This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(01824-506960-61) Punjab - 144001
Certified that this Training entitled “Vocational Training in Advanced Telecom” submitted by Miss. Ekta Das, Roll Number: RE2R59B48, students of Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara Punjab in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelors of Technology (Electronics & Communication Engineering) Degree of LPU, is a record of student‟s own study carried under my supervision & guidance.
Name and Signature of Training Supervisor
Shri. Amitava Nath Divisional Engineer(BSNL), Guwahati
At the very outset I would like to thanks all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars throughout this training. I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to my training Supervisor Mr. Amitava Nath for guiding and instructing me throughout the duration of the training. He had been a constant source of inspiration for me and I am deeply indebted for his encouraging talk and constructive guidance. I am really grateful to all those, particularly our HOD sir, who have given me this opportunity to undertake the training and providing me with all the facilities. I would like to acknowledge the assistance provided to me by the library staff of Lovely Professional University. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my friends who have been always there to lend a helping hand. And last but not the least I thank my parents for their emotional support and help.
Ekta Das B.Tech (E.C.E) Regn no. 10907044
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
ABOUT THE ORGANISATION FLOW CHART OF THE PROCESS AT THE ORGANISATION DETAILS OF WORK/JOB ASSIGNED LEARNING OUTCOMES & ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS FUTURE SCOPE OF THIS TYPE TRAINING REFERENCES
4 5 6-25 26 26 27 27
1.ABOUT THE ORGANISATION
BSNL was born on 1.10.2000 as a Telecom Service Provider. The Field units of the then DOT (Department of Telecommunications) were converted into BSNL. BSNL as a part of social responsibility has started Trainings for Engineering students. To meet the requirements of training for Engineering students, BSNL has started industrial trainings by the name of Regional Telecom training Centre for the engineering students. The Regional Telecom Training Centre, Guwahati started functioning from 1st July 1998 at Dispur Exchange Complex. Due to shortage of area it was shifted to a rented building at Bhangagarh in September 2000. At present it is functioning at Dwarakapuri, S.R. Bora Road, Ulubari since 10th December 2005. The academic block is housed in the second and third floor of Dwarkapuri Bhawan occupying a space of 22000 sq. ft. The RTTC, Guwahati is the biggest telecom training centre in the North-Eastern Region of India. It has been established with the mission to achieve Global Training standards in Telecom and Information Technologies. It provides vocational trainings in modern telecommunication technology areas. Seminars and workshops are also organized in RTTC to improve the quality of service.
2. FLOW CHART OF THE PROCESS AT THE ORGANISATION Telecom Network PCM Optical Fiber Cable Jointing of OFC by Splicing Machine GSM 2G Architecture GSM 3G Overview Visit to GSM Site Broadband Overview Visit to Broadband Lab Wi-Fi/Wi-Max CDMA WLL NGN
3. INTRODUCTION TO TELECOMMUNICATION
Telecommunication is the transmission of information by electronic means over significant distances to communicate. A complete, single telecommunications circuit consists of two stations, each with a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter and receiver at any station may be combined into a single device called into a single device called a transceiver. The medium of signal transmission can be electrical wire or cable (copper), optical fiber or electromagnetic fields. The free-space transmission and reception of data by means of electromagnetic fields is called wireless.
TELECOM SERVICES IN INDIA
As regards Telecom services, India is divided into small Service Areas known as – LSAs (Licensed Service Areas). There are altogether twenty-three LSAs in India. The LSAs are further categories as- Telecom Circles and Metro Districts. India has 19 Telecom Circles and 4 Metro Districts. Assam, West Bengal, Bihar etc. are examples of Telecom Circles. New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai are Metro Districts.
TELECOM OPERATORS IN INDIA
India has two types of Telecom Operators, viz. Government Operators and Private Operators. Government Operators are Central PSUs (Public Sector Undertakings). There are two Central PSUs working as Telecom Operators1. BSNL 2. MTNL A large numbers of Private Operators are also operating all over India. Some of them are Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Vodafone, Idea etc.
