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Autodesk Plant 2012 Instructor Workbook Unit 1: The Elements of Process Piping Design

Contents
Contents ............................................................................................................................ 1 Preface .............................................................................................................................. 3 Unit 1 The Elements of Process Piping Design .......................................................... 4 Lesson 1 - A Brief History of Pipe ................................................................................. 4 Pipe Composition ..................................................................................................... 4 Pipe Sizes ................................................................................................................ 5 Pipe Connections ..................................................................................................... 7 Assessment 1-1........................................................................................................ 8 Lesson 2 - Piping Components ..................................................................................... 9 Fittings ...................................................................................................................... 9 Flanges................................................................................................................... 14 Valves..................................................................................................................... 16 Assessment 1-2...................................................................................................... 25 Lesson 3 - Instrumentation ......................................................................................... 26 Process Variables .................................................................................................. 26 Instrument Functions .............................................................................................. 26 Instrument Tags ..................................................................................................... 28 Signal Types........................................................................................................... 30 Assessment 1-3...................................................................................................... 30 Lesson 4 Piping Specifications ................................................................................ 32 Exercise 1.1 Creating a New Piping Specification ............................................... 34 Exercise 1.2 Adding Components to a Spec ....................................................... 34 Student Exercise 1.3 .............................................................................................. 35 Exercise 1.4 Setting Part Use Priority ................................................................. 35 Student Exercise 1.5 .............................................................................................. 35 Student Exercise 1.6 .............................................................................................. 36 Student Exercise 1.7 .............................................................................................. 36 Exercise 1.8 Editing a Piping Spec ...................................................................... 37

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Assessment 1-4...................................................................................................... 37 Appendix A Abbreviations and Acronyms ................................................................ 39 Appendix B - Fitting Dimensions ................................................................................. 41 Elbows and Caps ................................................................................................... 41 Tees and Reducers ................................................................................................ 42 Socketweld Fittings ................................................................................................ 44 Flanges................................................................................................................... 45

AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Preface
This curriculum is intended to cover the introductory knowledge needed to begin a successful career in process piping design using the AutoCAD 2012 Plant software. Upon finishing this course, the student will have been exposed to the fundamental concepts which are the basis for piping design including: Piping specification editing with AutoCAD Spec Editor, Intelligent P&ID drafting with AutoCAD P&ID, 3D modeling of pipe and equipment with AutoCAD Plant 3D, Isometric and orthographic drawing generation with AutoCAD Plant 3D, Report Generation with AutoCAD Plant Report Creator

The course is divided into six units. Each unit will introduce a series of new concepts pertaining to process piping design. The units are divided into lessons, each building upon previous lessons and culminating with a set of review questions. In lessons where the AutoCAD Plant software is used, the student will be required to complete certain exercises. The exercises will help reinforce the concepts presented in the lesson and allow the student to develop their skills and proficiency in the AutoCAD Plant software. Student exercises have minimal guidance; requiring the student to synthesize what theyve learned in the class and through other resources (internet, help files, etc.). This course is accompanied by a P3D_Training project dataset. Be sure to have it installed on the students computer to facilitate working with exercises and tutorials. Autodesk software commands used in this course will be indicated in bold italicized text (example: File Print means select the Print command from the File pull-down menu). Disclaimer: Although this text summarizes various engineering principles for the student designer, always refer to the applicable engineering codes, manufacturers technical information, and company standards when applying the knowledge gained in this course. The information provided herein is for educational purposes only and should not be substituted for actual engineering practices. Any product or company names referenced in this material are for demonstrative purposes only and do not represent or imply an endorsement or recommendation by the author or Autodesk, Inc. About the Author: Joel C. Harris attended California Institute of Technology. He has been teaching AutoCAD in various capacities since 1986. Having worked as an AutoCAD third-party developer, AutoCAD reseller and instructor at Bellingham Technical College, he has experienced the CAD business from many sides. Currently, he has over 20 years of experience in piping design and as a plant design software administrator. He is a member of the Krusty Krew that participates in the plant design community at www.DaveTyner.com. He lives in Washington State with his wife Cynthia and two children. Technical Editor: Charles A. Terranova started piping design in 1974 and has designed, checked or managed oil and gas projects for most of the major oil companies. He has designed piping for the pulp and paper and power industries as well as created and maintained new piping design standards, procedures, and guidelines for a major engineering firm from 1987 to present. He has developed entry level and advanced piping design classes which he has taught since 1988. Currently, he holds the positions of piping design group supervisor, training, and quality coordinator, and piping standards and procedures coordinator.

AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Unit 1 The Elements of Process Piping Design


Since early agricultural civilizations invented methods to irrigate their crops, directing and controlling the movement of fluids has been an important field of engineering. Today, modern technology has allowed the automation of very sophisticated processes many of which we encounter in our daily lives. From the gasoline in our cars to the silicone chips in our computers; from the catsup on our hamburgers to the hydroelectric power that energizes our homes; process piping plays a key role in the industries that bring us these products. A process is defined as a continuous operation or series of actions directed to produce an end result. Manufacturing processes need piping systems to create the fluid products as well as to perform utility functions like cooling or heating or to power hydraulic and pneumatic operations.

Lesson 1 - A Brief History of Pipe


Pipe has evolved from the rough clay and wooden plumbing that served early man into many different types of pipe that are available to modern designers. Depending upon the intended application, pipe can be made from different materials with different properties. In this unit, we will talk about the various properties of pipe, piping components and fluids the latter being comprised of gases, liquids, mixed phases, slurries and powders. Anything that can flow can be considered as a fluid where piping design is concerned. Pipe Composition Cast iron pipe is probably considered to be the predecessor to all modern industrial piping. It is easy to manufacture, had reasonable corrosive resistance and is capable of withstanding average working pressures. However, it was brittle, inflexible and weak under tension. With the invention of the steam engine in the late 1600s, engineers required stronger materials like copper and steel to contain the higher pressures and temperatures. Eventually carbon steel piping (iron mixed with certain percentages of

Figure 1-1. Boiler designs like this one from the early 1800s helped develop the standards upon which modern piping systems are based.

other elements like carbon and manganese) was developed as a reliable standard for many industrial piping requirements. Carbon steel is strong, ductile, weldable and usually

AUTODESK CURRICULUM less expensive than other metals. Also very important is that it can handle temperatures up to 500F before its strength starts to deteriorate. By varying the ratios of different elements in the manufacturing process, different alloys of steel became available that had metallurgical properties that suited different environmental conditions. They developed low-temperature carbon steel for cold fluids or environments, chrome alloys for high temperature applications, stainless steel for corrosion resistance. Engineers eventually developed pipe from non-metallic materials like plastic or glass-lined pipe for fluids that may react chemically with steel pipe. The need for standardization of material alloys in the railroad industry prompted the formation of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in 1898. Each metallurgical composition - defined by the percentage of various elements in the alloy was assigned an alphanumeric name, The ASTM system for grading material is used to specify the composition of piping components today. For example, to build a piping system using a common specification and grade of carbon steel, the engineer would order ASTM specification A106 Grade B (commonly indicated as A106-B) pipe. The table below shows some common specifications and grades for typical piping components. Table 1-1. Common ASTM Specifications and Grades of Piping Components Pipe Carbon Steel (CS) Low Temp CS (LTCS) 316 Stainless Steel (SS) A106-B, A53-B A333-6 A312-TP316 Buttweld Fittings A234-WPB A420-WPL6 A403-WP316 Flanges A105 A350-LF2 A182-F316

Pipe Sizes The importance of standardization of pipe sizes is immediately obvious, not only as it applies to the designer but as it benefits the manufacturer and process facility as well. Standard nominal imperial sizes (called nominal pipe size or NPS) are different from standard nominal metric sizes (called Diametre Nominal or DN) but the actual outer dimensions for imperial and metric pipe are the same. This allows for piping to be connected regardless of what system of units it was designed under. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) set the standards for imperial pipe sizes and dimensions used in the United States, while the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) sets the standard for metric pipe sizes. Table 1-2 below shows the correlation between standard pipe sizes in these two systems for to 24. The remainder of this text will be based upon imperial dimensions. Regardless of the system of units, there are two key dimensions that are standardized in pipe: the outer diameter (OD) and the wall thickness. The actual pipe OD always corresponds to a nominal pipe size (NPS) but is not always equivalent. Lets look at 10 NPS pipe as an example: At one time, 10 pipe referred to pipe whose inner diameter was roughly equal to 10 and whose wall thickness was appropriate for the weaker metallurgies of the day roughly equivalent to STD wall thickness pipe today. As newer and stronger materials were developed it was necessary to maintain compatibility with older piping. To do this, the pipe OD was kept the same yet the pipe inner diameter (ID) was allowed to vary depending upon the wall thickness. The wall thickness requirements would then vary depending upon the material used, pressures and temperatures involved,

AUTODESK CURRICULUM corrosion allowances and so forth. We will talk more about pipe wall thicknesses later in this section. Consequently, the result of all of this is that what we call 10 NPS pipe today actually has an outer diameter of 10.75. Pipe with an NPS of 14 or larger has an equivalent pipe OD, while for 12 NPS and less the pipe OD is larger than the NPS. Table 1-2. Standard Imperial and Metric Piping Sizes (per ASME 36.10M) Imperial NPS (in) 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Actual Pipe OD (in/mm) 0.840/21.34 1.050/26.67 1.315/33.40 1.660/42.16 1.900/48.26 2.375/60.33 2.875/73.02 3.500/88.90 4.000/101.60 4.500/114.30 5.000/127.00 5.563/141.30 6.625/168.27 8.625/219.08 10.75/273.05 12.75/323.85 14.00/355.60 16.00/406.40 18.00/457.20 20.00/508.00 22.00/558.80 24.00/609.60 Metric DN (mm) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 115 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600

Although the table above shows the standard sizes defined by ANSI and ISO, not all of those sizes are commonly used in all industries. For example: in petrochemical plants the sizes 1 ,2 , 3 , 5 and 22 piping are rarely used. Pipe wall thicknesses were first standardized for cast iron pipe as the following (in order of increasing thickness): Standard Wall (STD), Extra Strong (XS) and Double Extra Strong (XXS). Later, a system of pipe schedules was developed that added more wall thickness options but also overlapped the existing system. This numeric system included the following designations (in order of increasing thickness): SCH 5, SCH 10, SCH 20, SCH 30, SCH 40, SCH 60, SCH 80, SCH 100, SCH 120, SCH 140 and SCH 160. An example of the overlap of the two systems is that STD and SCH 40 wall thicknesses are the same for 1/8 through 10 pipe. The table below shows the wall thicknesses for through 24 pipe (uncommon sizes and wall thicknesses omitted). In the adjacent shaded columns the numbers are duplicated due to the two overlapping systems of wall thickness standards. Note: A dash (-) indicates that there is no wall thickness for that size/standard combination.

AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Table 1-3. Standard Piping Wall Thicknesses in inches (per ASME 36.10M) SCH 10 0.083 0.083 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.120 0.120 0.134 0.148 0.165 0.180 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 SCH 20 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.375 0.375 SCH 40 0.109 0.113 0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.216 0.237 0.280 0.322 0.365 0.406 0.437 0.500 0.562 0.593 0.687 STD 0.109 0.113 0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.216 0.237 0.280 0.322 0.365 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 SCH 80 0.147 0.154 0.179 0.191 0.200 0.218 0.300 0.337 0.432 0.500 0.593 0.687 0.750 0.843 0.937 1.031 1.218 SCH XS 0.147 0.154 0.179 0.191 0.200 0.218 0.300 0.337 0.432 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 SCH 120 0.437 0.562 0.718 0.843 1.000 1.093 1.218 1.375 1.500 1.812 SCH 160 0.343 0.438 0.531 0.718 0.906 1.125 1.312 1.406 1.593 1.781 1.968 2.343 XXS 0.294 0.308 0.358 0.382 0.400 0.436 0.600 0.674 0.864 0.875 1.000 1.000 -

1 1 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

To calculate a pipe ID, simply subtract twice the wall thickness from the pipe OD. Here are the steps to find the ID of 4 STD pipe: Use Table 1-2 to find the OD of 4 NPS pipe (answer=4.500) Use Table 1-3 to find the wall thickness for 4 STD pipe (answer=0.237) The ID is 4.5 2 x (0.237) = 4.026

Pipe Connections Beside the pipe itself, other components or fittings are required to create a piping system. Connecting pipe to other pipe or fittings is done in a number of different manners. Each type of connection has strengths and weaknesses and is intended to be used under certain design conditions. The first type of pipe connection is the buttweld. Buttwelded components are simply butted up end to end and joined with a bevel weld. The pipe ends that are to be welded must be prepared by beveling the ends of the pipe. Buttweld fittings come from the manufacturer with beveled ends. For economic and strength reasons, 2 (NPS) and larger pipe (referred to as large bore piping) and fittings are usually connected using a buttwelded joint. The common abbreviation for buttweld is BW. Socketweld (SW) connections are just that: pipe is inserted into the socket of a fitting and welded with a fillet weld at the outside end of the socket. Threaded (THD) fittings have an internal thread in the socket and the pipe is externally threaded to match. To make the connection, the pipe is threaded into the fitting. This is a common joint used in residential plumbing. Both socketweld and threaded connections are typically used with 1 NPS and smaller piping (i.e. small bore piping), although there are exceptions to this: e.g. some water systems use galvanized threaded pipe and fittings up to 12 NPS. SW and THD connections require the pairing of male and female components to make the joint pipe is always the male component. Most (but not all) SW and THD fittings are female so that they can connect to pipe.

AUTODESK CURRICULUM Figure 1-2. Three Basic Piping Connections

Assessment 1-1 1. A process is defined as a continuous operation or series of actions directed to produce an end result. 2. Name one possible metal alloy used for pipe in a high temperature service. Chrome Alloys 3. Name one material that could be used for piping a chemical that reacts with steel pipe. Either Plastic Pipe or Glass Lined Pipe 4. Name one material specification and grade for carbon steel pipe. Either ASTM A106 Grade B or ASTM A53 Grade B 5. Name two organizations responsible for specifying standard pipe sizes and dimensions. Two of these: ANSI, ASME and ISO 6. What is the actual OD of 3 NPS pipe? 3.5 What is the equivalent metric DN? 80mm 7. Which 12 NPS pipe has a thicker pipe wall: SCH 40 or STD? SCH 40 is 0.406 while STD is only 0.375 8. What is the ID (in inches) of a 2 SCH XS pipe? 1.939 = 2.375 (2 x 0.218) 9. Name three types of pipe connections (include their full name and abbreviation). Buttweld (BW), Socketweld (SW) and Threaded (THD) 10. Is socketweld piping typically large bore or small bore? Small bore

AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Lesson 2 - Piping Components


Pipe - which usually comes in straight lengths of 20 feet is not enough to build a piping system by itself. Over the years, fittings and valves have been created to satisfy the needs of most design configurations, and those that are not avai lable off the shelf are fabricated as needed. Fittings can be as simple as those that allow the piping system to change direction or size and as complex as those connecting to instrumentation for measuring flow rates through the pipe. Dimensions for pipe, fittings, flanges and valves have been standardized in the United States by ASME. ASME standards mandate pressure/temperature ratings, tolerances, dimensions, markings and material requirements for various piping components. Table 1-4. A Few Important ASME Piping Standards ASME Standard Number B16.5 B16.9 B16.10 B16.11 B36.10M ASME Standard Description Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-welding and Threaded Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe

Fittings Buttweld fittings typically have their wall thicknesses specified to match the pipe they are welded to, i.e. a 2 SCH XS pipe will almost always be buttwelded to a 2 SCH XS fitting. This avoids any internal ledges that may disrupt fluid flow or cause increased corrosion at the weld joint. Socketweld and threaded fittings are not designated with a wall thickness but rather a pressure rating. The most common pressure ratings for small-bore steel fittings are 2000#, 3000#, 6000# and 9000#. Table 1-5 shows the correlation of these fitting classes to the equivalent pipe wall thickness.

Table 1-5. Small-Bore Fittings to Pipe Wall Thickness Fitting Rating Socketweld Pipe Threaded Pipe 2000# 3000# 6000# 9000# SCH XS SCH 160 SCH XXS SCH XS SCH 160 SCH XXS -

As the table indicates, the higher the pressure rating of the fitting the thicker the compatible pipe needs to be to maintain the integrity of the piping system. Also, notice that threaded pipe requires an even thicker wall thickness than socketweld pipe due to the removal of material from the pipe during the threading process. Although there are many more types of fittings than are listed here, the following are the basic fitting types used in industrial process piping. Each fitting description is followed by a picture of that fitting as it is modeled in the AutoCAD Plant 3D software.

AUTODESK CURRICULUM Elbows - Elbows are the most common of fittings and are used to change direction, typically 90 or 45. Elbows are named by their angle of direction change and, in the case of buttweld elbows, their radius. For example, a 90 Long Radius Elbow, or 90 LR Ell, refers to a fitting that changes the centerline direction by 90 degrees and has a long radius, i.e. the centerline radius is equal to 1.5 times the nominal pipe diameter. For example, a 4 long radius 90 elbow has a centerline radius of 6. Figure 1-3. 90 LR BW Elbow and 45 BW Elbow

A 90 SR Ell is a fitting which changes the centerline direction by 90 degrees and has a short radius a centerline radius which is equal to the nominal pipe size. A short radius elbow is used where a long radius elbow will not fit. The downside to short radius elbows is their increased flow resistance compared to 90 LR degree ells. This resistance can cause pressure drops in the fluid flow that might be detrimental to the process. The 45 Ell is an elbow that changes direction by 45 degrees and has the radius of a long radius elbow. There are no standard short radius elbows unless someone cuts one from a 90 SR Ell. When a change of direction other than 90 or 45 is required then a trimmed ell is cut from 90 LR Ell to the required angle. If a larger radius bend is required (to reduce flow restrictions, turbulence or pipe stresses) a pipe bend can be used in place of an elbow. These are fabricated from straight pieces of pipe placed in a pipe bender. The radius is specified in number of diameters D, referring to the nominal pipe diameter. A 10 5D pipe bend has a radius of 50 (5x10). Socketweld and threaded elbows do not have a long or short radius designation; however they do come in 90 and 45 degree types. Another type of SW or THD ell is the street ell; it is a 90 degree elbow with one male and one female end. Less common but very useful in a tight situation is the reducing elbow. It changes direction by 90 degrees and also reduces in pipe size. This single fitting does the job of two fittings in much less space. Tees Tees allow piping to branch at right angles to the piping centerline. A straight tee creates a branch that is the same size as the main piping run, while a reducing tee creates a smaller diameter branch.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Figure 1-4. Straight BW Tee and Reducing BW Tee

Reducers - The function of reducers is to change the pipe size for buttwelded piping. There are two types: concentric and eccentric. Concentric reducers change the pipe size while maintaining a straight centerline. Eccentric reducers offset the centerline so that the designer can maintain the same bottom (or top) of pipe. If an eccentric reducer has its flat side down (referred to as bottom flat) it allows the pipe to rest on steel supports at a same height even after the change in size. Reducers are described by their two sizes (larger size first) and then the type: e.g. a 6x4 concentric reducer. To calculate the difference in pipe centerline offset that an eccentric reducer creates, you need to find half the difference between the two pipe sizes outer diameters. For example, a 10x6 eccentric reducer has a centerline offset of (10.75 6.625)/2 = 2.0625. Figure 1-5. Concentric and Eccentric Reducers

Swages - A swage, or swage nipple, is a reducing fitting like a reducer but it can have different end connections and is limited to sizes 6 and under. Possible end types for a swage are: beveled (for BW connections), plain (for SW) and THD. The SW and THD ends of a swage are male, so they cannot connect directly to pipe. Instead a coupling or other female fitting, flange or valve is connected to it. Figure 1-6. Concentric and Eccentric Swages

