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CBSE Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

Sample Question Papers Solutions

Term 1 (April to September 2013)




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1. Moving charges / electric current / magnet (any two). 2. (i) To develop male secondary sex organs at puberty. 3. To create green house effect / to trap the solar heat. 4. (a) yellow (b) lead iodide / PbI2 (c) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) + 1 + 1

(ii) To develop male secondary sexual characters like bread , moustaches, deep voice etc.

5. Activity : Metal Q is added to salt solution of P. Q being more reactive ; displaces metal P from its salt solution. Chemical equation : Metal Q + Salt solution of P Salt solution of Q + Metal P. Example : Zn Zinc + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu 1 Copper sulphate Zinc sulphate Copper 1

6. 1 volt is the potential difference between two points in a current carrying conductor when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one point to another. 1 Potential difference =

Work done (W) Charg e transferred (Q)

100 J =5 V 20C



Properties : (i) In air, field lines start from N-Pole and end at S-Pole. (ii) 8. (i) (ii) No two magnetic field lines can ever intersect at any one point. Substance reduced = Fe2O3 Substance oxidized = CO Substance reduced = MnO2 Substance oxidized = Al (iii) Substance reduced = SO2 Substance oxidized = H2S 2=1

2 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX 9. Procedure : Set up the apparatus as follows :
Bulb Battery -


Beaker Na Ethyl alcohol Rubber cork

Take ethyl alcohol in the beaker such that the upper ends of the nail remain 2 cm above the level of alcohol. When the switch is turned on, the bulb does not glow. Repeat the activity with glucose. + Conclusion : This shows that there are no H in a alcohol or glucose as electricity is only conducted through ions in solutions. 1 10. Product formed : Sodium Zincate and Hydrogen gas. 1 2NaOH + Zn Na2ZnO2 + H2 1 The gas evolved is hydrogen gas. If we bring a match stick near the mouth of the test tube the gas evolved, i.e. Hydrogen gas burns with a Pop sound. 1 11. (a) Aluminium (Al) (b) Iron (Fe) (c) Fe2O3 + 2Al 2Fe + Al2O3 + heat. 1 (d) Use : To join railways tracks or cracked machine parts. 1 4 12. D = 0.5 mm = 5 10 m Resistivity = 16 108 m R = 10 , l=

l As R = A 10 314 (25 104 )2 l= = 1225 m 16 108 R A = R A A R = R A = RA RA R = = A 4A 4 10 = 4 25 =

When diameter of a wire is doubled its area of cross section becomes four times i.e. A = 4A We know that R or
1 A

R = 25
15 V 4 +

X + V

Solutions | 3 Conclusion : For a given resistance, current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to potential difference across it, if other physical conditions remain constant. V I. V is directly proportional to I. 14. (i) 1 The resistance of the circuit decreases to a very small value and consequently the current increases enormously. It results in heating the live wires and may even causes fire in the building. 1
I= P 1 kW = V 220 V 1000 W = 220 V = 455 A






The electric current required by the electric iron (455 A) is more than the rating of the fuse (3A) that can flow through the fuse without its melting. Hence fuse wire will melt, circuit breaks and elecric iron will not work. 1 (a) Inner lining of stomach may get damaged by the action of the HCl. 1 (b) Plant will not be able to Photosynthesis or CO2 may not enter, Respire or exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) may not occur, do transpiration. 1 (c) Emulsification of fat take place which will effect the digestion of fat. 1 Two limitations are : (i) They reach only those cells that are connected by nervous tissue and not each and every cell in the animal body. 1 (ii) Once an electrical impulse is generated in a cell and transmitted, the cell will make sometime to reset its mechanisms before it can generate and transmit electrical impluse. 1 Other means of communication is chemical communication or chemical coordination by compound called hormones. 1 (a) Gland Pancreas Hormone Insulin (b) Hormone H (Insulin) controls the blood sugar. (c) Diabetes (d) Suggestions Control sugar in the body Controlling diet Doing regular physical exercise / walking Taking regular medicine as advised by the doctor. Reducing weight. (any two) Problems : (i) Large areas of agriculture and human habitation are to be sacrified as they get submerged. 1 (ii) Large ecosystem is destroyed when submerged under the water in dams. 1 (iii) The vegetation which is submerged rots under anaerobic conditions and gives rise to large amount of methane which is also a green house gas. 1

19. Ill effects Buring fossil fuel is a cause of : (i) air pollution (i) global warming (iii) Acid rain. Ways to reduce fossil fuel consumption : (i) Use of clean fuel like CNG. (ii) Use of public transport (iii) Use od renewable source

4 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX 20. (a) Observation : Nails present in the tube A will be rusted. Nails present in test tube B and C do not rust. (b) Reasons : In test tube A, water and air both are present which cause rusting In test tube B, boiled water is present which is free from air. Moreover layers of oil prevents entry of air so only water is present in this test tube. In test tube C, only dry air is present as anhydrous CaCl2 absorbs the moisture content of air / A drying agent anhydrous CaCl2 makes air dry. 1 (c) Conclusion : Water / moisture and air / O2 both are necessary for Iron / metal to undergo rusting / corrosion. 1 OR (a) (i) ZnO reacts with both acids and alkalis. 1 ZnO + HCl ZnCl2 + H2O ZnO + 2NaOH Na2ZnO2 + H2O


21. (a)

(ii) Non-metals cannot provide electrons to convert H ions into hydrogen gas. 1 (iii) Addition of silver to pure gold makes it hard which is necessary for making ornaments. 1 (i) Bronze : Cu and Sn Stainless steel : Fe, Ni and Cr. Bronze has lower electrical conductivity than their constituents. Stainless steel does not get corroded easily as iron does. Method : Chlor-alkali proccess. 2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2 + H2 1 Uses of NaOH : Soap and detergent, paper making artificial fibers. Uses of Cl2 : Water treatment / swimming pools / CFCs pesticides, PVC etc. Uses of H2 : Fuels / ammonia 1 1

(b) CuSO4.5H2O (Copper sulphate) : crystals are blue in colours. On heating they lose water of crystallization and turn white. Heat CuSO4 . 5H2O CuSO4 Hydrated Copper sulphate Anhydrous copper sulphate (Blue) (White) OR (a) Sodium chloride (NaCl) and carbon dioxide (CO2) In both test tubes : A and B same products. (b) In both the activities, gas evolved with the other products formed are same. (c) Sodium hydroxide. (d) Lime water turns milky white ppt. is formed. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O white ppt. 22. (a) (i) Minimum Electric current : when connected in series
+ 12 V A 10 15 +

1 1 1 1

Solutions | 5 (ii) Maximum elecric current : when connected in parallel.