TELECOM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
Telecom Network is broadly an integration of – 1. User Equipment 2. Access Network 3. Switching Network 4. Transmission Network 5. Application servers
1. User Equipment: It may be an ordinary Telephone Instrument, a Mobile Phone, a PC and similar other devices. 2. Access Network: It provides connectivity between User Equipment with Switching Network primarily. It may be Copper pairs, Wireless Link and Optical Fiber. 3. Switching Network: It has the role of interconnecting different users. Prominent Switches are- CDOT, OCB, AT & T etc. 4. Transmission Network: It is the link between various Networks. It may be Optical Fiber, Wireless Network, Satellite etc. 5. Application Servers: These are equipments which store thousands of applications. These Servers are connected to the Switching Networks through suitable Transmission links. Users access these Servers to run different applications. The Servers may contain websites, movies, games, videos and many others.
BSNL TELECOM NETWORK
Prominent BSNL Telecom Networks are1. BSNL Landline Network 2. BSNL Mobile Network 3. BSNL WLL Network 4. BSNL Internet and BSNL Broadband 5. Data Networks 6. MPLS VPN 7. Intelligent Network 8. Satellite Networks 1.BSNL LANDLINE NETWORK: A Telecom Network for Voice Call between a Landline Telephone and a Landline/Mobile Telephone is the Landline Network. VAS (Value Added Service) based on landline Telephone Network are- FAX Service, Internet Services, Broadband Service, Sancharnet Card, Webfone Service, ISDN services, IN Services, Call Now Cards, Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, Multi-Play service, SMS Service, Answering Service etc.
2.BSNL MOBILE NETWORK: Mobile Communication System provides a Service where Customers can communicate even when they are in Motion. It is also known as CMTS (Cellular Mobile Telephone Service). BSNL Provides Mobile Services through GSM (Global System Mobile or Global System for Mobile Communication) Technology developed in Europe. Mobile Services may be Postpaid or Prepaid in nature 3.BSNL WLL NETWORK: WLL stands for Wireless in Local Loop. It is also a Mobile Communication System being provided by BSNL on a limited mobility basis. Technically, WLL System can work as a Mobile System with full mobility. BSNL provides WLL Services for Technically non-feasible Landline Areas and also for Rural Mobile Communications. WLL works on CDMA Technology. 4.BSNL INTERNET & BROADBAND: Internet stands for International Networking of Computers. It is a Service Through which Computer to Computer Communication is possible World Wide. BSNL provides High Speed Internet Access to its Customers through its Broadband Services. Broadband is an twenty four hour On Line Internet Service with provision of Triple Play facilities . 5.DATA NETWORKS: Leased Lines are basically dedicated Data Circuit Links on point to point basis. MLLN (Managed Leased Line Network) System have wider control and smooth operation. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is service which allows Movable user Terminals to access Data Service s through Access Points called Hotspots. Wi-MAX (Wireless Inter-operability for Microwave Access) is Wireless Technology that provide Broadband Services in Low-Density Areas. 6.MPLS VPN: VPN Stands for Virtual Private Network while MPLS Stands for Multi Protocol Label Switching.VPN is a cheaper service where Customers can have connectivity among their various locations without installing physical Networks by themselves. It provides- Bandwidth on Demand, Video Conferencing, Voice over Internet and many other Services. 7.INTELLIGENT NETWORK: IN provides a framework to create various services in a centralized place independent of the Switch. Popular IN services are- Free Phone Service, Premium Rate Service, India Telephone Card, Virtual Private Network, Universal Access Number, Tele Voting, Account Calling Card etc. 8.SATELLITE NETWORK: Satellite Network consists of Communication Satellite, User Equipment Known as VSAT & Radio Link. VSAT Technology is a secure and reliable medium to connect geographically dispersed locations. It is cost effective and independent Communication Network. BSNL offers Satellite based Telecom Services supporting- Broadband internet access, VOIP, Video Conferencing, Local Area Network, Voice, Fax etc.
NEED FOR MULTIPLEXING:
In telecommunications, multiplexing is a method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be carried using one wire.
Categories of multiplexing
FDM(Frequency Division Multiplexing): FDM achieves the combining of several digital signals into one medium by sending signals in several distinct frequency ranges over that medium. One of FDM's most common applications is cable television. Only one cable reaches a customer's home but the service provider can send multiple television channels or signals simultaneously over that cable to all subscribers. Receivers must tune to the appropriate frequency (channel) to access the desired signal.
WDM(Wavelength Division Multiplexing): In optical communications, WDM is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths(i.e. colours) of laser light. The term wavelength division multiplexing is commonly applied to an optical carrier(which is typically described by its wavelength), whereas frequency division multiplexing typically applies to a radio carrier(which is more often described by frequency). Since wavelength and frequency are tied together through a simple directly inverse relationship, the two terms actually describe the same concept.