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Caps - A cap is used to seal off the end of the pipe in a manner that is both strong and functionally permanent. It is often used to terminate a main pipe line (also known as a header) that serves multiple branches. Figure 1-7. BW Cap

Crosses - These fittings provide two concentric branches perpendicular to the pipe centerline, like the shape of an X. Due to their higher cost to manufacture, they are not commonly used in piping systems. Figure 1-8. SW Cross

Returns - 180 returns create a reversal of direction and are shaped like a U. The long radius returns are similar dimensionally to two 90 long radius elbows welded end to end, and as such are not commonly used. Figure 1-9. 180 LR Return

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Laterals - Laterals are a type of branch fitting much like a tee except that the branch comes off of the main pipe centerline at a 45 angle. Also like tees, there are both straight laterals and reducing laterals available for the designer to use. A lateral allows the designer to create a branch that has less flow resistance than a tee, which is important in process plant safety or emergency relief piping systems. Figure 1-10. 45 BW Lateral

Reinforced Branch Fittings Often referred to by the Bonney Forge trade name Olet, this is a family of weld-on branch outlet fittings. A hole is typically tapped into the side of the pipe and then a reinforced branch fitting is welded onto this location. This fitting provides a structurally reinforced branch connection with various end configurations for connecting the branch pipe: buttweld, socketweld, threaded or flanged. The corresponding trade names for these types are weldolet, sockolet, thredolet and flanget. Figure 1-11. Sockolet, Weldolet and Nipolet (on pipe)

Couplings - A coupling is a sleeve that connects two pipes. It can be internally threaded to accept threaded pipe or have two smooth sockets for plain pipe. It is typically used for SW or THD piping only. Figure 1-12. Socketweld Coupling

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Unions - A union is a special type of connection typically used in small-bore piping that provides a threaded connection between two pipes, neither of which can be turned. It consists of three pieces: two threaded hubs, each welded to one of the pipes, and a threaded centerpiece that draws the two hubs together. Figure 1-13. Socketweld Union

Plug These fittings are either SW or THD and so exactly as their name implies: they plug or terminate the end of an open female fitting on small-bore piping. Figure 1-14. Socketweld Plug

Flanges Flanges provide a bolted connection in situations where: Components require removal for service, Components cannot be welded, Sections of piping need to be quickly installed, removed or replaced.

Flanges are usually welded or threaded to adjacent pipe and connected with a series of bolts. Circular gaskets provide a leak-proof seal between the flange faces, or sealing surfaces.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Figure 1-15. Some Flange Types

Weldneck Flanges Weldneck (WN) flanges are the most commonly used flanges in many industrial applications. They are distinguished by the tapered hub or neck that extends from the flange down to where the pipe is to be attached. This taper makes the flange an integral part of the piping, allowing it to withstand repeated bending. Slip-On Flanges Slip-On (SO) flanges are also very popular due to their lower initial cost (but roughly equal installed cost) than weldneck flanges. The flange is slipped over the pipe and two welds are made: one inside the flange and one outside the pipe. Slip-on flanges are sometimes used to connect to equipment nozzles because of the ability to make slight adjustments for proper fit-up. Lap-Joint Flanges Lap-joint (LJ) flanges are economical in situations where the pipe material is costly since only the stub end needs to be the same metallurgy as the pipe. The flange itself can be less expensive carbon steel. The flared, machined edge of the stub end slides through the lap-joint flange and provides the raised face for gasket sealing. These are also known as Van Stone flanges. Socketweld Flanges Socketweld (SW) flanges have a socket to receive the connecting pipe and are fillet welded to the pipe around the end of the socket. They are typically used in small-bore piping and are capable of withstanding high pressures. Threaded Flanges These flanges are threaded (THD) onto the end of the connecting pipe. They are usually used on small bore piping in lower pressure services along with threaded fittings and pipe. Blind Flanges Blind flanges are a solid disc with bolt holes that are used to seal off a flanged connection. They provide a bolted connection in situations where a future connection or access to the piping for inspection (or otherwise) is required. Flange Facings Flanges typically have one of three common facing types: Raised Face (RF), Ring-Type Joint (RTJ), Flat Face (FF). RTJ flanges are typically used in higher pressure services and FF used for lower pressure services. Raised face flanges have a circular, machined raised face: 1/16 high for 150# and 300# classes and for higher pressure classes. The gasket seals against this face which is completely within the flange bolt circle. Flat face flanges do not have a raised face and the gasket covers the entire

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM flange diameter beyond the bolt circle. Ring-type joint flanges are much like raised face flanges except that they have a groove machined into the raised face. A soft metal ring gasket will sit in the grooves of mating flanges to provide a high pressure seal. The groove helps keep the gasket in place against the force of high pressure fluids and gases. Figure 1-16. Flange Facings

Flanges are specified by the designer providing the following information: type of flange (weldneck, socketweld, etc.) flange facing (FF, RF or RTJ) pressure class (typically 150#, 300#, 600#, 900#, 1500# or 2500#) standard (e.g. ASME B16.5) material specification and grade (e.g. ASTM A105) Wall thickness (in the case of weldneck and lap-joint flanges only since they connect to the pipe with a buttweld joint)

Figure 1-17. Gasket Seal between Flanges

Valves The purpose of valves in a piping system is to control the flow of fluid. Whether this means starting/stopping flow, reducing/ increasing flow, or redirecting flow, valves are important components in process piping. Because of the many possible piping applications, there are literally thousands of different types of valves available. Luckily, most valve designs fall into just a few major categories: Block (On/Off) Valves Gate, Ball, Plug Regulating/Throttling Valves Globe, Butterfly and Needle Check Valves Pressure Relief and Safety Valves Control Valves

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM The primary internal parts (called valve trim) that can be found in most valves are: The disc, ball, plug or gate that moves to control the flow; The seat which it seals against; The stem that connects the moving part to the operator.

These parts are contained in the valve body and bonnet. The body is either flanged, BW, SW or THD to connect to the piping system. The end-to-end dimensions of most valves are standardized by various specifications (i.e. ASME B16.10) - but this does not apply to all valves. Moreover, there are other valve features whose dimensions are not standardized and are of equal if not more importance to the designer. Specifically, these are the height and diameter (or length) of the operator (handwheel, lever or gear) that turns the valve. Since the piping designer is concerned with incorporating operability and safety into the piping design, the location and orientation of valve operators should be determined early in the layout. A good designer also remembers to model valves and their operators with correct dimensions. Ultimately, the only reliable source for valve dimensions is the manufacturers catalog. Various manufacturers specialize in different types of valves for different services. Since the fluids in a process can vary greatly in pressure, temperature, acidity and other chemical qualities, selecting the appropriate valve is important. This task is usually left to the mechanical or piping engineer, who works with the client and the manufacturer to select the proper valve for the designer to use. Often, a client may already have determined which valves are acceptable for certain services in their facility. These approved valves will be completely listed in their piping specifications something you will learn more about later in this unit.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Figure 1-18. Valve Types

Since valve layout in the piping system is a key concern of the designer, here are some things to consider: How often is the valve operated? If the answer is frequently than it should be easily accessible from grade or a platform. If putting the valve in such a location is not possible, then propose the use of a chain operator (for locations 8 -0 or more above grade or platform) or a remote motor operator. Is the valve easy to turn? If a valve wrench (or cheater) is necessary to turn it then the designer needs to leave room around the handwheel for the use of such a tool. Otherwise a gear operator may be specified to supply to additional torque required to turn the valve. Does the valve have frequent or special maintenance requirements? Make sure you have taken into account the space needed for bringing in small lifts to remove large valves or their operators. Always locate control valves near grade or platform (typically with their centerline 1-6 to 2-0 above the floor). Remember ergonomics! Try to place handwheels at a height that they can be turned without exertion or stretching. Use handwheel extensions if necessary.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM As mentioned at the beginning of this section, valves can have different end types but they can also have different pressure ratings. If the valve is flanged, the ratings and facings will match those of flanges (i.e. 150# RF). If SW or THD, the valves will have ratings depending upon their body strength. For forged carbon steel valves ratings like 800#, 1500#, 2500#, and up are used. For cast bronze valves, ratings of 200# and 400# are common. Gate Valve This is the most commonly used valve in the petrochemical process industry. The valve operates by turning a handwheel multiple times, which lifts a gate to allow fluids to pass. Turning the handwheel the opposite direction pushes the gate down until it seals against the seats and closes the valve. It is considered a block valve since it works best in the fully opened or closed position. Some smaller bore gate valves can be used as throttling valves by virtue of internal guides or split-wedge gates. Figure 1-19. Gate Valves

Ball Valve A ball valve has a rotating ball with a hole in the center of it which allows the fluid to pass through when turned inline with the direction of flow. When the operator is turned 90 to the flow, the ball blocks the fluid. These are called quarter-turn valves since that is how much the operator must rotate to go from fully closed to fully open. They are typically used as block valves due to the limited control available with only a quarter-turn.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Figure 1-20. Ball Valve in the Closed Position

Plug Valve Much like a ball valve except the part which controls flow is shaped like a cylinder (sometimes tapered). Because of a tendency to bind, some plug valve designs incorporate a lubrication system. Other plug valves have multiple ports so that flow can be directed to more than one outlet in addition to being blocked. Single-port plug valves are quarter-turn block valves. Figure 1-21. Lubricated Plug Valve

Globe Valve Globe valves are the most common regulating valve types, especially up to about 6; above that gate or butterfly valves may be used to regulate instead. They are also the most common type of valve used for control valve bypasses. They operate by turning the handwheel multiple turns, which lowers a rounded disc against the seat. They are called globe valves since the body tends to be round, due to the direction of the internal ports which direct the fluid flow against the disc.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Figure 1-22. Globe Valve

Butterfly Valve This quarter-turn valve is the simplest in concept: the stem is attached to a disc which rotates to either block flow or allow fluid to pass it. Wafer butterfly valves are thin in profile and are bolted directly between two flanges, with the valve cradled within the bolt circle. Lug butterfly valves are also thin, but have threaded lugs for the flange bolts to thread into. The disc will actually extend into the connected flanges when these types of valves are in the open position. Figure 1-23. Butterfly Valve

