something that entertains, something interesting or amusing, fun; hospitality
- formal ‫ قرار دادي‬،‌‫ لباس‌ رسمي‌ شب‬،‌‫ عارضي‬،‌‫ تفصيلي‬،‫ داراي‌ فكر‬،‌‫‌رسمي‬
adj. ceremonious; conventional; according to custom; stiff; strict; symmetrical;
requiring fancy dress
n. occasion which requires fancy dress (dance, ball, etc.); evening gown
- onward ‫ بجلو‬،‌‫ه پيش‬
‌ ‫ ب‬،‫بسوي‌ جلو‬
adv. forward; further; from now on
- buzzword
n. password, key word, code word
- commitment ‫ الزام‬،‫ تعهد‬،‌‫ حكم‌ توقيف‬،‌‫ ارتكاب‬،‌‫‌سرسپردگي‬
n. obligation, promise; act of committing
- optimism ‫ك بيني‬
‌ ‫ ني‬،‌‫‌فلسفه‌ خوش‌ بيني‬
n. state of seeing the good in life, state of hoping for the best
- fail ‫ در ماندن‬،‌‫ وا ماندن‬،‌‫ورشكستن‬،‌‫ عقيم‌ماندن‬،‌‫ قصور ورزيدن‬،‌‫ رد شدن‬،‌‫‌شكست‌ خوردن‬
v. be unsuccessful; make unsuccessful; not do; be weakened; disappoint; go
bankrupt; be stopped; be used up, run out
- failing ‫در صورت کوتاهى از‬، ‫نقص‬، ‫ضعف‬،‫قصور‬
prep. in absence of, if not
n. failure, lack of success; shortcoming, defect, fault
adj. unsuccessful; tiring, weakening, becoming less
- masquerade ‫ لباس‌ مبدل‬،‌‫ه لباس‌ مبدل‌ در امدن‬
‌ ‫ ب‬،‌‫ تغييرقيافه‬،‌‫‌رقص‌ بانقاب‌ هاي‌ مضحك‌ وناشناس‬
v. assume a disguise; attend a masked ball, attend a costume party; impersonate;
pose
- perspective ‌‫ روشن‬،‫ه نظر‬
‌ ‫ سع‬،‫ لحاظ‬،‌‫ه فكري‬
‌ ‫جنب‬،‫م انداز‬
‌ ‫ چش‬،‌‫ منظره‬،‌‫ بينايي‬،‫ لحاظ ديد‬،‫منظر‬
‫ ديدانداز‬،‫ خطور فكر‬،‌‫تجسم‌ شي‬،‌‫ مال‌ انديشي‬،‌‫بيني‬
n. viewpoint, outlook; vista, view
- flaw ‫ كاستي‬،‌‫ اشوب‌ ناگهاني‬،‫تند باد‬،‌‫ ترك‌ برداشتن‬،‌‫ عيب‌ دار كردن‬،‌‫ خدشه‬،‌‫ عيب‬،‌‫ رخنه‬،‫‌درز‬
n. defect, imperfection; crack; strong gust of wind
v. make flaws in; crack; become defective; become cracked

