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FUNDAMENTALS OF ALGEBRA
POLYNOMIALS
A variable is a letter that can represent any number from a given set of real numbers. The common variables used are x, y, z etc. When we use addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers, roots on the variables, we get algebraic expressions. Examples : 2x 2 @ 3x + 2, 2 p y + x2 ,
w w w w w w w

xf+fff ffff ffff ffff fy etc are algebraic expressions. x @y

A monomial is a real number or a real number multiplied with variables with powers as 2f f whole numbers. 6x 2 , 2y, @ 5, @ fx 3 y 2 z are examples of monomials. 3

Sum of two or more monomials is called a polynomial. [Sum of two monomials is called a binomial.] 1f 1f f f Example: fx 2 @ 3x + 2 is a polynomial which has three terms fx 2 , @ 3x and 2 A 3 3
COMBINING ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS: Addition and Subtraction :

To combine polynomials, we use the same properties of real number operations (see the chapter : Sets, Numbers, Operations, Properties. The terms in which the same variables are raised to the same powers are the like terms. 1f f Among the terms 3x 2 , @ 4xy 2 , 2xy, @ fxy 3 z, @ x 2 , 3xy 3 z, 10xy, 7xy 2 the like terms are 2 1f f 3x 2 and @ x 2 , @ 4xy 2 and 7xy 2 , 2xy and 10xy, @ fxy 3 z and 3xy 3 z A 2 To add or subtract two polynomials, we combine the like terms by using the Distributive Property. Example : 3x 2 + 5x 2 = 3 + 5 x 2 = 8x 2
` a

If there is a minus sign before a parentheses, while removing the parentheses, signs of all the terms inside the parentheses are changed.

@ 2x 2 @ 3x + 4 = @ 2x 2 + 3x @ 4
b c

Example : (a) Find the sum of 2x 3 @ 3x 2 + x @ 5 and x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1 (b) Subtract x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1 from 2x 3 @ 3x 2 + x @ 5 Solution : b c b c ` a a 2x 3 @ 3x 2 + x @ 5 + x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1
b c b c `
b c b

b

c

b

c

c

= 2x 3 + x 3 + @ 3x 2 + 2x 2 + x @ 2x + @ 5 + 1
a `

= 3x 3 @ x 2 @ x @ 4 c b c ` a b 3 b 2x @ 3x 2 + x @ 5 @ x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1

a

= b 3 @ 3x 2 + x @ 5 @ x 3 @ c 2 + 2x @ 1 2x 2x c b ` a ` a = 2x 3 @ x 3 + @ 3x 2 @ 2x 2 + x + 2x + @ 5 @ 1 = x 3 @ 5x 2 + 3x @ 6

Multiplication :

To find the product of polynomials we use the Distributive property and laws of exponents. Example : Find the product 3x 2 @ 5 x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1
b cb c

Solution : b cb c 3x 2 @ 5 x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1
b c

= 3x 2 x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1 @ 5 x 3 + 2x 2 @ 2x + 1
b

= 3x 5 + 6x 4 @ 6x 3 + 3x 2 @ 5x 3 @ 10x 2 + 10x @ 5 Distributive property = 3x 5 + 6x 4 @ 11x 3 @ 7x 2 + 10x @ 5 Combining the like terms

c

Distributive property

SOME SPECIAL PRODUCT FORMULAS:
1A A + B A @B = A @B 2 A A + B = A + 2AB + B
` ` ` ` a2 a3
2

`

a`

a

2

2

2 2 2 3 3

3 A A @ B = A @ 2AB + B
a2 a3
2 3 2 3 2

4 A A + B = A + 3A B + 3AB + B
2

5 A A @ B = A @ 3A B + 3AB @ B 6 A A + B A @ AB + B = A + B
` `
2 2 3

7 A A @ B A + AB + B = A @ B
2 2 3

ab

ab

c

c

3

3

Example : Find 2x @ 3 and 2 + 3y 2 @ 3y
` b cb

a2

c

Solution :

= 2x @ 2.2x A 3 + 3 = 4x 2 @ 12x + 9
b ` a2

`

2x @ 3

a2

2

taking A = 2x,B = 3 and using A @ B = A @ 2AB + B
` a2
2

2

2 + 3y 2 @ 3y
2

cb

= 2 @ 3y
b

= 4 @ 9 y2

c2

c

taking A = 2,B = 3y and using A + B A @ B = A @ B
` a` a
2

2

FACTORING
Factoring is the opposite process of finding products. Here a polynomial is to be written as the product of two or more simpler polynomials. If we multiply 2x @ 3 ` with 4x + 5` we get , ` a` a a a 2x @ 3 4x + 5 = 2x 4x + 5 @ 3 4x + 5

= 8x 2 + 10x @ 12x @ 15 = 8x 2 @ 2x @ 15 On the reverse, if we are `asked to factor 8x 2 @ 2x @ 15, we have to write ` a a 8x 2 @ 2x @ 15 = 2x @ 3 4x + 5 . ` a ` a Here, 2x @ 3 and 4x + 5 are the factors of 8x 2 @ 2x @ 15.

