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Contents

List of Tables List of Figures 1 DESIGN OF A CLASS D AUDIO AMPLIFIER 1.1 1.2 1.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audio signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure of the class D audio amplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 PWM generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 12 13

Challenges faced and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 Comparator design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Availability of components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduction of Miller Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

Circuit specications and performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 Circuit diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PWM generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power output at nal stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 1.7 1.8

Response to a realtime signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Component Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modied Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8.1 Sallen-Key Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9

Current Amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14 15 15 16

1.10 Change of Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11 Amplier Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.12 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

List of Tables
1.1 Component Spesications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

List of Figures
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Block diagram of a class D amplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit diagram of the designed class D amplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PWM signal after the comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage gain just before the nal stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . power output at the nal stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase respose of the amplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A real time voice sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PWM for a real time voice sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . voltage gain for a real time voice sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 15

1.10 Power output of a real time voice sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11 Circuit with active lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.12 1st Order Sallen-Key active lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.13 Darlington pair conguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 1 DESIGN OF A CLASS D AUDIO AMPLIFIER


1.1 Introduction

Amplication is an essential requirment in common electronics practice. To convert an logical signal to a real life one we surely need amplication. As per the requirmrent the ampliers can be a voltage amplier or it can be a current amplier. But in some cases we need to amplify both; this is the task of a power amplier. So we can dene a power amplier as an amplier that can amplify the input power (which essentially means we have to amplify both voltage and current for an efcient power gain). According to construction details the power ampliwr family is classied into some categories. Some of the important classes of ampliers are noted below: 1. Class A amplier 2. Class B amplier 3. Class AB amplier 4. Class D amplier Amongst these amplier class D ampliers are most efcient (an average efciency of 90 %). In this project we are to design a class D audio amplier.

1.2

Audio signals

Audio signals are our vocal signals. The frequency of the audio band lies in the interval of 20Hz to 20kHz. So aur input signal must be between 20Hz to 20kHz, and so as the output.

1.3

Structure of the class D audio amplier

The efciency of the class D audio amplier increases because of the digitalization of the signal. We convert the analog input to a pulse width modied digital signal. And that signal has discrete on time and off time. Due to very short ontime and also due to very less current at that instant power consumption by tha amplier is very low/ So we can get very high output/input ratio.

Figure 1.1: Block diagram of a class D amplier

1.3.1

PWM generation

In this section the signal wave is chopped by a carrier wave of a very high frequency. The frequency of the carrier wave must be atleast 10 time of the audio signal. So that while ltering there will be no component of the frequency that will be within the audio band. After chopping of the wave the comparator does the comparison between the carrier and signal. And it converts of the signal to a pulse width modulated digital signal. This converts the analog input to a digital one.

1.3.2

Amplication

After getting the PWM signal we will have to amplify its power. For this task we use a power MOSFET. The power MOSFET will work as a switch and thus amplifying both voltage and current. So we get an overall power gain. But the digital signal of no use for us as we need the amplied voiece signal as output.

1.3.3

Filtering

After making digital signal we will have to convert it to an audio signal, which requires the work of a demodulater. So we will have to pass them through demodularo. This work can easily done by a low-pass of audio lter. So after ltering the higher harmonics of the wave are blocked.

1.4
1.4.1

Challenges faced and Solutions


Comparator design

The opamp can be used as an comparator. the readily available 741 or LM324 quard Opamp can be used for the task. But the comparator using 741or LM 324 cuold not perform wel. That was because of the aunability of the opamp to work with higher frequencies. This challenge was solved by using BJT as a comparator. In this method 1st two BJTs are used for differential amplication and the next one for switching. By doing this we became able to handle a frequency of order of 100s of kilo Hertzs.

1.4.2

Availability of components

The main hurdlewe faced during the design of the model was the unavaility of power MOSFET in market. Thus we used the combination of BJT for amplication and switching purpose. But use of BJT reduced the current. So we used a Darlington pair at the output stage to make current gain.

1.4.3

Reduction of Miller Effect

The miller effect comes to play due to the internal capacitance of the transister. This effect is propertional to the gain as wel as input impidance. The voltage buffer at the input reduces th 7

input impidance signicantly reducing Millers effect.

1.5
1.5.1

Circuit specications and performance


Circuit diagram

Figure 1.2: Circuit diagram of the designed class D amplier This is the gure of the class D audio amplier we tried to design. Here we only used BJTs to get the desier amplication. Due to the use of Darlington pair the power efciency reduced to 80%, yet we were able to achieve a band widthh of 20kHZ, which can provide us with a very good quality of sound.

1.5.2

PWM generation

Figure 1.3: PWM signal after the comparator The PWM is generated by the comparison between the carrier wave and the signal wave. During the chopping whenever the signal is higher than the carrier wave, the differential am8

plier amplies the difference, which switces on the PNP BJT generating a logic high pulse. Whenever the signal s lower than the carrier wave the BJT remains at cutoff.

1.5.3

Voltage gain

Figure 1.4: Voltage gain just before the nal stage From the gure it is very much clear that we are getting a voltage gain of approximately 3.222V/V. The voltage gain can easily be increased by gicing more VCC.

1.5.4

Power output at nal stage

Figure 1.5: power output at the nal stage From the gure if can be known that the maximum power output is around 38.8Watt and the minimum power is around 4.46Watt. So the RMS power is approximately 24.33Watt. So it is around 50 times more powerful than our laptop speakers.

1.5.5

Phase response

Figure 1.6: Phase respose of the amplier From the phase response diagram it is clear that the phase of the input and the output signals mentain a linier phae relationship till around 4MHz of frequrncy. So the quality of the sound can never be bad sue to ant short of phase shift.