6

- naive (naïf) ‫ خام‬،‌‫ بي‌ تجربه‬،‌‫ ساده‬،‫ بي‌ريا‬،‌‫ساده‌ و بي‌ تكلف‬
adj. lacking worldly wisdom, unsuspecting, gullible; childish, innocent, simple,
unsophisticated
- faith ‫ كيش‬،‌‫ پيمان‬،‌‫ دين‬،‫ اعتقاد‬،‌‫ عقيده‬،‌‫‌ايمان‬
n. belief in a particular thing or person; religion; trust, confidence; loyalty
- criterion ‫ ضابطه‬،‌‫ محك‬،‌‫ نشان‌ قطعي‬،‫ معيار‬،‌‫ مقياس‬،‌‫ ميزان‬،‌‫ معيار ملك‬،‌‫‌ضابطه‬
n. standard against which something is measured (i.e. standard or principle)
- inclusion ‫ شمول‬،‌‫ دخول‬،‌‫ دربرداري‬،‌‫‌گنجايش‬
n. act of including, state of being included, incorporation
- mere ‫فقط‬،‌‫ انحصاري‬،‫ تنها‬،‌‫ خالي‬،‌‫ محض‬،‌‫ مرداب‬،‫ اب‌ راكد‬،‫دريا‬
merely ‫محضا‬،"‫صرفا‬،‫"فقط‬
adv. only, just, simply, purely
- premise ‌‫ فرض‌منطقي‬،‌‫ فرض‌ قبلي‬،‌‫ قياس‌ منطقي‬،‌‫ بنياد واساس‌ بحث‬،‌‫قضيه‌ ثابت‌ يا اثبات‌ شده‬
‫‌كردن‬
n. proposition, basic assumption, presupposition, fundamental presumption
v. assume, hypothesize, theorize, presume, postulate
- dubious (dubitable) ‫ مشكوك‬،‌‫‌مورد شك‬
adj. uncertain, doubtful
- roundly ‫اشکار‬، ‫بى پرده‬، ‫بطور حسابى‬
adv. in a round manner; completely, entirely; vigorously, severely
- censure ‫ سرزنش‌ كردن‬،‌‫ سرزنش‬،‫‌انتقاد‬
v. condemn, blame; criticize
- press
،‫جرايد‬،‌‫ مطبوعات‬،‌‫ مطبعه‬،‌‫ ماشين‌ چاپ‬،‌‫ جمعيت‬،‌‫ ازدحام‬،‫ ماشين‌ فشار فشار‬،‌‫ مطبوعات‬،‌‫فشار دادن‬
‫ چاپ‬،‌‫ دستگاه‌ پرس‬،‌‫اتوزدن‬،‌‫ ازدحام‌ كردن‬،‌‫ فشردن‌زور دادن‬،‌‫‌وارداوردن‬
v. push, apply pressure; iron, remove creases or wrinkles by applying pressure;
confiscate for public or government use
n. journals and newspapers collectively; act or process of printing; roller used to
flatten or straighten objects; pressure, act of pressing
- adventure ‫تجارت‌ مخاطره‌ اميز‬،‌‫ ماجراجويي‬،‌‫ مخاطره‬،‫ ماجرا‬،‌‫ حادثه‬،‌‫سرگذشت‬.vi &.vt ‫در‬
‌‫ خود را بمخاطره‬،‌‫دل‌ بدريا زدن‬،‌‫ با تهور مبادرت‌ كردن‬،‌‫ دستخوش‌ حوادث‌ كردن‬،‌‫معرض‌ مخاطره‌گذاشتن‬
‫‌انداختن‬
n. escapade, exciting experience; risky undertaking
v. dare, participate in an exciting experience; endanger oneself, put oneself at risk
n. magazine from the National Geographic Society devoted to outdoor adventure
excursions
- notorious ‫بدنام رسوا‬
adj. infamous, known for disgrace; well-known (usually ignobly)
- establishment ‫ دسته‌كاركنان‬،‌‫ موسسه‬،‌‫ بنگاه‬،‌‫ برقراري‬،‫ بنا‬،‌‫ تشكيل‬،‫ استقرار‬،‌‫‌تشکیلت تاسيس‬،
n. anything that is established; established institution (such as the church, a
business, etc.); foundation, permanent organization; place of business

