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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Business will grow with time and this growth will be part of company long term strategy. It is necessary for growth of business finance, stock price, company assets and increase market share of company, but it needs to address clearly that company internal issues like human resource planning and their effects on employees to made any change in organization like reengineering or restructuring of organization, keep in mind of defined business objectives. Expansion of company needed finance, expert human capital and developed organizational departmental structure and it is only possible when financial statement showing steady growth in their profits in last few years and not real internal issues arise, not only relay one or two years results. Companies Employees are considered as asset and backbone. This concept is necessary for any country to sustain in market and build their image in face of public. Companies were adopted this practice, then the issue of quality of their products and services increase. Employees pleasure is a reflection of human resource department performance and many factors that may have impact on that. Now a day it is a general characteristic of nearly all multinational companies to provide that culture to their employees. It positively has an collision on employees satisfaction. The major reason of providing these facilities is to retain their key workers as a long term company benefit. The highest level of employees satisfaction is that he/she may not need to contact to the other companies to join him. The core purpose of this research is to know that what employee expect from their management specially human resource department and what really is being obtainable in the name of services

that employee provided and observing the relationship between employees and management. Human element of delivery service to their company, systemization, organizational culture, departmental values and employees self satisfaction are the core issues that need to considered in our research study, which may help in understanding the problems of employees about perception against management practices in PTC and also help in establishing or restructuring the system and in eliminating the weaknesses of the system regarding after sales services in Atlas Battery. The administration of developed countries has a viewpoint in all current issues and made a plan to resolve these issues to sustain in globalize world. In any countries individual performance and satisfaction have a value and companies were trying to achieve fast organizational growth through satisfaction of individual. Within the organizations must remain satisfied and perform at the best of their abilities. Telecom sector of any country made a numerous change in people of their country and made a number of facilities to their door step. It not only help-out their customer but also made a revolution in many sectors. Recent past Pakistan made major changes in their telecom sector through the advancement of technology, number of companies in this sector come in Pakistan and invest billions of dollar. In this project I discussed telecom industrys management environment and their issues related to management. I tried to cover all departments that were functioned in any telecom industry. Project highlight the performance of companies, persons that made key decisions and what were the important department that play a vital role in companys success (Brian Francis Redmond, Lesson 7, 1999).

1.2

BACKGROUND OF STUDY:

Telecom sector of any country made a numerous change in people of their country and made a number of facilities to their door step. It not only help-out their customer but also made a revolution in many sectors. Recent past Pakistan made major changes in their telecom sector through the advancement of technology, number of companies in this sector come in Pakistan and invest billions of dollar. In this project I discussed telecom industrys management environment and their issues related to management. I tried to cover all departments that were functioned in any telecom industry. Project highlight the employees perception regarding human resource practices in PTCL, persons that made key decisions and what were the important department that play a vital role in companys success. Research on telecommunication sector of Pakistan gives an idea of telecommunication sector of Pakistan and tells where this sector stand now as compare to their other regional countries and specially with developing regional developing countries. As PTCL is one of the largest company in telecommunication sector of Pakistan presently and lead this sector in their leadership style. As privatization of PTCL is in recent past and Etisalat buy 26 percent of their shares that make a strategic change in their management style and in industry as well. These strategic partnerships change the entire picture of company, in managerial and practitioners as well. The choice of PTCL in context of these managerial changes give the inside details with vast managerial practices in it. The analysis on PTCL tells the various factors involved, causes and aftermath of this decision will be discussed. In addition of these privatization effects on PTCL compare with other developing countries changes in this sector. The answers of questionnaire of this research will help to understand the interest of management to solved employees and other various stakeholder issues. Finding and conclusion of this research view the clear picture of organization

success and failure and theoretical frame work of the research paper discussed the reasons and provided frame work for other enterprises in developing countries like Pakistan. This research will help the new entrances in this sector and helping them in their planning process. This research and their findings guide employer in a way to choose the right direction.

1.3: RESEARCH CONTEXT:


PTCL is now one of the largest telecommunication companys of Pakistan. Currently company has more than six million customers and more than thirty five thousand of employees all-over Pakistan. It provided basic infrastructure that also used many other companies in this industry and have a largest operating system in a country. In recent past company introduce a wireless telephone services called V-fone that help to those people their currently basic infrastructure was not available or difficult to maintain or upgrade structure. It also shows their commitment with their customers and excellence of their services. V-fone currently has more than 1.1 millions of customers that show it growth because companies introduce it before three years. Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is ostentatious to be Pakistans most reliable and largest converged services carrier providing all telecommunications services from basic voice telephony to data, internet, video-conferencing and carrier services to consumers and businesses all over the country. Recently company was privatized from state owned organization and this papers basis aim is to analysis this issue.

1.4: TELECOMMUNICATION The focus of the Dissertation Research:


In this section we discussed telecom sector in general and their advancement in last few decades with reference of Pakistan. 1.4.1: Telecommunication: Telecommunication sector of any country plays a vital role in growth of many sectors. Without efficient and strong telecommunication system, no country can achieved growth industrially in short and economically at large. In many areas of the world, telecommunication sector run by private sector and it encourage multinational company to come that country and enjoy profit (Union, 1999). In many countries, some authority would be formed that run telecommunication sector and it included both public and private investors. They made their policies, rules and regulations and standard for all companies that running their business in these countries. Due to privatization of telecom sector in many countries, private investor earned many advantages and feels pleasure to work in these countries. But on the other hand where this sector under control of government sector and that create some sort of their monopoly, have a few incentive to investors and have lack of product and services quality at high prices (Laffont, 1997). Ambrose in 1990 come with the point that, companies that working in a competitive environment enjoy many incentives and long term profit. This also increase quality of services or products at reduce prices, skilled labor available and gain expertise in that field. He said that two different environment cant be compare by any means, as monopolistic environment have less incentives and poor quality of services at high prices whereas in competitive environment companies and customers enjoys unleash benefits.

According to Wellenius (1992), as compare to formation of regulatory bills or reforms, number of telecommunication companies were privatized increasingly in recent past in glob of world. Galal in 1995 investigate the number of countries telecommunication reforms before and after privatization. He compares performance, rules and regulations development, organizations performance in two different scenarios, prices and their commitment regarding delivering services. Further Wallsten in 2001, in his research selected 30 different countries of different region and compare privatize organizations result. He found that beside of regulations reforms better organization performance and increase productivity in short time. Similarly, Wellenius (1992) also shared similar findings. 1.4.2: Telecom Sector Overview: After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, telecom department named as Posts and Telegraph and their Moto is to establish the commitment with people through provide best services in industry. From the day of Independence, company continuously was trying to deliver these services as they promise of commitment. The tight linkage between global capital markets and national economies is something new. The global economy, powered by technology and deregulation, has eroded this system of safeguards. Companies are now advancing our operations by introducing the new and convenient product and services through the use of advance technology. It is instructive to note that almost all major multinational companies such as PTCL, Honda, Teleport, Sony, Samsung and L.G etc are offering and developed continuously new product and services to sustain in the market through the adoption of new technology.

1.4.3: Growth of Telecom Sector in Pakistan: In recent past, Pakistan made outstanding performance in telecommunication sector. Pakistan telecommunication authority in 2007 highlighted the performance of telecommunication sector in last decade. According to him, the growth rate of this sector was much faster than the other regional countries like India, Bangladesh and Nepal (BMI, 2008). This growth reflects the transformation of assets to government sector to private sector and giving some liberalization in this sector (Inam, 2007). This changes results the open change for licensing for telecom services in Pakistan. Pakistan Telecom Authority was established in 1996 after restructuring of Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation. It is a regulatory authority and main functions are to carry out the telecom activities in Pakistan. It issues license to different companies to carry out or invest in telecom sectors. It monitor all firms and companies that carry activities related to telecom and import all types of equipments that are related to telecom industry. As a regulatory authority it continuously looks up the changes for the betterment of telecom sector in Pakistan. 1.4.5: Telecom De-regulation: For continuously economic growth for any country telecommunication sector plays a vital role to strength country economy. Around the globe countries management used independent policies regarding telecom sector (Akhtar, 2006). PTCL was formed in division of Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation and start their business in January 1996. The division of PTC was to manage telecom sector efficiently and provided services in a batter way that made difficult in one unit to its customers. Currently all the development, managing structure and introducing new advance technologies are responsible by this institution. Currently it not only provided phone services but also provided internet, video conferencing and many other services in all areas of Pakistan. 7

PTCL is now one of the largest corporation in telecom sector of Pakistan not only with it structure but also its facilities that they provided. It management are continuously trying to make more batter and batter after its formation. According to the research that conducted by Wellenius in 1992, said that privatization of telecom sector providing unleashed benefits to number of different sectors. Megginson in 1994 made analysis of 61 different companies of 18 countries that privatize and out of them 32 were linked with telecom sector. He research shows these companies good financial condition and better productivity performance. There were pre and post review results that have been analyzed. The result shows that revenues were increased after privatization, making organizations more profitable. 1.4.6: Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited: PTCL was formed in division of Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation and start their business in January 1996. The division of PTC was to manage telecom sector efficiently and provided services in a batter way that made difficult in one unit to its customers. Currently all the development, managing structure and introducing new advance technologies are responsible by this institution. Currently it not only provided phone services but also provided internet, video conferencing and many other services in all areas of Pakistan. PTCL is now one of the largest corporation in telecom sector of Pakistan not only with it structure but also its facilities that they provided. It management are continuously trying to make more batter and batter after its formation.

1.5 OBJECTIVE OF PTCL:


In this globalize world companies are in stiff competition where they are trying to not only capturing the certain market but also to retain it for a long time. For this purposes every company makes its certain goals and objectives that help out to see its company at certain point in near future. These objectives would sets on real basis and must be achievable. Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited also set certain goals to achieve and maintain its important role in telecom sector. These goals were set on the basis of, to create shareholder value in long term, increase customers through betterment in there and advancement in services and safeguard the interest of all its partners. Company make its strategy with a view of long term prospective, keep in mind the need of customers, commitment and their employees values. Currently PTCL reach at the point where it can lead telecom sector market with their advancement of techniques introduce in sector and confidence of its customers on its services. Now a days companies can generate its profit with long term relation to its customers and it is only possible to satisfied customers with their products and made changes with modern values that they demanded. PTCL simply follow these rules to enlarge their business, it give customers freedom of choice to opt that ever type of services that they think is much better or suit them. PTCL introduced number of products that play a vital role in different type of activities like businesses and home products and also introduce a wireless set to make more easier to communicate and he also show their excellent services in this line of business.

