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Anth 606, Spring 2009 Wednesday 1:30-4, Saunders 345 Office Hours: Monday 12-2, or by appointment Professor Nina L. Etkin Saunders 321: 956-7726 firstname.lastname@example.org
Scope: There are troubles ahead: early in this millennium infectious diseases remain the major cause of death worldwide. We live in a time of emerging (new) infectious diseases (e.g., HIV/AIDS, Ebola Fever, Hantavirus, Legionnaires’ Disease) and resurgent old ones such as tuberculosis, malaria, and polio. The problem is compounded by infectious disease “traffic” — introducing infections to new species and previously not affected populations. This growing disease burden can be linked to human activities such as deforestation and other environmental transformations, contact with “exotic” animals, over- and other inappropriate use of antibiotics, limited knowledge of disease transmission, and lack of resources for vaccination and other preventions. The anthropological study of infectious disease explores the interrelations among pathogenic microbes in human populations by focusing on the intersection of cultural, ecological, and political factors related to the transmission and experience of infectious disease. Given the role of human action in infectious disease traffic, anthropologists — who observe and interpret human behavior— have insights and other resources that can improve understanding infectious diseases. Course Description and Objectives: This seminar advances an integrated biocultural perspective, emphasizing the importance of human actions, to comprehend infectious diseases in the specific political, ecological, and cultural contexts in which they occur. These contexts are defined by a constellation of variables in nature (e.g., parasites, environment) and in society (e.g., subsistence, gender relations, differential access to resources) that shape how a particular community will experience infectious diseases. A uniquely anthropological perspective interprets the prevalence and experience of illness in view of local knowledge of disease causation, patterns of transmission, indigenous preventions and treatments, and formal-sector programs for vaccination and parasite/vector control. We will consider questions such as these: , Did Neanderthals get / receive / catch chicken pox? , How is the risk of infectious disease influenced by subsistence strategies (e.g., hunting and foraging, fishing, agriculture) and by residence patterns (e.g., dispersed vs clustered)? , What are the cultural and political-economic bases of concepts such as “risk” and “prostitution” as these terms are used by AIDS prevention programs in SE Asia? , Are traditional plant medicines effective against infectious diseases? , Why do 20,000 people die each year from influenza, a vaccine-preventable infection? , European contact led to high mortality among Native Hawaiians. Why did Europeans not experience a reciprocal transfer of infections from indigenous peoples? , How is susceptibility to infectious disease influenced by rapid social and cultural change — e.g,. migration, globalization, technological development? , What are the “epidemic politics” of infectious diseases in poor communities? , Drug-resistant infections are being treated with polypharmacy (more than one antibiotic). Has the “magic bullet” become the magic machine gun? ,Are emergent infections really new? , What power asymmetries are reflected in the commodification of health and in preventive and therapeutic measures?
and the like. The full class will participate in the general discussion that follows. Hand in these weekly summaries at the end of each class. It is not expected that students will memorize all the characteristics of each infectious agent. enlarged spleen ! prognosis: recovery likely unless the parasite is drug resistant ! mode of transmission: Anopheles mosquito vector ! ecological risk factors: poor soil drainage and irrigation schemes that allow water to accumulate. commit to memory) sufficient detail to illustrate discussion points. and journals. pharmaceutical antimalarials ! treatment: chloroquine. Every week one student will lead discussion of the readings. General discussion will include all seminar participants. mefloquine. One goal is the comprehension of the co-evolution of people and parasites from an anthropological perspective that is incremental over the course of the semester: discussion of readings and presentations in one week should reflect earlier discussions. which encourages mosquito breeding ! social/cultural risk factors: residence or activity adjacent to water. Such information can be drawn from the assigned. high population density ! ecological protective factors: cold temperatures do not support mosquito breeding ! social/cultural protective factors: medicine. readings and should outline these parameters as understood by bio (western) science – below is the example of malaria: ! infectious agent: 4 species of the protozoan genus Plasmodium ! symptoms: fever. and medicines . Everyone is expected to comprehend the material at the theoretical and conceptual level. architecture. informed by an anthropological perspective. indigenous medicines such as Artemisia annua On the day of your seminar presentation. with references listed. PowerPoint presentations are recommended for seminar presentations and-end of-semester presentations. two other students are assigned presentations. This is not meant to be an exhaustive treatment of the readings – only an overview plus discussion topics.e. Each week all students will write a two-page (double-spaced) integrated overview of the readings that compares and contrasts the authors. and pose two questions (about the readings collectively) that will engage group discussion. books. and will focus on the interrelations among the biomedical “facts” of the disease in question and features of culture and society. smoke ! prevention: water control. The student leading the discussion can turn in his or her notes. Appropriate sources include recently published texts. illness. Our primary objective is to contextualize the bioepidemiological parameters by drawing attention to the cultural construction and social negotiation of health and illness: ! disease explanatory models ! social mediation of knowledge and health resources ! patterns of access to resources ! the meaning of health. mosquito netting. Rather. and additional. Individual seminar presentations must briefly address the bio-epidemiological dimensions of an infectious disease treated in that week’s readings. and to master (i. anemia. the intent is to know how/when to draw in such factual summaries – specific data and research findings – to engage discussion on a more abstract level. distribute to all seminar participants a one-page abstract/outline of your presentation.. migration.2 Organization: The course is organized in a structured seminar format which includes each week my short introduction on a theme related to the week’s readings. I will provide you with suggestions — including readings — for preparation of specific and general discussions. If you request. chronologies of disease epidemics. rather than a summary.