+ A+

10 15


I min = RP =

V 12 V = = 0.48 A RS (10 + 15 ) R1 R 2 10 15 = = 6 (R1 + R 2 ) 10 +15

1 1 1

V 12 V Imax = R = 6 =2 A P

OR The ammeter reading will decrease (becomes half). 1 This is because with increase in length, resistance of the circuit increases hence current decreases. 1 (ii) The ammeter reading will increase (becomes two times). 1 This is because as area increases, resistance decreases and hence current increase. 1 (b) It means that 1 J of work is being done to move a charge of 1 coulomb from point A to point B. 1 23. (a) Two errors are : (i) Fuse is incorrectly connected to the neutral wire (N), it must be connected to the live wire (L). (ii) Bulb B2 is not connected to the neutral wire. (iii) Two switches S1 and S2 in both B1 circuit and no switch in bulb B2 circuit. (any two) 2 (b) Element of electric heater high melting point. Element of fuse wire low melting point. (c) (1) Each appliance has equal potential difference. (2) Each appliance has separate switch to ON / OFF the flow of current through it. 1+1 OR (a) A coil of many circular turns of insulated wire wrapped closely in shape of a cylinder is called solenoid. (b) Magnetic fields of a solenoid and a bar magnet are similar. 1 (a) (i)


(c) A small aluminium rod suspended horizontally from a stand using two connecting wires. Place a strong horse shoe magnet in such a way that the rod lies between the two poles with the magnetic field directed upwards. For this put the north pole of the magnet vertically below and south pole vertically above the aluminium rod. Connect the aluminium rod in series with a battery, a key and a rheostat. Pass a current through the aluminium rod from one end to other. The rod is displaced towards left.

6 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX When the direction of current flowing through the rod is reversed, the displacement of rod will be across towards right. 2



24. (a)


(b) (i) (ii)

As ventricles have to pump blood into various organs. Since the blood emerges from the heart under high pressure. OR

1 1


Diagram of cross section of leaf :

(i) Cuticle

(ii) Chloroplast


(b) (i) (ii)

Oxygen By splitting of water They take up CO2 at night and prepare an intermediate which is acted upon by the energy absorbed by chlorophyll during the day. Desert plants.

25. (c) Solution of chloride should be mixed with solution of sodium sulphate so that reaction is fast.

Solutions | 7 26. (d) Vigorous bubbling and hissing sound is produced as the reaction is exothermic. CaO(s) + H2O(e) Ca(OH)2 + heat 27. (A), Water is neutral so pH paper colour does not change. 28. (C), Blue litmus will change to red when it will dipped into HCl. 29. (A), When zinc reacts with HCl or NaOH, H2 gas liberated which burns with a pop sound. Zn(s) + 2HCl(dil) ZnCl 2(aq) + H2 Zn(s) + 2NaOH Na2ZnO2(aq) + H2 30. (B), Pale green solution of FeSO4 and reddish brown depostion of copper is obtained. 31. (C), No reation will take place so no colour change as Cu cannot displace any of the metal from the solution. 32. (D), Heating changes the value of resistor. 33. (D), R1, R2 and V have two common points 34. (B), Ammeter and voltmeter are connected with correct polarities. 35. (D), Least count = 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

Range 03 3 = = = 005 amp. No of division 60 60 (C), Student A and B will determine equivalent resistance of series combination as they kept one common point. (A), Pabel 1 is chloroplast and 2 is nucleus. (D), Experiment demonstrate light is essential for photosynthesis. (C), Brush is used to keep leaf peel from watch glass to the slide safely so that cells do not damage. (C), KOH is used to absorb CO2 in the flask (D), All the precautions are correct. (B), A and C.



1. It is taken by convention that field lines emerge from North pole and merge at the South Pole. Inside the magnet, the direction of field lines is from S-pole to N-Pole, magnetic field lines are closed curves. 1 2. She will withdraw her hand immediately. Name of the response : Reflex action. 3. Nuclear fission reaction. 1 4. It is a displacement reaction (a) Metal X is more reactive than metal Y. (b) Metal X is displacing metal Y from its salt solution. A more reactive metal displaces less reactive one from its salt solution hence X is more reactive than Y. 1 5. (a) Al2O3 + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2O 1 (b) Na2O + H2O 2NaOH 1 6. Physcial quantity : Electric power. Unit : Watt. 1 watt is the power consumed by a device that carries 1 A of current when operated at a potential difference of 1 V. 1 7. Compass needle deflect from its original position because current in the wire produces magnetic effect needle shows deflection in the opposite direction. +1+ 8. (a) (i) Substance oxidized : Al Substance reduced : Fe2O3 (ii) Substance oxidized : C Substance reduced : PbO (b) A reaction in which one reactant gets oxidized while the other gets reduced is called redox reaction. 1 9. (a) Solid sodium chloride / NaCl. Conc. Sulphuric acid / H2SO4. (b) Dry litmus : no change. Wet blue litmus : changes to red. + (c) HCl + H2O H3O + Cl 1 (Hydronium ion) 10. (a) Nitrogen gas acts as a antioxident and prevents oxidation of fats and oils. 1 (b) Iron articles when exposed to air react with oxygen and moisture and get corroded forming brown flaky coating of iron oxide called rust on their surfaces. 1 (c) When water is added to calcium oxide, the reaction being exothermic, lot of heat is released. 1 11. (a) Na Na+ + e 2, 8, 1 2, 8 Cl + e Cl 2, 8, 7 2, 8, 8

. .. + N a + .Cl .. : [Na] [Cl]

Solutions | 9 (b) Because of strong force of attraction between the ions, a large amount of energy is required to overcome the force of attraction. 1 12. V = 220 V, P1 = 500 W, P2 = 800 W (a) I1 = I2 = (b)

P1 500 25 = = A. V 220 11
P2 8000 W 40 = = A. V 220 V 11
= 500 + 800 = 1300 W, t = 2 h

Total Power = P = P1 + P2

E = P t = 1300 2 = 2600 Wh = 26 kWh = 26 units 1 Tungesten is a metal which has a very high melting point and comparatively high resistivity. 1 (b) Copper and aluminium are good conductors of electricity because they have comparatively low resistivity, i.e., these metals offer low resistance to the flow of electric current. 1 (c) Resistivity of alloys is generally higher than that of its constituent metals. 1 14. Place the bar magnet on a sheet of white paper fixed on a drawing board. Mark the boundary of the Magnet. Place the magnetic compass near the north pole of the given magnet. Mark the position of two ends of the needle. Now move the needle to a new position such that its south pole occupies the position previously occupied by its north pole. In this way proceed step by step till you reach the south pole of the given magnet. 2 Join the points marked on the paper by a smooth curve. This curve represents a field line. 1 13. (a)
+ S N S N S