1.6 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:


The research is about perspective of the employees regarding HRM practice in P.T.C.L. If institution doses not take its human resource management responsibilities seriously, then institutional performance and goal accomplishment may badly suffer which may ultimately results in irreparable loss. Therefore, this study were designed to investigate the employees perception regarding the existing human resource practices at P.T.C.L different department and explore the problem that is the main hindrance in effective human resource management practices.

1.7 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY:


o The objectives of the study will be as under: o To clear the vision of privatization impact on employees and organizational performance. o Appraise the methods that bust employees and organizational performance o Employees perception regarding HR policies after privatization of PTCL. o To analyze the weaknesses of existing human resource management practices. o To explore the problem those create hindrances in effective human resource management practices.

1.8 RESEARCH QUESTION


The following questions will be studied while conducting this research. o What are the existing human resource management practices? o What are the strengths of the existing human resource management practices? o What are the weaknesses of existing human resource management practices? o What are the factors that create hindrances in effective human resource management? o How can these human resources management practices be made effective? 10

1.9 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:


On the completion of this project we would be able:

o To find the changes happened after enormous development in recent past of PTCL o To find the hurdles that face management after enormous development in recent past of PTCL o To find the impact on financial performance of PTCL after privatization o To find the perception of PTCLs stakeholder before and after enormous development. o To find the perception of PTCLs employees developed in recent past development in PTCL. o To find the steps that PTCL management should be take to solve the issues related management and customer relation.

1.10: SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:


In this global world where companies famous about it performance and it could be achieved only through high performance management. As human resource is one of the most important department of company, manage different non-material factor of company, plays a vital role in success or failure of company. As our project mainly reflect the role of human resource department in different stage of company development and tells how companies get benefits from human resource management in their daily operations. Business expansion will be part of company long term strategy. It is necessary for growth of business finance, stock price, company assets and increase market share of company. To made any change in organization like reengineering or restructuring of organization, keep in mind of 11

defined corporate objectives. Here HR department plays their role to aligned corporate mission with effective implementation strategy. According to Timmons, one of the major reasons to fail company operation in any host country was lack of in-depth research and measurement of all parameters that may create hurdles in their business. He thing that many companies success or failure in their objective will be comes within first 4 years of their business. This will be more severe in case of facing unfriendly environment. Therefore company was giving much more attention in every aspect of business related issues before to start business because very shock in business will lead to down moral of company. Company also takes expertise of HR professional in their related industry and find out the reasons or hurdles that made failure or success to companies. So the role of HR professional increasingly admitted by companies and giving importance not only in strategy making but also in implementation process. It gives direction to management and reduces communication gaps that make hurdles in company growth.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

In This chapter we discuss the studies that already conducted on Human Resource Management Practices in different organization and techniques involved in it. It is necessary to clear and strengthen the concept presented in this project. 2.1: RECURITMENT AND SELECTION: Tamara L, Brown University of Iowa. In their study, they urbanized a methodology that they consider those in other management sub-disciplines might use to scrutinize the specifics of the academic-practice gap. Specifically, they first identified areas where research findings appear to be clearest, second surveyed practitioners to conclude which findings they did or didnt believe, third they determined which of these findings academics believed to be most important, and at last they examined exposure of these issues in practitioner and overpass journals. Their results suggest that: first practitioner and overpass journals provide little exposure of some of the research findings deemed most important by HR researchers and second when they do offer exposure, the messages they convey are sometimes very different from the ones a reader would find in peer reviewed academic journals. Although they did not study the annul gap (whether the issues of the greatest significance to practitioners receive proportionate exposure by researchers), Deadrick and Gibson (2007) recently addressed this topic. Not amazingly, they found that the gap is equally large in the conflicting direction. Specifically, the issues of greatest importance to HR practitionersparticularly those involving compensationare only periodically investigated by HR researchers. Thus, the gap between academic and practitioner

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publications is very huge in both directions. To reduce it will require desire, and effort, from both sides of the divide. (1978) Dale in his research paper that published in form of book named management theory and practices that published Nigerian educational and many others, studied different companies management practices and their outcomes. It gives detail overview about personal management perception and their practical concept occurring in these days. It focuses on the organization that shows high performance in our industries, and build their structure better, more reliable, competitive and reflecting with the help of company human resource department. He also highlighted factors that permanently help HR managers in a way to address problems effectively and also help in doing their responsibilities in any company. He discussed six factors that significantly contributing in company success that were role in giving strategic position to company by HRM, recruitment and selection process involved, training need development, compensation and benefit policy, labor rights and communication relationship, security and role of HR in changing external environment. It solved the different human resource personnel issues, particularly related to the managers of organization, and try to cover all significant element related to HRM both either in individual or organizational level. He also cover role of departmental interaction of any organization, how the team builds and what the management roles in overall organization are. 2.2: TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: Ashamalla in 1998 come with the view points of the challenge of expatriation in international Human Resource Management Practices. He said that today this global world business is decentralized and have no boundaries; today most of the large multinational companies due globalization carry out a major part of their business activity outside their local boundaries. He

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said that American companies continuously establish and strengthen their presence overseas and yet they facing high failure rate of their international managers. For this he quoted the recent studies that according to them 25 to 40 percent managers failed in their international assignment (Fortune, 1995, McDonald, 1993, and Ralston, Trepstra, Cunniff and Gustafson, 1995). The cost of this failure is about 200,000 to 1.2 Million Dollar according to Swaak, 1995. This is uncertain costs because it damaged company reputation and weakened relationship with customers, suppliers and administration officials in the host countries. Researcher in his research addresses some of the international human resource management practices that are connected to expatriates failure and provides proposals for amplification of these practices. He divided expatriation into three phases that are pre-departure, during assignment and completion of assignment phases. Predeparture phase deals with selections process and training of expatriates. In selection process, companies must decide that, they hire workforce among their existing workers or hire outsides. This is very important because companies operations spread in large number of countries and they need managers and competencies that lead to succeed them in global market. Personnel of individual who have global responsiveness, a principle in the companys international attitude and a promise to move the business into the new millennium. Selection start with recruitment through viewing for international capability takes place. He highlighted some of the prerequisites that companies are looking for individuals, these are enlightening understanding, knowledge of environmental restriction, interpersonal skills, administrative and decision making aptitudes and other vital qualities for success abroad include foreign language skill, elasticity, adaptability, entrepreneurship, self-motivation, lenience for uncertainty and sympathy to world events and their impact on the long term outlook of the business (McEnery and DesHarnais, 1990). Researcher used the example of Gillette and Coca-Cola; identify their recruitment and

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selection process, their training methods that leads individuals to fulfill the expectation of companies. During this training, managers have a chance to batter assess future talents and according to survey almost 60 percent of international student accept this internship and companies hired permanently after competition of this training program. Research findings show that most American firms accept the short-term view for the temporary assignment of expatriates. Reasons are skepticism about the effectiveness of pre-departure preparation, limitation of time, impracticality and cost ineffectiveness. Researcher used audio-video presentation, meeting with area advisors, sessions with former expatriates, for collection of research data. He also eye view on living conditions, socio-economic circumstances, cultural values and acceptable business and social norms in the countries. In during assignment phase he figure-out performance effectiveness of international managers. Here involve the formal and informal activities that developed communicational channels. The plan here is to provide all possible ways in order to facilitate acculturation during the international assignment period. According to the researcher last phase is most ignoring phase in international human resource management now days. Here he highlighted the problems faced in repatriation. These are expatriation thinking only in a one direction, insufficient communication during the overseas assignment, dont giving values to the international experiences, career development are not usually realized and expatriate and family members may also experience cultural shock in repeal. Researcher suggested that take advantage of overseas investment by American firms, they should set up practices that assist effective professional and social repatriation.

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2.3: PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: By Gary Dessler, Hardcover Human Resource Management, come with the idea that major management issue was effective HR professional that planned effectively with different issues of company arise gradually. He thinks that HRM professional would be engaged in policy matter because he is in better position to identify strong and weak areas of company. He practically proved that role of HRM in policy and company long term objective achieving was effective. Researcher gives a wide range of material that helps not only companies but also to students that gained wide range of practical knowledge after studying it. He used different examples to clear mind the different areas of HRM policies and implementation planning. This book explains almost each and every thing related to the Human Resource field and delivering path of emerge human resource day by day, and performance appraisal. (2002) Decenzo and Robins have given more importance to the people of any institution. he said that every organization would be buildup of some special personal or talent that company have and make them different from other companies in same industry. Every company has famous from its some specialty like their special skill development they have, performance level and their commitment. Institution achieves institutional objectives through employees devotion. This is true, because these persons keep an eye on changing external environment and flexible in nature therefore adopt changing quickly, it maybe relate to government institution or any other services industries such as Pakistan telecommunication limited, as the human resources are important element of any organization, so the Human Resource Management is also equally important for the organization. The management of human resource is a psychological and philosophy of employees' management based on the belief, perception that human resource plays crucial role in maintaining and improving institutional performance. The link between

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management and employees of all level is more important; communication made easy to solved problems and made batter understanding to all hierarchy level of company. The collaboration between company long term objectives directly aligned with company human resource policies and practices. Researcher mainly was giving attention on this role in any company. He believed that in placing company long term objective and making strategy for this, HR managers play a vital role and company results maybe in positive way. The collaboration of strategy formulation and role of HR in this critical part must be debatable because of some uncertainty involved. Researcher giving used many example to clarify this uncertainty but he concluded that beside of this variables some other factor like competitive strategy and quality management and others were also some important variables.