To factor a polynomial, we use the following methods wherever applicable :

Factoring out common factors:

If all the terms of a polynomial have one or more common factors, we take out the greatest common factor and use the Distributive Property. Example : Factor a each polynomial/expression : ` a 5x 2 y @ 10xy
` a
2

Solution : ` a 2 a 5x y = 5 Bx Bx By 10xy = 5 B2 Bx By
Hence

b 6ab c 3 @ 18a 2 c 2 + 12ac 2 ` a` a` a ` a c 2x + 4 2x @ 4 @ 3 2x @ 4
The greatest common factor is 5 Bx By or 5xy

` a

b 6ab c 3 = 2 B3 Ba Bb Bb Bc Bc Bc
2

5x 2 y @ 10xy = 5xy Bx @ 5xy B2 ` a = 5xy x @ 2

18a 2 c 2 = 2 B3 B3 Ba Ba Bc Bc 12ac 2 = 2 B2 B3 Ba Bc Bc The geatest common factor is 2 B3 Ba Bc Bc or 6ac 2 Hence b c 2 2 6ab c 3 @ 18a 2 c 2 + 12ac 2 = 6ac 2 b c @ 3a + 2
` a`

Hence,

c 2x + 4 2x @ 4 @ 3 2x @ 4 ` a the greatest common factor is 2x @ 4
a` a ` a ` a` a `

2x + 4 2x @ 4 @ 3 2x @ 4 = 2x @ 4
a ` `

= 2x @ 4 2x + 1
a`

aB`

2x + 4 @ 3
a a

C

Factoring by using the Product Formulas given above:

See the right hand sides of all the special product formulas given above. The left hand sides are in the factor form. If any expression is in the form of the right hand sides, we can use the reverse of that. Example :aFactor ` a 4x 2 @ 49
` a ` a

b 27x 3 + c 3 c 4a 3 @ 32b
3

Solution :

` a ` a

a 4x 2 @ 49 = 2x @ 7 ` a` a = 2x + 7 2x @ 7
` a2
2

using the reverse of A + B A @ B = A @ B
` a` a
2

2

b 27x 3 + c 3 = 3x + c 3
` ` ` a3 aB` ab a2
3

using the reverse of A + B A @ AB + B = A + B
C ` ab
2 2

= 3x + c 3x @ 3x A c + c 2 = 3x + c 9x 2 @ 3cx + c 2
c

c

3

3

` a

c 4a 3 @ 32b = 4 a 3 @ 8b
3

= 4 a @ 2b a 2 + a A 2b + 2b = 4 a @ 2b a 2 + 2ab + 4b
` ab ` `
2

b

aB

c

using the reverse of
a2C

`

A @ B A + AB + B = A @ B
ab
2 2

c

3

3

c

Factoring by grouping :

Example` : a Factor a 2x 3 + x 2 @ 6x @ 3
` a

b @ 6x 3 @ 2x 2 + 3x + 1

Solution : b c ` ` a 3 a a 2x + x 2 @ 6x @ 3 = 2x 3 + x 2 @ 6x + 3

Group terms
a

= x 2x + 1 @ 2 2x + 1 = x 2 @ 2 2x + 1
b ` 2 b c` a ` a c ` a

factor out common factors

` a

b @ 6x 3 @ 2x 2 + 3x + 1 = @ 6x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x + 1 = @ 2x 2 + 1 3x + 1
b ` c` `

= @ 2x 2 3x + 1 + 1 3x + 1
a

a

a

A rational expression is an expression of the type
` a

Pffff xf ffff fff ` polynomials and Q x ≠ 0. Also, fffafis to be in the simplest form (i.e. after canceling Q x out any common factor other than 1 or -1).
2 1 x+1 ffff 3xffffffff ffffffff ffff fffffffff ffffffff ffff fffffffff fffffff f @x @2 b c Examples : ffff, fffffffff, ffffffffare rational expressions. x @1 x @2 x x3@ 1

` a

Pffff x ffff ffff ffff ` a where Q x

` a

P x andQ x are

` a

` a

Some important operations of Rational Expressions: b c These are similar to operations with fractions
If A, B, C, D are polynomials, then ACf Af fff ff fff f ff ff f = 1A BC B Af Cf ACf ff ff fff f ff fff f f ff ff 2A A = B D BD Af Cf ADf ff ff fff f ff fff f f ff ff 3A D = B D BC Af Bf Affff +B ff ff fffff f f fffff f f fffff 4A + = C C C Af Bf Affff @B ff ff fffff f f fffff f f fffff 5A @ = C C C Af Cf ff ff f ff f f 6 A = if and only if AD = BC B D