+ N

15. Functions of Stomata : Gaseous exchange. Water loss/transpiration. Guard cells control the opening and closing of stomata. Guard cells swells when water flows into them, causing the stomatal pore to open, similarly the pore closes if the guard cells shrink. 1 16. Adrenaline is carried to target organs/heart. Heart beats faster, supply of more oxygen to muscles. Blood supply to digestive system and skin reduced . Breathing rate increases. Blood supply diverted to skeletal muscles. Animal body becomes ready to deal with situation. 17. (a) Because rings of cartilage are present (for support) 1 (b) Because amount of dissolved oxygen is fairly low compared to the amount of oxygen in the air. 1 (c) To ensure blood flows only in one direction. 1 18. (a) Hydrogen is better and cleaner fuel than CNG because it does not emit carbon monoxide and is naturally replenishable. ,

10 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX (b) Calculators, artifical satellites, wireless transmission system, traffic lights, road light, emergency road signs. , (c) There are very few commerically viable sites where geothermal energy can be exploited. To locate hot springs/hot spots and drilling very deep is a big hinderance. 1 19. (a) By increasing the efficiency of combustion process. 1 (b) By using various techniques to reduce the escape of harmful gases and ashes into the surroundings. 1 (c) Opt for alternative sources of energy which are non-polluting gases like biogas. 20. Refining of metals : The process of removing impurities from a reduced metal to obtain its pure state is called refining of metals. 1 Electrolytic refining of copper : An impure metal is used as the anode and a thin strip of pure metal is as the cathode. A solution of metal salt is used as an electrolyte. On passing current 1 CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO42 At anode Cu Cu2+ + 2e (from anode) (in solution) 2+ At cathode Cu + 2e Cu (from solution) (to cathode) Insoluble impurities settle down as anode mud. 1

Key +




2+ Cu

Copper Sulphate Solution Tank Impurities (anode mud)


OR Activity : Set up an electric circuit as follows :

Battery bulb

Clips A B Insert copper metal Switch

Place a piece of copper metal between the terminals A and B and press the switch. It is observed that the bulb glows. This is because the copper metal passes on the current from the clip A to clip B. We observe the same phenomenon with other metals also which shows that metals are good conductors of electricity. 1

Solutions | 11 (b) (i) Hydrogen gas evolved initially reacts with nitric acid to form oxides of nitrogen. 1 (ii) Reaction of Na metal with oxygen is highly exothermic. Sodium catches fire due to heat evolved. To prevent this it is kept immersed in kerosene. 1 (iii) Reaction of Fe 2O3 with Al is highly exothermic. Iron formed in this reaction is in molten state which is used to join cracked iron parts of machines/railway tracks. 21. (a) Bulb A and B do not glow but bulb C glows. 1 (b) Glucose and alcohol solutions do not conduct electricity as they do not have ions and electric current is carried through the solution by flow of ions. 2 Dil. HCl contains ions so the flow of ions is responsible for the flow of current. 1 + (c) After replacement, bulb glows in B as NaOH solution contains ions (Na and OH ions). 1 OR Common name : Baking soda. Chemical formula : NaHCO3 (sodium hydrogen carbonate) Preparation of baking soda : NaCl + H2O + CO2 + NH3 NH4Cl + NaHCO3 1 Nature : Basic in nature 1 Uses : It is used in antacids as it neutralizes excess acid in the stomach and provides relief. When baking soda is mixed with tartaric acid we get baking powder. When baking powder is heated or mixed in water, CO2 is produced during the reaction causing the bread and cake to rise making them soft and spongy. 1 22.
A I1 I2 I3 I +V + A+ R1 R2 R3 I B

Marking scheme : Resistance in parallel Direction of current Closing of key The total current I, is equal to the sum of separate currents through each resistor. I = I1 + I2 + I3 Let R be the equivalent resistance combination. By applying Ohms law V I = R To each resistor V I1 = R 1

...(1) ...(2)

From (1) and (2)

V R2 V I3 = R3 V V V V V = R + R + R +R R 1 1 2 3
I2 =

1 1 1 1 = R + R +R R 1 2 3

12 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX A parallel circuit divides the current through the electrical gadgets. This is helpful particularly when each gadget has different resistance and requires different current to operate properly. 1 OR When current flows through a conductor heat is developed and temperature of wire increases. This is known as heating effect of current. Consider a current I flowing through resistor R. Let t be the time during which a charge q flows across, then q = I t The work done in moving the charge q through potential difference V. W = Vq W =VIt The source must supply energy equivalent to this work done, which gets dissipated as heat. Thus heat produced. H =VIt
V2t V t= = V R R

Application : To light an incandescent electric bulb/electric fuse used in electric circuits to protect the circuits and the appliances by stopping the flow of any unduly high electric current in electric toaster / electric laundry iron / electric oven. 1 23. (a) Galvanometer shows a momentary deflection when key is inserted, when key is removed again shows a momentary deflection but in opposite direction. 1 (b) Change in current through coil A changes magnetic field lines around the coil A as well around the coil B which causes an induced current in coil B and a deflection is produced in the galvanometer. 2 (c) Electromagnetic induction. Whenever there is a change in the magnetic field lines linked with a closed coil, a current is induced in it and it last so long the change is taken place. 1 (d) A : primary coil, B : secondary coil. 1 OR (a) North pole to South pole. 1 (b) Because it would mean that at the point of intersection, the compass needle would point towards two directions which is not possible. 1 (c) That strength of magnetic field is higher in that region. 1 (d) 50 Hz. 1 (e) AC can be transmitted over long distances without much loss of energy. 1 24. (a) Glomerulus
Bowman's capsule


Collecting duct Renal Artery

Fig. Excretory unit of human kidney.

Solutions | 13 (b) Function of nephron is filteration, Reabsorption and secretion. 1 (c) Function of Artificial Kidney : Helps to remove harmful waste, extra salts and water, control blood pressure, Maintain the balance of sodium potassium salts in a patient whose kidneys have failed. (any one) 1 OR (a) Two Advantages : (i) Helps in absorption and upward movement of water and minerals from roots to the leaves. 1 (ii) Temperature regulation. 1 (b) S.No. (i) Transpiration Transport of water and minerals. Translocation


Transport of soluble product of photosynthesis. (ii) Occurs through Xylem by simple physical Occurs through phloem by utilising forces. energy. 1+1 Because plants have a large proportion of dead cells in many tissues, they have low energy needs. So, they use a slow transport system. 1

25. (C), Calcium oxide is sparingly soluble. 26. (B), When FeSO4 is heated, irritating smell of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3) will be observed. Reddish brown Fe2O3 is obtained. 27. (C), The colour of solution becomes green in neutral medium. 28. (C), In HCl phenolphthalein indicator is green and in NaOH it gives pink colour. 29. (C), Prepare CuSO4 solution and dip Zinc strip in it. 30. (B), When Zn reacts with CuSO4 then blue solution becomes colourless, reddish brown Cu gets deposited. Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu 31. (C), It is a double displacement and a precipitation reaction. 32. (B), We should select instruments without any zero error. 33. (C), Terminals are correct in figures 2 and 3. 34. (B), Correct setup in B and C because in these two circuits R1 and R2 have the same point. 35. (D), V has to be connected in parallel and the potential of the terminal is greater than ve terminal. 36. (B), X is ammeter, Y is voltmeter and Z is Rheostat. 37. (B), Exposed portion has performed photosynthesis i.e., it will give starch test and turn blueblack. 38. (C), To destarched the leaves, the potted plant is kept in darkness for 2-3 days. 39. (D), Extra stain and glycerine can be removed by blotting paper. 40. (C), Missing part is nuclei in the guard cells. 41. (C), KCl does not abosrbs carbon dioxide. 42. (C), Lime water turns milky due to the presence of CO2 i.e., there must be an absence of KOH in the apparatus. qq