7

- amenity ‫ مليمت‬،‌‫ نرمي‬،‌‫ مطبوعيت‬،‌‫‌سازگاري‬
n. pleasantness; agreeability; affability
- damn ‫ خيلي‬،‫ بسيار‬،‌‫ فحش‬،‌‫ لعنت‬،‌‫‌لعنت‌ كردن‬
v. condemn to a punishment or fate; bring ruin on; curse or swear at; say the word
"damn"
- inspector ‫مفتش‬، ‫بازرس‬، ‫نگهبان‬
n. one who inspects; one whose job it is to supervise and examine; police officer
ranking below a superintendent
- appoint ‫واداشتن‬،‌‫ گماشتن‬،‌‫ منصوب‌ كردن‬،‌‫ برقرار كردن‬،‌‫‌تعيين‌ كردن‬
v. nominate; designate
- repute ‫ اشتهار‬،‌‫ شهرت‌ داشتن‬،‌‫ فرض‌ كردن‬،‌‫ شمردن‬،‌‫اوازه‌ داشتن‬
n. reputation, regard; esteem, renown
v. regard as, view as, believe to be
- grant ‫ اعطا‬،‌‫ بخشيدن‬،‌‫ دادن‬،‌‫ كمك‌هزينه‌ تحصيلي‬،‌‫ اجازه‌ واگذاري‌ رسمي‬،‫ امتياز‬،‫ عطا‬،‌‫ بخشش‬،‌‫اهداء‬
‫ موافقت‌ كردن‬،‌‫م گرفتن‬
‌ ‫ مسل‬،‌‫ تصديق‌ كردن‬،‌‫‌كردن‬
n. fulfilling (of a request or desire); act of granting, bestowing
v. bestow; give; agree; answer to -; donate
- incorporate ‌‫ داراي‌ شخصيت‌ حقوقي‬،‌‫جادادن‬،‌‫ل كردن‬
‌ ‫ داخ‬،‌‫ متحد كردن‬،‌‫ بهم‌ پيوستن‬،‌‫يكي‌ كردن‬
‫ غير جسمان‬،‌‫ معنوي‬،‌‫ تركيب‌ كردن‬،‌‫ اميختن‬،(‫ ثبت‌ كردن‌)در دفترثبت‌ شركتها‬،‌‫كردن‬
v. form a corporation; combine, blend; unify; unite; include; embody
- scheme ‫ توطئه‌ چيدن‬،‌‫نقشه‌ طرح‌ كردن‬،‫ تمهيد‬،‫ تدبير‬،‌‫ رويه‬،‌‫ ترتيب‬،‌‫ نقشه‬،‌‫ طرح‬،‌‫‌برنامه‬
n. plan, design; system; plot, intrigue; diagram, outline
v. plan, devise, plot; intrigue, conspire, contrive
- assume ،‌‫ پنداشتن‬،‌‫ فرض‌ كردن‬،‌‫تقليد كردن‬،‌‫ تظاهر كردن‬،‌‫ وانمود كردن‬،‌‫ بخود بستن‬،‌‫بخود گرفتن‬
‫ انگاشتن‬،‌‫ تقبل‌كردن‬،‌‫‌بعهده‌ گرفتن‬
v. surmise, suppose to be true (especially without proof); take on a position or duty;
adopt an idea or cause
Assuming ‫ پرمدعا‬،‌‫ لف‌ زن‬،‫ متكبر‬،‌‫ از خود راضي‬،‌‫خودبين‬
n. supposing, taking for granted; appropriating, adopting
adj. presumptuous, arrogant, haughty, conceited
assuming that:
under the premise that, supposing that
- facilities ‫ امكانات‬،‌‫‌تسهيلت‬
n. place used for a specific purpose; means, resources, tools, appliances
- accommodation ‌‫ سازش‌ با مقتضيات‬،‌‫موافقت‬،‌‫ تطبيق‬،‌‫ وسايل‌ راحتي‬،‌‫ منزل‬،‫ جا‬،‌‫ تطابق‬،‌‫همسازي‬
‫ مساعده‬،‌‫ كمك‬،‌‫ وام‬،‫محيط‬
n. housing; residence; lodging; adjustment; arrangement
- argue ‫ل كردن‬
‌ ‫استدل‬،‌‫ل اوردن‬
‌ ‫ دلي‬،‌‫ مشاجره‌ كردن‬،‌‫ گفتگو كردن‬،‌‫‌بحث‌ كردن‬
v. dispute; claim; give reasons
- breed ‫ گونه‬،‌‫ نوع‬،‌‫ جنس‬،‫ اولد‬،‫ فرزند‬،‌‫تربيت‌ كردن‬،‌‫ توليد كردن‬،‌‫ بدنيااوردن‬،‌‫ زاييدن‬،‌‫ باراوردن‬،‌‫‌پروردن‬
v. reproduce; raise animals; guide, nurture; cause
breeding ‫تعليم وتربيت‬، ‫توليدمثل‬، ‫پرورش‬، ‫پرورش حيوانات‬
n. courtesy; education; upbringing, rearing, cultivation

8

adj. rearing; producing offspring
- expansion ‫ انبساط‬،‫ بسط‬،‌‫توسعه‬
n. enlargement, increase, spread; development
- endanger ‫ در معرض‌ خطر گذاشتن‬،‌‫‌به‌مخاطره‌ انداختن‬
adj. at risk, in danger; in danger of extinction (about an animal or plant)
v. put in danger, put at risk, imperil
- optimistic ‫ خوش‌ بينانه‬،‌‫‌ خوش‌ بين‬
adj. seeing the good, hoping for good
- proposition
‫ دعوت‌ بمقاربت‌ جنسي‌كردن‬،‌‫ پيشنهاد كردن‌به‬،‌‫ قياس‌ منطقي‬،‫ مقصود‬،‫ كار‬،‌‫ قضيه‬،‌‫‌موضوع‬
‫ پيشنهاد‬،‌‫گزاره‬
n. offer; plan; theory; theorem (Mathematics); problem (Slang)
- persuade ‫ ترغيب‌ كردن‬،‌‫ بران‌ داشتن‬،‌‫‌وادار كردن‬
v. convince, induce, sway
- devote ‫ فدا كردن‬،‌‫ اختصاص‌ دادن‬،‌‫‌وقف‌ كردن‬
v. set apart for, dedicate
- captive ‫ دربند‬،‌‫ شيفته‬،‫ دستگير‬،‫ گرفتار‬،‫اسير‬
adj. imprisoned, held against one's will
n. prisoner, person held against his will
- resound ‫ پژواك‌ يا انعكاس‌ صدا‬،‌‫منعكس‌ كردن‬
v. echo, reverberate, resonate, ring out
- pretty ‫اراستن‬، ‫قشنگ کردن‬،‫بطور دلپذير‬، ‫خوب‬،‫خوش نما‬، ‫شکيل‬، ‫تاحدى‬
adj. beautiful, physically attractive; nice, pleasant, genial
adv. moderately, quite, rather; to some extent, relatively; very, extremely (Informal)
v. beautify, improve the appearance of something