TDM (Time Division Multiplexing): TDM is a multiplexing which repeatedly transmits a fixed sequence of time slots over a single transmission. Each channel is assigned a time slot with a specific common repetition period called a frame interval. All the channels are sampled one by one and are transmitted one by one. At the receiving end discrete samples are received which are combined to reproduce the original signal.
PCM(PULSE CODE MODULATION):
In 1938, Mr. A.M. Reaves (USA) developed a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) system to transmit the spoken word in digital form. Since then digital speech transmission has become an alternative to the analogue systems. PCM uses TDM technique for sending a number of circuits on the same transmission medium. PCM include the following steps: i. Filtering- Filters are used to limit the speech signal to the frequency band 300-3400 Hz. ii. Sampling- The application of sampling permits the reduction of the continuously varying message signal (of some finite duration) to a limited number of discrete values per second. The Sampling Theorem states that if a band limited signal is sampled at regular intervals of time and at a rate equal to or more than twice the highest signal frequency in the band, then the sample contains all the information of the original signal. Mathematically, if fh is the highest frequency in the signal to be sampled then the sampling frequency fs needs to be greater than 2fh. i.e. fs 2 * fh If our voice signals are band limited to 4 KHz and the sampling frequency is 8KHz. Time period of sampling, Ts = 1 sec
or Ts = 125 microseconds. In a 30 channel(E1. Link) PCM system, Ts i.e. 125 microseconds is divided into 32 parts. That is 30 time slots are used for speech signals, 1 time slot for signaling of all the 30 channels, and 1 time slot for synchronization between transmitter and receiver. Time available per channel, Ts/N = 125/32 = 3.9 microseconds Thus in a 30 channel PCM system, time slot is 3.9 microseconds. The duration between 2 consecutive samples of a channel i.e. 125 microseconds is called Time Frame. iii. Quantization- Quantization can be defined as a process of breaking down a continuous amplitude range into a finite number of amplitude steps. iv. Encoding- Conversion of discrete sample into digital code is called encoding. In a frame of 32 time slots, each slot carries an 8 bit word. Hence, total number of bits per frame is (32*8) 256. Total number of bits per slot=8000 The total number of frames per second =8000*256 = 2048 kbps Thus a 30 channel PCM system has 2048 kbps or 2 Mbps.
Fig: Block diagram of PCM There are 2 standards of PCM, namely, the European and the American. They differ slightly in the detail of their working but the principles are same. European PCM has 30 channels while North American PCM has 24 channels. In India we follow the European PCM of 30 channels system working.
Optical Fiber Cable(OFC):
Optical Fiber is a new medium in which information (Voice, Data or Video) is transmitted through a Glass or Plastic Fiber, in the form of light. The sequence of transmission arei. ii. iii. iv. v. Information is encoded into Electrical Signal Electrical Signals are converted into light signals Light travels down the fiber A detector changes the Light Signals into Electrical Signals Electrical Signals are decoded into information
Fig: Transmission in OFC
ADVANTAGES OF FIBER OPTICS: The advantages of Optical Fibers arei. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Optical Fibers are non-conductive (dielectric) Electromagnetic Immunity Large Bandwidth ( >50 Ghz for 1 Km) Low Loss (6 dB/km to < 0.25 dB/km) Small and light weight cables Available in long lengths (> 12 kms) Security Universal Medium
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION: As the angle of incidence increases, the angle of refraction approaches 90o to the normal. The angle of incidence that yields an angle of refraction of 90o is the critical angle. If the angle of incidence increases more than the critical angle, the light is totally reflected back into the first material. The angle of incidence and reflection are equal. This phenomenon is called Total Internal Reflection which forms the basis of propagation of light through an optical fiber. OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE The Optical Fiber has two concentric layers- the Core which forms inner part and the Cladding which is the outer part. The inner Core is the Light carrying part. Most of the Fibers have additional coating around the Cladding. This is a shock absorber and does not have any optical properties. PROPAGATION THROUGH THE FIBRE Light ray is injected into the Core and strikes the Core to Cladding interface at an angle greater than the Critical angle. Due to the phenomenon of Internal Reflection, the Light ray is reflected back into the Core. The reflected Light ray strikes other side of the Core to Cladding interface and again reflection occurs into the same medium of Core. This process continues and Light advances in a zigzag fashion along the length of the Fiber. OPTICAL TRANSMITTER Commonly there are two Semi-conductor devices for using as Optical Transmitters-LED (Light Emitting Diode) and LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation ) Diodes. LEDs are composed of a P-N junction with doped semiconductor layers. Injected electrons combine with „holes‟ in the P-layer where this phenomenon results in emission of Photons. In case of LASER Diodes, the emission of Photons are spontaneous and are stimulated by other Photons ( by amplifying light) and we get large quantities of high energy Photons emitted.