1. Magnitude of magnetic field increases. 2. Ovary : Oestrogen. Testis : Testosterone. 3. The locations where dams can be build to harness tidal energy are limited. 4. (a) Decomposition reaction (b) Exothermic reaction (c) Precipitation reaction (d) Endothermic reaction 5. S.No. Calcinations Roasting The process in which an ore is heated in the presence of air. Generally used for sulphide ores. ZnS + O2 ZnO + SO2 1 1

(i) The process in which an ore is heated in the absence of air. (ii) Generally used for carbonate ores. CaCO3 CaO + CO2

+++ 6. In parallel combination each gadget gets different current to operate properly. 1 In parallel combination even if one component is broken the other components will continue to work properly. 1 7. A current produced in a conductor due to the change in magnetic field linked with it is called induced current. 1 Flemings right hand rule : Stretch the first three fingers of the right hand mutually perpendicular to each other such that the fore-finger gives the direction of magnetic field and the thumb points the direction of the motion of a conductor then, the middle finger will give the direction of the induced current. 1 8. (a) Emission of brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) will be observed. 1 (b) The type of reaction is thermal decomposition. 1

heat 1 2Pb(NO3)2(s) 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) Lead nitrate Lead oxide nitrogen dioxide 9. (a) When quicklime is added to water calcium hydroxide is formed \ lot of energy is released. 1 (b) A reddish brown deposit is formed on Zinc \ Copper sulphate solution becomes light blue or colourless. 1 (c) White silver chloride turns grey. 1 10. Aim : To show that acid reacts with metal carbonates to CO2 gas. Apparatus : Test tubes, delivery tube, lime water, sodium carbonate, dil. HCl.
Delivery tube Thistle funnel

Lime water dil HCl Sodium carbonate

Solutions | 15 Procedure : (a) In a boiling tube take solid sodium carbonate. (b) Through the thistle funnel add dil HCl. (c) Pass the gas evolved through lime water and observe what happens. Observations : The lime water turns milky. Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O (Milkiness) Result : CO2 is evolved during the reaction of sodium carbonate with dil HCl. 11. (a) Order of reactivity is Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn > Cu (b) Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium and Copper have different reactivity with water. 2Na + 2H2O (cold) 2NaOH + H2 (reacts violently) Mg + 2H2O (hot) Mg(OH)2 + H2 (Reacts with hot water only) 2Al + 3H2O(g) Al2O3 + 3H2 (Reacts with steam only) 12. Power drawn by the bulb V = 200 V, I = 040 A Power of bulb P =VI = 200 0.40 = 80 W Resistance of the bulb

V R= I

200 04 = 500
= 13. Resistance of each resistor = R Equivalent resistance in series RS = R + R R S = 2R

Equivalent resistance in parallel

RP = = Ratio

RR R+R R 2
2R R 2 1


14. (a)

RS : RP = 4 : 1 1 Magnetic field lines drawn by Rekha close to the axis of current carrying circular loop appear as straight line (Being area of big circles) but these straight lines keep on diverging on moving away from the centre of the circular loop. It shows that magnetic field due to the current loop is maximum and normal to the current loop at its centre. As one moves away from the centre along the axis of the loop the value of magnetic field goes on decreasing. 1

16 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX (b) (i) Outside of a magnet, the magnetic field lines are directed from N-pole of magnet towards S-pole. However, inside the magnetic field lines are directed from S-pole to N-pole. (ii) More crowded field lines means a stronger field. (iii) No two magnetic field lines can ever intersect each other at any point in space.1+1 (any two) The extensive network of capillaries (blood vessels) present in the walls of the alveoli helps in easy diffusion i.e., exchange of gases. 1 Present in large number and highly elastic. 1 Provides large surface area for exchange of gases. 1 Nervous Control Chemical Control 1 1 1 1 1


16. S.No. (i) (ii) (iii) 17. (a)

Fast. Slow. Less persistant/neurons take time to reset. It is more persistant. Reach to connected cells only. Reach all the cells of the body. A-roots B-shoots

(b) The set up depicts positive and negative geotropism.

The shoots depict negative geotropism as they move away from gravity. The roots depict positive geotropism as they bend towards gravity in response to the pull of the earth. 1 18. Three advantages are : Solar cell panels provide a clear, pollution free energy and therefore use of solar cell is environment friendly. 1 Solar cell panels can be set up in remote areas where laying of a power transmission line is not commercially viable. 1 Solar cell panels require little maintenance as they have no moving parts and require no focussing device. 1

19. The nucleus of a heavy atom such as : uranium, plutonium or thorium when bombarded with low energy neutrons can be split apart into lighter neuclei. When this is done tremendous amount of energy is released. 2 The released energy can be used to produce steam and futher generate electricity. 20. (a) 1 Cu is lower than H in the reactivity series and hence cannot displace H from acids and release H2 gas. 1 e.g., 2HgS + 3O2 2HgO + 2SO2

(b) Metals low in activity series can be reduced by heating alone.

Heat 2HgO 2Hg + O2 Metals in the middle of activity series : e.g., Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, etc. usually present as carbonate and sulphides.
From Sulphides : Metals are obtained by roasting and then reduction with carbon. 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2 ZnO + C Zn + CO From Carbonates : Metals are obtained by calcination and then reduction with carbon. ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2 ZnO + C Zn + CO Metals in the top of the activity series Na, Mg, Ca etc. cannot be reduced with carbon as metals. They are obtained by electrolytic process from their molten chlorides. 1 1 1

Solutions | 17 OR

Ore Concentration of ore

Metals of high raeactivity Electrolysis of molten ore Pure metal

Metals of medium reactivity

Carbonate ore Calcination

Sulphide ore Roasting

Oxide of metal

Reduction to metal Purification of metal

21. (a)