READING PASSAGE 3
ARCHITECTURE _ Reaching for the Sky
- architecture ‫ مهرازي‬،‌‫ سبك‌ معماري‬،‌‫‌معماري‬
n. science of designing and building structures; layout, formation, arrangement;
building style or method; design of a computer and its components
- achievement ‫ موفقيت‬،‌‫ كار بزرگ‬،‌‫ پيروزي‬،‌‫ انجام‬،‌‫‌دست‌ يابي‬
n. attainment; performance, implementation; operation, mission
- aspiration ‫ تلفظ حرف‬،‌‫ عروج‬،‫ ارزو‬،‌‫ اه‬،‌‫ استنشاق‬،‌‫ تنفس‬،‌‫م زني‬
‌ ‫‌د‬H ‫ شهيق‬،‌‫‌از حلق‬
n. longing, ambition, goal, dream
- client ‫سرويس گيرنده‬،‫ ارباب‌ رجوع‌ متقاضي‬،‌‫ مشتري‬،‌‫موكل‬،‫كاربر‬
n. customer, buyer
- controversial

‫ هم‌ستيزگرانه‬،‫ هم‌ ستيزگر‬،‫ هم‌ ستيز‬،‫ جدال‌ اميز‬،‌‫ جدلي‬،‌‫‌مباحثه‌اي‬

9

adj. disputable, debatable, tending to cause differences of opinion
- style ‫ ناميدن‬،‌‫ مد كردن‬،‌‫ متداول‌شدن‬،‌‫ ميله‬،‌‫ قلم‬،‌‌‫ سليقه‬،‌‫ سبك‌ نگارش‬،‌‫ خامه‬،‌‫ روش‬،‌‫ شيوه‬،‌‫‌سبك‬
v. plan, design; name, call
n. manner, way; particular way of life (especially one that is luxurious); fashion, chic;
vogue; ancient writing instrument; part of a pistil (Botany); stylet; slender pointed
process (Zoology)
- timber ‫ با الوار و تيرپوشاندن‬،‫ناهنجار‬،‌‫ صداي‌ خشك‬،‌‫ درخت‌ الواري‬،‌‫ كنده‬،‫ الوار‬،‫ تير‬،‌‫‌چوب‬
n. trees; logs; wood; qualities, characteristics
v. build with wood; support with wood
- concrete ‫ بتون‬،‌‫ سفت‬،‌‫ بهم‌ چسبيده‬،‌‫ واقعي‬،‌‫ ساروج‌ كردن‬،‌‫ بهم‌پيوستن‬،‌‫‌سفت‌ كردن‬،
adj. tangible, real, substantial
n. stonelike building material (containing cement, gravel, water, etc.); something
tangible (idea, object, etc.)
v. solidify; set or cover in concrete
- Bar
‫ ازبين‌ رفتن‌)ادعا( ردكردن‬،‌‫ بارمشروب‌ فروشي‬،‌‫ ميكده‬،‌‫ هيئت‌وكلء‬،‌‫دادگاه‬,‫ شمش‬، ‫ ميل‬، ‫‌ميله‬
v. lock, barricade
prep. with the exception of
n. rod; latch, bolt; partition; barrier; pub, tavern; counter; restriction; examination to
enter the organization which authorizes lawyers and oversees the law profession;
lawyers collectively
- reinforce ‫ مدد كردن‬،‌‫ محكم‌ كردن‬،‌‫‌تقويت‌ كردن‬
v. strengthen, fortify, support; increase
adj. strengthened, fortified; strengthened with metal (as of concrete)
Reinforced Concrete ‫‌بتون‌ مسلح‬
- slum ‫ محلت‌ پر جمعيت‌ وپست‬،‌‫ خيابان‌ پر جمعيت‬،‌‫‌محله‌ كثيف‬
n. poor neighborhood, densely populated poverty-stricken area of a city
v. visit slums, visit poor run-down neighborhoods
- emerge ‫ بيرون‌ امدن‬،‌‫‌پديدار شدن‬
v. appear, come out, be revealed
- bold ‫ زبانه‬،‌‫باشهامت پيچ‬،‫ متهور‬،‌‫ گستاخ‬،‫ جسور‬،‫ خشن‌ وبي‌ احتياط‬،‫ دلير‬،‌‫‌بي‌ باك‬
‌ adj. brave, courageous, daring; forward, blunt; rude
- Geometric ‫هندسي‬
adj. of or pertaining to geometry; utilizing basic geometric shapes as part of a
decoration or design (i.e. circles, triangles, etc.)
- pillar ‫ ستون‌ ساختن‬،‌‫ اركان‬،‌‫ ركن‬،‫ جرز‬،‌‫ پايه‬،‌‫ستون‬
n. column, narrow vertical structure used as a support or for decorative purposes;
tombstone, grave marker
v. support, hold up, buttress
- strip ‫ نوار‬،‌‫ باريكه‬،‌‫تهي‌ كردن‬،‌‫ چاك‌ دادن‬،‌‫ لخت‌ كردن‬،‫ محروم‌ كردن‌ از‬،‌‫برهنه‌ كردن‬
v. remove the covering from; undress; take away, deprive; clear away; empty;
dismantle, take apart piece by piece; get undressed; perform a striptease
- decoration ‫ل يا نشان‬
‌ ‫ مدا‬،‌‫ن بندي‬
‌ ‫ اذي‬،‌‫ ارايشگري‬،‌‫‌تزيين‬
n. ornament; adornment; beautification; medal or honor which is bestowed upon
someone (e.g. in the armed forces)