Needle Valve These small-bore valves are used for precise control due to the fine threading of the stem and the relatively large seat area. They operate like a globe valve but utilize a pointed conical needle sealing against a seat to control flow.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Figure 1-24. Needle Valve

Check Valve The purpose of the check valve is to keep fluids flowing in one direction. Different types of check valves use different internal mechanisms - whether it is a hinged flapper (called a swing check) or a piston or ball held against a seat by spring tension (called a lift check) - the function is the same: to prevent backflow. Because gravity plays a role in the function of many types of check valves, the designer must pay attention to the valve installation orientation. For example, lift checks should be installed in the horizontal while swing checks may be installed in the vertical direction only when flow is going upward. Also, pulsating flow can damage swing check valves and can create a high volume rattle that will draw unwanted attention to your piping design. Figure 1-25. Swing Check Valve

Pressure Relief and Safety Valves The importance of having safety factors in your piping design can never be overstated. The pressures, temperatures and chemicals involved in some industrial processes can pose dangerous hazards. To avert unexpected piping and equipment failures due to process upsets, designers and engineers implement reliable and often redundant safety devices. Two such devices are the pressure relief valve and safety valve. These valves open when a pre-determined pressure is reached

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM within the piping system, allowing the fluid to be released to another system for containment or disposal. Although protecting the piping and equipment is critical, these valves also protect the most important component of your process facility the human operator. Safety valves are designed for gases and vapors which can expand quickly when higher temperatures are present. Pressure relief valves are designed for liquid use, while a third type, the safety-relief valve, can protect systems containing both gases and liquids. There is also another class of relief valves which protect piping and equipment from high pressures: the thermal relief valve. It opens if a certain pressure is reached due to temperature increases in the fluid. Since process facilities must regularly perform maintenance on these valves, they usually have a number of design elements that need to be remembered: Safety or relief valves should be installed in parallel pairs, called sparing, to give the system redundant protection should one of the valves fail; The designer should locate a block valve on the inlet and outlet and install a bypass line. This allows the safety or relief valve to be removed for maintenance or repair; If the outlet block valve is a gate valve it should have its valve stem rotated horizontally so that - in the rare event that it should corrode - the gate will not drop into the seat and close the valve. This would prevent the safety or relief valve from functioning properly; The inlet and outlet block valves should be installed in the open position and have a metal lock or tie strap (called a car-seal) installed on the handwheel. This is intended to prevent anyone from accidentally closing the valves, thus compromising the safety of the piping system. Pressure relief and safety valves are not selected by the piping designer but by either the process, mechanical or instrumentation engineers. The valves typically get assigned a unigue tag or number and have a clearly marked set pressure. Safety and relief valves are always part of a facilitys safety management program, continuously being tested and maintained.

Figure 1-26. Safety Valve and Pressure Relief Valve

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Control Valves Since industrial piping requires constant monitoring and adjustment of the process conditions to achieve the best resulting product, a special type of valve called a control valve is used. In reality, control valves are just a regular valve with the handwheel or lever replaced with a pneumatic, hydraulic or electrically-controlled valve actuator. The function of the control valve (i.e. to block or throttle flow) will determine which type of valve is used. For better control, most control valves are at least one size smaller than the piping they are connected to. Figure 1-27. Globe Control Valve (Courtesy Metso)

One of the most important design considerations for control valve layout is the orientation of the actuator. Since the size and configuration of the actuator can vary greatly, the control valve piping may require a well thought-out design. Control valves almost always have block valves up and downstream as well as a valved bypass line. If the control valve needs servicing, the bypass valve can be manually operated while the control valve is removed and repaired or replaced. The control valve is one part of what is called an instrument control loop. A control loop starts with some sort of automated instrument monitoring a particular process condition. Then some other type of instrument or computer program will evaluate the values returned and then make a decision whether to open or close a valve with the intention of changing the value. Finally, a signal is sent to the control valve actuator which changes the valve position. This cycle continues constantly making minor adjustments to flow as required. An example loop would be where a temperature element detects that a process fluid is too hot so it tells the cooling water control valve to open wider. This provides more cooling water to the heat exchanger which is cooling the process fluid upstream of the temperature element. We will discuss control loops more in-depth in the next lesson.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Since the control valve is part of an instrument control loop, it is usually selected and ordered by the instrumentation engineer. The piping designer will receive a specification sheet with the critical end-to-end and actuator dimensions from the instrument engineer.

Assessment 1-2 1. Which ASME standard could you reference to find dimensions for a buttwelded long radius 90 degree elbow? ASME B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings 2. What is the centerline radius of a 10 LR 90 Ell? 15 For a 6 SR 90 Ell? 6 3. Which fitting would you use to reduce the pipe size while maintaining the same centerline for large bore piping? Concentric Reducer For small bore piping? Concentric Swage 4. Name two fittings used to create a branch connection. Any two of these: Tee, Reducing Tee, Cross, Lateral, Reinforced Branch Fitting, Weldolet, Sockolet, Thredolet, Flanget or Nipolet 5. Name two fittings to terminate or close off the end of a piping system. Two of these: Cap, Plug or Blind Flange 6. What is the name of the component which maintains the seal between two flanges?Gasket 7. Describe a situation where you might use a lap joint flange instead of a weldneck or slip-on flange. When the pipe material is costly you can use the lap joint flange and only the stub end has to match the pipe metal; the flange can be less expensive carbon steel. 8. Name two types of small bore flanges. Any two of these: Socketweld, Threaded, Weldneck or Blind 9. Which flange type is used to seal off or terminate a flanged connection? Blind Flange 10. Name the primary three flange facing types. Flat Face (FF), Raised Face (RF) and Ring-Type Joint (RTJ) 11. Which flange facing type uses a soft metal ring to maintain the seal between flanges? Ring-Type Joint (RTJ) 12. Approved valves for use at a clients facility will be completely listed in the Piping Specifications. 13. Name four parts of a gate valve. Any four of these: Gate, Seat Rings, Body, Stem, Handwheel, Yoke, Gland, Gland Bolt, Bonnet, Bonnet Bolt, Disc 14. What type of valve is commonly used in a control valve bypass? Globe Valve 15. What type of butterfly valve has a body that fits inside the bolt circle between two flanges? Wafer Butterfly 16. What type of valve is used to prevent backflow? Check Valve 17. Name two types of valves that protect a piping system from overpressure. Any two of these: Pressure Relief Valve, Safety Valve, or Thermal Relief Valve 18. True or False: A control valve is basically a regular valve with a remotely controlled actuator. True 19. What is one of the most important design considerations when laying out a control valve? The orientation of the actuator

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Lesson 3 - Instrumentation
There is a separate discipline of engineering and design specifically dedicated to instrumentation and control systems. Nevertheless, the piping designer must have a working knowledge of the basic instrument types, their functions and design considerations for installation, operation and maintenance. Process Variables Properties of fluids vary throughout a process, and only some are important with regards to the process itself. With modern instrumentation there are sensors available to measure virtually any industrial process variable. Monitoring the process fluid and making control decisions based upon these readings are just one role of instrumentation. In this lesson, we will introduce the main classes of instruments involved in process piping. The first part of instrument classification deals with process variables. The most common process variables are: Pressure Temperature Flow rate Level, as in a tank As in any process, the quantities and values of certain variables are critical to controlling the quality of the final product. For example, without maintaining specified temperatures or pressures certain chemical reactions will not occur while others that you are trying to prevent will. Table 1-6 (later in this lesson) lists some of the important process variables that define the major classes of instruments. As a piping designer, you will learn to recognize different types of control loops as they are presented to you on schematic diagrams and then be able to turn them into 3D designs. Instrument Functions Instruments can perform a various number of tasks (refer to table 1-6). Some are considered passive due to the fact that the control loop does not go full circle by directly affecting the process. For example, a high pressure alarm would detect a pressure above a preset level and make a loud siren or buzzing sound. It is expected that a human operator will then perform some task to complete the loop, since the instrument did not automatically open or close a valve. If this instrument were an active one it might control a valve depending upon pressures it detected. One of the roles that the piping designer plays with regards to instrumentation is locating the process piping connection for the instrument. A few instruments strap onto the outside of the pipe but most use a branch connection (tee, olet, etc.) that is usually threaded or flanged to allow contact with the process fluid and removal of the instrument for maintenance. Also, for the instrument to function properly there are a few important design considerations at the piping interface for each of the major types of instruments. Pressure A pressure tap is usually a THD connection to piping. There is usually a shutoff, or instrument root valve before the pressure instrument connection. This allows isolation of the instrument for removal. Pressure taps should be in straight runs of pipe if possible to give better readings. Temperature Temperature instrument connections, often called thermowells, are typically threaded or flanged. Most temperature element probes are inserted into the thermowell, which extends into pipe or vessel to ensure accurate readings. For pipe, the probe typically is inserted about 1/3 to 1/2 the pipe diameter into the pipe. If the pipe

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM diameter is too small (typically under 6) the thermowell may have to be l ocated on an elbow or in a short section of larger pipe diameter with reducers on either side. Figure 1-28. Thermowells

Flow There are many types of flow measuring instruments; some have probes that extend into the pipe to measure flow. Others, like orifice meters, operate by placing a restriction (usually a plate with a drilled center hole) between two orifice flanges in the line and measuring the pressure difference up and downstream of the restriction . The relationship between pressure and flow, as well as the low cost and high-reliability of this type of flow instrument makes it the most common. Orifice flange dimensions are defined by ANSI B16.36 and come in rating classes 300# and higher. The orifice flange dimensions are generally the same as regular weldneck flanges except in the smaller sizes where the orifice flange thickness is greater to allow for the orifice taps. Figure 1-29. Orifice Flange Set