1.6

Response to a realtime signal

The feasibiliti of the signal can be wel tested if it can be implimented for a real time signal (instead os a simple sin signal if we choose a sample vics signal). Suppose we have a sample voice signal similar to the gure 1.7. Then we can test the real feasibility of the syatem.

Figure 1.7: A real time voice sample Figure 1.8 shows the PWM for the real time voive signal which is shown in gure 1.7. THe carrier wave is a 200kHz sine wave. Figure 1.9 shows the voltage gain for the real time signal. We can see that there is a slight phase shift as it was even in the last time. 10

Figure 1.8: PWM for a real time voice sample

Figure 1.9: voltage gain for a real time voice sample From gure 1.10, we can deduce that, for a real time signal, we also get a very good power gain, and the power gain is according to the input signal.

From thf gures 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10 it is clear that the audio amplier is working quite ne for the realtime signals also and providing an exvellent power amplication.

1.7

Component Specications

The list of the components to be used for designing of the amplier is specied in the following table 1.1

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Figure 1.10: Power output of a real time voice sample Component model BC 547 - NPN BJT Work Comparator switching BC 558 - PNP Transistor D880 - NPN Transistor Power BJT for current amplication L293D (Optional Component) Table 1.1: Component Spesications Driver IC 48V, 1.5Amp 60V, 1Amp Switching circuit 48V, 0.1Amp and Rating 48V,0.1Amp

1.8

Modied Filter

The availability of the products is a great factor in designing. And the similar problem was encountered while nding an inductor of a lower power rating. The use of inductor in the circuit is to provide a constant current supply to the low pass lter so that the capacitor remains charged. But due to unavailability of inductors, a 1st order active lter was implimented. Again the opamp 741 was unable to act precisely at such high frequencies (a frequency of 15kHz), a combinations of transistors were taken to design a differntial amplier which can do the same operation as an opamp. Here we have used a 1st order Sallen-Key active lter. The explanation of the lter circuit is given below.

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Figure 1.11: Circuit with active lter

1.8.1

Sallen-Key Filter

The SallenKey topology is an electronic lter topology used to implement second-order active lters that is particularly valued for its simplicity. It is a degenerate form of a voltagecontrolled voltage-source (VCVS) lter topology. Because of its high input impedance and easily selectable gain, an operational amplier in a conventional non-inverting conguration is often used in VCVS implementations. Implementations of SallenKey lters often use an operational amplier congured as a voltage follower; however, emitter or source followers are other common choices for the buffer amplier. VCVS lters are relatively resilient to component tolerance, but obtaining high Q factor may require extreme component value spread or high amplier gain. Higher-order lters can be obtained by cascading two or more stages. For this project the 1st order ltering technique is enough. The gure 1.12 shows the Sallen-Key lter.

Figure 1.12: 1st Order Sallen-Key active lter In the designed class D amplier the Sallen-Key lter has the following parameters R1 = 20k (which is R9 as per simulation) 13

R2 = 20k (which is R10 as per simulation) C1 = 0.8nF C2 = 0.2nF For a Sallen-Key lter the transfer function is given by H (s) = 0 2 s2 + 2s + 0 2 (1.1)

and similarly the cutoff frequency is given by f0 = 1 2 R1 R2 C1 C2 (1.2)

For a very good band width we need to mentain a very good Q factor (quality factor). The quality factor for a Sallen-Key lter is given by 0 R1 R2 C1 C2 Q= = 2 C 2 R1 + R2 (1.3)

From equation 1.2 cutoff frequency is 19.894kHz, and from equation 1.3 Q = 1.

Because of using an active lter the continuity in current supply remains intact. Hence an inductor is no longer required. And we can also get very good quality factor.

1.9

Current Amplication

Due to the use of BJTs the current in the circuit decreases dramatically. Yet power amplication demands a high current gain. So the current amplifying Darlinton pair is used in the circuit. This works as a driver for the circuit. To tolerate such high amount of current (approximately 0.75A ti 1.2A) power transistor (D880) is used. The darlington pair gives a current gain of 2 (assuming that two identical transisiors are being used).

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Figure 1.13: Darlington pair conguration

1.10

Change of Power

From the earlier sections (wnen inductor was being used) it is clear that the power output was pretty high. But for laboratory purpose the power was too much, and it needed power components (like high power resistors, high power capacitors etc.) So various parameters were varried (like lter resistance was doubled, capacitance was increased, collecot resistance was increased etc) to decrease the power, and nally it was brought to a level of 5Watt peak.

1.11

Amplier Specications

From the simulation of gure 1.11 :

Mavimum Input Voltage = Vin = 8Vpk-pk Maximum Output Voltage = Vout = 9.943Vpk-pk Voltage gain = GV = 1.25V/V Current output = 173.59mApk Power Output = 5.9965Wpk-pk RMS power = 1.224W Maximum Voltage applivable for power supply = 36V Maximum Current tollerance = 1.5A 15

Maximum Temperature range = 60 degree Celcius (Component dependent) Maximum Power tollerance = 7Watt (Load resistor dependent) Band width = 20kHz (520MHz - Maximum till half gain)

1.12

Conclusion

Here in this project we studied and implimented the Class D audio amplier. Here we were able to get a power efciency of approximately 80%. On the other hand we were able to design a high quality sound amplier having band width 20kHz and we were able to reduce the Millers effect. by adding a potentiometer we can also impliment a volume control system.

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Acknowledgments
All the information and documentations written here are genuine and true to our knowledge. None of the writtings have been copied from any source. Submitted by :

Cyan Subhra Mishra (711EC2004)

Manaj Mohapatra (711EC2041)

Soumya Prakash Mishara (711EC2121)

Date: