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SM SAINS ALAM SHAH, K.L.

PROGRAM MKS
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

BY : PN. DING HONG ENG


Topics Paper 1 Paper 2
A B C
03 04 05 06 07 03 04 05 06 07 03 04 05 06 07 03 04 05 06 07

5. Indices and 2 2 3 3 2
Logarithms
6. Coordinate 2
Geometry 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7. Statistics
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8. Circular Measures 1
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
9. Differentiation 2
2 2 3 2 1 1 2 2
1
2 1 1 1
3 2 2 2
2
10. Solution of 1 1 1 1 1
Triangles
11. Index Number 1 1 1 1 1
Topics Paper 1 Paper 2
A B C
03 04 05 06 05 06 05 06 05 06
03 04 03 04 03 04

5. Indices dan 2 2 3 3
Logarithms 2
6. Geometry 2 1 1 1 1 1
Coordinates
7. Statistics
1 1 1 1 1 1
8. Circular 1 1 1 1 1 1
Measures
2 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 3
9. Differentiation 2 2 3 1

10. Solution of 1 1 1
Triangles
11. Index Number 1 1 1
DIFFERENTIATIO
N
The first derivative The second
derivative

Differentiate axn Product Rule, Quotient Differentiate


Addition/Subtractionofalgebraicterms Rule Composite
Function

APPLICATION OF
DIFFERENTIATION

Gradient of a curve The rate Small


maximum and
Gradient of minimum of changes and
tangent
value/point change approximati
Gradient of normal
on
Equation of tangent
Equation of normal
CONCEPT OF
DIFFERENTIATION
y=f(x)
y=f(x)
y2 Q(x2, y2) y2 Q(x2, y2)

Q1

P(x1, y1)
Q2
P(x1, y1)
y1 y1
x1 x2 0 x1 x2
0
y2 − y1
Gradient of chord = x2 − x1
When point Q approaches point P (i.e x2 x1)

y2 − y1 δy
Then =
x2 − x1 δx
When x2 x1, δ x 0

Then  y2 − y1  δ y dy
lim   = lim =
 2 1  δ x→0 δ x dx
x2 → x1 x − x
Differentiation Technicques
Differentiate axn
dy
(a) If y = a, a is a constant --- =0
dx
(b) If y = ax, a is a constant--- dy
=a
dx
(c) If y= axn, a is a constant --- dy
= nax n −1
dx
(d) Differentiate Addition, Subtraction of algebraic terms.
If , then

f ( x) = p( x) ± q ( x)
f ' ( x) = p' ( x) ± q' ( x)
Differentiate Product/
Quotient of two Polynomials
• (a) If y = uv, then

dy dv du
=u +v
dx dx dx
u
• (b) If y = , then
v
du dv
v −u
dy
= dx 2 dx
dx v
Differentiate Composite Function

If y = f(u) and u = g(x),


then, the composite function
dy dy du
= ×
dx du dx
or
d
(ax+b)n = an(ax+b)n-1
dx
The Second Derivative

2
d y d dy
2
= ( ) = f ' ' ( x )
dx dx dx
Application of Differentiation

1. The gradient of the curve y= f(x) at a point is the derivative


of y with respect to x, i.e. dy or f’(x).
dx
dy
2. The gradient of tangent at point A is the value of dx at point A.

3. (Gradient of normal) x (gradient of tangen) = -1


y

normal tangent

x
Equation of Tangent and Equation of
Normal
Equation of tangent at point (x1, y1) with gradient m
is
y – y 1 = m ( x – x1)
Equation of normal at point (x1, y1) is
1

y – y1 = m( x – x 1)
Maximum and Minimum
Point/Value
dy
At the turning point (stationary point),
=0
2
d y dx
2
dx
(a)For maximum point <0
2
d y 2
dx
(b)For minimum point >0
y 0
+ -
- -
+ -
-
- +
0
x
O
The Rate of Change
If y = f(x), then dy dy dx
= ×
dt dx dt

is the rate of change of y with respect to time, t


SMALL CHANGES AND
APPROXIMATION
• If y = f(x) and ∂y is a small change in y
corresponding with ∂x , a small change in x, then

∂y dy

∂x dx
dy
∂y ≈ .∂x
dx