10

- detract ‫ گرفتن‬،‌‫ كسر كردن‬،‌‫ كم‌ كردن‬،‌‫ كاهيدن‬،‌‫‌كاستن‬
v. belittle, speak ill of, slander, defame
- influential ‫‌داراي‌ نفوذ و قدرت‬
adj. having or exerting influence, weighty, powerful, persuasive
- economic depression ‫بحران اقتصادى‬
low point in a financial and commercial state
- torn (‫ درهم‌ دريده‬،‌‫ پاره‌ شده‬،( ‌‫‌اسم‌ مفعول‬، tear
v. rip, rend
- Approach
‫ نگرش‬، ‫ رويكرد‬، ‫ نظر كردن نظر گاه‬، ‫نزديك شدن‬
v. appeal to -, turn to -; come near to
n. access; incoming, drawing near; approximation; path or course leading to a
specific location
- Unfortunately ‫ بدبختانه‬،‌‫متاسفانه‬
adv. unluckily, unhappily
- simplicity
‫ بسيطي‬،‌‫ ساده‌ دلي‬،‌‫ بي‌ اليشي‬،‌‫‌سادگي‌ سادگي‬
n. absence of complexity; plainness; sincerity, guilelessness; lack of sophistication;
lack of intelligence
- exploit ‫ شاهكار‬،‌‫ كاربرجسته‬،‌‫ عمل‬،‫ كردار‬،‫ استثمار كردن‌ رفتار‬،‌‫ استخراج‌ كردن‬،‌‫بكار انداختن‬،
v. use, take advantage of, selfishly make use of; manipulate; use to the greatest
possible advantage (as "exploit one's skills or talents"); promote; advertise
- profit ‫ عايدي‌ داشتن‬،‌‫ فايده‌رساندن‬،‌‫ برتري‬،‌‫ مزيت‬،‌‫ منفعت‬،‌‫ فايده‬،‫ سود بردن‬،‌‫ نفع‬،‫‌سود‬،‌
v. earn income, make financial gains; be of service, be beneficial, be advantageous
n. earnings, financial gain; benefit, avail; financial income; advantage, privilege
- prefabricate
(=prefab) ‫ پيش‌ سازي‌ شده‬،‌‫ پيش‌ ساخته‬،‌‫‌پيس‌ ساختن‬
v. make in advance, build in advance, construct ahead of time (parts for modular
buildings)
- meant ‫مشترک‬، ‫ميان‬،‫متوسط‬، ‫ميانه‬
v. intend; indicate; signify; be significant
- builder ‫خانه ساز‬، ‫سازنده‬،‫ديوارگر‬،‫بناگر‬، ‫بنا کننده‬، ‫موسس‬
n. constructor, one who builds;
- commission ،‌‫ كميسيون‬،‌‫مامورين‬،‌‫ هيئت‬،‌‫ حكم‬،‌‫ فرمان‬،‌‫ حق‌ العمل‬،‌‫ تصدي‬،‌‫‌ ماموريت‬،‌‫گماشتن‬
‫‌انجام‬،
v. contract, order; confer rank or authority, empower, authorize
- handle ‫ سرو‬،‌‫ بكار بردن‬،‌‫ دست‌زدن‌ به‬،‌‫ احساس‌ بادست‬،‌‫ لمس‬،‌‫ وسيله‬،‫ه شمشير‬
‌ ‫ قبض‬،‌‫دسته‬
‫ه گذاشتن‬
‌ ‫ دست‬،‌‫استعمال‌ كردن‬،‌‫ رفتار كردن‬،‫كارداشتن‌ با‬
v. feel, touch with the hands; deal in, do business with; manage; treat
n. part of an object designed to be gripped by the hand; first name, nickname, code
name, title (Slang); unique identifier assigned to a file which allows a program to
access it (Computers)
- demand ‫مطالبه‌ كردن‬،‌‫ تقاضا كردن‬،‌‫ طلب‬،‌‫ مطالبه‬،‌‫ درخواست‬،‌‫‌خواستارشدن‬
v. claim, require; strongly request

