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2 Define speed and velocity and state that v = s/t 2.1.3 Define acceleration and deceleration and state that a=v-u t 2.1.4 Calculate speed and velocity 2.1.5 Calculate acceleration / deceleration 2.1.6 Solve problems on linear motion with uniform acceleration using (i) v = u + at (ii) s = ut + ½ at2 (iii) v2 = u2 + 2as Distance and Displacement A: Fill in the blank with the correct answer 1. Physical quantities can be divided into 2 : (a)……………………… quantity (b)……………………… quantity

2.

3. 4. B:

Distance is …………………… quantity which has ………………. and no ……………… ………………… is a vector quantity which has magnitude and direction The SI unit for both physical quantities is …………..

Complete the table below : Aspect Definition Type of quantity SI unit Scalar quantity Distance Displacement Distance taken with consideration of direction

Speed and Velocity C: Complete the table below Aspect Definition Type of physical quantity Formula SI unit Scalar Speed = Total distance Time Velocity = m s-1 Speed Velocity Rate of change of displacement

1

Symbol

u, v u denotes initial speed v denotes final speed Average speed = Total distance Time

u, v u denotes initial velocity v denotes final velocity We usually consider the forward motion ( to the right ) as positive and the backward ( to the left) as negative )

Acceleration D: Fill in the blank with the correct answer. 1. Acceleration is the rate of change of …………….. Acceleration , a = Final velocity - Initial velocity Time taken

2.

a=

3. 4. The SI unit of acceleration is ………. Acceleration is a ………….. quantity ………………… occurs when an object moves with ……………. velocity. …………………. occurs when an object moves with …………… velocity

5. 6.

E:

Solve the problem.

1.

A car starts from points from point O and moves to U, 50 m to the north in 60 s. The car then moves to B, 120 m to the west in 40 s. Finally, it stops. Calculate the : (a) total distance moved by the car

(b)

displacement of the car

(c)

speed of the car when it is moves to the north

(d)

velocity of the car

(e)

average speed of the car

2

2.

A bus stops at a station to pick passengers up. It then moves and attains a velocity of 15 m s-1 in 8 s. What is the acceleration of the bus ?

F. Complete the table below with the correct answer

Increasing Speed

Pattern (a)

short decreasing

increasing low

far high

Explanation

same decreasing

Direction of motion

. . . Initial

(b)

.

.

.

.

.

The distance between the dots is the ………. It shows that the object is moving with ……………

Final Direction of motion The distance between the dots is ………….. It shows that the object is moving very ……….

................ . Initial Final

(c) Direction of motion

. . . Initial

(d)

.

.

.

.

The distance between the dots is …………. It shows that the speed of the object is moving with ………….

Final Direction of motion

. . . . . Initial

(e)

.

.

.

Final

The distance between the dots is ……………. It shows that the speed of the object is …………….

Direction of motion

. . . Initial

G:

.

. . . .

Final

The distance between the dots is ……………. It shows that the speed of the object is ………………

Determine the acceleration of a trolley from the ticker tape 1. The ticker tape is divided into 5 parts. Every part has 2 ticks as shown in figure below. Find the acceleration. 1 cm 5 cm

A

B

C

D

E

F

3

Solution : Step 1. Time taken of one part 2. initial velocity, u = s initial t initial 3. Final velocity, v = s final t final 4. Determine the total time Total time = ( Total parts – 1) x time of one part 5. Acceleration, a = v – u t Solution One part = ……. Ticks = ……. x 0.02 s = ……. S u= cm s = ………. cm s-1 v= cm s = ………. cm s-1 Total time, t = ( ) x …….. s = x ……... s = ………. S a=v–u t = = ………… cm s-2

The equations of motion 1. Complete the table below Physical Quantity Displacement Initial velocity acceleration List the equations of linear motion. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Questions Symbol v 2.

