Syria Chemical Facilities Map

Last update: August 2013

Editorial Note—August 2013 This map was last updated by the Center for Nonproliferation Studies in July 2012 using sources with dates ranging from 1986 to 2011. The most recent source utilized is from October 2011; given the ongoing war in Syria it is impossible to update this map reliably with more recent sources.

Since definitive information on countries’ WMD facilities is often classified, the descriptions and mapped locations of Syria’s alleged chemical weapons facilities are based on the most credible available open source material for the date range 1986-2011. This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents.
Copyright © 2013 by MIIS.

Syria Chemical Map Sources
Dual-use Facilities:  Banias Oil Refinery  Lina Ibrahim,“Syria Seeks Arab Technical Help to Develop Banias Refinery,” Bloomberg, 9 October 2011, www.bloomberg.com.  “Country Analysis Briefs: Syria,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy, www.eia.doe.gov. Homs Oil Refinery  “Country Analysis Briefs: Syria,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy, www.eia.doe.gov.  “Revamping Homs Refinery,” Iran Itok, www.iranitok.com.  "Middle East, CW Production Site," Jane's Intelligence Review 10 (April 1998), p. 25. Homs General Fertilizer  “Spain’s Agromed to Set Up Compost Plant in Syria,” Albawaba, 3 April 2002, www.albawaba.com.  “NONAV - Syria - Industrials & Pharmaceuticals Report,” Business Intelligence Middle East, 21 December 2004, www.bi-me.com. Setma Limited  Ruth Sinai, “Official Says US Blocks Shipment of Chemicals from India to Syria,” Associated Press, 21 September 1992, www.apnewsarchive.com.

Production Facilities:  Hama  "Investigation: Syrian CW programs," Middle East Defense News (Paris) 5, 28 September 1992, pp. 5-6.  Douglas Davis, “Jane's: 'Syria, Iran Storing Chemical Weapons',” The Jerusalem Post, 14 August 1996, p. 2.  Richard M. Bennett, "The Syrian Military: A Primer," Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol.3 No. 8 (August/September 2001), www.meib.org.  Stephen Pollard, “If Syria Isn't Next on America's Hit List, It Certainly Should Be,” The Daily Telegraph (London), 15 April 2003, p. 22.  Dany Shoham, “Guile, Gas and Germs: Syria’s Ultimate Weapons,” Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2002.  Magnus Normark, Anders Lindblad, Anders Norqvist et alia,“Syria and WMD Incentives and Capabilities,” FOI - Swedish Defense Research Agency, June 2004, p. 46.  “Chemical Romance – Syria's Unconventional Affair Develops,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 12 February 2009, www.janes.com.  Homs  Reuters, “Syria Making Nerve Gas, Journal Says,” The Globe and Mail (Canada), 27 November 1986, p. A14.  Reuters, “Syria Making Nerve Gas, Journal Says,” The Globe and Mail (Canada), 27 November 1986, p. A14.  “Syria's Secret Poison Gas Plants," Jane's Foreign Report, 10 September 1992, www.janes.com.  Yedidya Atlas, “Lest History Repeat Itself yet Again,” The Jerusalem Post, 20 October 1992.  “Syria's Secret Poison Gas Plants," Jane's Foreign Report, 10 September 1992, www.janes.com.  "Middle East, CW Production Site," Jane's Intelligence Review, Vol. 10, No. 4 (April 1998), p. 25, www.janes.com.  Stephen Pollard, “If Syria Isn't Next on America's Hit List, It Certainly Should Be,” The Daily Telegraph (London), 15 April 2003, p. 22.  Dany Shoham, “Guile, Gas and Germs: Syria’s Ultimate Weapons,” Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2002.  Magnus Normark, Anders Lindblad, Anders Norqvist et alia,“Syri a and WMD Incentives and Capabilities,” FOI - Swedish Defense Research Agency, June 2004, p. 46.

Latakia  Dany Shoham, “Guile, Gas and Germs: Syria’s Ultimate Weapons,” Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2002.  Magnus Normark, Anders Lindblad, Anders Norqvist et alia,“Syria and WMD

 Incentives and Capabilities,” FOI - Swedish Defense Research Agency, June 2004, p. 46.  Al-Safira  "Syria's Secret Poison-Gas Plants," Jane’s Foreign Report, 10 September 1992, pp. 12.  Uri Dan and Dennis Eisenberg, "The Dogs of War," Jerusalem Post, 13 June 1996, p. 6.  Magnus Normark, Anders Lindblad, Anders Norqvist et alia, “Syria and WMD Incentives and Capabilities,” FOI - Swedish Defense Research Agency, June 2004, p. 38.  "Syria's Secret Poison-Gas Plants," Jane’s Foreign Report, 10 September 1992, pp. 12.  M. Zuhair Diab, “Syria’s Chemical and Biological Weapons: Assessing Capabilities and Motivations,” The Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Fall 1997), pp. 105106.  Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree, International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), p. 214.  "Syria's Secret Poison-Gas Plants," Jane’s Foreign Report, 10 September 1992, pp. 12.  Douglas Waller, “Sneaking in the Scuds,” Newsweek, 22 June 1992, p. 42.  AFP, “Stern: Syria Builds a Plant for Producing Chemical Gas in Alleppo” (in Arabic), Al-Hayat (London), June 5, 1996, p. 6.  “Chemical Romance - Syria's Unconventional Affair Develops,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 12 February 2009, www.janes.com.

R&D Facilities:  Centre D’Etude et de Recherches Scientifiques (CERS)  Dany Shoham, "Guile, Gas and Germs: Syria's Ultimate Weapons," Middle East Quarterly,Vol. 9, No. 3, (Summer 2002), pp. 53-61.  Magnus Normark, Anders Lindblad, Anders Norqvist et alia,“Syria and WMD Incentives and Capabilities,”FOI - Swedish Defense Research Agency, June 2004, p. 46.  David Eshel, “Syria’s Chemical Weapons Proliferation Hydra,” Defense Update News Analysis, 23 September 2007, www.defense-update.com.  E.J. Hogendoorn, “A Chemical Weapons Atlas,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 53, No. 5 (September/October 1997), pp. 35-39.  Paul Beaver, "Syria to Make Chemical Bomblets for Scud C's," Jane's Defence Weekly, 3 September 1997, p. 3.

Storage Facilities:  Masyaf  Chemical Romance - Syria's Unconventional Affair Develops,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 12 February 2009, www.janes.com.  Furqlus  E.J. Hogendoorn, "A Chemical Weapons Atlas," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 53 (September/October 1997), www.bullatomsci.org.  "Offensive Chemical Warfare Programs in the Middle East [Unclassified]," Defense Intelligence Agency, 1990, released to E.J. Hogendoorn under the Freedom of Information Act. Khan  E.J. Hogendoorn, "A Chemical Weapons Atlas," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 53 (September/October 1997), www.bullatomsci.org.  "Offensive Chemical Warfare Programs in the Middle East [Unclassified]," Defense Intelligence Agency, 1990, released to E.J. Hogendoorn under the Freedom of Information Act.

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