To avoid turbulence, the piping designer must provide a certain amount straight piping before and after an orifice meter for it to read accurately. This meter run length depends upon the ratio of the restriction hole size to the pipe ID and the number of piping directional changes before and after the run. Typically the straight run requirements can range from 5 to 30 times the NPS upstream of the meter and about 3 to 5 times the NPS length downstream.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM As an example, lets calculate the amount of straight 6 pipe required on either side of a meter that needs 30 pipe diameters upstream and 5 downstream. Upstream straight run = 30 x 6 = 15-0 Downstream straight run = 5 x 6 = 2-6

Figure 1-30. Meter Run Lengths for Single-Plane Piping

Because orifice meter runs can be quite long, the piping designer typically locates them in an elevated pipe rack to minimize obstructions at grade. The designer needs to ensure there is sufficient space to the side and above the orifice meter for instrument tubing connections and transmitter. Level Liquid level measurement can be done via differential pressure taps or, more commonly, with a level float. The level instrument could be mechanically connected to the float or it might detect the float location magnetically. A sight glass is a clear vertical column (usually glass in a steel case) that allows the operator to see the level of the liquid. Figure 1-31. Magnetic Float Sight Glass

Often this type of instrument is part of a level bridle; a piping configuration that connects to vessel or tank nozzles at different elevations (see Figure 1-31). The bridle usually has a vent on top (a valve, blind flange or THD plug) as well as a drain. In a magnetic float sight glass the process fluid remains safely in the bridle piping along with a magnetic float that causes an adjacent level indicator to rise and fall. It is the piping designers responsibility to design the level bridles from the equipment nozzle to where the level instrument connects. In the cases where the level bridle is part of the level instrument, piping designers may still have to provide vent or drain piping connections. Although this varies among companies, it is usually true that the piping design department is responsible for providing all piping up to the instrument including any auxiliary piping required for its installation and safe operation. Instrument Tags Since there are a myriad of possible instrument types, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) and ANSI have developed a standard for naming instruments that includes

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM categorizing all of the possible permutations of process variables and instrument functions. This standard is called the ANSI/ISA S5.1-1984 (R 1992) "Instrumentation symbols and identification" standard. Other standards, for example the Process Industry Practices (PIP) standard PIC001, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria, use basically the same system of instrument tagging with a couple of additions. Table 1-6. ANSI/ISA S5.1 Standard Instrumentation Identification Process Variable Optional Instrument Function (At least one of the letters below) (First Letter) Process Passive or Optional Output Function (Next Variable Readout Modifier Letter) Modifier (Next Function Function Letter) (Next (Next Letter) Letter) A - Analysis D - Differential A - Alarm B - User's choice B - User's B - Burner, F - Ratio B - User's choice C - Control H - High choice combustion (fraction) C - User's choice J - Scan E - Sensor K - Control Station L - Low (primary element) D - User's choice E - Voltage F - Flow rate G- User's choice H - Hand I - Current (electrical) J - Power K - Time, time schedule L - Level M- User's choice N- User's choice O- User's choice P - Pressure, vacuum Q - Quantity R - Radiation S - Speed, frequency T - Temperature U - Multivariable V - Vibration, mechanical analyses W - Weight, force X - Unclassified Y - Event, state or presence K - Time rate of change M - Momentary Q - Integrate, totalizer S - Safety X - X-axis Y - Y-axis Z - Z-axis G- Glass, viewing device I - Indication L - Light N- User's choice O- Orifice, restriction P - Point (test connection) R - Record U - Multifunction W - Well X - Unclassified N- User's choice S - Switch T - Transmit U - Multifunction V - Valve, damper, louver X - Unclassified Y - Relay, compute, convert Z - Driver, actuator M - Middle, intermediate N- User's U choice Multifunction XUnclassified

Z - Position, dimension For example, a pressure differential instrument would have an identification tag that would begin with the letters PD.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM A process facility will have many distinct piping systems, each with its own series of instrument control loops. To keep the instrument tags unique, it is common practice for a complete instrument tag to have a numeric prefix or suffix. The prefix is usually for different parts of the facility of process. For example, in process unit numbered 10 in a facility, the instrument tags will begin with the number 10 (e.g. 10-TI for a temperature indicator in unit 10). This helps to help distinguish them from the instruments in other units. Finally, each control loop will get its own numeric suffix based upon a system usually determined by the client or facility. In the simplest case, the first control loop would begin with the number 001. If this was a temperature control loop in unit 10 the entire loop would be tagged as 10-T-001. This temperature control loop might be comprised of the following instruments: an indicator (gauge), a transmitter, a controller and a valve. The complete identification tags for the instruments in this loop would be: Temperature Indicator: 10-TI-001 Temperature Transmitter: 10-TT-001 Temperature Controller: 10-TC-001 Temperature Control Valve: 10-TV-001

The instrument tags will appear on any document or location where the instrument is referenced. This includes all drawings, maintenance files, reports, etc. The tag also appears on wiring panels, operator control panels and on the instruments themselves. Signal Types In order to communicate between each other, instruments use different types of signals: Pneumatic (compressed air) Electric Hydraulic Mechanical Software (binary data) For a control loop to function properly, instruments that are compatible in their signal types are typically used. However, there are also signal converters for those cases where instruments send/receive different signal types. All of this will be determined by the instrumentation and control systems engineers and shown on the Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) which we will learn more about in a later unit. If an instrument send or receives a pneumatic signal, there will need to be an instrument air supply nearby to provide dry, compressed air. Making sure such a header is nearby with valved branch connections for the pneumatic instruments is the piping designers responsibility.

Assessment 1-3 1. Name the four most common process variables that can be measured by instrumentation. Pressure, Temperature, Flow and Level 2. What size and end type is a typical pressure instrument connection? Threaded 3. Where would you typically find a longer length of straight pipe: upstream or downstream of an orifice meter? Upstream as many as 30 pipe diameters 4. What process variable does a sight glass measure? Level A thermowell? Temperature

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM 5. What is the national standard that defines instrument classification? Either the ANSI/ISA S5.1-1984 (R 1992) "Instrumentation symbols and identification" standard or the Process Industry Practices (PIP) standard PIC001, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria What are the instrument tag letters for the following instrument types: a. Pressure Differential Transmitter PDT b. Hand Valve HV c. Temperature Alarm (High) TAH d. Pressure Safety Valve PSV Name 5 types of instrument signals. Pneumatic, Electric, Hydraulic, Mechanical and Software

6.

7.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Lesson 4 Piping Specifications


Earlier in this unit we talked about ASTM material specifications for pipe and fittings. We also talked about ASME specifications for valve dimensions. There is another type of specification that is used by facilities and engineering firms to design process piping systems: the piping specification, or pipe spec for short. The piping specification is essentially a list of acceptable piping components for a particular process fluid. The piping specification will define: Operating pressure and temperature ranges that the specification covers, Pipe and fitting wall thickness and schedules, The types of fittings allowed, The end connections allowed (i.e. SW, THD, BW, etc.) by size range, Valve metallurgy, types and ratings allowed, Flange types and ratings allowed Insulation and coating requirements Additionally, the piping specification will define any special fabrication, welding, examination, testing, inspection and installation requirements. The piping specification may refer to other facility specifications or details, but it is remains the definitive document for selecting the components for piping system. Heres a typical scenario for the piping designer: a process facility requires a new design for a proposed utility air system in a plant that is being modified. The designer will reference the facility service index: a list of the process fluids (services) with respective operating conditions and the name of the corresponding piping specification. An example service index for a fictitious company is shown below:

Table 1-7. Process Service Index for Aperture Chemicals Commodity WATER STEAM AIR AIR WHITE GOO BLUE GOO ORANGE GOO Pressure (psig) 100 275 100 250 300 250 300 Temperature (F) Ambient 410 Ambient Ambient 90 70 -100 Piping Specification UW1 US3 UA1 UA2 GW GB GO

The service index table shows that for 100 psig air service the piping specification UA1 should be used. Next, the piping designer looks through the companys piping specification documents to find the UA1 piping spec. The UA1 spec may look something like this:

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Piping Specification: UA1 Service: Utility Air Pressure: 100 psig Temperature: 100 Max Corrosion Allowance: 0.00 COMPONENT Pipe to 1 2 to 24 Fittings to 1 x to 1 x1 x to 1 x1 x to 1 x1 2 to 24 3x2 to 24x22 3x2 to 24x22 3x2 to 24x22 Valves to 1 to 1 2 to 24 2 to 24 Flanges to 1 2 to 24 to 24 Gaskets to 24 Bolts to 2/4 RATING SCH XS STD 300# SOLID 300# STD DESCRIPTION PIPE, SEAMLESS, XS, PE, ASTM A106 Gr B GALV PIPE, SEAMLESS, STD, BE, ASTM A106 Gr B ELBOW 90, 300 LB, FPT, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 ELBOW 45, 300 LB, FPT, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 CAP, 300 LB, FPT, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 COUPLING, STRAIGHT, 300 LB, FPT, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 PLUG, ROUND HEAD, MPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 TEE , 300 LB, FPT, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 TEE (RED), 300 LB, FPT, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 SWAGE (CONC), TBE, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 SWAGE (ECC), TBE, ASTM A197 GALV ASME B16.3 ELL 90 LR, BW, STD ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9 ELL 45 LR, BW, STD ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9 CAP, BW ASTM A234-WPB ASME B16.9 TEE, BW ASTM A234-WPB ASME B16.9 TEE, REDUCING BW ASTM A234-WPB ASME B16.9 REDUCER, CONC ASTM A234-WPB ASME B16.9 REDUCER, ECC ASTM A234-WPB ASME B16.9

400# 200# 150# 150#

Ball Valve, Reduced Bore, 400 LB, FPT, API 607 Check Valve, Swing, 200 LB, FPT, API 603 Gate Valve, Double Disc, 150 LB, RF, ASME B16.10 Check Valve, Swing, 150 LB, RF, ASME B16.10

150#

FLANGE THD, 150 LB, RF, ASTM A105 ASME B16.5 FLANGE WN, 150 LB, RF, STD BORE ASTM A105 ASME B16.5 FLANGE BLIND, 150 LB, RF, ASTM A105 ASME B16.5