**1. Solve the following problems using the equations of linear motion
**

(a) A car moves from rest to a velocity of 10 ms-1 in 5 s .Calculate the acceleration of the car Solution :

(b) A car traveling with a velocity of 10 m s-1 accelerates uniformly at a rate of 3 m s-2 for 20 s. Calculate the displacement of the car.

4

Solution :

**(c)A van that is traveling with velocity 16 m s-1 decelerates until it comes to a stop. If the
**

distance traveled is 8 m, calculate the deceleration of the van. Solution :

2.2

ANALYSING MOTION GRAPH

[………/20 x 100 = …………%]

A student is able to :

5

2.2.1 2.2.2

2.2.3 2.2.4

2.2.5

2.2.6 A:

Plot and interpret displacement-time and velocity-time graphs Deduce from the shape of a displacement-time graph when a body is: i) at rest ii) moving with uniform velocity iii) moving with non-uniform velocity Determine distance, displacement and velocity from a displacement-time graph Deduce from the shape of a velocity-time graph when a body is: i) at rest ii) moving with uniform velocity iii) moving with uniform acceleration Determine distance, displacement and velocity and acceleration from a velocity-time graph Solve problems on linear motion with uniform acceleration Describe the motion of an object as shown in the following motion graphs. (a) The Displacement-Time Graph Graph of s against t s/m The displacement of the object from a fixed point is …………………….. Therefore, the velocity of the object is …………………. 0 s/m The gradient of the graph = ……………..of the object. The gradient of the graph is ……………., therefore the velocity of the object is ……………. 0 s/m The gradient of the graph …………….. with time. Therefore the velocity of the object ……………. with … …………. 0 t/s t/s t/s Explanation

(b) The velocity – time graph

6

Graph of v against t v/m s-1

Explanation

Velocity of object is …………. . The object is ………… ……

t/s v/m s-1 The object is moving with uniform …………………

t/s v/m s-1 The gradient of the graph = ……………… The gradient of the graph is …………… Therefore, the acceleration of the object is …………… … t/s v/m s-1 Area under the graph = ………………….

t/s B. Describe the motion of a runner who is running in a straight line s/m

25 20 15 10 5

O 5 10

C A B

D t/s

t/s 12 15

Solution :

7

O-A A-B B-C C-D C: Study the velocity-time graph.

Motion of the runner Running with a uniform velocity of 3 m s-1

v/m s-1 10 B 5 C

D A 5 10 15 20 25

Calculate:(i) the acceleration, a, for sections AB, BC and CD (ii) total displacement

t/s

2.3 UNDERSTANDING INERTIA 8

[…………./19 x 100 = ………….%]

A student is able to : 2.3.1 Explain what inertia is 2.3.2 Relate mass to inertia 2.3.3 Give examples to reduce the negative effects of inertia A. Fill in the blanks or underline the correct answers 1.

When the bus stops suddenly our feet are brought to rest but due to inertia, our body tends to continue its (forward/backward) motion. This causes our body to jerk forward.(thrown forward) 2.

When the bus moves suddenly from rest our feet are carried (forward/backward) but Due to inertia our body tends to keep us (rest/moving) . This causes our body to fall backwards. (thrown backbards) 3. 4. 5. The inertia of an object is the.................................. of the object to remain at ........... or if ...................... to continue its uniform motion in a straight line The mass of an object is the amount or quantity of matter contained in the object. The SI unit of mass is …………………….. The mass of an object is ………… wherever it is measured. It is different from ……….. which is affected by the …………. of gravity. An object with a larger mass has a …………….. Inertia.

6. 7.

Effects of inertia

9

B. Explain the positive effect by using the clues given.

Clue : Drying a wet umbrella

Clue : Pour our Tomato sauces

Positive effect Of inertia

Clue : Tighten the Hammer head

Clue: Running zig-zig when chased by a bull.