2.4: COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS: Hgglund and Palmqvist in 2006 of School of Management and Economics, Vaxjo University investigate the how motivation to work create job satisfaction among employees and what's motivational work generate differences between managers and workers. His purpose is to examine what are common motivational factors shared and understand by the managers and workers. Researcher in his thesis discussed already existing theories of motivation to work from a broad perception. For this purpose he had chosen three companies operating within the financial sector in Sweden. Moreover, the chosen companies are located nearby which gives him the chance to visit them and to accomplish face to face conversations. The research questions of his 5thesis are, is there a difference in motivation between managers and workers? If so, what is the difference between the two? He had 5interviewed two persons at each company, and selected one has the position of a manager and the other has the position of a

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worker.

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work, particularly studying preceding existing theories. Researcher conducted an interviews and he gained 5much information regarding the theme and written a deeper insight of motivation in their thesis. He formed a theoretical framework that helps him in a ways, to get a foundation so that he conducted interviews with worthy questions. The second reason was to be able to interpret and analyze the collected material. Researchers' findings for workers and managers were, there are differences in motivation to work between a manager and a worker. The major difference is money for the workers and recognition, all respondent contributing in his thesis have a huge interest within their line of business and the company. Researchers main conclusion of thesis is what motivates a worker is, mostly money. They want to receive substantial rewards for their performance, for example bonuses and pay increase for the same work which can be viewed as money, in one way or another. There are dissimilarities in motivation to work between managers and workers. Money is a enormous motivator for the workers, and working climate, acknowledgment and free time are the necessary factors for the managers. Researcher suggested that manager needs to create a better working environment, make task more effective and always showing their willingness for employees. In this thesis the workers want more substantial rewards and substance benefits and on the different the managers craving non material factors as family and free time.

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2.5: EMPLOYEES RELATION: (2000) Irene Nikandrou, Nancy Papalexandris and Dimitris Bourantas discussed on employees relationship. In their research paper of Human Resource Management authors point out that what the HR managers' decisions are taking direction, what are the priorities that they will take counter to take decision in any perspective. They also focus on the priorities of male and female HR managers in all aspects hiring, firing, recruitment, job requirement and related activities. With this research they seek to readdress the focus and take a departure from the managerial perspective for analyzing how managers rate the importance of HRM activities and how female and male managers may differ in their priorities they give to HRM related activities. Thus, they can explore 54 the relevance of HRM activities in their relation to other Managerial activities. HRM is very broad topic and give the right direction to his responsible person like in direction of the hiring, firing, equal opportunity, attitude, behavior, check of education status for the job requirements etc. This is very important topic for the organizational development. HR department is for somehow more important department of any organization from the others. Increasing the organizational overall performance, HR managers play vital role. Therefore, in this research the researcher can identify the HR flaw that is necessary for those organizations, which cannot appropriately identify their practices. Successful business grows day by day and also increases responsibility of each and every department of company. Development of company also lead too giving experience in number of routine matters and encourages employees to manage them with their own plans. They also highlighted that this implementation need some sort of knowledge, education and broad scope of employees. This will lead either successful or failure in their tasks, so that if the person fundamentally right and make decision according to situation than its not a serious mistakes as if they wait for order of management

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and time delaying. Here is the responsibility of management that they projects clear picture of intensity of work and situation and insure that they only do their job. If organization is a business leader, he needs to focus our time on growing their business. They also tell us that if we are an HR professional, than we need to more focus our time on developing and managing efficient HR programs. HRM Performance Systems addresses both your needs. Many issues are the challenges of ever increasing customer expectations, the pressure of producing bottom line results and the necessity of developing a work force dedicated to continuous improvement. With a background in human resource management, these are the following issues that affect 55 employees and the human resource function. They founded HRM Performance Systems to address the need of line up human resource programs with business objectives. HRM Performance Systems partners with business owners, manager/leaders and human resource professionals of small and mid-sized businesses providing practical, cost effective human resources management services focused on company's objectives. Business competitions due to globalization and trade free economies will make it harder. Challenges for organization are for critical and make stress on management in number of ways. Small business owners grater suffers from this and struggles to put their best in industry. Another view point is that increase competition will decrease unnecessary profit margin and increase quality of products. It force companies to change their business plans and strategies and made departmental role more effective through effective communication methods. Also argued that globalization will provide better chance to improve their quality and managerial practices at all because a famous quote is getting things done right at the first time and always. It increases the importance of total quality management concept and now companies achieved performance through this way. They explain the Performance management something looking beyond the sight as they have broad vision to

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examine things happening in their surrounding and prepare employees up to the situation that will be face in near future by company. He also negate the concept of employees are too busy to produce results, according to him management actually putting employees time to waste efforts and results not be found that they desired. His research clearly define the what type of knowledge and expertise required in different situation to company that satisfied their needs and meet organization long term objectives. By Wendell L. French, Hardcover Human Resources Management: 726 pages, Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company, Cascio (2006) come with the view that Human Resources department's people are a essential component of any institution and institutional objectives either long term and short term cannot be achieved without these people. Human Resource department of any organization is the backbone, which give strength and advancement and ultimately the organization grows. They provided the direction to company, build a work force for achieving these target they set and also assign target to departments of organization. He project Human Resource department all in all in any organization. They ask the question that what an organization without the employees is. Simple buildings, equipments, organization name, its vision, its mission and many more other things do not make the organization (Decenzo & Robbins, 1998). In the same way, Anthony, Kacmar and Perrewe (2002) highlighted the employees importance and say that it is the employee that makes any institution successful or unsuccessful. Institutions success depends on their employee productive performance. It is the employees on whose foundation the organization, stands in other way the employees are the pillars of the organization. Employees hard work and commitment escorts the organization to achieve its objectives and goals.

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(2008) Crnomat, a student of management studies at Blekinge Institute of Technology. He investigate that what are the factors that should be taken any company to retain company prestigious employees and increase employees loyalty. He used a case study of T-company to find out answers of their questions. The company that researcher did choice for research purposes, famous consulting company and delivered quality services to their customers. Company is subsidiary of four different IT companies that have different specialty. Today telecommunication sector is most significant and fast growing sector of world. It also faced some challenging in their field like business process and rapidly changing environment. This would help organization to evolved such strategic that reduce these challenging after comes. So that managers of these sectors continuous changing in policies in reference to changing environment that ensure smooth learning process and introduce new professional and business process techniques. As Consultancy Company works in favor of their parent companies customers and providing directions in different way to handle issues evolved with time being. Therefore Consultant Company has wide range of expertise regarding to work in different environment and different attitude of customers. It make easier to him to adjust in different environment and change company environment in contrast to employees and management aspirations. Researcher founds the factors that giving inspiration and motivation to employees engaged with information sector. He also found the steps on which successful company can build their base and what practices that it copied from their industry competitors. This was lead to identify the motivation aspect of IT consultants and lowering their turnover. For this research purposes researcher used literature studies of previously conducted research and practical analysis in his research methodology. For practical analysis he conducted the survey and interview from different managers of consultant companies whose basic work to observed companies strategic

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position and role of environment in company success. Researcher findings reflect the factors that not only play significant role in employees but also to retain them in organization. These factors were training and development of employees, increase expertise in different projects and good remuneration and reward policy. Research findings shows that consultant companies must invest in training and development opportunities to retained the competitive employees in company and giving equal and attractive opportunity to its employees beside of biasness that will help company to success. Towers in 2006, investigate the how HR is far too obsessed with adding value. Would it not be better for HR departments and HR professionals to concentrate upon the risk reduction aspect of these polices and functions? In this research paper researcher trying to providing the brief analysis of current environment of human resource practices in different leading companies followed and that made value added in it. He found that this all being done by human resource role in different organization, their attributes and what are the components added that help organization to mitigate its risk. This research tells us how components added in existing human resource management practices, and how they identify the risk in environment. These services help organization to developed strategy that reduces the impact of risk. Researcher used the work of Huseild (1995), Yeung and Berman (1997) and Appedlbaum et al. (2000) all show a positive correlation between human resource function and business performance. He also quoted the statement of Brewster and Harris (1999) that if human resource manager was involved at initial stage of strategy formulation than it will make a greatest amount of impact in organizational development and added values. Researcher found out that Hr professional not only mitigate the risk of organization polices but also concentrate the value added feature. He said that HRM is irreplaceable because it leads business to succeed in long term, which involved the stage of

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decision making process. He suggested that top leadership must involved HR professional in decision making stage that is not in practice at yet. HR professional will naturally express their importance through reducing risk of organizational polices and their importance should not be restricted for only short term purpose. This will be devalued the function added by HR professional. This research paper concludes by contrasting the point that HR professional should become distant with showing added value, arguing the strategic importance of HRM disclose itself eventually. (2008) Antonson and Wendels, Goteborgs University, investigate the modern way of marketing like using electronic media; make easy, improved and modernize Management. In this research, researcher point-out one of different way to satisfy the worker needs and reduced the communication gap between different levels in chain of command. He used the Social media tools to decrease the communication detachment between individuals separated by levels in chain of command, departments or geographical location. In this analysis he has discussed what he has recognized as the applicable aspects of social media in a business environment. In this research he discussed many different issues concerning like what company can do in a changing world, researcher used new tools and approaches to communication that organizations can used and adapt to change. Many of the new media functions in used today; In this thesis researcher highlighted the how new generations working with new types of media that play a fundamental role in companys change management decisions. The focus is heart on the use of social media in a business environment today. He used the study of Volvo Group where he had looked at how they presently work with change management, how they want to work with change management and also how the current information channels work and how they are being used by employees at the Volvo Group. He suggested that a unbeaten implementation of social media in any

25

organization will yield great benefits. He trying to define these social media benefits through example, that faster communication considerably dipping the distance between individuals, and the second is better communication through new channels; allowing people who before had no contact to interact. Better, and a broader, communication brings theoretical issues into an open and available area. Culture and corporate values become solid in a medium where these can be shared. Social media is a way of communicating that brings greater simplicity by making opinions visible. An increased availability of communicative tools giving individuals the possibility of not only consuming information, but reacting to it, inherently increases participation. In concluding part researcher said that social media tools not only increase transparency but also help in developing culture and encourage individuals a participatory capacity. New communication technologies and new shapes of media are conveying new challenges. These challenges associated with an introduction of new media tools in an organization. Early implementation of social media will build knowledge and experience, even if it comes at a cost of trial and error. The businesses who have productively through the experience of failure implemented social media tools to their operations will in the future hold the competitive advantages essential to grow in a changing world.