150#

GASKET, SWG, 1/8" THK, RF, 150 LB, ASME B16.20

150#

BOLT SET, RF, 150 LB, STUD BOLT ASTM A193 Gr B7 W/2 HVY HEX NUTS ASTM A194 Gr 2H

Notice how the piping specifications components are grouped by part categories (i.e. pipe is listed together, small bore fittings are listed together, etc.). This is a common practice and makes the pipe spec easier to read. Also, it makes sense for the fittings within a certain size range to have similar material and wall thickness. Finally, all of the components necessary to make a complete connection are included in the piping specification; if flanges are specified then it follows that gaskets and bolts would also be included. Although the descriptions may seem a little cryptic at first, there is a logical sequence to the string of abbreviations. The syntax, or grammatical rules, for piping specification descriptions varies among industries and companies but with practice and familiarity

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM become much easier to understand. The key is to have just enough information in the part description to be able to order it and nothing more. Figure 1-32. Piping Specification Description Syntax Example

In the UA1 piping specification example on the previous page, some abbreviations you are already familiar with (BW, RF, THD, etc.), however some may be new to you. Appendix A is a short list of common abbreviations and acronyms used in process piping design documents. Note that some terms are interchangeable (e.g. MPTXMPT and TBE mean male pipe thread x male pipe thread and threaded both ends, respectively). To make efficient use of space on engineering drawings and documents, it is conventional to use abbreviations and acronyms that are understood to the reader. Exercise 1.1 Creating a New Piping Specification AutoCAD Plant 3D is spec-driven design software; the designer can select only those components allowed by the current piping specification. The software ships with dozens of pre-defined piping specifications, with many more available for download in Plant 3D Content Packs on Autodesks Plant Exchange site. (Website address: http://autocad.autodesk.com/?nd=plant_home) To create new piping specifications for AutoCAD Plant 3D, you can use the existing catalogs that come installed with the software. Catalogs are databases of piping components that include descriptions, dimensions and other defining data used by the Plant 3D software. Usually these catalogs are named after the source of the part information (e.g. the ASME Pipes and Fittings catalog installed with AutoCAD Plant 3D contains just what it says). While building a particular piping specification, you will likely open multiple catalogs to select from them the items that you need for your spec. If an item that you need is not in an existing catalog you can either add it or even create an entire new catalog. The AutoCAD Plant 3D Spec Editor is the software that you would use for all of the above tasks. In this exercise you will learn how to: Open AutoCAD Plant 3D Spec Editor 2012 Create a new piping specification CS150_Train in your P3D_Training project

Video Tutorial 1.1 Creating a New Piping Specification (click to view) Tutorial 1.1.mp4 The spec CS150_Train is now ready to be populated with piping components from the catalogs. Exercise 1.2 Adding Components to a Spec In this exercise you will learn how to: Learn where the installed AutoCAD Plant 3D catalogs reside

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Open the training project catalog: ASME Pipes and Fittings Catalog-Training Filter the catalog view to help in searching for components Select pipe components from the catalog and insert them into your spec Save the updated spec to your project

Video Tutorial 1.2 - Adding Components to a Spec (click to view) Tutorial 1.2.mp4 Student Exercise 1.3 Add the following 2 to 12 fittings to the CS150_Train spec: Tips: Set the size range in the Common filters to select only the 2 through 12 components from the catalog. Also use the Fittings Part category. ELL 90 LR, BW, STD ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9 ELL 45 LR, BW, STD ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9 TEE, BW, STD ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9

Exercise 1.4 Setting Part Use Priority After you added the two sets of elbows to the spec in the previous exercise, you may have noticed that a yellow warning icon appeared in the Part Use Priority column next to these parts. This indicates that similar part families are assigned for the same sizes in the spec. The part-use priority designates which parts to use by default when routing in an AutoCAD Plant 3D model. For example, if you have both SW and WN flanges in your spec, you can assign the WN flanges priority. When you route pipe in the 3D model, the WN flange is used by default. To use an SW flange instead, you can substitute the flange. You can also place the SW flange from a tool palette or the Spec Viewer. In this exercise you will learn how to: Recognize size conflicts in part use priority within a piping specification Set part use priority for similar part families in a spec Mark these size conflicts as resolved

Video Tutorial 1.4 Setting Part Use Priority (click to view) Tutorial 1.4.mp4 Student Exercise 1.5 Add the following reducing fittings to the CS150_Train spec - note that the main sizes will be from 3 to 12 and the reducing sizes will be from 2 to 10: Tips: Use filters on the main and reducing sizes if necessary Resolve part use priority conflicts so that the concentric reducer has priority over the eccentric reducer and the straight tee has priority over the reducing tee. REDUCER (CONC), BW, STD, ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9 REDUCER (ECC), BW, STD, ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9 TEE (RED), BW, STD, ASTM A234 Gr WPB ASME B16.9

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Student Exercise 1.6 Continue building the piping spec CS150_Train by adding the following items in the sizes shown from the ASME Pipes and Fittings Catalog-Training:

Main Size Range 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 3 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 1

Reducing Size Range

Part Description and Material Code

BOLT SET, RF, 150 LB, STUD BOLT ASTM A193 Gr B7 BOLT SET, RF, 300 LB, STUD BOLT ASTM A193 Gr B7 GASKET, SWG, 1/8" THK, RF, 150 LB, ASME B16.20 GASKET, SWG, 1/8" THK, RF, 300 LB, ASME B16.20 CAP, BW, STD, ASME B16.9 ASTM A234 Gr WPB FLANGE WN, 150 LB, RF, STD BORE ASTM A105 ASME B16.5 FLANGE WN, 300 LB, RF, STD BORE ASTM A105 ASME B16.5 2 8 WELDOLET, BW, STD, A105 MSS-SP-97 ELL 45, 3000 LB, FPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 ELL 90, 3000 LB, FPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 TEE, 3000 LB, FPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 1 TEE (RED), 3000 LB, FPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 COUPLING, 3000 LB, FPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 UNION, 3000 LB, FPT, ASTM A105 MSS-SP-83 CAP, 3000 LB, FPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 PLUG, HEX HEAD, MPT, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 1 SOCKOLET, 3000 LB, BWXSW, ASTM A105 ASME B16.11 PIPE, SEAMLESS, XS, PE, ASTM A106 Gr B GALV

Tips: All components except the gaskets are carbon steel (CS). Since this is a 150# piping spec, those items take priority over 300# items. Look in the Miscellaneous Part category for caps and plugs. Couplings take priority over unions.

Student Exercise 1.7 Finish building the piping spec CS150_Train by adding the following carbon steel valves in the sizes shown from the \AutoCAD Plant 3D 2012 Content\CPak ASME\ASME Valves Catalog: Main Size Range 1 2 12 1 2 12 2 12 2 12 Reducing Size Range Part Description and Material Code

Check Valve, Lift, Regular Port, 800 LB, SW, ASME B16.10 Check Valve, Swing, 150 LB, RF, ASME B16.10 Gate Valve, Reduced Port, 800 LB, SW, ASME B16.10 Gate Valve, Conduit, 150 LB, RF, ASME B16.10 Globe Valve, 150 LB, RF, ASME B16.10 Control Valve, Ball, 300 LB, RF, ISA 75.08.02

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM Tips: All valves are carbon steel (CS) we will not specify the material code. Part use priority for valves: Gate, Globe, Check and then Control valves.

Exercise 1.8 Editing a Piping Spec Either in the process of creating a spec or during use, the designer may need to change the content of a piping spec. Changing the descriptions of parts, their material codes or deleting unnecessary sizes will require some knowledge of the editing features of the AutoCAD Plant 3D Spec Editor. In this exercise you will learn how to: Select parts from a piping specification for editing Change a part description Change a material code Delete unnecessary sizes

Video Tutorial 1.8 Setting Part Use Priority (click to view) Tutorial 1.8.mp4 Assessment 1-4 1. List 5 different types of information that may be listed in a piping specification. Any five of these: operating pressures and temperatures, pipe and fitting schedules, end types, allowable fittings, metallurgy, flange types and ratings, special fabrication, welding, examination, testing, inspection, installation, insulation and coating requirements 2. True or False: You will never find valves listed in a piping specification. False 3. A facility Service Index is a list of the process fluids with respective operating conditions and the name of the corresponding piping specification 4. AutoCAD Plant 3D is a Spec-driven design software; the designer can select only those components allowed by the current piping specification. 5. Using AutoCAD Plant 3D Spec Editor to create specs, parts are found using filters and copied from what? A Catalog 6. Using the ASME Pipes and Fittings Catalog-Training and the ASME Valves Catalog create the UA1 utility air piping spec at the beginning of this lesson. The part use priority rules will be the same as the CS150_Train spec (with the additional note that ball valves take priority over check valves). Use the File Print command to print your completed spec. Instructor: Compare the students printed spec to the one below:

37

AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Autodesk [and other products] are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., and/or its subsidiaries and/or affiliates in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. Autodesk reserves the right to alter product and services offerings, and specifications and pricing at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. 2011 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Appendix A Abbreviations and Acronyms


ANSI ASTM ATM BBE BL BLE BOE BOM BOP BSE BV BW BYP C CFM CI CL CONC CONN CR CS CSC CSO CTR CU DES DIA DWG E ECC EFW ELL F FC FF FLG FO FOB FOF FOT FP FPS FPT FRP FS FSW GAL GALV GO GPH GPM H HC HDR HEX HP IAS ID ISO LC LO LP LR MAX MI MIN MPT American National Standards Institute American Society for Testing and Materials Atmosphere Beveled both ends Battery limit Beveled large end Beveled one end Bill of materials Bottom of pipe Beveled small end Beveled Buttweld Bypass Centigrade Cubic feet per minute Cast iron Center line Concentric Connection Chromium Carbon steel Car-seal closed (see lock closed) Car-seal open (see lock open) Center Cubic Design Diameter Drawing East Eccentric Electric fusion welded Elbow Fahrenheit Fail closed Flat face (for flanges); full face (for gaskets) Flange Fail open Flat on bottom (for eccentric reducers or swages) Face of flange Flat on top (for eccentric reducers or swages) Full port (for valves) Feet per second Female pipe thread Fiberglass reinforced pipe Forged steel Female socketweld Gallon Galvanized Gear operator Gallons per hour Gallons per minute Horizontal Hose connection Header Hexagonal High pressure Instrument air supply Inside diameter Isometric; International Organization for Standardization Lock closed (see car-seal closed) Lock open (see car-seal open); lube oil Low pressure Long radius Maximum Malleable iron Minimum Male pipe thread