Example : Simplify 2 ` a xffffffff @x @2 ffffffff ffffffff a ffffffff x2@ 1
Solution : a x2@ 1
2 ` a xffffffff @x @2 ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff

` a ffff fffff x 3 ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff

b

x+1

@

x @2

x @1 x + 1 xffff @2 ffff ffff = fffff x @1 ` a ` a 3 x @2 x x+1 ` a ffff fffff fffffffffff fffffffffff 3 ffff fx ff fffffffffff fffffffffff ffff ffff fffffffffff fffffffffff ffff ffff fffffffffff fffffffffff f a` a@` a` a b @ =` x @2 x + 1 x + 1 x @2 x + 1 x @2 ` a ` a 3ffffffffffff+fff x fff fff x f 1 fff@ffffffffffff ffffff@ffffffff ffff2 ff x ffffff a` a = ` x @2 x + 1
2 3xffff@ffffff ffffffffffff ffffffx ffff f@ 6 fff @ x ` a` a = fffffffffffff x @2 x + 1 2 @ffffffffff fffffffffff fx f+fff@ 6 f ff f 2x fff a` a = `fffffffffff x @2 x + 1

` a` a xfffffffffff @2 x + f fffffffffff fffffffff1f fffffffffff a` a =`

Example: Simplify 2 ` a xfffff xfffffffff ` a ffff ffffff fffff 2 3 @ 3x @ 4 1 fffff fffffffff f@ff ff 4 f fffffffff fff fffffffff ffff ffffff fffff ffff ffffff fffff ffff ffffff ffff a 2 D 2 b @` a2 + 2 x+1 x @1 x @ 4 x + 5x + 6 x+1 Solution:

2 ` a xfffff xfffffffff @4 @ 3x @ 4 fffff fffffffff fffff fffffffff ffff fffffffff

D x 2 @ 4 x 2 + 5x + 6 2 xfffff xfffffffff + 5x + 6 f@ff fffffffff ff 4 f fffffffff fff = fffff fffffffff B 2 2 x @ 4 x @ 3x @ 4 ` a` a` a x @4 x + 2 x + 3 fffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffff a` a` a` a =` x + 2 x @2 x @4 x + 1 x+3 fffffffffff fffffffffff fffffffffff a` a = `fffffffffff x @2 x + 1 ` a ffff ffffff fffff 2 f 1 ffff ffffff f3fff ffff ffff f ff b ffff ` ffffaff fffff @ + 2 fff 2 x+1 x @1 x+1

a

1 3 f f fffffffffff ffff fffffffffff fffffffffff ffff ffff2 fffff ffff ffffffffff fffffffffff a a+ a` a = ffff@ `fffff`ffffff `fffffffffff x+1 x+1 x+1 x + 1 x @1 ` a` a 1 @f 3 +1 f+ 1 x @ 1 ffffffffff f ffff fffffffffff ffff fffffffffff fffffffffff xffff fffffffffff xffff ffff x ffffffffff fffffffffff ffff fffffffffff ffff ffff fffffffffff ffff2ffffff ffff fffffffffff ffff ff1f fffffffffff ffff a` a@ ` a` aB a` aB = B` +` x + 1 x + 1 x @1 x + 1 x + 1 x @1 x + 1 x @1 x + 1 ` a` a ` a ` a x ff1 fffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff f+ f x @ 1 @ 2 x @ 1 + 3 x + 1 ` a` a` a = x @1 x + 1 x + 1
2 xfffffffff+ffffffffff @ f @ ff f 2 + 3x f 3 fff1ffffffffffff+ff ffffff2x fffffffffff ` a` a` a = ffffffffffffffffffff x @1 x + 1 x + 1

x 2 + x +ff fffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffff ffffffffff4 fffff a` ` a = `ffffffffffaffffff x @1 x + 1 x + 1

Some reminders in algebra:
1A 2A 3A 4A
`

a + b ≠ a2 + b
a2

2

as

wwww wwww wwww wwww wwww wwww wwww www qa 2 + b 2 ≠ a +

`

a + b = a + b a + b = a 2 + 2ab + b
a2 ` a` a

2

b

as squaring both sides we get as as as

a2 + b ≠ a + b
2

1f 1f ffff 1 f f ffff f f ffff f f ffff + ≠ a b a+b affff +b ffff ffff ffff ≠b a

1f 1f 1f bf 1f af ff ff bffff +a f f f f f f b f a f fffff f f f f f f ff ff ffff f f f f f f ff ff ffff f f + = B + B = + = a b a b b a ab ab ab affff af bf +b bf ffff f f ffff f f ffff f f f f f = + =1+ a a a a
wwww wwww wwww wwww www www www www www www wwww wwww wwww www www www q a 2 A b 2 = q` a A ba2 = ab

`

a2

f

but

abf ff ff ff f =a b

g

wwww wwww www www www www www www qa 2 A b 2 = a A b 5A

EXPONENTS & RADICALS: These are discussed in the chapter Exponents and Logarithm.