2.6: SAFETY AND HEALTH: For the last 20 years addressing to emerging global issues like corporate social responsibility had received increasing attention. Since its evolution, concept of CSR has been a continuous hot topic of discussion in business world. There are important issues to be addressed regarding CSR. What is the need of detaching funds from profit for social welfare? What are the benefits

26

of this cause? Is there any sort of returns? The argument about these issues contains the key of walking through this whole theory. Addressing the above critical questions but in the beginning. Basically, CSR is about how businesses align their values and behavior with the expectations and needs of stakeholders - not just customers and investors, but also employees, suppliers, communities, regulators, special interest groups and society as a whole. CSR describes a company's commitment to be accountable to its stakeholders. CSR demands that businesses manage the economic, social and environmental impacts of their operations to maximize the benefits and minimize the downsides. According to Milton Friedman, "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase Its Profits." "But the doctrine of "social responsibility" taken seriously would extend the scope of the political mechanism to every human activity. According to New York Times Company (1970) "There is one and only one social responsibility of business--to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud." According to Eilbert and Parket (1973) Perhaps the best way to understand social responsibility is to think of it as good neighborliness. The concept involves two phases. On one hand, it means not doing things that spoil the neighborhood. On the other, it may be expressed as the voluntary assumption of the obligation to help solve neighborhood problems Lisboa, in 2009, University of Do Porto investigates the level of Job Satisfaction in a Food Service Chain of Restaurants. Researcher said that contentment may be the only true goal that everyone in the world has in common. He connected job satisfaction and happiness to the survival of persons. On an industrialist universal market he said that he can never overlook that most of companies come this stage with a constant struggle to uphold their work and their

27

employees. He is trying to explain the difference between success and failure in food services industry, as mainly the quality of the service and of the food. He quoted the past studies on this research and said that employee satisfaction is one of the important determinants of customer satisfaction and indirectly influences company financial performances. According to their conclusion about previous studies, to wants to satisfy the needs of its costumers the first step is to satisfy the needs of our employees that facilitate companys customers. It is essential for the restaurant industry to investigate the ways to attract workers. According to Lynn service levels decline as turnover increases. This makes studying and considerate turnover vital for the maintenance of a successful business in the food service industry. He studied the chain of 12 restaurants, haphazardly spread through Portuguese continental territory; most of the restaurants are located in the greater Lisbon area. Unexpectedly sales was the variable with greater impact in the job satisfaction questionnaire, employees working in restaurants with higher sales state higher levels of overall satisfaction and higher levels of satisfaction on six of the job satisfaction questionnaire items. When it comes to overall job satisfaction researcher results are showing reliable with others in the literature showing that overall people are satisfied with their jobs.

2.7: LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT APPROACHES:


Companies make position in their industry with continuous performance and their strategies. PTCL follows the principle, as their directors and top management giving guide lines to his staff. Telecommunication sector business strategy revolved around customer oriented and liberal. We seem example of Mike Duke CEO of Wal-Mart spent a major portion of his professional life at Wal-Mart and knows their company very well in its all functional level. Wal-Marts employees have an opportunity to contribute its decision making ability or discussed their 28

thoughts and ideas to top management that may help for betterment of company. The open communication style of Wal-Mart reflects its leadership quality through its performance. Mike Duke bend more to democratic style of leadership as everyone have a right to address with company issues that help a better solution of many problems. Duke believes more in participation, self directed and controlled employees and he used a high level of thoughts in problem clarification and decision creation process. This ability know reflect in companys current position. John Adair in 1973 was giving three interrelated concept of problem solving techniques. He said that found out problem actual base and planed with some management team that have strong relation with their employees, assigned structural task to this team and finally fully supported, appraise their findings and coordinate them. In this fast and changing business environment, companies needed to adopt aggressive and future oriented strategy, each employee clearly knows company long term and short term objective. It objective should be achievable and must have some specific time frame. As global company, it should have adopted their local country environment in their operational communication that help to minimize many problems of company. According to Roland 1994, he was discussed the impact of privatization on Human Resource practices. According to him privatization process was comprises of last 3 decades. In his research he studies the various countries privatization process and their impact on Human Resource Practices like Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Pakistan and England. He finds that due to globalization of world, economics of any country was more market oriented. This openness in market and due to globalization of world, state owned organizations increasingly transfer to private sector and increase their growth. Employees productivity would be increase through this 29

process and facility of company reach at doorstep of customer faster than before. Blanchard in 1991 strongly argued in favor of privatization of institutions that state owned. He proves the number of benefits that going in favor of privatize and growth of Human development, the state owned institutions. He used different success stories to prove their viewpoint. Lipton in 1990 comes with the point that, generally state owned institutions are large in size and have complex in their management style. He thinks that due to large in size and lack of management abilities, these institutions HR department facing many problems that create downsizing in organization. After going privatization, these organization giving a more competitive responses in a way of social adaptive, financial and product and services. These change also viable to boost economic activity in country. Further he suggested that it increase the efficiency at all level of organization. Again in 1994 Roland suggested that, if organizations are going private than it brings number of reforms in that sector. It help in sectors development and through this process, country achieved its long term objectives. He also suggested that, going private bring more finance in organization and increase management ability of company. Organizational politics in its narrow definition could be termed as informal influence attempts that seek to promote self-interest at the expense of organizational goals. Cropanzano and Grandey, in press; Drory and Romm, 1990; Ferris, Frink, Beehr and Gilmore, 1995; Ferris and Kacmar, 1992; Ferris and Judge, 1991; Ferris, Russ and Fandt, 1989; Kacmar and Ferris, 1993). Organizational politics is a subjective experience and state of mind which cannot be measured exclusively on objective state (Gandz and Murray, 1980). Gerald R, Farris in his research in (1992) mentioned that perception of organizational politics unfair in organizational culture and individual factors against organizational results such as job contribution, job nervousness, job pleasure and removal from the organization. The observation of politics also could be due to

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unpredictability on job, age, sex education as well as the hierarchal level in an organization resulting impacts in job satisfaction, anxiety, employee promotions. In the same way other causes could be job Summers in 1994 come with the point that, privatization of organization decrease the state monopoly in certain extent and introduced new Human Resource practices. Previous Newbery in 1991 also comes with the same point that after going privatize the organization, it may have some chance to create some sort of monopoly thats why decision makers make decision to go privatization and create open opportunity for other investors to come and invest that particular sector. He also highlighted the process of privatization introduced new era of Human Resource development and practice involved in which trained bottom line labor and also provided some benefits to other stakeholder. Further he discussed the macro economic issues that effect in privatization of organizations. Jovanovic (1982) come with idea that any firm can learn after passing through some difficults conditions. If company not facing any different seniro, than its difficult to make effective decision in such situation. Seniro builds their decision making capabilities and provide better solution in such conditions. He formed a model that predict uncertainity for any company in short period of time, when he think to enter in some new areas. It also predict at any given point how large companies grow more successfully even in past.

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2.8: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF STUDY:


The following diagram actually shows what factors are on which Employee Perception can be build in favor and against of companys overall practices.

Employees Training and Development

Performance Appraisal System

Employees Satisfaction

Compensation and Benefits Policies

Leadership and Management Approach

As Human Resource Practices directly affect on employees perception like change in company policy, which would be formed in betterment of company not for the betterment of employees. So that policy that not reflects the employees view point causes more affects on employees productivity.

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2.9: HYPOTHESES:
The objectives of study are given as under: Ho: There is a significant relationship between Leadership and Management Approach and Employee satisfaction. 1. H1: There is no significant relationship between the Leadership and Management Approach and Employee satisfaction. Ho: There is a significant relationship between Human Resource Policies and Employee satisfaction. 2 H1: There is no significant relationship between Human Resource Policies and Employee satisfaction. Ho: There is a significant relationship between clear departmental responsibility and employees satisfaction. 3 H1: There is no significant relationship between clear departmental responsibility and employees satisfaction.

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CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 METHODOLOGY:
The research is exploratory and provides comprehensive insight into the level of job satisfaction and perception against HR polices in permanent and contractual employees of PTCL Lahore and also shows what practices company adopt to satisfied our employees. Research itself opt us to adopt a specific research design and data collection techniques. Our research relied mainly on available literature review and data. The topic of research demanded us to rely subsequently on the financial performance and job turnover. Careful conclusions are drawn to provide insight into the given situation. Our research study comprised of the following steps: o More than 200 peoples of PTCL Lahore selected and collected data from almost all exchanges. o Literature review, primary and secondary data was main source of our data. Questionnaire and employee turnover was main source of data. o Data collected through above methods was then tabulated to find the results that are analyzed and evaluated in context of permanent and contractual employees of PTCL Lahore. o Research Articles, published data (mainly books), pervious research projects and journals were studied to grasp the main attributes and subsequent concepts about Job satisfaction and Perception of employees against HR polices. 34

o Different dimensions of Job satisfaction which being practiced in Pakistan are mentioned. o Graphical presentation would be opted to observe the level (extent) of participation of selected employees. o A comparison would be drawn among the permanent and contractual employees, based on the data obtained from graphical presentation of facts. o The comparisons will be followed by the recommendations and suggestions.

3.2 Research Design


My research is based upon the employees services and its impact on their job satisfaction. For this we got assistance from previous researches and thus we got a compact view of the present scenario. Questionnaire is the most important part which reveals how company employees think management policies and also about their real life experience about facility offered and its impact. The population has been comprises of all department of PTCL Lahore region.