39

AUTODESK CURRICULUM
MSW MTO MW N NC NI NNF NO NOZ NPSH NPT OD OS&Y OVHD PBE PE P&ID PLE POE PS PSE PSI PSIA PSIG RED REQD RF RJ RP RPM RTJ S SC SCH SCRD SG SMLS SO SR SS STM STD STR SW SWG T&C TBE THD TL TLE TOE TSE T/T TYP UG V W W/ WN WO W/O WT XS XXS Male socketweld Material take-off Manway North Normally closed Nickel Normally no flow Normally open Nozzle Net positive suction head National pipe thread Outside diameter Outside stem and yoke Overhead Plain both ends Plain end Process/Piping and Instrumentation diagram Plain large end Plain one end Pipe support Plain small end Pound per square inch (pressure) Pound per square inch (absolute) Pound per square inch (gauge) Reducing Required Raised face Ring joint (see RTJ) Reduced port Revolutions per minute Ring-type joint (see RJ) South Sample connection Schedule Screwed (see THD) Specific gravity Seamless Slip on (for flanges), Steam out Short radius Stainless steel Steam Standard Straight Socketweld Swage Threaded and coupled (for pipe) Threaded both ends Threaded (see SCRD) Tangent line Threaded large end threaded one end threaded small end Tangent to tangent Typical Underground Vertical West With Weldneck Wrench operator Without Weight; Wall thickness Extra-strong Double extra-strong

40

AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Appendix B - Fitting Dimensions


Elbows and Caps

Imperial Units
Nominal Pipe Size 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 A IN 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 7/8 2 1/4 3 3 3/4 4 1/2 5 1/4 6 7 1/2 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 36 B IN 5/8 7/16 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 3 1/8 3 3/4 5 6 1/4 7 1/2 8 3/4 10 11 1/4 12 1/2 15 K IN 1 7/8 1 11/16 2 3/16 2 3/4 3 1/4 4 3/16 5 3/16 6 1/4 7 1/4 8 1/4 10 5/16 12 5/16 16 5/16 20 3/8 24 3/8 28 32 36 40 48 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 1 5/8 2 1/16 2 7/16 3 3/16 3 15/16 4 3/4 5 1/2 6 1/4 7 3/4 9 5/16 12 5/16 15 3/8 18 3/8 21 24 27 30 36 D IN V IN E IN 1 1 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 6 1/2 7 8 9 10 1/2 F (IN) MSS 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 3 3 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 G IN 1 3/8 1 11/16 2 2 1/2 2 7/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 5 1/2 6 3/16 7 5/16 8 1/2 10 5/8 12 3/4 15 16 1/4 18 1/2 21 23 27 1/4

ASA 3 3 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 12 12 12 12 12

Metric Units
Nominal Pipe Size 13 19 25 32 38 51 64 76 89 102 127 152 203 254 305 356 406 457 508 610 A mm 38.1 38.1 38.1 47.6 57.2 76.2 95.3 114.3 133.4 152.4 190.5 228.6 304.8 381.0 457.2 533.4 609.6 685.8 762.0 914.4 B mm 15.9 11.1 22.2 25.4 28.6 34.9 44.5 50.8 57.2 63.5 79.4 95.3 127.0 158.8 190.5 222.3 254.0 285.8 317.5 381.0 K mm 47.6 42.9 55.6 69.9 82.6 106.4 131.8 158.8 184.2 209.6 261.9 312.7 414.3 517.5 619.1 711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0 1219.2 25.4 31.8 38.1 50.8 63.5 76.2 88.9 101.6 127.0 152.4 203.2 254.0 304.8 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 41.3 52.4 61.9 81.0 100.0 120.7 139.7 158.8 196.9 236.5 312.7 390.5 466.7 533.4 609.6 685.8 762.0 914.4 D mm V mm E mm 25.4 25.4 38.1 38.1 38.1 38.1 38.1 50.8 63.5 63.5 76.2 88.9 101.6 127.0 152.4 165.1 177.8 203.2 228.6 266.7 F (mm) ASA 76.2 76.2 101.6 101.6 101.6 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 203.2 203.2 203.2 254.0 254.0 304.8 304.8 304.8 304.8 304.8 MSS 50.8 50.8 50.8 50.8 50.8 63.5 63.5 63.5 76.2 76.2 76.2 88.9 101.6 127.0 152.4 G mm 34.9 42.9 50.8 63.5 73.0 92.1 104.8 127.0 139.7 157.2 185.7 215.9 269.9 323.9 381.0 412.8 469.9 533.4 584.2 692.2

41

AUTODESK CURRICULUM Tees and Reducers

Imperial Units
Nom. Pipe Size IN 3/4 3/4 1 1 1 1 1/4 | | 1 1/4 1 1/2 | | | 1 1/2 2 | | | 2 2 1/2 | | | 2 1/2 3 | | | 3 IN 3/4 1/2 1 3/4 1/2 1 1/4 1 3/4 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 3/4 1/2 2 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 3/4 2 1/2 2 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 3 2 1/2 2 1 1/2 1 1/4 IN 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 7/8 1 7/8 1 7/8 1 7/8 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3/8 3 3/8 3 3/8 3 3/8 3 3/8 2 3/4 2 5/8 2 1/2 2 1/4 3 1/2 3 1/2 3 1/2 3 1/2 IN IN Outlet C M H Nom. Pipe Size IN 3 1/2 1 1/8 1 1/2 | | 1 1/2 1 1/2 2 2 | 3 1/2 4 1 7/8 1 7/8 1 7/8 2 2 2 | | | | 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 4 5 | | | 2 3/8 2 1/4 2 1 3/4 3 3 3 3 | 5 6 | | | | 6 8 | 3 1/4 3 2 7/8 2 3/4 3 1/2 3 1/2 3 1/2 3 1/2 | | 8 IN 3 1/2 3 2 1/2 2 1 1/2 4 3 1/2 3 2 1/2 2 1 1/2 5 4 3 1/2 3 2 1/2 2 6 5 4 3 1/2 3 2 1/2 8 6 5 4 3 1/2 IN 3 3/4 3 3/4 3 3/4 3 3/4 3 3/4 4 1/8 4 1/8 4 1/8 4 1/8 4 1/8 4 1/8 4 7/8 4 7/8 4 7/8 4 7/8 4 7/8 4 7/8 5 5/8 5 5/8 5 5/8 5 5/8 5 5/8 5 5/8 7 7 7 7 7 6 5/8 6 3/8 6 1/8 6 6 6 6 6 IN IN Outlet C M H Nom. Pipe Size IN 10 3 5/8 3 1/2 3 1/4 3 1/8 4 4 4 4 | | | 10 12 4 3 7/8 3 3/4 3 1/2 3 3/8 4 4 4 4 4 | | | 12 14 | 4 5/8 4 1/2 4 3/8 4 1/4 4 1/8 5 5 5 5 5 | | 14 16 | | 5 3/8 5 1/8 5 4 7/8 4 3/4 5 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 | | 16 18 | | | | 18 IN 10 8 6 5 4 12 10 8 6 5 14 12 10 8 6 16 14 12 10 8 6 18 16 14 12 10 8 IN 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 1/2 13 1/2 13 1/2 13 1/2 13 1/2 13 1/2 12 11 5/8 11 1/8 10 3/4 10 3/8 14 14 14 14 14 10 5/8 10 1/8 9 3/4 9 3/8 13 13 13 13 9 1/2 9 8 5/8 8 1/2 8 8 8 8 IN IN Outlet C M H Nom. Pipe Size IN 20 8 7 5/8 7 1/2 7 1/4 7 7 7 7 | | | | | 20 24 | | | | | 24 IN 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 24 20 18 16 14 12 10 IN 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 1/2 16 16 15 5/8 15 1/8 20 20 20 20 20 20 14 1/2 14 14 13 5/8 13 1/8 12 3/4 20 20 20 20 20 20 IN IN Outlet C M H

13 13 12 5/8 12 1/8 11 3/4

15 15 15 15 15

42

AUTODESK CURRICULUM Tees and Reducers (cont)

Metric Units
Nom. Pipe Size mm 19 19 25 25 25 32 | | 32 38 | | | 38 51 | | | 51 64 | | | 64 76 | | | 76 mm 19 13 25 19 13 32 25 19 13 38 32 25 19 13 51 38 32 25 19 64 51 38 32 25 76 64 51 38 32 mm 29 29 38 38 38 48 48 48 48 57 57 57 57 57 64 64 64 64 64 76 76 76 76 76 86 86 86 86 86 83 76 73 70 89 89 89 89 70 67 64 57 89 89 89 89 60 57 51 44 76 76 76 76 57 57 57 57 64 64 64 64 48 48 48 51 51 51 38 38 51 51 29 38 mm mm Outlet C M H Nom. Pipe Size mm 89 | | | 89 102 | | | | 102 127 | | | | 127 152 | | | | 152 203 | | | 203 mm 89 76 64 51 38 102 89 76 64 51 38 127 102 89 76 64 51 152 127 102 89 76 64 203 152 127 102 89 mm 95 95 95 95 95 105 105 105 105 105 105 124 124 124 124 124 124 143 143 143 143 143 143 178 178 178 178 178 168 162 156 152 152 152 152 152 137 130 127 124 121 140 140 140 140 140 117 114 111 108 105 127 127 127 127 127 102 98 95 89 86 102 102 102 102 102 92 89 83 79 102 102 102 102 mm mm Outlet C M H Nom. Pipe Size mm 254 | | | 254 305 | | | 305 356 | | | 356 406 | | | | 406 457 | | | | 457 mm 254 203 152 127 102 305 254 203 152 127 356 305 254 203 152 406 356 305 254 203 152 457 406 356 305 254 203 mm 216 216 216 216 216 254 254 254 254 254 279 279 279 279 279 305 305 305 305 305 305 343 343 343 343 343 343 330 330 321 308 298 381 381 381 381 381 305 295 283 273 264 356 356 356 356 356 270 257 248 238 330 330 330 330 241 229 219 216 203 203 203 203 203 194 191 184 178 178 178 178 mm mm Outlet C M H Nom. Pipe Size mm 508 | | | | | 508 610 | | | | | 610 mm 508 457 406 356 305 254 203 610 508 457 406 356 305 254 mm 381 381 381 381 381 381 381 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 419 406 406 397 384 508 508 508 508 508 508 368 356 356 346 333 324 508 508 508 508 508 508 mm mm Outlet C M H