OPTICAL DETECTOR The Optical Detector converts Optical Energy into Electrical Energy. PIN Photo Diode and APD come under this category. PIN stands for Positive, Intrinsic, and Negative. Under reverse bias condition, when a Photon enters the depletion region, it is absorbed and a pair of Electron and Hole is generated. The Electron and the Hole so generated move towards the opposite Electrodes. This results in the flow of Current in the external field. The PIN Photo Diodes have lower capacitance, high Quantum efficiency and high speed of operation. The APD has a very wide Intrinsic Layer in between the P and N Semiconductor materials. Provision of another P type material in between the N type material and the Intrinsic layer makes working much more efficient. As the Photon enters the Intrinsic layer, Electron-Hole pairs are formed. Movement of the Charge carriers towards the opposite terminals results in collision inside the Diode with neutral atoms. As a result of such collision more numbers of Electron-Hole pairs are generated. Consequently, we get large flow of current in the external Circuit. APDs are often influenced by various Noises.
GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications or Global System Mobile. GSM is a Digital Cellular Mobile Communication System. GSM is an European Technology having common standard. It is rapidly accepted world-wide. In GSM radio channels are accessed using TDMA. GSM FREQUENCY ALLOCATION: Two common Bands of Frequencies are(i) 900 Mhz band-890 to 915 Mhz Up-link -935 to 960 Mhz Dn-link (ii)1800 Mhz Band-1710 to 1785 Mhz Up-link -1805 to 1880 Mhz Dn-link RADIO FREQUENCY CHANNELS OF GSM-900 Each of the Up and Down links is divided into 125 Frequency Slots. The usable Radio Frequency Channels (RF Channels) for Up link are- 890.2 , 890.4, ......,914.6, 914.8 Mhz (124 Nos.). Similarly, Down link frequencies are- 935.2, 935.4, ......., 959.6, 959.8 Mhz (124 Nos.). RF Channels work in pairs. Every RF Channel Frame consists of 8 Time Slots known as Physical Channels.
CELLULAR SYSTEMS In a Cellular System, the Coverage area of an Operator is divided into a number of subareas called Cells. The shape of a Cell is Hexagonal for design purposes. In reality a Cell may be of any shape. The size of a Cell is determined by the Transmitter‟s power. Cellular Systems use low power transmitters.
Fig: A Hexagonal Cell
CLUSTER CONCEPT The Cells are grouped for the purpose of frequency allocation. The Groups are termed as Clusters. The Typical Clusters may contain 4, 7, 12, 21 etc. cells. Every Cell of a Cluster gets a set of unique frequencies. The Clusters are repeated to cover more and more areas.
Fig: A Seven Cell Cluster
To avoid chaos and overlapping of frequencies no two adjacent cells belonging to two separate clusters should have the same pair of frequencies.
Fig: A Four Cell Cluster Repetition ARCHITECTURE OF GSM NETWORK The GSM Network may be divided into four main Sub-Systems1. 2. 3. 4. Mobile Station (MS) Base Station Sub-System (BSS) Network and Switching Sub-system (NSS) Operation and Support Sub-System (OSS)
Fig: GSM Architecture
1. MOBILE STATION
MS has two broad components- SIM and Terminal. (i)SIM – SIM(Subscriber Identity Module) is a smart card. It is used to access subscribed services. For its unique identification, SIM contains a number IMSI(International Mobile Subscriber Identity). SIM also accommodates MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number). (ii)Terminal- It is the part of MS minus SIM. It has a Unique Identification Number IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity).
2. BASE STATION SUB-SYSTEM(BSS)
BSS connects MS on one side and NSS on the other side. BSS can be divided into two units- BTS (Base Trans-Receiver Station) and BSC (Base Station Controller). (i)BTS- BTS provides a Wireless resource to MSs. BTS is usually placed in the Centre of a Cell. BTS contains one or more TRXs (Trans-Receiver or Radio Units) to provide full duplex communication to MSs. (ii)BSC- Each BSC controls a group of BTSs. BSC is the Radio Resource Manager. BSC is principally responsible for- Handovers within its area of coverage, Frequency Hopping, Exchange Functions and Radio Resource Power level control.