3.3 Population of the Study


The target population for the researcher in this research comprises of the employees of PTCL offices at Lahore who have been employed for at least one year. The targeted population for this research belongs to different areas of expertise as well as from different location of Lahore offices. The data which the researcher needs was collected from the people chosen for this research and then the collected data was analyzed to produce desired results. The percentage of different segments of population in respect to area is as following.

Figure: 3.1 Each Segments Contribution in Sample 35

3.4 Sampling Techniques


Different sampling techniques are used to select sample from the population to collect data. For my research I used the random sampling technique. The sampling techniques are as follows.

These are the mainly used sampling techniques for taking sample from a population. The researcher adopts a technique of sampling on the basis of his data collecting method, the type of research and the objective of research.

3.5 SAMPLE:
For conducting this research study we considered PTCL exchanges located in Lahore PTC offices and regional offices in Lahore, selected employees from various level of job designation. Our study was population based, and the population among different selected employees of 36

PTCL was dynamic and somewhere inconsistent. These selected sectors and their respective number of companies are mentioned in table below: Table 3.1: Respondent and their number of Contributions

Serial No.

Respondent Groups

Number Respondents

of

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Departmental Managers

15

Customer Services Representative 43 Account Officers Marketing Officers Information Technology Cashiers Technical Staff General Workers Total Number of Respondent 29 31 17 9 21 36 201

Percentage involvement of each of the selected employees in our study is represented in a pie chart.

Figure: 3.1 Each Segments Contribution in Sample

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This coincidence of dense and light population makes our selection a vibrant one. Dynamism in our sample is catered with a further denomination of employees selection criteria to avoid inconsistent and imbalance selection. Criteria of selection would be discussed in following chapters.

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3.6 Primary Data


Primary data is the information which we directly collect from the targeted population of research. The questionnaire technique during a survey is the best possible way to collect primary data for a research. Primary data for this research will be collected through a structured questionnaire and the data will be collected from targeted population having experience of different working environments because this research has the objective to analyze the perception of employee regarding Human Resource policies in Pakistan telecommunication company. To collect data for this research the instrument (the different degrees of employees response in questionnaire) has been taken from a research report on the relationship between management practices and employees satisfaction. They used these four degrees to gauge the employees perception about the management practices. The item of employees satisfaction has been taken from this work to measure the degree of satisfaction of the customer. The five degrees scale to measure customer satisfaction is: 5=Strongly Agree, 4= Agree, 3 =Neutral, 2= Disagree, 1= Strongly Disagree.

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CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS

Correlation research designs were used for the present study. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS, version 16. The first part of the results reports the reliability and the descriptive of the measures

4.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:


To analysis our research problem and come to conclusion, data are essential to collected from their related industry. In this research we used primary and secondary data to make a view of or problem. Questionnaire was our source of primary data and it was filled from our target market. Interview also would be done from different particular areas self contact was very important because of gathering information and thoughts provided actual view of interviewee and tells current market direction. As questionnaire was primary source of data and it was well structured and try to cover all necessary points that company performance appraisal format required. Data collected and then tabulated to find the results that are analyzed and evaluated in context, to clear the picture of employees behavior about performance appraisal. Company website, previous studies on this topic, newspaper, business magazines are the main source of our secondary data. The data has been collected from 201 employees of different departments of Pakistan Telecommunication of Lahore Sector through questionnaire. The data thus collected was in the form of master table. 40

That made possible counting of classified data easy. From the master table various summery tables were prepared. They have been presented along with their interpretation in this manner.

4.2 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION REGARGING HR POLICIES:


This section provided the details view about the employees job satisfaction level that participate in our research and their satisfaction against human resource polices. As I was collected data from different offices of PTCL located in Lahore and trying to cover all the designation in Lahore. Here below table shows the organizational polices satisfaction level of different designation with their mean and standard deviation.

Table 4.1: Means and Standard Deviations of overall Respondents N Statistic Total Valid N 201 (listwise) 201 1.1018E2 18.56954 Mean Statistic Std. Deviation Statistic

Result shows that employees have a manifold opinion about the current HR policies that motivate the employees. Some are satisfied with current policies while other are not.

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4.3 EMPLOYEES PERCEPTION REGARDING HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING:


This section provided the details view about the employees perception about Human Resource Planning of PTCL. In our research we calculate the mean, mode, median and standard deviation of our HRP part of questions. I collected data from different office of PTCL located in Lahore, thats way trying to cover all the designation in Lahore. Here below table shows the employees perception regarding HR policies implements in PTCL

Table 4.2: Means, Median, Mode and Standard Deviations of HRP Response HRP1 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation 2.35 2.00 1 1.337 HRP2 2.72 3.00 3 .939 HRP3 2.92 3.00 3 .937 HRP4 3.02 3.00 3 .969 HRP5 3.04 3.00 3 .924

Response of Individual Questions:


This section provided the responses of employees against a single statement. Here below the first question that I asked from employees regarding Human Resource Planning.

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Question HPR1: In our Organization proper Human Resource Planning is made Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 66 65 28 18 24 201 32.8 32.3 13.9 9.0 11.9 100.0 Percent 32.8 32.3 13.9 9.0 11.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 32.8 65.2 79.1 88.1 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Above table indicates that 65% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 21% people are agreed. 43

Question HPR2: Duties of every job are clearly defined in our organization Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 11 74 83 30 3 201 5.5 36.8 41.3 14.9 1.5 100.0 Percent 5.5 36.8 41.3 14.9 1.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 5.5 42.3 83.6 98.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 42% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 16% people are agreed.

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Question HPR3: Each job in our Organization have an up to date job description Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 201 6 60 89 41 5 3.0 29.9 44.3 20.4 2.5 100.0 Percent 3.0 29.9 44.3 20.4 2.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.0 32.8 77.1 97.5 100.0

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral Series1 Disagree

Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 33% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 23% people are agreed.

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Question HPR4: For making timely decisions regarding employees, HRIS is implemented in our organization. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 201 5 56 81 52 7 2.5 27.9 40.3 25.9 3.5 100.0 Percent 2.5 27.9 40.3 25.9 3.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 2.5 30.3 70.6 96.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 30% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 29% people are agreed. 46

Question HPR5: Succession planning is made in order to replacement of key employees. Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 3 49 98 42 10 201 1.5 24.4 48.8 20.9 5.0 100.0 Percent 1.5 24.4 48.8 20.9 5.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 1.5 25.9 74.6 95.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Above table indicates that 26% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 25% people are agreed. The overall response of this section not satisfied, employees of PTCL not actually satisfied with current Human Resource Planning involved. 47

4.4 EMPLOYEES PERCEPTION REGARDING RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION:


This section provided the details view about the employees opinion about Recruitment and selection process of PTCL. In our research we calculate the mean, mode, median and standard deviation of our Recruitment and selection process, related to part of questions. I collect data from different offices of PTCL located in Lahore that way trying to cover all the designation in Lahore. Here below table shows the employees perception regarding Recruitment and selection policies implement in PTCL. Here two type of recruitment and selection process used internal and external recruitment process. Below table shows the actual view of employee perception regarding these. Table 4.4: Means, Median, Mode and Standard Deviations of Recruitment and selection process RS1 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation 3.23 3.00 3 1.182 RS2 3.01 3.00 3 .954 RS3 2.93 3.00 3 .967 RS4 3.09 3.00 3 .918 RS5 3.19 3.00 3 1.041

Results show that employees have an almost same opinion about the current Recruitment and selection policies that motivate the employees. Mostly are satisfied with current policies while some are not. Standard deviation shows that mostly results are satisfied the current Recruitment and Selection process of company.

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Response of Individual Questions:


This section provided the responses of employees against a single statement. Here below the first question that I asked from employees regarding Recruitment and Selection Process. Question RS1: The selection system followed in our organization is highly scientific and based on merit. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 12 41 72 45 31 201 6.0 20.4 35.8 22.4 15.4 100.0 Percent 6.0 20.4 35.8 22.4 15.4 100.0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 26.4 62.2 84.6 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 26% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 37% people are agreed. 49

Question RS2: Selection committee selects those who have desired knowledge, skills and abilities. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 5 54 87 48 7 201 2.5 26.9 43.3 23.9 3.5 100.0 Percent 2.5 26.9 43.3 23.9 3.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 2.5 29.4 72.6 96.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 29% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 27% people are agreed. 50

Question RS3: The Divisional Heads and Branch Managers participate in the Selection process. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 4 69 75 47 6 201 2.0 34.3 37.3 23.4 3.0 100.0 Percent 2.0 34.3 37.3 23.4 3.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 2.0 36.3 73.6 97.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 36% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 26% people are agreed. 51

Question RS4: In our Organization right peoples are selected for the right jobs. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 2 50 87 56 6 201 1.0 24.9 43.3 27.9 3.0 100.0 Percent 1.0 24.9 43.3 27.9 3.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 1.0 25.9 69.2 97.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 26% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 31% people are agreed.

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Question RS5: Our organization prefers internal employees whenever a new vacancy exists.
Cumulative Percent 1.0 22.4 69.7 92.0 100.0 100.0

Frequency

Percent 1.0 21.4 47.3 22.4 8.0

Valid Percent 1.0 21.4 47.3 22.4 8.0

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree


Total

2 43 95 45 16 201

100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 22% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 30% people are agreed. The overall response of this section satisfied, employees of PTCL are satisfied with current Recruitment and selection process involved. 53

4.5 EMPLOYEES DEVELOPMENT:

PERCEPTION

REGARDING

TRAINING

AND

This section provided the details view about the employees opinion about training and development process of PTCL. In our research we calculate the mean, mode, median and standard deviation of our training and development process, related to part of questions. I collect data from different offices of PTCL located in Lahore that way trying to cover all the designation in Lahore. Here below table shows the employees perception regarding training and development policies implements in PTCL. Here training and development process divided into departmental wise. Some seminar also organizes to update their employees to aware upcoming changes. Below table shows the actual view of employee perception regarding these.