Mixing of acid and water during dilution is an exothermic reaction. So if water is added to acid, lots of heat energy is released which may cause accidents. 1 (b) Sulphuric acid dissociates into ions in the solution but alcohol does not. 1 (c) Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate which on heating release CO2 gas which makes cake soft and fluffy. 1 (d) Solution of ammonia in water produces OH ions which makes the solution basic and turns red litmus blue. 1 (e) Tartaric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to from sodium bicarbonate and CO2 gas which makes cake fluffy and give a sweet taste to cake. 1 OR (a) Antacids contain mild alkalis like magnesium hydroxide or sodium hydrogen carbonate. These are used for getting relief from acidity and indigestion. 1 When taken orally they react with hydrochloric acid present in stomach and reduce its strength by neutralising the excess acids. 1 + (b) Hydrogen ions in HCl are produced in the presence of water, the separation of H ion from HCl molecules cannot occur in the absence of water. 1 HCl + H2O H2O+ + Cl Examples : Acetic acid : Vinegar Citric acid : Orange Lactic acid : Sour milk (curd) Tartaric acid : Tamarind H+ + H2O H3O+ +

(any two) +

18 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX 22. Power : The rate at which electric energy is dissipated or consumed in an electric current is called its power. 1 1 Watt Power consumed by a device that carries 1 A of current when operated at a potential difference of 1 V. 1 Watt hour Energy consumed when 1 watt of power is used for 1 hour. 1

Commercial unit of electric energy : kWh 1 kWh = 1000 watt 3600 second = 36 106 watt second = 36 106 Joule (J) Total energy consumed by heater = 1000 W 2h 30 = 60000 Wh = 60 kWh Cost of energy to operate for 30 days = Rs. 5 60 = Rs. 300 OR R R2 R3 (a) 1
V1 V2 V3

1 2

+ V

Marking scheme : Diagram : three resistances Direction of current Closing of Key. The total Potential difference V is equal to sum of potential difference across the individual resistors. V = V1 + V2 + V3 ...(1) Let current through each resistors is also I. If R is the equivalent resistance then V = IR ...(2) On applying Ohms law to resistance separately then V 1 = IR1 V 2 = IR2 V 3 = IR3 From equations (1) and (2) IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 R` = R1 + R2 + R3 (b) The circult diagram 2 4 6
R1 R2 R3

6V B

Total resistance

R = R1 + R2 + R3 = 2 + 4 + 6 = 12 I = R = 12 = 05 A
V 6V


Solutions | 19 (i) 220 V (ii) 50 Hz (b) (i) Earth wire : It is thick metal wire connected to a metal plate deep in the earth and is used as a safety measure for appliances with metallic body e.g., toaster etc. The metallic body is connected to the earth wire which provides a low resistance conducting path for the the current. Also ensures that any leakage of current in the metallic body keeps its potential to that of the earth and the user may not get a severe electric shock if touched. 2 (ii) Fuse : It is a piece of wire made of a metal or an alloy with low melting point. If a current larger than the specified value flows through the circuit, the temperature of the fuse wire increases and (when the fuse wire melts) it breaks the circuit and thus prevents the flow of undue high electric current in the device. In this way a fuse of proper rating protects the appliance and the circuit from damage caused due to high current due to over loading/short circuiting. 2 OR (a) A line along which a north pole of the compass needle moves in is called magnetic field lines. 1 If two magnetic field lines intersect, there will be two directions of the magnetic field at the point of intersection, which is not possible. 1 (b) Take two different coils of copper wire having large number of turns (say 50 and 100), insert them over a non-conducting cylindrical. Connect coil I having large number of turns in series with battery and plug key. Also connect the other coil 2 with galvanometer. Plug in key, observe the deflection in galvanometer. Deflection in galvanometer shows that induced current is produced in coil. 1 If is the key is released from coil 1, galvanometer shows deflection in opposite direction. It indicates that now current flows in opposite direction. Flemings Right hand rule. 24. (a) Glucose, amino acids, salts, large amount of water. (any two) 1 (b) Toxic wastes get accumulated in the blood in case of kidney failure, dialysis is done to remove toxics. 1 (c) Lungs have sac like structures called alveoli which increases the surface area for exchange of gases. 1 (d) Glucose (6-Compound) is converted into pyruvate (3-Compound) in the cytoplasm. 1 (e) Unicellular organisms remove their wastes by simple diffusion. 1 OR (a) (i) 23. (a)

Guard cell


Stomatal pore Chloroplast

(ii) Two functions of stomata are : (1) Exchange of gases. (2) Transpiration.

20 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX (b) Basic materials for photosynthesis : CO2 and H2O.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O Sunlight Chlorophyll

1 1

25. (D), White precipitate is of Barium sulphate. BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaCl 26. (C), Iron displaces copper from copper sulphate solution. 27. (D), The colour seen at the extreme ends of pH chart are red and blue. 28. (B), Green white brown. 29. (C), pH of a solution is determined by universal indicator. 30. (C), Zn granules are used in experiments. 31. (A), The fresh deposit of copper on iron is soft and dull. 32. (B), The zero error will be + 015 V. 33. (A), One terminal of each resistor should be connected and the voltmeter has to be connected between the other free terminals of both the resistors. 34. (B), Range = 35. (B), 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. (B), (B), (B), (D), (D), (C), (C),

100 = 5 Position =7 5 = 35 after 100 20 So, total = 100 + 35 = 135 The voltmeter has to be put in parallel with the resistances being measured and not across the ammeter. The resistor R2 is loose. In dark, photosynthesis cannot take place. Stomata open during sunlight (day) for exchange of gases. Safranine stains leaf in pink colour. Chloroplast contains chlorophyll. Potassium hydroxide absorbs CO2 during respiration in plants. A, B, and D are reasons. qq


1. To ensures that any leakage of current to the metallic body of the appliance does not give shock to the user. 1 2. Plant growth movements in response to stimuli from a particular direction are called tropic movements. 1 3. The difference in temperature of water at the surface of ocean and at deeper levels (at depths upto 2 km) should be 20C or more. 1 4. (a) Evolution of a gas (b) Change in temperature (c) Change in state (d) Change in colour 5. (a) Mercury ore is Cinnabar 1 (b) It is easier to reduce a metal from its oxides, as compared to its sulphides or carbonates. 1 6. (a) One volt is the potential difference between two points in a current carrying conductor when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 C coulomb from one point to the other. 1

(b) (i)



7. Precautions : A fuse of appropriate rating should be used in the circuit. Too many appliances should never be connected to a single socket. + Overloading occurs when a large number of higher current drawing appliances are switched on at the same time and the total current drawn through the circuit exceeds its rated value. Short circuiting occurs when the live wire comes in direct contact with neutral wire. 8. The chemical reaction in which heat is released along with the formation of products is called an exothermic reaction. 1 Example : C + O2 CO2 2H2 + O2 2H2O The chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed is called endothermic reaction. 1 Example : 2AgCl 2Ag + Cl2 2AgBr 2Ag + Br2 9. (a) Iron articles react with oxygen and water present in the atmosphere. They get corroded and rusted. This rust is seen as reddish brown powder. 1 (b) Exothermic reaction : A reaction in which heat is released along with the formation of products. Since in burning of coal in air a large amount of heat is released along with the products, it is called an exothermic reaction. 1 (c) According to the law of conservation of mass, mass can neither be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reaction, i.e., the total number of atoms of each element remains the same before and after a chemical reaction. A chemical equation representing a chemical reaction must be balanced. 1