C .Match the correct explanation to each of the characteristics

Characteristic (a) The tank which carries liquid in a lorry should be divided into smaller tanks (b) the part between the driver’s seat and load should have strong steel structure (c) Safety belts (d) Airbag

Explanation Hold the passengers to their seat during collision Prevent the driver from hitting the steering in an accident Prevent the load from being thrown to the front To reduce the effects of inertia when stopped suddenly.

2.4

ANALYSNG MOMENTUM

[………/30 x 100 = ………….%]

A student is able to :

10

2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 A.

Define the momentum of an object Define momentum(p) as the product of mass (m) and velocity(v) ie p=mv State the principle of conservation of momentum Describe the applications of conservation of momentum Solve problems involving momentum Fill in the blank with the correct answer 1. 2. Momentum is defined as the product of ……………… and ………………. The formula of momentum is given by : Momentum = ……………….. p 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. = ……. x ……………….

Momentum is a …………….. quantity The SI unit of momentum is ………… Momentum ………………….. when velocity ……………….. The principle of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum in a closed ……………………… of object is ……………….. The total momentum ………………… the collision is ……………… to the total momentum ……………… after the collision, if no ………………………. acts on the system. The principle of conservation of momentum can be applied in (a) …………………… collision (b) …………………… collision (c) …………………….

B.

Fill in the blank 1.

Collision I : Both bodies separates after collision. Momentum is …………... u1 m1 u2 m2 m1 v2 m2

Before collision Momentum :

after collision

2.

Collision II : Both objects move together after collision. …………. Is conserved. u1 11

m1

u2 = 0 m2

v m1 + m2

Before collision Momentum :

after collision

3. Explosion : Two or more bodies in contact will be ……………… after the explosion

(m1 + m2), u = 0

v1

v2 m2

after explosion

Before explosion Momentum : B. Complete the table below Elastic collision (a) Both bodies will separate after collision (b) (c) The total kinetic energy is conserved (c) Inelastic collision

Explosion Two or more bodies in contact will be separated after the collision The total momentum is conserved

The total momentum is conserved Total energy is conserved

Total energy is conserved

C. 1.

Solve the following problems Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at 20 m s-1 in front of it. Car A and B move separately after collision. If Car A moves at 25 m s-1 after collision, determine the velocity of Car B after collision. Solution :

12

2:

A trolley of mass 4 kg moves at 3 m s-1 and collide with a trolley of mass 2 kg which is moving in the opposite direction at 1 m s-1. After the collision, both trolleys move together with the same velocity. What is their common velocity ? Solution :

3:

A bullet of mass 2 g is shot from a gun of mass 1 kg with a velocity of 150 m s-1 . Calculate the velocity of the recoil of the gun after firing. Solution :

13

2.5 UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF A FORCE […………../28 x 100 = ……… %] A student is able to : • describe the effects of balanced forces acting on an object • describe the effects of unbalanced forces acting on an object • determine the relationship between force, mass and acceleration i.e F=ma • Solve problems using F = ma 1. Answer the following questions. (a) What are the effects of a force when acting on an object? A force can…. (i) __________ a stationary object (ii) __________ a moving object (iii) change the ________ / ________ of an object (iv) change the ________ / ________ of an object (b) Force is a ( scalar / vector ) quantity . (c) What is the SI unit for force? The S.I. unit for force is ____________ . 2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate answers for balanced and unbalanced forces. (a) (b) (c) Forces acting on an object are said balanced when the net force is ___________. When the forces acting on an object are balanced, it is either at ___________ or moving with ___________ _____________. An object will ____________________ if the forces acting on it are not balanced. / 12 /4

/8

3. Draw the graph and state the relationship between acceleration, a, force, F and mass, m. (i) a a

F

1 m

14

(m is constant) (ii) Relationship :

(F is constant)

a

∝

Relationship :

a

∝

a is __________________ to F (iii) Combine the relationship:

a is __________________ to m

a

∝ ∝

F = k F= ; k is constant (k = 1)

F

**(b) The relationship between F, m and a is derived from Newton’s _____________
**

law of ____________. /4 4. Solve the following. a = 3 m s-2 m = 1000 kg F

(a)

A force, F is required to move an object of mass 1000 kg with an acceleration of 3 m s-2. Calculate F when (i) object is on a smooth surface (ii) object is on a surface where the frictional force is 200 N

Solution : (i)

(ii)

15

F

(b)

A block of mass 20 kg is pulled along the ground by a force, F of 60 N. The frictional force is 10 N. Calculate the acceleration of the block.