Table 4.6: Means, Median, Mode and Standard Deviations of Training and Development process TD1 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation 3.40 3.00 3 1.082 TD2 3.06 3.00 3 1.038 TD3 3.05 3.00 3 .844 TD4 3.20 3.00 3 1.222 TD5 3.17 3.00 3 1.020

Results show that employees have an almost same opinion about the current training and development policies that motivate the employees. Mostly are satisfied with current policies while some have a different opinion. Standard deviation shows that mostly results are satisfied the current training and development process of company. 54

Response of Individual Questions:


This section provided the responses of employees against a single statement. Here below the first question that I asked from employees regarding training and development process. Question TD1: Our organization plans for training and development of employees. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 6 36 70 50 39 201 3.0 17.9 34.8 24.9 19.4 100.0 Percent 3.0 17.9 34.8 24.9 19.4 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.0 20.9 55.7 80.6 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 21% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 44% people are agreed. 55

Question TD2: Individual and Organization needs for training are matched.

Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 9 48 83 48 13 201 4.5 23.9 41.3 23.9 6.5 100.0 Percent 4.5 23.9 41.3 23.9 6.5 100.0

Cumulative Percent 4.5 28.4 69.7 93.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 28% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 30% people are agreed. 56

Question TD3: Training is organized on the basis of appraisers recommendations in the appraisal report. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 2 52 88 51 8 201 1.0 25.9 43.8 25.4 4.0 100.0 Percent 1.0 25.9 43.8 25.4 4.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 1.0 26.9 70.6 96.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 27% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 29% people are agreed.

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Question TD4: In our organization Job rotation is a compulsory part of the career development. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 4 49 82 50 16 201 2.0 24.4 40.8 24.9 8.0 100.0 Percent 2.0 24.4 40.8 24.9 8.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 2.0 26.4 67.2 92.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 26% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 33% people are agreed.

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Question TD5: Whenever new product, new regulations introduced, the organization have offered the training to the employees. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 3 42 93 52 11 201 1.5 20.9 46.3 25.9 5.5 100.0 Percent 1.5 20.9 46.3 25.9 5.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 1.5 22.4 68.7 94.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 22% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 31% people are agreed. The overall response of this section satisfied, employees of PTCL are satisfied with current Training and Development process involved 59

4.6

EMPLOYEES

PERCEPTION

REGARDING

PERFORMANCE

APPRAISAL:
This section provided the details view about the employees opinion about performance appraisal process practices in PTCL. In our research we calculate the mean, mode, median and standard deviation of performance appraisal process, related to part of questions. I collect data from different offices of PTCL located in Lahore that way trying to cover all the designation in Lahore. Here below table shows the employees perception regarding performance appraisal policies implements in PTCL. Here training and development process divided into departmental wise. Normally was conducting head of departments.

Table 4.8: Means, Median, Mode and Standard Deviations of Performance Appraisal Process PA1 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation 3.45 3.00 3 1.232 PA2 3.15 3.00 3 1.078 PA3 3.05 3.00 3 1.085 PA4 3.15 3.00 3 1.064 PA5 3.10 3.00 3 1.158

Results show that most of employees have good opinion about the current performance appraisal system of company that motivates the employees. Mostly are satisfied with current policies while standard deviation shows the vague result due to different opinion of employees or wide gaps between opinions. Standard deviation shows that mostly results are not satisfied the current performance appraisal process of company.

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Response of Individual Questions:


This section provided the responses of employees against a single statement. Here below the first question that I asked from employees regarding Performance Appraisal system. Question PA1: In our organization the objectives of the Appraisal are clear to employees. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 11 35 57 53 45 201 5.5 17.4 28.4 26.4 22.4 100.0 Percent 5.5 17.4 28.4 26.4 22.4 100.0 Cumulative Percent 5.5 22.9 51.2 77.6 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Above table indicates that 23% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 49% people are agreed.

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Question PA2: In our organization the employees have faith on Performance Appraisal System Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 6 43 88 50 14 201 3.0 21.4 43.8 24.9 7.0 100.0 Percent 3.0 21.4 43.8 24.9 7.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.0 24.4 68.2 93.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 24% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 32% people are agreed. 62

Question PA3: Appraisal System has a strong influence on individual and team attitudes/performance Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 7 54 80 50 10 201 3.5 26.9 39.8 24.9 5.0 100.0 Percent 3.5 26.9 39.8 24.9 5.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.5 30.3 70.1 95.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 30% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 30% people are agreed. 63

Question PA4: The data of appraisal is used to decide training, promotion and compensation. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 5 48 76 63 9 201 2.5 23.9 37.8 31.3 4.5 100.0 Percent 2.5 23.9 37.8 31.3 4.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 2.5 26.4 64.2 95.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 26% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 36% people are agreed.

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Question PA5: In our Organization employees are provided performance based feedback and counseling. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 11 47 79 47 17 201 5.5 23.4 39.3 23.4 8.5 100.0 Percent 5.5 23.4 39.3 23.4 8.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 5.5 28.9 68.2 91.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 29% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 32% people are agreed. The overall response of this section satisfied, employees of PTCL are satisfied with current Performance Appraisal process involved 65

4.7 EMPLOYEES PERCEPTION REGARDING COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS:


This section provided the details view about the employees opinion about compensation and benefit process practices in PTCL. In our research we calculate the mean, mode, median and standard deviation of compensation and benefit process, related to part of questions. We also seem the procedure of compensation and benefit followed by the company. As I collect data from different offices of PTCL located in Lahore and trying to cover all the designation in Lahore. Here below table shows the employees perception regarding compensation and benefit policies implements in PTCL. Table 4.10: Means, Median, Mode and Standard Deviations of Compensation and Benefit Policy CB1 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation 3.56 4.00 3 1.381 CB2 3.21 3.00 3 1.147 CB3 3.11 3.00 3 1.389 CB4 3.25 3.00 3 1.319 CB5 3.13 3.00 3 1.438

Results show that most of employees have neutral opinion about the current performance appraisal system of company that motivates the employees. Mostly are satisfied with current policies while standard deviation shows the vague result due to different opinion of employees or wide gaps between opinions. Standard deviation shows that mostly results are not satisfied the current performance appraisal process of company.

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Response of Individual Questions:


This section provided the responses of employees against a single statement. Here below the first question that I asked from employees regarding compensation and benefit policies.

Question CB1: In our organization the Pay and Benefits are being paid competitive to the industry. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 12 34 51 50 54 201 6.0 16.9 25.4 24.9 26.9 100.0 Percent 6.0 16.9 25.4 24.9 26.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 22.9 48.3 73.1 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Above table indicates that 23% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 51% people are agreed. 67

Question CB2: In our organization the reward is based on performance. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 7 40 82 60 12 201 3.5 19.9 40.8 29.9 6.0 100.0 Percent 3.5 19.9 40.8 29.9 6.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.5 23.4 64.2 94.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 23% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 36% people are agreed.

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Question CB3: Promotion in our organization is linked to the performance of the employee. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 10 52 86 36 17 201 5.0 25.9 42.8 17.9 8.5 100.0 Percent 5.0 25.9 42.8 17.9 8.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 5.0 30.8 73.6 91.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 31% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 27% people are agreed.

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Question CB4: Our organization increases pay in accordance with the data of appraisal. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 8 44 75 57 17 201 4.0 21.9 37.3 28.4 8.5 100.0 Percent 4.0 21.9 37.3 28.4 8.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 4.0 25.9 63.2 91.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 26% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 37% people are agreed.

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Question CB5: In our Organization all employees are being paid in accordance with the performance. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 12 55 72 42 20 201 6.0 27.4 35.8 20.9 10.0 100.0 Percent 6.0 27.4 35.8 20.9 10.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 33.3 69.2 90.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 33% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 31% people are agreed.

The overall response of this section satisfied, employees of PTCL are satisfied with current Compensation and Benefit policies involved 71

4.8 EMPLOYEES PERCEPTION REGARDING EMPLOYEES RELATIONS:


This section provided the details view about the employees opinion about employees relationship with their management practices in PTCL. In our research we calculate the mean, mode, median and standard deviation of compensation and benefit process, related to part of questions. We also seem the procedure of top down communication string and down to top communication level followed by the company. As I collect data from different offices of PTCL located in Lahore and trying to cover all the designation in Lahore. Here below table shows the employees perception regarding employees relation with their authorities policies implements in PTCL. Table 4.12: Means, Median, Mode and Standard Deviations of Employees Relation Practices
ER1 ER2 ER3 ER4 ER5

Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation

3.56 3.00 3 1.465

3.27 3.00 3 1.272

3.22 3.00 3 1.569

3.10 3.00 3 1.245

3.17 3.00 3 1.247

Results show that most of employees have not good opinion about the current employee relation practices of company that motivates the employees. Mostly employees opinion are union are more strong and they influence their policies to higher management standard deviation shows the vague result due to different opinion of employees or wide gaps between agrees or disagreed. Standard deviation shows that mostly results are not satisfied the current employees relationship with higher authorities of company. 72

Response of Individual Questions:


This section provided the responses of employees against a single statement. Here below the first question that I asked from employees regarding employees relation. Question ER1: In our organization the employees enjoy good working relations. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 9 39 57 42 54 201 4.5 19.4 28.4 20.9 26.9 100.0 Percent 4.5 19.4 28.4 20.9 26.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 4.5 23.9 52.2 73.1 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Above table indicates that 24% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 48% people are agreed. 73

Question ER2: In our organization the union and management has an exemplary relationship. Valid Frequency Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 6 39 86 55 15 201 Percent 3.0 19.4 42.8 27.4 7.5 100.0 Percent 3.0 19.4 42.8 27.4 7.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.0 22.4 65.2 92.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 22% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 35% people are agreed.

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Question ER3: Union is in better position to bargain the benefits for the staff. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 8 58 74 40 21 201 4.0 28.9 36.8 19.9 10.5 100.0 Percent 4.0 28.9 36.8 19.9 10.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 4.0 32.8 69.7 89.6 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 33% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 30% people are agreed.

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Question ER4: Organization have proper department is available to redress the staff complaints/reservations. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 9 53 74 55 10 201 4.5 26.4 36.8 27.4 5.0 100.0 Percent 4.5 26.4 36.8 27.4 5.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 4.5 30.8 67.7 95.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 31% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 32% people are agreed.