11

n. claim, requirement; strong request
- discredit ‫ بي‌ اعتبار ساختن‬،‌‫ بدنامي‬،‌‫‌بي‌اعتباري‬
adj. disgraced, suffering shame; damaged, being unfairly brought into disrepute
v. doubt; question, challenge, disbelieve; defame, ruin the reputation of
- estate ‫ وضعيت‬،‌‫ حالت‬،‌‫ طبقه‬،‌‫ دسته‬،‌‫ دارايي‬،‌‫ املك‬،‌‫‌ملك‬
n. extensive piece of land usually with a large house on it; person's property, wealth,
possessions; status, social standing, rank
- Windswept ‫ بادزده‬،‌‫ه باد جارو شده‬
‌ ‫ بوسيل‬،‌‫‌بر باد رفته‬
adj. exposed to winds, tousled from the wind
- desert ‫سزاواري‬،‌‫ گريختن استحقاق‬،‌‫ ترك‌ كردن‬،‌‫ ول‌ كردن‬،‌‫ شايستگي‬،‫ صحرا‬،‌‫ دشت‬،‌‫‌بيابان‬،
v. abandon, forsake; leave the army without permission
n. wasteland, area where there is little rainfall
- construct ‫ ايجاد كردن‬،‌‫ بنا كردن‬،‌‫‌ساختن‬
v. build, assemble, put together
- demolish ‫ خراب‌ كردن‬،‌‫‌ويران‌ كردن‬
v. destroy, ruin, tear down; eat or drink covetously (Slang)
- respect ،‌‫م داشتن‬
‌ ‫ محتر‬،‌‫ احترام‌گذاشتن‌ به‬،‌‫ ملحظه‬،‌‫ احترام‬،‌‫ مراجعه‬،‌‫ رجوع‬،‌‫ نسبت‬،‌‫رابطه‬
‫ بزرگداشتن‬،‌‫‌بزرگداشت‬
v. honor, admire, esteem, hold in high regard
n. honor, esteem, high regard; consideration, attention
- arose ‫لشگر‬
arise ،‌‫ قيام‌ كردن‬،‌‫ طلوع‌ كردن‬،‌‫ برامدن‬،‌‫ بوجود اوردن‬،‌‫ ناشي‌ شدن‬،‌‫ رخ‌ دادن‬،‌‫ بلند شدن‬،‌‫برخاستن‬
‫‌طغيان‌ كردن‬
v. rouse, stir; get up, stand up; appear
- townscape
- preserve ‫ باقي‌ نگهداشتن‬،‌‫حفظ كردن‬،‌‫ نگاهداشتن‬،‌‫ كنسروميوه‬،‫ مربا‬،‌‫ شكارگاه‬،‌‫‌قرق‌ شكارگاه‬
v. guard, keep safe; keep, conserve; defend, protect; perpetuate, make everlasting
- façade ‫ نماي‌ خارجي‬،‌‫ جبهه‬،‫‌نماي‌ سر در‬
n. front of a building, part of a building which faces the street; outward appearance;
illusion, deceptive appearance
- refer ‌‫ عطف‬،‌‫ب داشتن‬
‌ ‫ منسو‬،‌‫منتسب‌ كردن‬،‌‫ رجوع‌ كردن‌ به‬،‌‫ بازگشت‌ دادن‬،‌‫ فرستادن‬،‌‫مراجعه‌ كردن‬
‫‌كردن‌ به‬
v. send, direct; ascribe to, relate to; pertain to, apply to; call attention to, allude to
refer to: direct attention to; apply to
referring to: pertaining to, applying to
referred to: mentioned, indicated
- celebrate ‫ل كردن‬
‌ ‫ تجلي‬،‌‫ تقديس‌ كردن‬،‌‫ ايين‌ )جشن‌ ياعيدي‌ را(نگاه‌داشتن‬،‌‫ عيدگرفتن‬،‌‫‌جشن‌ گرفتن‬
v. feast, hold festivities; praise, glorify
celebrated ‫مجلل‬،‫مشهور‬
adj. famous, widely recognized, well-known