In other words. cultural constructions and social representations of illness are the frontpiece. and conceptual summaries to write a five-page (double-spaced) summary (or series of summary statements/observations). Everyone presents. or something else. 6 May All students review the semester’s readings. The minimum length is 40 pages double-spaced. discussions. The goal is to understand how contemporary Anthropologists study this phenomenon. a research proposal. The student who elects the Annotated Bibliography option will select a topic.3 Uh Oh If I become dissatisfied with the level of participation. It is best to avoid quotes altogether. including how it relates to the concepts. it is in your collective best interest that all students be prepared to discuss each week's readings. offers a crosscultural perspective on phenomenon X. presentations. and an introduction and conclusion that discuss the particular and general significance of the topic. Evaluation: % of final course grade Weekly writing assignments 25% Seminars 25% Discussion 25% Papers/Bibliographies 25% . and raise specific questions to clarify some aspect of those readings. Papers must include a complete bibliographic citation for each work cited/referred to in the text of the paper. each student will identify a goal/product/activity that meets his or her individual professional objectives and intersects with the objectives and content of this course. Readings are available for photocopying in the Department of Anthropology Office. outlines methods appropriate for the study of phenomenon X. This product can take the form of an annotated bibliography. Reference materials should be drawn from academic/professional works published in recent journals and books (last 10 years or so)** — at least 35 references should be consulted and cited. and substance of subjects addressed in this course.g. and not be merely a description of some phenomenon. The annotation for each item will consist of a summary of the article (one or two paragraphs. Direct quotes must be kept to an absolute minimum. and annotate at least 60 recent (last 10 years or so)** journal articles or books about that topic. provides a theoretical basis for the study of phenomenon X). Please keep in mind the primary objective of learning in this course: bioepidemiological parameters are the backdrop. An appropriate strategy would be to prepare summaries of sub-themes that you find especially compelling for each article/chapter. theory. An appropriate format would include a literature review of the selected topic. using standard font and margins. The paper must have a problem orientation (be linked to concepts and theory). reveals the interplay of culture and biology in the expression of phenomenon X. explores phenomenon X in a particular geocultural location. The student who elects the Research Paper option will write a research paper on a subject of his/her choice. followed/punctuated by general discussion. I will assign additional written work or examinations. MA or other research paper. some older references are appropriate.. about 1/3 page) and a statement (two or three sentences) about how this particular article informs your specific topic – e. Writing Assignment for the Last Day of Classes. Individual Projects: On consultation with me. write a one-page introduction about its significance to Anthropology. ** If you elect an historical treatment.
Goodman. University of California Press. 1998.J. Goodman and T. University of California Press. 3-29. 1997. MI.C. and Thomas L. Brown. In Infections and Inequalities.J. Sociocultural approaches: human behavior. In Infections and Inequalities. Alan H. Introduction. 4 February: No regular class meeting.L. M. indigenous peoples and the formal medical sector 4. Brown. Amsterdam. eds. Inhorn. and P. Inhorn and P. Inhorn. 3-41. 1999. Biocultural approaches Reading: Farmer. Anthropological contributions to the study of infectious disease and international health research B.J. Paul.H. Political economy/political ecology 5. Brown. eds. Anthropology of infectious disease. M. Rethinking emerging infectious diseases.C. M. In The Anthropology of Infectious Disease. 18-36. Introduction.4 Seminar Outline and Reading Assignments 14 January: Seminar Overview What is a uniquely anthropological perspective on infectious disease? Review of syllabus and seminar organization Biomedical terminology Who speaks for the microbes? 21 January: Introduction A. University of Michigan Press. Biological approaches — micro. Pp. Inhorn and P. Theoretical perspectives 1. Gordon and Breach. Pp. 37-58. Leatherman. Paul. 1999. 1997. In Building a New Biocultural Synthesis: Political Economic Perspectives on Human Biology. Gordon and Breach. Amsterdam. Pp. 1-17. University of California Press. 28 January: Conceptual and Theoretical Perspectives Reading: Farmer. A. Pp. Farmer.and macro-evolutionary studies 2. 31-67. Ann Arbor.C. 1999. and P. eds. Brown.J. Paul. In Infections and Inequalities. Pp. In The Anthropology of Infectious Disease. Pp. Leatherman. Traversing the chasm between biology and culture: an introduction. M. finalize topics for papers/projects .C. Ecological approaches 3. The vitality of practice. ethnomedicine.