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Question ER5: Union is provided opportunity to suggest improvements in the way things are done here. Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 8 42 93 39 19 201 4.0 20.9 46.3 19.4 9.5 100.0 Percent 4.0 20.9 46.3 19.4 9.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 4.0 24.9 71.1 90.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 25% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 29% people are agreed. The overall response of this section satisfied, employees of PTCL are satisfied with current Employees Relation Policies involved

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4.9 EMPLOYEES PERCEPTION REGARDING SAFETY AND HEALTH:


This section provided the details view about the employees opinion about safety and health policy practices in PTCL. In our research we calculate the mean, mode, median and standard deviation of safety and health process, related to part of questions. We also seem the procedure used by the company. As I collect data from different offices of PTCL located in Lahore and trying to cover all the designation in Lahore and collect their opinion about safety and health. We also examine internal work environment of company. Here below table shows the employees perception regarding employees relation with their authorities policies implements in PTCL.

Table 4.14: Means, Median, Mode and Standard Deviations of Safety and Health Policy SH1 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation
3.48 3.00 3 1.581

SH2
3.32 3.00 3 1.453

SH3
3.18 3.00 3 1.477

SH4
3.10 3.00 3 1.369

SH_5
3.21 3.00 3 1.392

Results show that most of employees have not good opinion about the current safety and health practices of company that motivates the employees. Mostly employees argued that only safety equipment are available but no other facility available for employees. Standard deviations result shows that employees have dissimilar opinion regarding safety and health policies of company.

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Response of Individual Questions:


This section provided the responses of employees against a single statement. Here below the first question that I asked from employees regarding safety and health policies.

Question SH1: In our organization employees dose not feel stress in the job.

Valid Frequency Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 12 41 65 33 50 201 Percent 6.0 20.4 32.3 16.4 24.9 100.0 Percent 6.0 20.4 32.3 16.4 24.9 100.0

Cumulative Percent 6.0 26.4 58.7 75.1 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Above table indicates that 26% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 41% people are agreed. 79

Question SH2: In our organization safe and healthy working environment is available. Valid Frequency Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 8 43 78 48 24 201 Percent 4.0 21.4 38.8 23.9 12.0 100.0 Percent 4.0 21.4 38.8 23.9 12.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 4.0 25.4 64.2 88.1 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 25% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 36% people are agreed.

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Question SH3: In our organization safety tools are available like fire extinguishers etc Valid Frequency Percent Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 5 59 80 40 17 201 2.5 29.4 39.8 19.9 8.5 100.0 Percent 2.5 29.4 39.8 19.9 8.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 2.5 31.8 71.6 91.5 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50

Above table indicates that 32% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 28% people are agreed.

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Question SH4: In our organization smoking is prohibited and employees dose not smoke in office premises Valid Frequency Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total 7 61 73 48 12 201 Percent 3.5 30.3 36.3 23.9 6.0 100.0 Percent 3.5 30.3 36.3 23.9 6.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.5 33.8 70.1 94.0 100.0

Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Percentage Disagree Strongly Disagree 0 10 20 30 40

Above table indicates that 34% people are disagreeing with the statement and only 30% people are agreed. The overall response of this section satisfied, employees of PTCL are satisfied with current Safety and Health Policies involved

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4.10: CORRELATION BETWEEN VARIABLES:

Correlations Total HRP Total HRP Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Total RS Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Total TD Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Total PA Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Total CB Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Total ER Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Total SH Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 201 .306
**

Total RS .306
**

Total TD .286
**

Total PA .135 .057 201 .287


**

Total CB .136 .055 201 .252


**

Total ER .124 .080 201 .077 .280 201 .245


**

Total SH .125 .078 201 .120 .090 201 .220


**

.000 201 1

.000 201 .373


**

.000 201 .286


**

.000 201 .373


**

.000 201 .523


**

.000 201 .391


**

201 1

.000 201 .135 .057 201 .136 .055 201 .124 .080 201 .125 .078 201

.000 201 .287


**

.000 201 .523


**

.000 201 .526


**

.000 201 .430


**

.002 201 .418


**

201 1

.000 201 .252


**

.000 201 .391


**

.000 201 .526


**

.000 201 .506


**

.000 201 .406


**

201 1

.000 201 .077 .280 201 .120 .090 201

.000 201 .245


**

.000 201 .430


**

.000 201 .506


**

.000 201 .684


**

201 1

.000 201 .220


**

.000 201 .418


**

.000 201 .406


**

.000 201 .684


**

201 1

.002 201

.000 201

.000 201

.000 201 201

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

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In correlation analysis we study the strength of relationship between two or more variables. In this research we have seven independent variables HPR, RS, TD, PA, CB, ER, SH and one dependent variable Employees Satisfaction (ES). The correlation matrix is constructed between the independent variables with help of SPSS 16. It explores the pair wise correlation between independent variables and test about the significance of the correlation. Pair wise correlation is given bellow. If we observe all these pair wise correlations we will find that RS with TD, PA with CB and ER with SH have very strong correlation, where as minimum correlation is between HPR which is 1. Here in this table we will find that all the pair wise correlations are statistically significant because in each case P- Value is approximately zero.

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4.11 EMPLOYEES CONTRIBUTION IN SURVEY:


This section provided the details view about the employees contribute in this survey. It tells about their experience, qualification, designation and status either they permanent or contract based. For this purpose we used ANOVA test because here we have a more than two variable and need more reliable test score. Blow table shows the results of our sample

Table 4.16: ANOVA Test of Employees Details Sum of Squares df Designation Between Groups Within Groups Total Qualification Between Groups Within Groups Total Experience Between Groups Within Groups Total Status Between Groups Within Groups Total 4744.670 12504.464 17249.134 63.198 122.693 185.891 63.198 122.693 185.891 55.948 137.634 193.582 55 145 200 55 145 200 55 145 200 55 145 200 1.017 .949 1.072 .366 1.149 .846 1.358 .077 1.149 .846 1.358 .077 Mean Square 86.267 86.238 F 1.000 Sig. .486

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Results show that most of employees contributed in our survey have significant results and have a significant contribution of all selected departments of company. In modern business environment delivery of quality product and service is considered as critical element of accomplishment of company long term objectives and this will only be achieved with effectively contribution of employees to companys planning process (Dawkins and Reichheld 1990, Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry 1985, Reichheld and Sasser 1990). Bottom line managers are closely linked with customers, so suggestion given by these manager have a significant important. Employees sources through which they get information about problems in product and services set their framework about improve that service or product. So opinion and also the communication which is controlled by the companys management is one of the important element (Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman 1991).

Employees satisfaction is largely effected by the companys performance in a manner of dealing with the customer as employees are assets of company. So the skill of the service providing staff is vital in services or communication department and the polishing through appreciate of these skills by the service providing staff enhance the value of company (Gronroos and Bitner 1990). The ability of service providing staff and the implementation of their skills can be enhanced by providing them job satisfaction. The interaction of the customer and service providing staff is the base of perceived service quality (Solomon and Surprenant 1987).

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4.12 PRESENCE OF PERMANENT AND CONTRACTUAL EMPLOYEES:


This section provided the information regarding the permanent and contractual employees of PTCL in our data collection. This segmentation is much important, because a permanent employee feels more secure than the contractual employees regarding the level of job security in organization. Contractual employees have an extra burden of lack of job security and performances in their work.

Table 4.17: Ratio of Permanent and Contractual Employees

Serial No.
1 2 Permanent Contractual

Frequency
122 79

Percentage
60.6% 39.3%

Figure 4.1: Presence of Permanent and Contractual Employees

39% Permanent 61% Contractual

The above graph shows the permanent and contractual employees in our population. Red part represented the contractual employee that is about 39 percent of total population and blue

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division represented the permanent employees of our population. In this research I tried to obtain views of both group of categories that are essential for the judgment of job satisfaction

4.13 LEVEL OF RESPONDENT IN DIFFERENT GROUPS:


This section provided the different level of experienced person contributed in our thesis with their judgment about polices of organization. This factor is adding to evaluate how people react to any influential groups, either they join them or they oppose such unwritten agreements among people to maximize their interest. The factor got much significance in perception of organizational politics because it was considered as dysfunctional. Below table show the different level of people respondent in this thesis. This represented both male and female employees of PTCL. Table 4.18: Perception of Employees in Support of Organization Polices

Serial No.

Year Experiences

of Percentage of Satisfied Organizations polices


4% 43% 39% 14%

1 2 3 4

I Year or less 3 Year or less 5 Year or less More than 5 year

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Figure 4.2: Perception of Employees in Support of Organization Polices

4%

39% 43%

1 Year or less 3 Year or less 5 Year or less More than 5 Years

14%

The above graph shows that the employees who have one year or less than one year experiences are less satisfied with the policies of PTCL, whereas employees group that belongs to the experienced level of one to three years are more satisfied with the PTCL polices. Research shows when employees getting more and more experienced, are more satisfied with the organizational policies.

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4.14 T-TEST RESULTS OF HRP POLICIES:


This section provided the details view about the employees level of satisfaction about human resource planning of company. It tells about their mean and how far of each group from their mean. Blow table shows the results of our sample

Table 4.19: T-Test Result of Human Resource Planning Policies of Company Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of Sig. T HRP1 24.897 HRP2 41.083 HRP3 44.116 HRP4 44.169 HRP5 46.739 df 200 200 200 200 200 tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 (2- Mean Difference 2.348 2.721 2.915 3.020 3.045 the Difference Lower 2.16 2.59 2.79 2.89 2.92 Upper 2.53 2.85 3.05 3.15 3.17

Results show that most of employees are satisfied with the policies of Human Resource planning and have significant results. No significant differences are seemed in their mean and average.

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4.15

T-TEST

RESULTS

OF

RECRUITMENT

AND

SELECTION

PROCESS:
This section provided the details view about the employees level of satisfaction about recruitment and selection process adopt by the company. This test tells about their mean and how far of each groups mean from their average. Blow table shows the results of our sample

Table 4.20: T-Test Result of Recruitment and Selection procedure of Company Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of Sig. T RS1 RS2 RS3 RS4 RS5 38.725 44.736 42.962 47.737 43.424 df 200 200 200 200 200 tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 (2- Mean Difference 3.229 3.010 2.930 3.090 3.189 the Difference Lower 3.06 2.88 2.80 2.96 3.04 Upper 3.39 3.14 3.06 3.22 3.33

Results show that most of employees are not satisfied with the policies adopt by the company in recruitment and selection process and have significant results. Employees either have no idea or depressing behavior about recruitment and selection process. No significant differences are seemed in their mean and average. So t-test shows significant results. 91

4.16 T-TEST RESULTS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS:


This section provided the details view about the employees level of satisfaction about training and development procedure adopt by company. Normally company has internal or external training program that increase the employees professional skills. This test tells about their mean and how far of each groups mean from their average. Blow table shows the results of our sample

Table 4.21: T-Test Result of Training and Development Policies of Company Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of Sig. T TD1 TD2 TD3 TD4 TD5 44.523 41.811 51.326 37.173 44.032 df 200 200 200 200 200 tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 (2- Mean Difference 3.398 3.060 3.055 3.204 3.169 the Difference Lower 3.25 2.92 2.94 3.03 3.03 Upper 3.55 3.20 3.17 3.37 3.31

Results show that most of employees are satisfied with training and development procedure adopt by company and have significant results. No significant differences are seemed in their mean and average.

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4.17 T-TEST RESULTS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS:


This section provided the details view about the employees level of satisfaction about performance appraisal system of company. Normally it is conducting departmental managers but some biasness complains will be there. It tells about their mean and how far of each group from their average. Blow table shows the results of our sample

Table 4.22: T-Test Result of Performance Appraisal Process of Company Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Sig. T df 200 200 200 200 200 tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 (2- Mean Difference 3.448 3.154 3.050 3.154 3.100 Lower 3.28 3.00 2.90 3.01 2.94 Upper 3.62 3.30 3.20 3.30 3.26

PA1 39.667 PA2 41.501 PA3 39.846 PA4 42.048 PA5 37.960

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Results show that most of employees are neutral with the policies of performance appraisal and have significant results. With the view of our questions their answer was neutral or used third option that is neutral. No significant differences are seemed in their mean and average.

4.18

T-TEST

TESULTS

OF

COMPENSATION

AND

BENEFITS

POLICIES:
This section provided the details view about the employees level of satisfaction about compensation and benefit system of company. It tells about their mean and how far of each group from their average. Blow table shows the results of our sample Table 4.23: T-Test Result of Compensation and Benefits Policies of Company Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of Sig. T CB1 CB2 CB3 CB4 CB5 36.511 39.656 31.749 34.968 30.909 df 200 200 200 200 200 tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 (2- Mean Difference 3.557 3.209 3.109 3.254 3.134 the Difference Lower 3.37 3.05 2.92 3.07 2.93 Upper 3.75 3.37 3.30 3.44 3.33

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Results show that most of employees are satisfied with the policies of compensation and reward system adopt by the company. There reward system was based on performance and have significant results. No significant differences are seemed in their mean and average.

4.19 T-TEST RESULTS OF EMPLOYEES RELATION PRACTICES:


This section provided the details view about the employees level of satisfaction about employees relation with their higher authorities of company. It only tells about level of communication between upper level of management with bottom line managers or workers but also tells about their mean and how far of each group from their average. Blow table shows the results of our sample Table 4.24: T-Test Result of Compensation and Benefits Policies of Company Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of Sig. T ER1 ER2 ER3 ER4 ER5 34.464 36.438 29.085 35.295 36.093 df 200 200 200 200 200 tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 (2- Mean Difference 3.562 3.269 3.219 3.100 3.174 the Difference Lower 3.36 3.09 3.00 2.93 3.00 Upper 3.77 3.45 3.44 3.27 3.35

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Results show that most of employees are satisfied with the policies of Human Resource planning and have significant results. No significant difference are seemed in their mean and average.

4.20 T-TEST RESULTS OF SAFETY AND HEALTH PRACTICES:


This section provided the details view about the employees level of satisfaction about safety and health policies of company. It tells about their mean and how far of each group from their mean. Blow table shows the results of our sample

Table 4.25: T-Test Result of Safety and Health Practices of Company Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of Sig. (2T SH1 SH2 SH3 SH4 31.178 32.438 30.567 32.151 df 200 200 200 200 200 tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 Mean Difference 3.478 3.323 3.184 3.104 3.214 the Difference Lower 3.26 3.12 2.98 2.91 3.02 Upper 3.70 3.53 3.39 3.29 3.41

SH_5 32.722

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Results show that most of employees are satisfied with the policies of safety and health policies and procedure adopt by the company. Above test results show that employees was satisfied companys safety and health policies and have significant results. No significant differences are seemed in their mean and average.

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CHAPTER 5
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

The Job environment in Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation is a perfect example of integration of HR and systems. All the systems are already in place. Their systems and procedures are well defined and work is made easy. But at times this proves as a disadvantage to the company because, employees might not think much and go on with the processes and systems as they are. They may not think rationally. This can lead to stagnation. I would ultimately conclude that the HR department and job appraisal satisfaction level at Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation has to be a link with satisfaction with how good relation are have employees with their supervisor or management. It necessary that reduce this biasness between employees and management and using some management practices reduce the gap between the various departments in the organization and increase communication between employees and management. HR needs to change its role from a facilitator to a strategic business partner. According to results drawn through analysis and interpretation of our data that filled by employees of Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Lahore sector, job satisfaction and job security would increasingly depend on relationship with management and any person that try hard in their work have no regard at all. Analysis also concluded that although employees are satisfied with their working environment, promotion and compensation strategy, self respect and other desire that employees want in any organization was fulfill by Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation. Working environment and

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respectable internal culture encourage employees to work with devotions and for benefit of company. Organization set certain working standard and employee performance are compare with these already set rules. It lead employee performance up to standard and their performance also aspect able by other organization and these set of performance will be role model for others. Organization monitors employee performance within short period of time and makes plan to improve weak areas of employee or define the way of direction to do work. Analysis shows that majority of employees were satisfied with these practices and implementation procedure but only few employees were not satisfied with this and argued that it is only a time wasting activity. From our analysis show that employees were unhappy with freedom of work activity because of some pressure of union that made in organization and exploit employees and management also have no such power that control their activities. Management biasness and union were most powerful element in organization that makes hurdles in employees freedom of work. In factors that was contributing business operation failure or success, most critical is internal business culture and environment of any company. Company size, operational area, local or foreign, small or joint stock directly influenced country political environment. Rapid changing made in political system and lack of policies consistency makes adverse effect on investment opportunity. As organization is responsible for Telecommunication system in Pakistan thats way in major projects employees were worked together. So organization professional was try to arrangement for training session and workshop before doing such project that will help employees to understand other team members and nature of project in professional briefing.

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Analysis shows that job security in permanent was higher as compare to contractual employees. Contractual employees clearly have fear of job loss that effect their performance. Management should take some certain steps that increase their job security and they exist know their job security criteria. Analysis shows that majority of employees want to some targeted project. They know the time limitation of project and have some freedom to work on it. Changing in company structure, some new implementation guidelines also is knowledge of employees that increase their product. Analysis shows that employees were satisfied with compensation and reward system of company and policy that it adopted on this matter. Appreciation of work increase competition in environment and providing opportunity to grow. Organization clearly defines each employees job description, their responsibility, authority and limitation that help employees to do their work effectively and developed effective communication system between employees or departments. But some employees disagree from company this policy and argued that management or supervisor distributes unequal distribution of work due to biasness or favoritism. Analysis shows that employees were not satisfied with employees training program either it was in house or outdoor training. They think that training method was not up to standard and not cover situation that they face in practical environment. They had also some reservation of time period of training program. Analysis shows that employees want some healthy activities in their departments due to their hectic job and most of their time spends in field; find the means of changing their environment

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RECOMMENDATIONS

The recommendations are drawn on the basis of our observations during filling questionnaire and personal interaction with many respondents. Few recommendations that seem flaws in organization are given blow: Organization needs sharp working hours and try to implement it through force because it not only convenient for company employees but also to organization Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Lahore department. Like other company Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation also have 8 hours working per day that from 9AM to 5PM. But actual satiation is much more different, even like employees dont know exit time of departure. Organization employees feels that their job security would be depend on good relationship with management. They dont have freedom of work that may causes down the organization performance. So that giving freedom of work help employees and also increase the organization productivity. Organization employee have less opportunities of growth as management send the performance evaluation report to their superior and also filled themselves so some biasness also be shown in it. Organization must take steps to evaluate employees performance through some other means that reduce authority of management or minimize it to increase opportunity for employees. Company used rotation policy in their true meanings that reduce to make strong relation in one place and through training developed employee according to their capabilities. 101

This training period would be depend of responsibility assign or job requirement and not be fixed. Training must be meaningful and it will be designed that caters the entire situation that will be face by the employees practically. As employee are more closely worked with actual situation so that management giving some importance to their bottom line employees. Taking suggestion from them or make discussion with them to their related issues that increase their moral. The recommendation giving insight benefit to company. Management is giving some consideration to employees in their suggestion that increase their motivation level. Increase productivity directly related to employees motivation level and giving opportunity to perform their work freely. Reduce biasness in bottom line management and introduce equal opportunity for all. The results in dissatisfaction can be changed in positive perception with proper and timely flow of informations, improving the technical knowhow and overcoming the weaknesses in internal management system. Another aspect of this analysis highlights the fact that dissatisfied employees need more attention to retain them, if we see these individual results in our company. We will find that there are some respondents though they are not greater in numbers are not satisfied with the practices currently involved in PTCL but there is need to know the reasons of their dissatisfaction and to understand their feelings, expectations and perceptions regarding the human resource practice in PTCL. In the light of research results it can be concluded that feelings always draw a very strong sketch in the memory of the employees that can be recalled at the time of evaluation of the related use experience.

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