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- parade ،‌‫ رژه‌ رفتن‬،‌‫اجتماع‌ مردم‬،‌‫ تظاهرات‬،‌‫ ميدان‌ رژه‬،‌‫جولن‬،‌‫ خودنمايي‬،‌‫ نمايش‬،‌‫ جلوه‬،‌‫ سان‬،‌‫رژه‬
‫خود نمايي‌ كردن‬
v. march in a procession, arrange a procession; arrange an exhibition or display; show
off, flaunt oneself
- sophisticated ‫ تصنعي‬،‌‫ غيرطبيعي‬،‌‫ مصنوعي‬،‫ح بال‬
‌ ‫ درسط‬،‌‫ مشگل‌ وپيچيده‬،‫‌خبره‌ وماهر‬،
adj. seasoned, worldly-wise; refined, cultured; complex, intricate, complicated
- disillusionment ‫ سرخوردگى از غفلت بیدار شدن‬: ‫روانشناسى‬،
n. release from misbelief, disenchantment, freedom from illusion

Practice Test 3

READING PASSAGE 1
13

Spoken Corpus Comes to Life

- Provenance ‫ منطقه‌ قدرت‌ يا درك‬،‫ حد‬،‌‫ اصل‬،‌‫ منشاء‬،‌‫‌زادگاه‬
n. source, origin; derivation, extraction
- compile
‫ تاليف‌ كردن‬،‌‫‌گرداوردن‬
v. collect, gather together in one place; compose (an essay, book, etc.) from many
parts
- studious ‫ جاهد‬،‌‫ بليغ‬،‌‫ پرزحمت‬،‌‫خواهان‬،‌‫ مشتاق‬،‌‫ كتاب‌ خوان‬،‌‫ درس‌ خوان‬،‫ كوشا‬،‌‫ ساعي‬،‌‫زحمتكش‬
adj. scholarly, characterized by devotion to study; earnest, diligent; deliberate
- professorial ‫ استادوار‬،‌‫ استادانه‬،‌‫وابسته‌ به‌ استادي‬
adj. pertaining to a professor, pertaining to a senior university instructor
- bespectacled ‫عینک به چشم‬
adj. wearing glasses
- Tome ‫ كتاب‌ قطور‬،‫ دفتر‬،‫ مجلد‬،‌‫ جلد بزرگ‬،‫جلد‬
n. large book
- pronouncement ‫ اعلميه‌ رسمي‬،‌‫ صدور راي‬،‌‫‌اظهار عقيده‌ رسمي‬
n. announcement, proclamation; decision, opinion (Law); declaration, utterance
- nuance ‫ نكات‌ دقيق‌ وظريف‬،‫ اختلف‌ مختصر‬،‌‫‌فرق‌ جزئي‬
n. slight difference, subtle distinction
- crossword ‫حل جدول‬
n. puzzle which gives clues and players must find the right word to fit in the blank
area
- incorporate ‫ آمیختن‬،‫گنجاندن‬،‌‫جادادن‬،‌‫ داخل‌ كردن‬،‌‫ متحد كردن‬،‌‫ بهم‌ پيوستن‬،‌‫يكي‌ كردن‬
adj. formed into a corporation, existing as a corporation; united in a corporation
v. form a corporation; combine, blend; unify; unite; include; embody
- Lexicographer ‫ فرهنگ نویس‬،‫‌لغت‌ نويس‬
n. one who writes or compiles a dictionary
- Vibrant ‫ پرطراوت‌ و چالك‬،‌‫ در حال‌ جنبش‬،‌‫ه تپش‌ در امده‬
‌ ‫ ب‬،‌‫ لرزان‬،‌‫‌مرتعش‬
adj. lively, stimulating; characterized by rapid movement, vibrating; resonating;
bright
- vernacular ‫ زبان محاورهای‬،‫ زبان‌ مادري‬،‌‫ زبان‌ بومي‬،‌‫ كشوري‬،‌‫ محلي‬،‌‫‌بومي‬
n. local language of a particular place; regular spoken language
adj. of or pertaining to the vernacular; in the local language; in ordinary terms
- discreet ‫فروتن‬،
،‫ باخرد‬،‌‫ داراي‌ تميز و بصيرت‬،‫با احتياط‬
adj. careful in one's speech, respectful of other's privacy, circumspect; unobtrusive,
modest
- waist ‫ ميان‌ تنه‬،‫ كمربند‬،‌‫ كمر لباس‬،‌‫ ميان‬،‫‌دور كمر‬
n. part of the body between the hips and ribs; narrow middle part of an object (as of
a violin)

