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TOPIC: Characteristics of Americas new people and the forces that shaped them. I.

Population Growth: population increased 10 fold from 1701 to 1775. Reason: immigration due to abundance of land and food, and increased birthrate among locals a. European immigrants i. Motive for leaving Europe 1. Escape religious persecution 2. Economic opportunity a. By farming b. Setting up shop in colonial town ii. English 1. Smaller number of immigrants compared to other groups iii. Germans 1. Settled in farmlands of Penn mostly. 2. Non-English immigrants 3. Tried to sustain their heritage (language, customs, religion) 4. 6% of pop by 1175 iv. Scotch-Irish 1. Left b/c they had little respect for Brit. Gove. 2. Settled in Penn, VA, NC-SC, and GA 3. 7% of pop by 1775 v. Other Europeans 1. French Protestants, Dutch, and Swedes 2. 5% of pop by 1775 b. Africans i. Important to know 1. Largest single group of non-English immigrants 2. Come not by free-will 3. 20% of pop by 1775 4. 90% lived in south Structure of Colonial Society: common characteristics of colonies a. General Characteristics i. Dominance of English culture 1. Sustained their English in origin, language, and tradition ii. Self-Government 1. Colonies had a representative assembly. a. Members elected by eligible voters 2. RI and CT had elected gov. Rest were appointed by crown iii. Religious toleration 1. All colonies were tolerant, but with varying degree. iv. No Hereditary Aristocracy 1. No have/have not split. 2. Classless society built around economics began to emerge b. The Family. i. Note 1. Economic and social center of colonial life 2. 90% lived on farms ii. Men

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1. sole landowners and dominated politics iii. Woman 1. Bore many children, worked in the home, and educated their children. 2. Worked alongside their husbands at times. 3. Limited legal and political rights The Economy a. Intro i. Most people were in agriculture ii. Grew to ministers, lawyers, doctors, and teachers b. New England i. Farming was kept to sustain family of seasons and soil type ii. Focus was on logging, ship building, trading, rum-distilling c. Middle Colonies i. Big farms ii. Wheat and corn focus iii. Philly and NYC grew out of the trading. d. Southern Colonies i. Small farms to large plantations (many located on rivers for export purposes) ii. Main cash crop was tobacco (NC) and rice and indigo (SC and GA). NC/SC big on timber also. iii. Increase use of slaves. e. Monetary System i. Used paper notes (domestic trade) and hard currency (exports) f. Transportation i. Mostly done over water ii. Taverns were places of social discussion iii. Postal services increased iv. Traveled by horse if done on land. Religion a. Intro i. Majority were a part of Protestant denomination b. Protestant Domination i. Some colonial government gave tax money to support churches, called established churches. ii. Anglicans 1. Also called Church of England 2. View as symbol of English control in the colonies because the church was governed by the King. iii. Congregationalists 1. Mainly in New England. 2. Not liked by some Puritans c. The Great Awakening i. Intro 1. focus on intellectual discourses gave more focus to religious feelings. Topics were sinfulness of man and Hell. Strong in 173040s

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ii. Jonathon Edwards 1. Started the Great Awakening 2. Notable sermon Sinners in the hands of an angry God 3. Focus was on Gods judgment of sinners but gracious offer of salvation iii. George Whitefield 1. Sermons focused on God saving only those who profess belief in Jesus. 2. Preached all over the colonies. 3. All people can understand the Gospel without help of ministers iv. Religious impact 1. People began to get knowledge from personal study of Bible instead of preacher. 2. Divisions occurred within churches based on teachings. new lights vs old lights v. Political influence 1. Affected every social class. a. Colonists now shared common experience as Americans b. Change of view toward authority i. Saw themselves as able to make political decisions Cultural Life a. Intro i. Economic survival to influx of influence of the arts. b. Advancements in the Arts and Sciences i. Architecture 1. Georgian style of London near sea board 2. One-room log cabin on the frontier ii. Painting 1. Focus was mainly on family portraits 2. Benjamine West and John Copely were prominent iii. Literature 1. Main focus on religion and politics a. Jonathon Edwards b. Cotton Mather 2. Politics focused on American rights and English authority 3. Philis Wheatly a. Poet on slavery 4. Ben Franklin was most prominent writer a. Poor Richards Almanac iv. Science 1. Ben Franklin with his electricity and bifocals c. Education i. Intro 1. Limited and varied in colonies. Formal ed given to males ii. New England 1. Puritans started first tax-supported schools iii. Middle Colonies 1. Private or church sponsored. Placed in home

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iv. Southern Colonies 1. Mainly the parents job. v. Higher education 1. Harvard was first (1636) William and Mary, and Yale followed next a. Religious in nature d. Professions: Ministers held sole respectability and social dominance. These grew i. Physicians 1. Little training in beginning except as apprentice. ii. Lawyers 1. Became more useful as trade expanded. 2. Formed a bar to set standards for aspiring lawyers. e. The Press: News spread by postal system and printing press i. Newspapers 1. Grew to 40 by 1776. 2. Short in pages (4), few pics. Ben, the first to do so ii. The Zenger Case 1. Peter Zenger lambasted govt, which was a crime. a. Opened for more freedom in writing f. Rural Folkways i. How they lived 1. Reading material limited to paper and bible 2. Worked all day 3. Food aplenty 4. Light restricted to kitchen table 5. Forms of Entertainment a. cardplaying and horse-racing in south b. theatre in middle c. religious lectures in NE g. Emergence of National Character i. Distinct American viewpoint and way of life 1. Rights of free speech and press 2. Elected representatives to colonial assemblies 3. Tolerated religious views 4. Considered restless, enterprising, practical, sought improvement Politics: similar in nature with governor as head and voting to adopt or reject a. Structure of Government i. Governors appointed by king, proprietors, or popular vote. ii. Legislation consisted of two houses (lower and upper) b. Local Government i. North 1. Done in town meetings by locals ii. South 1. Done by law-enforcing sheriff and other officials Voting a. Limited and partial in nature i. Barred were white woman, poor white men, slaves, and most free blacks. ii. Needed to own a small amount of property b. Some colonies were run by privileged elite or plain citizens.