3. NETWORK & SWITCHING SUB-SYSTEM(NSS)
Its role is to manage communication between mobile users and other users. NSS consists ofi. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register) AuC (Authentication Centre) EIR (Equipment Identity Register)
(i)MSC- MSC is the central component of NSS. MSC performs Switching and signaling functions. It interacts with PSTNs, other MSCs, HLR, and VLR etc. Handling location registration through VLR. It controls inter-BSC and Intra-MSC handovers. It performs standard functions of a Digital Switch. (ii)HLR- HLR contains most important Database of its MSs. It also stores current sub location and service entitlements. HLR contains IMSI, MSISDN Numbers of Subscribers. It also contains Subscription information of various services . (iii)VLR- VLR contains Sub parameters and Location information of Mobile Subs currently lying in its coverage area. When a new sub enters the coverage area of a VLR, it collects relevant information of the sub. VLR contains IMSI, TMSI, MSISDN, MSRN of a Sub.
(iv)AuC- AuC is a register used for security purposes. It provides parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. It helps to verify user‟s identity. AuC is connected to the HLR. AuC is an assistant to HLR (v)EIR- It is a register containing information about the Mobile Equipments. EIR is accessed during IMEI verification procedure. 4. OPERATION & SUPPORT SUB-SYSTEM(OSS) OSS is connected with NSS and BSS to control and monitor the GSM System. OSS also controls the traffic load of BSS. OSS has only one sub-unit called OMC (Operation and Maintenance Centre ). 5. OTHER NETWORK ELEMENTS (i)Billing Centre- Each MSC writes the Call Accounting Records to a local disk memory. The Billing Centre periodically pulls the disk records of each MSC to collect the Billing Data. (ii)Service Centre- The Service Centre interfaces with the MSCs to provide special services such as SMS. AREAS OF GSM NETWORK A Cell is the Coverage Area of a BTS. A number of Cells grouped together constitute a LA (Location Area) identified by its LAI (Location Area Identity). A number of LAs are grouped to form an MSC/VLR Area served by one MSC/VLR. A number of MSC/VLR Areas served by one Network Operator form a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). STRENGTH OF GSM (2G MOBILE) i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. It provides wide ranges of services Open Standard User friendly System Widely accepted in major parts of the World Technical support is available easily Integration with other systems is not complex
WEAKNESS OF GSM (2G MOBILE) i. ii. iii. iv. v. Accessing method is TDMA which is not very secure. RF Channel Bandwidth is less Data Speed supported is very less and present day customers demand higher speed It is not capable to provide multi-media Traffic handling capacity is limited.
3G MOBILE EVOLUTION Third Generation- IMT-2000 is the 3rd Generation Mobile Communication System defined by ITU. Prominent Technologies chosen for IMT-2000 arei. ii. iii. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom System) CDMA2000 (Code Division Multiple Access 2000) UWC (Universal Wireless Consortium)
NAMING IMT-2000 The Figure „2000‟ after IMT is perhaps for the following reasonsThe year 2000 was taken as the takeoff year. The Frequency Bands allotted for IMT-2000 was around 2000 MHz. The Data Communication speed was to be made 2000 kbps. Evolution from GSM to 3G
Fig: GSM Growth Phases
UMTS(Universal Mobile Telecom System)
UMTS is the term used in Europe for 3rd Generation Mobile Networks. Intention of UMTS is to make replace/transition from 2nd Generation Mobile Networks. UMTS is supposed to converge contents from Telecom Industry & IT industry. UMTS uses WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) for its 3G Mobile Network. It provides traditional Telecom services & new Internet based services. It accommodates interconnections for varieties of networks. WCDMA is a high bit rate Network
3G MAIN APPLICATIONS Main Applications of 3G GSM arei. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Video Calling Mobile Broadband Movie Streaming Video Downloading Full Track Song Downloading Gaming Multi-Media Messaging
ADVANTAGES OF 3G MOBILE The advantages of 3G Mobile can be summarized as followsi. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Availability of new Radio spectrum. More Bandwidth, Security & Reliability. Interoperability between different service providers. Fixed and variable data rates. Backward compatibility of Services with existing Networks. Always ON connectivity. Rich Multi-Media Services.