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- corpus ‫ تنه‬،‌‫ جسم‬،‌‫( تن‬.‌‫ل‬.‌‫ )م‬،‌‫‌مجموعه‌اي‌ از نوشتجات‬
n. main part of a structure or organ; corpse; collection (of writing, knowledge,
evidence, etc.)
- phrase ‫ه بندي‬
‌ ‫ كلم‬،‌‫ عبارت‌ سازي‬،‫ فراز‬،‌‫ اصطلح‬،‫ تعبير‬،‌‫عبارت‬
n. idiom, saying; expression; group of words that functions as a single unit
(Grammar)
v. formulate in words, express in words; express in a certain manner
- wolf down ‫ با گرسنگی زیاد خوردن‬،‫حریصانه خوردن‬
v. eat ravenously, eat quickly, gulp down, eat rapidly
- intuitive
‫ خودبخودی‬،‫ ذاتي‬،‫ بصير‬،‌‫حسي‬،‌‫ مبني‌ بر درك‌ يا انتقال‌ مستقيم‬،‌‫‌مستقيما درك‌ كننده‬
adj. instinctive, sensitive
- preposition ‫ حرف‌ پيش‌ نهاده‬،‫ حرف‌ جر‬،‌‫‌حرف‌ اضافه‬
n. part of speech that serves to express the relationship between two words
(Grammar)
- end up ‫ سرانجام‬،‫پایان یافتن‬
wind up; finish; become
- sift ‫ الك‬،‌‫ وارسي‌ كردن‬،‌‫ بيختن‬،‌‫‌الك‌ كردن‬
sift out: search for, check carefully, investigate
- literally ‫ معني‌ اصلي‬،‌‫ دقيق‬،‌‫ واقعي‬،‌‫ لفظي‬،‌‫ حرفي‬،‌‫‌تحت‌ اللفظي‬
adv. word for word; in a literal manner; accurately; actually, virtually
- humorous ‫ خنده‌ اور‬،‌‫ خوش‌ مزه‬،‫ شوخي‌ اميز‬،‌‫فكاهي‬
adj. funny, amusing, comical
- twist ‫ پيچ‌ دار كردن‬،‌‫ تابيدن‬،‌‫ پيچيدن‬،‌‫ پيچ‌ خوردگي‬،‌‫ نخ‌ يا ريسمان‌ تابيده‬،‌‫ تاب‬،‌‫‌پيچ‬
v. coil, curl, spin, turn; entwine; distort, pervert; produce a spiral shape
- irony ‫ طنز‬،‌‫ سخريه‬،‫ تمسخر‬،‌‫ كنايه‬،‌‫ وارونه‌گويي‬،‌‫طعنه‬
n. sarcasm, speech or writing which is intended to communicate a meaning contrary
to its literal sense
- emotion ‫ هيجاني‬،‫ شور‬،‌‫ هيجانات‬،‌‫‌احساسات‬
n. strong feeling, sentiment

Practice Test 3

READING PASSAGE 2
Moles happy as homes go underground
- mole
- tramp

‫موش کور‬
‫ ولگردي‬،‌‫ اوارگي‬،‌‫ فاحشه‬،‌‫ اواره‬،‌‫پياده‌روي‌ كردن‬،‌‫ خانه‌ بدوش‬،‫‌ولگرد‬،

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v. wander, rove, loiter, travel by foot; trample over; trudge, tread heavily
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