22 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX 10. S.No. 1. 2. 3. Name of the solution Na2CO3 solution Dil. HCl NaCl solution Colour change if added Phenolphthalein turns pink no change no change Colour change if added Blue litmus no change turns red no change 1+1+1 + Al2O3 + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2O Al2O3 + 2NaOH 2NaAlO3 + H2O RC = C 1 1

11. X Al ; Y Al2O3 (a) (b) 12. For copper wire,

l AC l For Nichrome wire, RN = N AN Since resistance and length are equal : C = N AC AC A C C = or A C N AC < AN
so N > C


Thickness of Nichrome is greater. Since resistivities of alloys are higher and also do not oxidize (burn) readily at higher temperature, they are commonly used is electrical heating devices. 1 13. The bulbs will provide more illumination when connected in parallel as each bulb will get the required voltage/current and their illuminations will be added. In case the bulbs are connected in series, they will not get the required voltage and may even not glow. 1 The bulbs should be connected in parallel because each bulb will show its maximum power or total resistance hence greater current may be drawn from the cell. Adavantage of parallel arrangement : (i) Voltage across each device is same and it can take current as per its resistance. (ii) If one device is damaged, then others continue to work properly. + 14. It prevents damage to the appliance due to overloading or short circuiting.

P 100 W 10 = A = V 200 V 22 Current rating (Maximum current) = 5 A current rating No. of lamps = current through one lamp
I= =
5 5 22 = =11 10 10 22

1 1

15. The digestion function are taken care by the gastric glands present in the wall of the stomach. These glands release hydrochloric acid, a protein digesting enzyme called pepsin and mucus. 1 Hydrochloric acid creates an acidic medium that facilitates the action of enzyme pepsin. 1 Mucus protects inner living of stomach from the action of acid under normal condition. 1 16. (a) A : Pituitary B : Thyroid C : Adrenal D : Pancreas

Solutions | 23 (b) Pancreas : Secrete insulin which control amount of sugar in blood. Testes : Secrete testosterone which controls sperm production/secondary sexual character. 17. Sequence of events which occur when some hot object touches our foot. Stimulus Receptor Sensory Nerve Spinal cord (Hot object) (in the foot) (neuron) (CNS) Effector Motor Nerve (muscle) (neuron) 6=3 18. S.No. 1. 2. 3. Renewable Can be replenished. Available in abundance. No conservation needed. Examples : Solar energy, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, Geothermal energy. Non-renewable Cannot be replenished. Need to be conserved as there are limited reserves. Examples : Wood, fossil fuel like coal, petroleium, natural gas. (any two) 3 1 1 Nuclear Fusion Two smaller nuclei fuse or join together to form one nucleus and releases large amount of energy. 1

19. (a)

Nuclear reactor : Element B Process : Nuclear Fission (b) Hydrogen Bomb : Element A Process : Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fission A large nucleus breaks into two smaller nuclei and releases a large amount of energy.

20. Alloy : A homogenous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal. 1 Preparation : Alloys are prepared by first melting the primary metal and then dissolving the other element in it in definite proportions. It is then cooled at room temperature. 1 Advantage of making alloys : It is a very good method of improving the properties of a metal. 1 Composition of stainless steel : Iron + nickel + chromium. 1 (i) It is hard. (ii) It does not rust. OR The reaction in which iron (III) oxide is heated with aluminium powder to give iron and aluminium oxide. 1 Fe2O3 + 2Al 2Fe + Al2O3 + heat. 1 (i) Displacement reaction. (ii) Exothermic reaction. It is used to join railway tracks/cracked machine parts. 1 Reason : Since it is a highly exothermic reaction, iron is produced in the molten state which may be allowed to trickle down to weld two iron objects. 1 21. (a) Bacteria present is the mouth produce hydrochloric acid as one of the products by the degradation of sugar and food particles remaining in the mouth after eating. Tooth enamel (Calcium-phosphate) gets corroded by hydrochloric acid and forms cavities in the teeth. Tooth pastes are slightly alkaline in nature and neutralise hydrochloric acid. 3 (b) Methanoic acid; Lactic acid. ,

24 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX (c) If the soil is acidic, then the treatment with these materials will neutralise the harmful acidic effect as the materials are alkaline. 1 OR (a) (c) B is the most active metal it displaces iron from its salt solution. D<C<A<B 1 1 1 (b) B will displace Cu from CuSO4 more reactive than copper.

(d) Container of metal can be used to store both ZnSO4 and AgNO 3 solutions because it cannot displace Zn and Ag from their salt solution. 1 (e) 22. (a) ZnSO4 can be stored in a container made up of any of these metals.
5 5 10 10

+ 20 V

+ 20 V


Parallel arrangement

Series arrangement

(b) Voltage across A and B will be same in parallel arrangement. (c) Current in A and B will be same in seires arrangement. (d) Equivalent resistance in Parallel combination

R1 R 2 5 10 10 RP = R + R = 5 +10 = 3 1 2
= 333 1 1 R S = R1 + R2 = 5 + 10 = 15 OR

Series combination (a)

The electric line wires have much lower resistance than filament of the bulb. Current through high resistance filament produce comparative much more heat which makes it glow. 1

(b) The filament has high melting point and is held in an atmosphere of inert gas. Hence does not oxidize. 1 (c) I = 025 A, t = 4 h = 4 60 60 s Q = It = 025 4 60 60 = 3600 Coulomb P = VI, I = I =



2 kW 2000 W = =909 A 220 V 220 V

23. (a)

Hence a fuse of 5 A capacity may be used with electric iron. 1 A magnetic field line is the path along which a free pole tends to move. The direction of a magnetic field at a point is determined by placing a small compass needle. The N-pole of compass indicates the direction of magnetic field at that point. 1

Solutions | 25 (b)


The properties of magnetic lines of force are as follows : (i) Magnetic field lines emerge from the north pole and merge at the south pole. 1 (ii) The direction of field lines inside the magnet is from the south pole to the north pole. 1 OR (a) No, a magnetic field exerts a force only on moving charges. 1 (b) The direction of force depends on the direction of current and direction of magnetic field. 1 (c) The force is maximum when the direction of current is at right angles to the direction of magnetic field. 1 (d) Flemings Left Hand Rule : Stretch the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of your left hand such that they are mutually perpendicular to each other. If the first finger points in the direction of magnetic field and the middle finger in the direction of current, then the thumb will point in the direction of motion or the force acting on the conductor. 2 24. (a) Difference between Autotrophic and Heterotrophic nutrition : S.No. (1) (2) Autotrophic Nutrition They can manufacture their own food by process of photosynthesis. For food manufacturing they require CO2, H2O and sunlight. e.g. green plants. Heterotrophic Nutrition They depends on other plants or other animals for food. They consume complex food which gets digested into small soluble compounds by digestion e.g. human being, cow etc.