Solution:

(c)

A car of mass 1200 kg which is travelling at 90 km h-1 comes to a stop in a distance of 50 m when the brakes are applied. What is the average braking force of the car?

16

2.6 ANALYSING IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE [ ……….. / 21 x 100 = ……….% ] A student is able to : • Explain what an impulsive force is • Give examples of situations involving impulsive forces • Define impulse as a change of momentum ie Ft = mv-mu • Define impulsive force as the rate of change of momentum in a collision or explosion i.e F = mv-mu t • Explain the effect of increasing or decreasing time of impact on the magnitude of the impulsive force • Describe situations where an impulsive force needs to be reduced and suggest ways to reduce it • Describe situations where an impulsive force is beneficial • Solve problems involving impulsive forces

**1. Define impulse and impulsive force by completing the following table.
**

Situation From : A ball of mass, m is kicked with a force, F. The time of contact is t. The ball accelerates from u to v. F = ma F=m Explanation

/9

F=

t

mv – mu = change of ……………………… Impulsive force F=

1 F∝ t

F ∝ mv − mu

**mv − mu = ……………………………………………… t ∴ Impulsive force is defined as the ….........................
**

……………………………………. in a collision or explosion. Impulse = Ft = = change of …………………….. SI unit for impulse is ……… or ………..

t

Impulse = force x time

17

2) (i) Fill in the blanks with appropriate answers. Impulsive force is a …………… force which acts over a very ………….. time interval during …………………….. and ………………………. (ii) By using the figures given, determine whether the impulsive force acting is large or small.

/ 10

3.

Two eggs of the same mass are released from the same height, as shown in the figure below. Egg A falls on a concrete floor while egg B falls on a thick folded towel.

/1

18

Figure A

Figure B

Using Figure A and Figure B, compare the conditions of the eggs after the fall and explain the relationship between the material where the eggs landed and the force acting on the eggs upon landing. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. A tennis ball of mass 45 g travels at a velocity of 70 m s–1 immediately after it is struck by a racket. The time of contact between the tennis ball and the racket is 0.5 ms. Calculate (a) impulse and (b) impulsive force exerted on the ball. /1 Solution :

19

2.7 BEING AWARE OF THE NEED FOR SAFETY FEATURES IN VEHICLES [

…./15 x 100 =.. …%]

A student is able to : • Describe the importance of safety features in vehicles Reinforced passenger compartment Padded ___________ Shatter proof ___________ Automatic air ____ Head ______ Safety seat ________

Crumple zones _______________ _________ (ABS) Side impact bars

Safety features Padded dashboard Head rest

Importance To cushion an impact and increases the ______ __________ of collision so the __________ _______ produced is thereby reduced

To prevent the windscreen from shattering.

Automatic air bag

20

Safety seat belt

To minimize the force acting from a side- on collision.

Anti-lock braking system To increase the time interval of impact so that the resultant impulsive force is reduced.

2.8

UNDERSTANDING GRAVITY [ …………./ 27 x 100 = ………. % ]

A student is able to : • Explain acceleration due to gravity • State what a gravitational field is • Define gravitational field strength • Determine the value of acceleration due to gravity • Define weight (W) as the product of mass (m) and acceleration due to gravity (g) i.e W=mg • Solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity 1. Complete the following by fill in the appropriate answer. a. b. c. An object will ……….. to the surface of the earth because it is pulled by ………… ……………………………………….. The pull or force of gravity also known as …………………………………………... When an object falls without encountering any resistance and under the force of ………. only, the object is said to be ……………………. d. All objects ……… freely with the same …………… / 18

feather

acceleration regardless of their ……… and ………… e. The constant …………….. of objects falling freely due

vacuum stone

to the force of ……….. is known as ………………… ……………, g. f. Practically, a free ……. can only take place in …………. where there is no air resistance.