‘Worms are our life’. AIDS in Haiti. The body at war: media views of the immune system. winds. Alternative practitioners’ view: “fix my head” 3. politics . 1999. Tik-Sang. James Fairhead.” Social Science and Medicine 61:709-719. lymphocytes. Bioscientists’ view: â-cells.J. Paul. In Infections and Inequalities. Non-antibiotic treatment recommendations: delivery formats and implications for parent resistance. and science: raising chickens in the Pearl River Delta Region. Gordon and Breach. Anthropology and Medicine 15: 19-30. Pp. eds. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(10):1242-1248. 2005. 2008. Mike. Inhorn and P. antibodies Reading: Martin. Geissler. Barry S. Anthropology and Medicine 15:7-18. Anthropology and Medicine 5:63-79 . Zhang. Letian and Tianshu Pan. Poltorak.. part I: understandings of worms and the body among the Luo of western Kenya.C. Flexible Bodies: The Role of the Immune System in American Culture from the Days of Polio to the Age of AIDS. Boston. In The Anthropology of Infectious Disease. 241-266. and Jackie Cassell. Perceptions of the immune system — metaphors of prevention and healing 1. Media view: body at war 2. 2005. Beacon Press..5 11 February: Paper/project topics due 11 February: Ethnographies of Illness A. T-cell activation. coping mechanisms and local responses to avian influenza threats in Haining. ‘MMR’ talk and vaccination choices: an ethnographic study in Brighton. and other explanatory models C. Digestive worms: ethnomedical approaches to intestinal parasitism in southern Ethiopia. Tanya. Stivers. immunoglobulin. Disease metaphors in new epidemics: the UK media framing of the 2003 SARS epidemic. Melissa Leach. N. Pp. Biomedicine and the “germ theory” of disease B. Amsterdam. evil eye. 2008. 1997. Patrick and Brigitte Nerlich. Social Science and Medicine 60:949-964. Vecchiato. University of California Press. Brown. P. 2005. 49-81. Worms. Social Science and Medicine 60:2629-2639. Sending sickness: sorcery. And Richard P. Liu. Wenzel. China. 158183.L. Wallis. 18 February: Ethnographies of Illness . South China. Surviving the crisis: adaptive wisdom. taste. M.continued Reading: Hewlett. E. Amola. 2003. Farmer. Pp. 1998. Cultural contexts of Ebola in northern Uganda. Custom. 1994. birth in nose.
Elisha. Paul J. Emerging and reemerging infections: the critical societal determinants. Social Science and Medicine 62:628642. Human Organization 53:346-351. Vectors. Cambridge University Press. 1994. The rational basis of ‘irrational’ drug use: pharmaceuticals in the context of ‘development. Ranger and P. and the evolution of virulence. In Anthropology and International Health: Asian Case Studies. Armstrong. 1994. Oxford University Press. vertical transmission. Nichter. The significance of self and non-self 2. 2005. Social Science and Medicine 61: 755-765. Etkin. Pp. Vaccination in the Third World: a consideration of community demand.’ In Anthropology in Public and International Health. 1992. W. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (UK) 62:1-7. Washington DC. 247-259. In Epidemics and Ideas: Essays on the Historical Perception of Pestilence. In Emerging Infections. Brown. People. 1998. Donald B. Scheld. 1999. 35-55. and all their respective pathogens Reading: Conrad. Oxford. M. Stuart. Hahn. Nichter and M. ed. Infection and the evolution of sex: 1. 4 March: No regular class meeting. eds. Pp. The co-evolution of people. Hughes. 1996. Health implications of modern agricultural transformations: malaria and pellagra in Italy. Louria. Pp. R. Safety in diversity B. and our responsibilities. D. eds. Nina L. Epidemic disease in formal and popular thought in early Islamic society. 77-99. Oxford. Blume. Ewald. Peter and Elizabeth Whitaker. Pp. eds. Slack.M.M. and parasites: biological and cultural adaptations to malaria. and J. Cambridge. George J. Evolutionary. Ross. Pp. Oxford University Press. and Ibrahim Muazzamu. Armelagos. plants. Nina L... Lawrence I. 329-365. Mark. Nichter. Renne. work on papers/projects 11 March: More Theoretical Considerations: Co-evolutionary and Historical Perspectives A. 2006. Amsterdam. 165-181.6 25 February:(Re)emergent Infections and the Diminished Biomedical Arsenal Reading: Etkin. Perspectives on polio and immunization in northern Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine 63:1857-1869. 2003. T. Chapter 3 In Evolution of Infectious Disease. Gordon and Breach. Anti-vaccination movements and their interpretations. historical and political economic perspectives on health and disease. and Bethany Turner. Paul W. Brown. 2006. herbivores. Peter J. American Society for Microbiology.A. . their mitigation. plants.