2 (b) Fats are emulsified by bile salts. The emulsified fats are acted upon by pancreatic and intestinal lipase to form fatty acids and glycerol.


Lipase Fats (emulsified) Fatty acids + Glycerol. Cholesterol helps in absorption of digestion products by intestinal wall. 2 Digestion of food occurs mostly in jejunum part of small intestine. 1 OR (i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll. (ii) Coversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of H2O molecules. (iii) Reduction of CO2 to carbohydrates. 1+1+1

(b) When guard cells are filled with H2O it pulls apart guard cells and pore open. When guard cells shrink pore closes. CO2 is available for photosynthesis. 2

25. (B), When quick lime is added to water it releases huge amount of heat as it is exothermic reaction. 26. (D), Bases turns pH paper blue.

26 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX 27. (D), Displacement reaction is : Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s) 28. (B), This option is correct. 29. (C), The colour of ferrous sulphate solution is pale green and the colour of copper sulphate solution is blue. 30. (D), Zinc can deposit in II and IV options. 31. (A), Both solutions become colourless. 32. (D), Heating changes the resistance. 33. (D), In all circuits, R1 and R2 are connected in series. 34. (B), Ammeter is in series. But voltmeter is not in parallel. If ammeter has a significant resistance, voltmeter will also show deflection. 35. (D), All these. 36. (A), 2 and 3 are connected in parallel. 37. (A), This is correct sequence. 38. (B), Bulged in open stomata and flattened in closed stomata. 39. (A), This step is missing. 40. (D), Focus under high power using fine adjustment knob. 41. (B), Colour is added to observe water level. 42. (B), Cotton plug did not set up airtight.



1. Force experienced by the conductor is maximum when placed perpendicular to magnetic field. 1 2. Cell division : Cytokinins. Growth of stem : Gibberelins. 3. Transmitting electricity is more efficient and economical than transporating coal or petroleum over same distance. 1 4. Example of thermal decomposition : CaCO3 CaO + CO2 1 (Lime stone) (Qucik lime) Example of photochemical decomposition :

sunlight 2AgCl(s) 1 2Ag(s) + Cl2(g) (Silver chloride) (Silver) (Chlorine) 5. (a) Sodium is stored in kerosene to keep it away from air and moisture as it reacts with oxygen to give its corresponding oxide and with water to give corresponding hydroxide and hydrogen. 1 (b) Aluminium and copper metals used for making cooking vessels because they are good conductors of heat and they have high melting points. 1 6. V = 220 V, P = 1000 W
P = R =

V2 R

220 220 = 484 2 1000 7. Permanent magnets have constant magnetic fields around it. When a soft iron is placed inside a solenoid and a current is passed it gets magnetised. The magnet so fromed is called an electromagnet. 1 Uses : Permanent magnet : Electric generator, loudspeaker. Electromagnet : Cranes, electric, bell. 8. (1) Corrosion : Harmful, as it loses shine of same metals such as copper, and silver. Corrosion of iron called rusting is a serious problem as enormous amount of money is spent to replace damaged iron. (2) Rancidity : Harmful, as when fats and oils are oxidised, they become rancid and their smell and taste change. (3) Burning of fuels : Useful, as these are exothermic reactions, large amount of heat energy is evolved. (4) Respiration : Useful as it is exothermic the glucose combines with oxygen in the cells of our body and provides energy. (any three) 1+1+1 9. (a) MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2 1 (b) 3BaCl2 + Al2(SO4)3 3BaSO4 + 2AlCl3 1 (c) 3Fe + 2H2O Fe3O4 + 2H2 1

28 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX 10. (a) The basic solution also have H+(aq) ions but the number of OH ions is much more than H+(aq) ions. 1 (b) Sodium chloride is prepared from a strong acid (hydrochloric acid) and a strong base (sodium hydroxide) so it is a neutral salt. 1 (c) A solution of sulphuric acid has ions whereas that of alcohol does not. 1 Metals Ag Cu Fe 12. (a) Colour Black Green Reddish brown Compound Silver sulphide (AgS) Copper Carbonate (CuCO3) Iron oxide Fe 2O3.xH2O + + +


When a 2 resistor is joined to a 6 V battery in series with 1 aand 2 resistors, total resistance of the combination RS = 2 + 1 + 2 = 5 Current in the circuit I1=

6V = 12 5

Power used in the 2 resistor P 1 = I12 R = (12)2 2 = 288 W. (b) When 2 resistor is joined to a 4 V battery in parallel with 12 and 2 resistors, current flowing in 2 resistors is independent of the other resistors. Current flowing through 2 resistor I2 =

4V = 2A 2

R3 V3

Power used in 2 resistor P2 = I22 R = (2)2 2 = 8 W

288 W P1 = 036 : 1 = 8W P2
R1 V1 I + 6V V R2 V2

V = V1 + V2 + V3 V = IR; V1 = IR1; V2 = IR2, V3 = IR3 IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 R = R1 + R2 + R3 Hence derived. 14. Magnetic field : A region around a magnet where magnetic force can be experinced. 1 A compass needle gets deflected due to the forces acting on its poles due to bar magnet. 1 Conventionally the direction of magnetic field lines is from north pole to south pole. They are closed curves and no two field lines intersect. 15. (a) Food is transported by sieve tubes through energy, food moves into sieve tube at the expense of ATP. Due to increase in osmotic pressure water enters into the tissues. Due to this pressure material water moves from phloem to tissue. 2 (b) Components are : (i) Photosynthetic products or sucrose. (ii) Amino acids. 16. Adrenalin is secreted directly into the blood and carried to different parts of the body. The target organ is heart. As a result the heart beats faster, resulting in supply of more oxygen to our muscles. The blood to the digestive system and skin is reduced due to contraction of I remains the same in R1, R2 and R3

Solutions | 29 muscles around small arteries in these organs. This diverts blood to our skeletal muscles. The breathing rate increases due to contraction of diaphragm and the rib muscles. All these responses together enable the animal body to ready to deal with the situation. 2 Name of gland : Adrenal gland. Location : Top of kidneys. 17. Due to geological changes, molten rocks in the earths crust are pushed upward and trapped in certain regions. Such regions are called Hot spots. 1 Advangage : Cost of production of electricity is low. 1 Limitation : There are very few commercially viable sites where such energy can be exploited. 1 18. It is important that hormones should be secreted in precise quantities. We need a mechanism through which this is done. The timing and amount of hormone released are regulated by feedback mechanisms. 1 For example : If sugar levels in blood rises, they are detected by the cells of the pancreas which respond by producing more insulin. As the blood sugar level falls, insulin secretion is reduced. 1 19. S.No. 1. 2. 3. Fossil Fuels These are non renewable and exaustible source of energy. Combustion of fossil fuels causes pollution and degradation of environment. Fossil fuels are costly but energy can be easily obtained by burning fuels. Solar Energy This is renewable and inexaustable source of energy. Harnessing of solar energy causes no pollution or degradation of environment. Solar energy is freely available. But devices used to harness it are costly and their efficiency is also less.