DISADVANTAGES OF 3G MOBILE The disadvantages of 3G Mobile can be summarized as followsi. ii. iii. iv. Up-gradation cost of Base Stations and Cellular infrastructure is likely to be higher. 3G requires different Handsets and the issue is complex. Roaming and making voice/data call not yet been fully and been seamlessly operational. Higher power consumptions for handsets.
Broadband connectivity is defined as an “always on” data connection that is able to support interactive services including Internet access and has the capability of minimum download speed of 256 kbps to an individual subscriber from the POP of the service provider. ADVANTAGES OF BROADBAND The advantages of Broadband arei. Always on (Not on shared media) ii. Fast (speed ranging from 256 kbps to 2 Mbps) iii. No disconnection iv. No additional access charge
v. Telephone and Data simultaneously vi. Fat pipe can be continuously supplemented with value added applications to enjoy the advantage. Broadband Technologies: There are 2 broadband technologiesi. WIRELESS ii. WIRED Common WIRELESS Technologies 1. 3G (3rd Generation Mobile Communication) 2. EVDO (Evolution Data Optimized) 3. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) 4. Wi-MAX (Wireless interoperability Microwave Access) 5. FSO (Fiber Space Optics) WIRED Technologies: 1. Cable Modem 2. Power Line Communication or Broadband over Power Line (BoPL) 3. DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) 4. OFT (Optical Fiber Technologies) BROADBAND NETWORK ELEMENTS DSL CPEs: At customer premises. On one end it connects telephone cable coming from exchange via splitter. At the other end, it connects to PC through Ethernet / USB Port.CPE consists of ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) modem, splitter, power adapter and cords(line cord, Ethernet cord, USB cord) .
DSLAM: It is called as DSL Access Multiplexer. It has a built in splitter which splits voice and data. While voice follows the normal conventional path through exchange, data is aggregated
and up linked through Ethernet Port (Gigabit Ethernet for 480 ports and Fast Ethernet for lower DSLAM). BBRAS: It is called as Broadband Remote Access Server. First intelligent device in the whole chain. It terminates the customer session, authenticates, allot IP addresses and keeps track of user session for billing along with RADIUS. RADIUS: This in conjunction with BRAS authenticates customer, upload customer profile in the SSSS and keeps track of billing. SSSS: It is called as Subscriber Service Selection System. When customer logs in he will be welcomed with this customized screen from where he can select various range of service. This provides on demand service without manual intervention. Router: is used to connect two or more networks. LAN Switch: For aggregating multiple DSLAM and providing a common uplink to the core. Tier1/Tier2 LAN Switch: is used to extend LAN network. OCLAN Switch (Other City LAN switch) works as a Tier-2 network device in the BSNL multi-play network. It connects the DSLAMs of the cities with Tier-1 switches. Wireless Broadband Access(WBA) Broadband wireless is a technology that promises high-speed connection over the air. It uses radio waves to transmit and receive data directly to and from the potential users whenever they want it. Technologies such as 3G, Wi-Fi, and Wi-MAX work together to meet unique customer needs.
Wi-Fi is based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. It is primarily a Local Area Networking(LAN) technology designed to provide in-building broadband coverage. Wi-Fi is a service which allows Movable User Terminals to access Data Services through Access Points called Hotspots. A Hotspot is a geographic area that has a readily accessible wireless network. Hotspots are equipped with a Broadband Internet connection, and one or more Access Points that allow users to access the Internet wirelessly. Benefits Of Wi-Fi The benefits of Wi-Fi arei. Mobility:- Wi-Fi system can provide LAN users with access to real-time information anywhere in their organization. ii. Installation Speed and Simplicity:-Installing a Wi-Fi- system can be fast and easy. iii. Installation Flexibility:-Wireless technology allows the network to go where wire cannot go.
Reduced Cost-of-Ownership:-Initial investment required for Wi-Fi hardwire can be higher than the cost of wired LAN hardware, overall installation expences and life-cycle costs can be significantly lower. Scalability:- Wi-Fi systems can be configured in a variety of topologies. It offers much high speed upto 54 Mbps.
Good places to install WiFi Basically, any location which caters to business users, and where people with laptops are likely to make frequent visits is an ideal choice to install WiFi. For instance airports, hotels and resorts, restaurants, coffee shops, bookstores, shopping malls and institutes. Components required for Wifi: A PC or laptop, wireless adapter and aAn Access Point - essentially a compact radio transmitter with an antenna that connects to a wired connection, such as an Ethernet, DSL, or Cable Network.