Gordon and Breach. Amsterdam. Gordon and Breach. Siwi and Mark Nichter. Collecting ethnomedical data in the field Reading: Coreil. Ethnography of epidemiologic transition: avian flu. Inhorn and P. Inhorn and P. Bhattacharyya. eds. M. Key informants. and D. K.J. eds. 25 March: Spring Holiday . Infertility. Brown.J. infection. In The Anthropology of Infectious Disease. M. Amsterdam. M. global health politics and agro-industrial capitalism in Thailand. or cold air? Reading: Nichter. M. L. M.no class 1 April: More Ethnographies of Infectious Disease A.. Spiritual dimensions of a viral infection C.A. 1997. Representations of mad cow disease. Household production of illness and health 1. 1997. Brown. and K. Whiteford. J. M. Anthropology and Medicine 15:53-59. Pneumonia — bacterium. 211-238. Komatra. Salazar. Pp. The paradox of iatrogenic infection C. Peter. Gordon and Breach. . Community response to avian flue in Central Java. 145-171. Brown.C. pile Sorts.C. virus.C. or surveys? Comparing behavioral research methods for the study of acute respiratory infections in West Bengal. Inhorn and P. 1997. In The Anthropology of Infectious Disease.J. Pp. Inhorn.C. Amsterdam. Gordon and Breach. Padmawati. Pp.7 25 March: Research Methods in The Anthropological Study of Infectious disease A. 2006. In The Anthropology of Infectious Disease.J. Social Science and Medicine 62:457-466. Pp. 173-210. Illness semantics and international health: the weak lungs-tuberculosis complex in the Philippines. 2008. and iatrogenesis in Egypt: the anthropological epidemiology of blocked tubes. Inhorn and P. Indonesia.C. In The Anthropology of Infectious Disease. Buss. Count your children only after the measles pass — epidemics of a preventable infection 1. Brown. developmental niche framework B. Anthropology and Medicine 15:31–51. Washer. Weak lungs and the social stigma of tuberculosis B. Amsterdam. 1997. The household ecology of disease transmission: dengue fever in the Dominican Republic. 267-297. eds. 2008. Cheungsatiansup. eds.
2006. Scheld. corporality. biomedical. 59-80.M. 43-58. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 10:263-272. and the co-evolution of anthropological. and Peter Young. University of California Press. University of California Press. how did you get that? B. Armstrong.. Farmer.. 1999. Pp. Collette Suda. Pp. 1998. sputum. “The consumption of the poor. Hughes. Eosinophilic meningitis. Pp. Pp. Wilcox. perspectives on infectious disease. Peter Hooper. 1999. Hanlon.” In Infections and Inequalities. Keith. 228-261. 2005. W. Scheld. and humans: a zoonosis caused by a new member of the Paramyxoviridae. microbiological. Armstrong.” In Infections and Inequalities.. 1998. Mark Williamson. “Optimism and pessimism. Bryan Eaton. horses. Farmer. Hughes. “Immodest claims of causality. 211-227. 15 April: Zoonoses A. Gubler. hookworm. Cathleen A. microbes..M. D. Anthropology and Medicine 13(1):13-24. In Emerging Infections. and J.” In Infections and Inequalities. eds. The reemergence of rabies. D.. The dangers of domestication Reading: Murray. public health. 1999. and J. etc. contagion. Similarities between human and livestock illnesses among the Luo in western Kenya. Flying foxes. Paul. rabies D. Linfa Wang. Nyamanga.M... Three dog night and similar contexts that foster transspecific contagion C. Disease ecology and the global emergence of zoonotic pathogens. . W.M. Rupprecht. Bruce A. And Duane J. And Charles E. Paul. Where have you been. Pp. Peter A. and Jens Aagaard-Hansen. University of California Press. In Emerging Infections. 22 April: Individual Appointments to Discuss Semester Projects/Papers 29 April: Presentations of Individual Projects/Papers 6 May: Concluding Session Presentations of Individual Projects/Papers – continued Semester Summary is due – described on syllabus page 3: Reflections on a semester of spots. Paul. 184-210.8 8 April: Political Economies of Tuberculosis Reading Farmer. eds.
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