21

g.

The …………………. field of the earth is the region around the earth where the gravitional force acts.

**h. The gravitational field strength is defined as the ………………. ………… acting on 1
**

kg mass.

**i. When an object falling freely, acceleration due to gravity, g = ……………
**

An object at the surface of the earth experiences gravitational force, g = ……….

2. State the differences between weight and mass in the table below. Weight 1. the gravitational force act on the object. 2. 3. vector quantity 4. 5. SI unit : Newton (N) Solve the problem below 3. A coconut falls from rest and hit the ground after 1.2 s. (a) What is the velocity of the coconut just before hits the ground? (b) Calculate the height of the coconut before it fall. 1. 2. constant quantity everywhere 3. 4. base quantity, mass = m 5. Mass

/5

/2

22

4.

A stone is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 20 m s-1. If g = 10 ms-2, calculate (a) the maximum height reached (b) the time taken for the stone to return to its original position.

/2

23

2.9 %] A • • • • •

ANALYSING FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM

[ ……… / 30 x 100 = …………

student is able to : Describe situations where forces are in equilibrium State what a resultant force is Add two forces to determine the resultant force Resolve a force into the effective component forces Solve problems involving forces in equilibrium / 12

1. Fill in the blanks. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Forces that act on an object are said to be in ……………….. when the object is ……………………. or is moving at ………………… ………………. The net force that acts on an object when two or more forces act on it is known as the ………………… ……………. When …………………. is reached, the resultant force acting on the object is ………… Newton’s …………. law of motion states that to every …………. there is an equal but opposite ……………….. A force can be resolved into component which are ………………… to one another.

Horizontal cpmponent Fx = Vertical component Fy =

2. In the table below, mark and label all the forces that act on the object. i) A box is at rest on a table. ii) An object that is suspended by a rope.

24

iii) An airplane flying at a constant velocity.

iv) A trolley being pushed at a constant velocity

v)

60 N 4 kg 30 0

A box of mass 4 kg is being pulled by a force of 60 N at an angle of 30 0 to the surface of a floor. Calculate (a) the componentof the force which causes the box to move forward. (b) the acceleration of the box if the frictional force between the floor and the box is 5 N,

Solution :

vi)

A man pushes a box of mass 40 kg is up an inclined plane. The inclined plane makes an angle of 30 0 with the horizontal floor. The frictional force acting between the inclined plane and the box is 120 N. If the man pushes the box with a force of 400 N, calculate the acceleration of the box.

25

vii) 4 kg

Smooth pulley

A 4 kg trolley is connected by a rope to a load of mass 6 kg. The friction between the table and the trolley is 15 N. The load is then released. Assuming that the pulley is smooth and the rope is of negligible mass, find (a) the resultant force that act on the system (b) the acceleration of the system (c) the tension of the rope

6 kg

Solution :

viii)

Two loads of mass 3 kg and 5 kg are connected by a rope which passes through a smooth pulley. If the system is released from rest, calculate the acceleration of the 5 kg load. Solution : 3 kg

5 kg

26

3 Forces in equilibrium i A block of mass 6 kg is suspended vertically by a string tied at O to the string AOB. If the system is in equilibrium, draw a vector diagram (triangle of forces) and hence determine the tension of string OA and OB.

/4

A

30

0

O 6 kg

B

ii)

A lamp of mass 1.5 kg is hung from a beam as shown in the diagram. Calculate the tension in the rope. Solution:

1.5 kg

27

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