1. IEEE 802.16-2004 For (a)Fixed point–to-point and (b) Fixed point-to-multipoint It is also called first Non Line of Sight(NLOS),BWA standard. 2. IEEE 802.16e is for mobile wireless access from laptops and hand held. It is analogous to a faster version of 3G telecom technology. Working of Wi-MAX Wi-MAX operates similar to Wi-Fi but at higher speed, over greater distances and for greater number of users. It consists of following two partsi) A Wi-MAX tower ii) A Wi-MAX receiver and antenna. APPLICATIONS of Wi-MAX Two main applications of WiMAX are:1. Fixed WiMAX, which are point to multipoint enabling Broadband access to homes and offices. 2. Mobile WiMAX, which offers the full mobility of cellular n/w at true speed. Advantages of Wi-Max (a) High speed of Broadband service upto 70Mbps. (b) Less expensive (c) Much easier to extend to suburban and rural areas. (d) Broad coverage up to 50Kms.
CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access)
CDMA is a multiple access technique where large numbers of transmissions are combined on the same RF channel at the same time but are separated by codes. It is an advanced communication technology. It uses spread spectrum technology. It has inbuilt anti-jam and security features. Large capacity as compared to other technologies like FDMA and TDMA. Advantages of CDMA Main advantages from operator‟s point of view i. Fast network deployment ii. Reduced service interruptions iii. Low maintenance & operational cost iv. Better system coverage flexibility v. Higher capacity vi. Frequency re-use (No freq. reuse pattern reqd.) vii. Easy transition to mobile services Frequency Bands CDMA Band – 824 – 849 MHz 869 – 894 MHz PCS Band - 1850 – 1910 MHz 1930 – 1990 MHz RF Carrier – 1.25 MHz Implementation in BSNL CDMA technology based systems are deployed in BSNL to provide the following servicesi. WLL (Wireless in Local Loop) ii. High Speed wireless Internet services The CDMA Systems used in BSNL are: CDMA2000 1x 1x EVDO
WLL(Wireless in Local Loop)
WLL is a Mobile Communication System. It is a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access System) based system. Initially, it was employed as a part of basic Telephony. At present full fledged Systems are available. Sub-Units of a Typical LG WLL System arei. BSC (Base Station Controller) ii. BTS (Base Trans-Receiver Station) iii. BSM (Base Station Manager) iv. MS (Mobile Set)
Fig LG WLL System (i)BSC: Most important Sub-unit of a WLL System. It works as an independent Switch. BSC does call processing, Call management. It is connected to PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) by means of E1 link. BSC works as an Interface between PSTN & BTSs. It controls a number of BTSs. (ii)BTS: A BTS serves a Cell or number of users in a Cell.It is an Interface between BSC and the MSs. It is connected to BSC with E1 Link and it has Radio link with MSs. It takes part in call processing with the BSC. BTS controls power level of the MSs. It manages wireless resources. (iii)BSM: BSM is the MMC (Man Machine Communication) device of WLL System. It is basically a Sun Micro-System Workstation. BSM is connected to BSC through a RS-422 link. BSM uses Solarix as OS, Informix as DBMS, Sparc C as Language and Motif as GUI. (iv)MS: MS may of two types- FWT (Fixed Wireless Terminal) and MS (Mobile Set). FWT has a Telephone Set and a Base Module. The Base Module has ports for connecting FAX and Modems for Data Communications. It has a di-pole antenna and may be connected with a directional antenna. MS is a portable set with ESN (Electronic Subscriber Number).