1+1+1 20. (a) Na, Ca, and Mg are highly reactive. 1 (b) Due to its low melting point. 1 (c) Silver ornaments gradually turn blackish due to the formation of thin layer of silver sulphide on these surfaces by the action of hydrogen sulphide gas present in air. 1 (d) Iron oxide can react with acids as well as bases. 1 (e) Hydrogen gas is not evolved when a metal reacts with nitric acid as HNO3 is a strong oxidising agent and it oxidise H2 produced to water and is itself reduced to any of the oxides of nitrogen. 1 OR (a) Minerals are naturally occurring materials found inside earths crust containing metals in their combined state whereas minerals from which metals can be extracted profitably are ores. 2 (b) The process of removing the impurities from a reduced metal and obtain its pure state is called refining of mealts. 1 Electrolyte refining is most widely used method : Many metals, such as copper, zinc, tin, nickel, silver, gold etc are refined electrolytically. In this process, the impure metal is used as the anode and a thin strip of pure metal is made the cathode. A solution of the metal salt is used as an electrolyte. On passing the current through electrolyte pure metal from the anode dissolves into electrolyte. An equivalent amount of pure metal from the electrolyte is deposited on the cathode. 1 21. The white enamel coating of our teeth is made of calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 which is very hard. However it gets affected when the pH of our mouth falls below 55. The bacteria present

30 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX in the mouth break down the sugar and food particles stick with the teeth into acids. Lactic acid is most common among these. Formation of these acids damages our teeth. 3 The best way to prevent tooth decay is to clean the mouth throughly after eating. 1 Use of tooth paste is also beneficial because tooth pastes are basic in nature and neutralise the excess of acids responsible for tooth decay. 1 OR (a) S.No. Acids Bases

(i) H+ are released in aqueous solution. OH are released in aqueous solution. (ii) Reacts with metal carbonates to liberate No reaction takes place with metal CO2 gas. carbonates. 2 (b) A reaction in which an acid combines with a base to form salt and water. Examples : (i) (ii) 22. Activity :

1 1 1

Acid + Base Salt + Water HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O Acid Base Salt Water H2SO4 + 2KOH K2SO4 + H2O Acid Base Salt Water
(1) K

+ A +

Complete the circuit consisting of a cell, an ammeter, a nichrome wire (1) of legnth l and a plug key. Now, plug the key. Note the current in the ammeter. Replace the nichrome wire by another nichrome wire (2) of same thickness but twice the length (2l) Note the ammeter reading. It is observed that ammeter reading decreases to half when the length of wire is doubled.

Numerical : R1 =

1 = 20 A

l 2 R2 = 2A

R2 = =

1 l 4 A

1 20 1 4 =5 OR Ohms law : The current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends provided the physical conditions of the conductor remain the same. 1

Solutions | 31 Graph :


Resistance : The property of a conductor to oppose the flow of current. R = =


08 V 1 200 103 A = 4 . 23. (a) (i) A momentary deflection : indicates momentary current direction of current in the coil anticlockwise. 1 (ii) Deflection in opposite direction current of an opposite direction. (iii) No deflection : No current is produced in the coil. (b) Electromagnetic induction. Faraday. Statement of Flemings right hand rule : Stretch the first three fingers of the right hand mutually perpendicular to each other such that the fore finger gives the direction of magnetic field, the thumb points the direction of the motion of a conductor then, the middle finger will give the direction of the induced current. 2 OR Activity : Take a small compass and a bar magnet. Place the magnet on a sheet of white paper fixed on a drawing board. Mark the boundary of the magnet. Place the compass near the north pole of the magnet. The south pole of the needle points towards the north pole of the magnet. The north pole of the compass is directed away from the north pole of the magnet. Mark the position of two ends of the needle. Move the needle to a new position such that its south pole occupies the position previsously occupied by its north pole. In this way, proceed step by step till you reach the south pole of the magnet. Join the points marked on the paper by a smooth curve. This curve represents a field line. These lines represent the magnetic field around the magnet. These are known as magnetic field lines. 3

+ S + N S

+ N S N +

24. (a)

Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs comes to the thin-walled upper chamber the left atrium, through pulmonary vein. When the muscular left ventricle contracts in its turn, the blood is pumped out the body. De-oxygenated blood comes from the body to the upper chamber on the right, the right atrium, as it expands. As the right atrium contracts, the corresponding lower chamber, the right ventricle, dilates on the left, the left atrium. The left atrium relaxes when it is collecting this blood.

32 | CBSE (CCE) Term-I, Science ClassX It then contracts, while the next chamber, the left ventricle, expands, so that the blood is transferred. This transfers blood to the e lungs for oxygenation. Ventricles pump blood into various organs, they have thicker musuclar walls than the atria do. (b) Lymph carries digested and abosrbed fat from intestine and drains excess fluid. 1 Fluid from the extracellular space drains into lymphatic capillaries which join to form large lymph vessels that finally open into larger veins back into the blood. 1 OR S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Functions of Blood Transport of respiratory gases. Transport of nutrients. Transport of waste products. Transport of hormones. Maintenance of pH. Explanations Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases. Sugar, amino acids, minerals and vitamins are picked up by blood. It carries nitrogenous wastes from various parts of the body to the kidneys. Endocrine glands pour their hormones into blood for transport to target tissues. Blood maintains the pH of tissue fluids with the help of various buffers. 1+1+1+1+1

25. (C), Thick white precipitate of barium sulphate is formed. BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl 26. (C), On heating ferrous sulphate crystal, irritaing, chocking and brown, gas evelved. 27. (C), The colour of CuSO4 solution is blue. 28. (A), Fruit juices are acidic in nature so they have pH 25 and 36. 29. (D), This is the correct figure. 30. (D), Vigorous bubbling and hissing sound is produced as the reaction is exothermic. CaO(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2 + heat. 31. (C), H2 gas is evolved, therefore bubbles are found and gas burns with a pop sound. Zn(s) + 2HCl(dil) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) 32. (B), The equivalent resistance of a parallel combination of resistors is less than the resistance of either of its two branches. The equivalent resistance in circuit II is less than (R1 + R2) and hence the current flowing through increase. Voltage reading in both cases remains the same. 33. (A), R = 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. (A), (D), (A), (B), (C), (C), (D), (B), (C),

V I To avoid parallax error with our eye. Both resistors are in parallel combination. Voltmeter is wrongly connected. B is the correct diagram. Stained in safranine and mounted in glycerine. Nuclei and chloroplast in guard cells missing. Respiration can take place in moist seeds. Apprropriate quantity will give the result in time. Correct set-up.