43

AUTODESK CURRICULUM Socketweld Fittings

Imperial Units
3000# SIZE 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 A 1 1/8 1 5/16 1 1/2 2 2 3/8 3 1/4 B 1 5/16 1 1/2 1 13/16 2 9/16 3 3 5/8 C 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 11/16 2 1/16 D 2 1/8 2 5/16 2 1/2 3 1/8 3 1/2 4 5/8 E 2 3/16 2 9/16 2 15/16 3 11/16 4 9/16 5 1/4 6000# SIZE 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 A 1 5/16 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 3/8 2 1/2 3 1/4 B 1 1/2 1 13/16 2 3/16 3 3 5/16 4 C 1 1 1/8 1 5/16 1 11/16 1 3/4 2 1/16 D 2 7/8 3 3/8 3 5/8 4 1/5 4 5/8 E 2 13/16 3 1/8 3 13/16 4 3/4 5 1/4 F 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/2 2 1/2 G 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 1/4 3 3 5/8 4 1/4 H 11/16 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 1 1/2 J 5/8 11/16 13/16 1 1/8 7/8 1 1/16 K 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 7/8 F 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/2 2 1/2 G 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 1/2 3 3 5/8 H 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 3/8 J 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 11/16 15/16 K 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 7/8

Metric Units
3000# SIZE 13 19 25 38 51 64 A 28.6 33.3 38.1 50.8 60.3 82.6 B 33.3 38.1 46 65.1 76.2 92.1 C 22.2 25.4 28.6 34.9 42.9 52.4 D 54 58.7 63.5 79.4 88.9 117.5 E 55.6 65.1 74.6 93.7 115.9 133.4 6000# SIZE 13 19 25 38 51 64 A 33.3 38.1 44.5 60.3 63.5 82.6 B 38.1 46 55.6 76.2 84.1 101.6 C 25.4 28.6 33.3 42.9 44.5 52.4 D 73 85.7 92.1 106.7 117.5 E 71.4 79.4 96.8 120.7 133.4 F 34.9 38.1 44.5 50.8 63.5 63.5 G 38.1 44.5 57.2 76.2 92.1 108 H 17.5 19.1 22.2 28.6 25.4 38.1 J 15.9 17.5 20.6 28.6 22.2 27 K 12.7 14.3 15.9 19.1 22.2 22.2 F 34.9 38.1 44.5 50.8 63.5 63.5 G 31.8 38.1 44.5 63.5 76.2 92.1 H 12.7 14.3 15.9 19.1 22.2 34.9 J 11.1 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 23.8 K 12.7 14.3 15.9 19.1 22.2 22.2

44

AUTODESK CURRICULUM Flanges

Imperial Units
150 LB. FLANGES - INCHES Nom. Pipe Size 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 O INCHES 3 1/2 3 7/8 4 1/4 4 5/8 5 6 7 7 1/2 8 1/2 9 10 11 13 1/2 16 19 21 23 1/2 25 27 1/2 32 C INCHES 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 11/16 3/4 7/8 15/16 15/16 15/16 15/16 1 1 1/8 1 3/16 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 7/16 1 9/16 1 11/16 1 7/8 Weld Neck 1 7/8 2 1/16 2 3/16 2 1/4 2 7/16 2 1/2 2 3/4 2 3/4 2 13/16 3 3 1/2 3 1/2 4 4 4 1/2 5 5 5 1/2 5 11/16 6 Y Slip on Thrd. 5/8 5/8 11/16 13/16 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 3/16 1 1/4 1 5/16 1 7/16 1 9/16 1 3/4 1 15/16 2 3/16 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 11/16 2 7/8 3 1/4 Lap Joint 5/8 5/8 11/16 13/16 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 3/16 1 1/4 1 5/16 1 7/16 1 9/16 1 3/4 1 15/16 2 3/16 3 1/8 3 7/16 3 13/16 4 1/16 4 3/8 Bolt Circle 2 3/8 2 3/4 3 1/8 3 1/2 3 7/8 4 3/4 5 1/2 6 7 7 1/2 8 1/2 9 1/2 11 3/4 14 1/4 17 18 3/4 21 1/4 22 3/4 25 29 1/2 No. & Size of Holes 4 - 5/8 4 - 5/8 4 - 5/8 4 - 5/8 4 - 5/8 4-3/4 4-3/4 4-3/4 8-3/4 8-3/4 8-7/8 8-7/8 8-7/8 12-1 12-1 12-1 1/8 16-1 1/8 16-1 1/4 20-1 1/4 20-1 3/8

Metric Units
150 LB. FLANGES - MILLIMETERS Nom. Pipe Size 12.70 19.05 25.40 31.75 38.10 50.80 63.50 76.20 88.90 101.60 127.00 152.40 203.20 254.00 304.80 355.60 406.40 457.20 508.00 609.60 O mm 89 98 108 117 127 152 178 191 216 229 254 279 343 406 483 533 597 635 699 813 C mm 11 13 14 16 17 19 22 24 24 24 24 25 29 30 32 35 37 40 43 48 Weld Neck 48 52 56 57 62 64 70 70 71 76 89 89 102 102 114 127 127 140 144 152 Y Slip on Thrd. 16 16 17 21 22 25 29 30 32 33 37 40 44 49 56 57 64 68 73 83 Lap Joint 16 16 17 21 22 25 29 30 32 33 37 40 44 49 56 79 87 97 103 111 Bolt Circle 60 70 79 89 98 121 140 152 178 191 216 241 298 362 432 476 540 578 635 749 No. & Size of Holes 4 - 16 4 - 16 4 - 16 4 - 16 4 - 16 4-19 4-19 4-19 8-19 8-19 8-22 8-22 8-22 12-25 12-25 12-29 16-29 16-32 20-32 20-35

45

AUTODESK CURRICULUM Flanges (cont)

Imperial Units
300 LB. FLANGES - INCHES Nom. Pipe Size 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 O INCHES 3 3/4 4 5/8 4 7/8 5 1/4 6 1/8 6 1/2 7 1/2 8 1/4 9 10 11 12 1/2 15 17 1/2 20 1/2 23 25 1/2 28 30 1/2 36 C INCHES 9/16 5/8 11/16 3/4 13/16 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 3/16 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 7/16 1 5/8 1 7/8 2 2 1/8 2 1/4 2 3/8 2 1/2 2 3/4 Weld Neck 2 1/16 2 1/4 2 7/16 2 9/16 2 11/16 2 3/4 3 3 1/8 3 3/16 3 3/8 3 7/8 3 7/8 4 3/8 4 5/8 5 1/8 5 5/8 5 3/4 6 1/4 6 3/8 6 5/8 Y Slip on Thrd. 7/8 1 1 1/16 1 1/16 1 3/16 1 5/16 1 1/2 1 11/16 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/16 2 7/16 2 5/8 2 7/8 3 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 3/4 4 3/16 Lap Joint 7/8 1 1 1/16 1 1/16 1 3/16 1 5/16 1 1/2 1 11/16 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/16 2 7/16 3 3/4 4 4 3/8 4 3/4 5 1/8 5 1/2 6 Bolt Circle 2 5/8 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 7/8 4 1/2 5 5 7/8 6 5/8 7 1/4 7 7/8 9 1/4 10 5/8 13 15 1/4 17 3/4 20 1/4 22 1/2 24 3/4 27 32 No. & Size of Holes 4 - 5/8 4 - 3/4 4 - 3/4 4 - 3/4 4 -7/8 8-3/4 8-7/8 8-7/8 8-7/8 8-7/8 8-7/8 12-7/8 12-1 16-1 1/8 16-1 1/4 20-1 1/4 20-1 3/8 24-1 3/8 24-1 3/8 24-1 5/8

Metric Units
300 LB. FLANGES - MILLIMETERS Nom. Pipe Size 12.70 19.05 25.40 31.75 38.10 50.80 63.50 76.20 88.90 101.60 127.00 152.40 203.20 254.00 304.80 355.60 406.40 457.20 508.00 609.60 O mm 95 117 124 133 156 165 191 210 229 254 279 318 381 445 521 584 648 711 775 914 C mm 14 16 17 19 21 22 25 29 30 32 35 37 41 48 51 54 57 60 64 70 Weld Neck 52 57 62 65 68 70 76 79 81 86 98 98 111 117 130 143 146 159 162 168 Y Slip on Thrd. 22 25 27 27 30 33 38 43 44 48 51 52 62 67 73 76 83 89 95 106 Lap Joint 22 25 27 27 30 33 38 43 44 48 51 52 62 95 102 111 121 130 140 152 Bolt Circle 67 83 89 98 114 127 149 168 184 200 235 270 330 387 451 514 572 629 686 813 No. & Size of Holes 4 - 16 4 - 19 4 - 19 4 - 19 4 -22 8-19 8-22 8-22 8-22 8-22 8-22 12-22 12-25 16-29 16-32 20-32 20-35 24-35 24-35 24-41

46