NGN(Next Generation Network):
Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able to provide Telecommunication Services to users and able to make use of multiple broadband. It supports generalized mobility, which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users. NGN is a layered architecture consisting of (a)Transport layer, (b)Access layer, (c) Control and application layer. All the layers are independent from each other. Change in one layer should not affect other layers. Access Layer: Access Layers is responsible for direct subscriber attachment function. NGN is capable of processing traffic originated from PSTN, GSM, CDMA, WiMAX or any other access system. Depending upon the type of access, protocol conversion and/or media conversion may be
required at the NGN Gateways. Access Layer consists of Gateways like Media Gateway, Access gateway and Signaling gateway. Media gateway terminates media, coming from PSTN/PLMN in E1 / STM. Here it is responsible for packetisation of media under the instruction of control layer. Subscriber can directly be terminated in Access Gateway. Access Gateway and Media Gateways are responsible for carriage of Media whereas Signaling gateway is carrying signaling generated by PSTN and informs Control Layer about the signaling in required format. Transport Layer: Transport Layer of NGN is based on IP. Transport Layer forms the core of the Network. It basically consists of Routers, which are responsible for carrying traffic originated by access layer. It should be able to make use of bandwidth policies and QoS policies. It is basically an assembly of routers connected with optical network. Traffic coming from gateways is properly routed by those routers. Control Layer: It is responsible of call setup, routing and charging policies and other controls in NGN environment. It consists of call servers where all information of the network resides. NGN may work on soft switch principle. It consists of MGC (Media Gateway Controller) as an overall controller and MGs (Media Gateway) for termination of traffic. MGC is basically a server and it is having all the necessary information of network. MGC instructs MGs for establishing the call. The MGC performs a number of call control functions that are typically found in the call control portion of a legacy switch. Application Layer: It is responsible for OSS/BSS. OSS/BSS- Operation Support Sub system/Business Support Sub system. Application Server (or Feature Server) - Enhanced services to the subscribers will be provided with the help of application servers. It may include prepaid servers, announcement servers, Service servers etc. Any service can be introduced with the help of server at any time without any modifications in the control, transport or access.
4. LEARNING OUTCOMES & ANALYSIS
The telecommunication technology is rapidly growing and this growth in telecommunication has a great impact on PC, internet, broadband, cable, handset features etc. Medias used for transmission of information(data, voice) from one place to another- overhead cable, coaxial cable, microwave/UHF communication, satellite communication and OFC. The overhead cable and coaxial cable are now-a-days not in use. The M/W Communication is used in hilly areas, such as Gangtok, Jammu and Kashmir etc. The OFC is used in plain areas and is in demand in the telecom market. Optical fiber is a new medium in which information is transmitted through a Glass fiber, in the form of light. The rapid change in the Telecommunication industry is basically driven by demand of new services from subscriber‟s side. The PSTN(Public Switch Telephone Network) was basically developed and engineered for giving voice connectivity to the wire line subscribers. The PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) has been developed to provide voice services for wireless subscribers. While the basic and most popular application of data networks is Internet. Switching is the process by which, two circuits are interconnected for exchanging information. Digital Switches are classified as Circuit switch and Packet switch. Circuit switch mainly supports the switching the voice paths. In Packet switch instead of dividing the digital spectrum, entire message is divided into packets, addressed and numbered. GSM(Global System for Mobile Communications or Global System Mobile) is a Digital Cellular Mobile Communication System. In 2G accessing method is TDMA which is not secure but 3G accessing method is WCDMA which is reliable and secure. 2G is not capable to provide multi-media while 3G gives rich Multi-media services.
Telecommunication is the transmission of information by electronic means over large distances to communicate. India is one of the fastest telecom growing telecom markets with an average annual growth of 22% for basic telephony and over 100% for cellular and Internet services. BSNL(Bharat sanchar Nigam Limited) and MTNL(Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited) are two central PSUs(Public Sector Undertakings) working as telecom operators. The jurisdiction of BSNL covers all over India except the Metro Districts of New Delhi and Mumbai where MTNL operates. Due to the rapid growth of the Telecommunication industry in India the huge urban-rural gap in technology has lessened considerably.
6. FUTURE SCOPE
The knowledge about the telecommunication technology is mandatory for all budding Engineering students especially the Electronics and Communication students. The telecom industry is rapidly growing and new technologies are coming into market due to which more improved and advanced facilities will be provided with less cost. Some of such future projects are like NIB-II (National internet backbone) and CDR (Code display record) which are still in progress. NIB-II is a mission to build world-class infrastructure that will help accelerate the Internet revolution in India and CDR is a project due to which many problems of billing can be sort out. NGN(Next Generation Network) is the framework where operator will have a common transport network based on Internet Protocol. These are future projects that are in progress at the moment. It is mandatory for the Electronics and Communication students to be up-to-date about these future projects. Regional Telecom Training Center(BSNL), Guwahati has tried its best to impart high quality training in modern telecommunication technology areas. The summer training in BSNL has helped me to come up-to-date about the various modern telecommunication technologies.
i. ii. iii. iv. PCM Principles, Digital multiplexing hierarchy, Principles of MUX and Higher order MUX by BSNL Overview of CDMA Technology by D.S. Sandhu, BSNL GSM Overview by Amitava Nath, BSNL Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, (4th ed.) John Wiley, 2001
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.