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Stress and load relation is not enough for beam design; deflection must also be taken care of.

y

ω

P

Neutral surface

M x A

L

B

**Due to the loads, beam will deflect as shown (consider only the neutral surface)
**

y x

Deflection at A Elastic Curve y = f(x)

B

Slope at B

A

Elastic Curve - deflected shape of the neutral surface. Objectives: 1. Find the equation of the elastic curve 2. Determine the deflection at a particular point 3. Evaluate the slope at any point Deflection is dependent on: 1. stiffness of the material 2. dimensions of the beam 3. applied loads and supports Methods for calculating beam deflections 1. Double Integration Method 2. Area Moment Method 3. Superposition Method 4. Energy Method

1

the elastic curve becomes an arc of circle with radius ρ c L M na c L M δ+L Before After 2 . M + M - P1 P2 P M M x M x Inflection point Inflection point Moment-Curvature Relationship Consider a portion of the beam of length L. ρ θ For constant bending moment. it is suggested that the moment diagram for the beam be drawn first.Elastic Curve If the elastic curve for a beam seems difficult to establish.

L L+δ = ρ ρ+c Lρ + Lc = Lρ + δρ c δ = = strain ε Lc = δρ ρ L From Hooke's Law. σ = Eε ε= σ E From fiber stress formula.Using arc length formula. σ= So.modulus of elasticity of the beam I .internal bending moment at a section E . Mc I Solving for strain ε= σ Mc = E IE c Mc =ε= ρ EI 1 M = ρ EI where ρ .curvature at a point (section) M . we can obtain the following equations.radius of curvature at a point (section) 1/ρ . (1) ( 2) L = ρθ L + δ = (ρ + c )θ Solving the above equations in terms of θ and equating.moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area 3 .

dy/dx (or θ). is positive as shown + dy/dx or +θ +y x Note: d2 y Moment = EI 2 dx dM d3 y Shear = = EI 3 dx dx d4 y dV Load = = EI 4 dx dx 4 . So.For a given curve. (dy/dx)2 ≈ 0 1 d2 y M = = 2 EI ρ dx d2 y M( x ) = EI 2 dx Differential Equation for the Elastic Curve of the Beam Sign Convention: y Deflection. 1 = ρ d2 y dx 2 ⎡ ⎛ dy ⎞ ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎣ ⎝ dx ⎠ 3 2 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ For small displacements. is positive ↑ negative ↓ Slope. y. the curvature (from any calculus book) at any point is defined by. the deflection y and slope dy/dx are very small quantities.

that is valid throughout the beam. Properties of Singularity Functions n ⎧ when n > 0 and x ≥ x o ⎪(x − x o ) n 1. M(x). 2. the function is zero.SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS for BEAM DEFLECTIONS Singularity functions are used for getting a single expression for moment function. x − x o = ⎨ ⎪ when n > 0 and x < x o ⎩0 Illustration: x − xo n say n = 3 and x o = 5 x−5 3 So if x = 7 x=6 x=5 x=4 x=3 7−5 6−5 5−5 4−5 3−5 3 3 3 3 3 3 = 2 3 3 = (2 ) = 8 3 3 = 1 = (1) = 1 = 0 3 = (0 ) = 0 3 3 = −1 = 0 = −2 3 =0 x<3 x−5 = 0 when x – xo is negative. x − xo 0 ⎧ 1 =⎨ ⎩ 0 when x > x o when x < x o Illustration: x − xo n say x o = 5 x−5 0 So if x = 7 x=6 x=4 x=3 x<5 7−5 6−5 4−5 3−5 x−5 0 0 0 0 0 = 2 = 1 0 0 = (2 ) = 1 0 = (1) = 1 0 0 0 = −1 = −2 =0 =0 =0 5 .

d x − xo dx n = n x − xo n −1 when n ≥ 1 Illustration: Ordinary Algebraic Function n y = (x − x o ) y Singularity Function n y = x − xo y x xo xo x 6 . ∫ x − x o dx = n 1 x − xo n +1 n +1 + C 4.3.

Distributed Rectangular Load y x ω M( x ) = xo −ω x − xo 2 2 4. Concentrated Load y x M( x ) = P x − x o xo P 1 2. Couple y x C M( x ) = C x − x o 0 xo 3. the beam must be loaded all the way up to the end of the beam for M(x) to be valid. 7 . Triangular Load (from 0 to w) y x m ω M( x ) = xo b −m 3 x − xo 6 where m − slope ω m= b Note: For 3 & 4.SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS for DIFFERENT LOADINGS 1.

Note: For Maximum Deflection between supports. 3. d2 y 2. C1 and C2. Solve for y(x). Solve the equation EI 2 = M( x ) by integrating the equation dx twice. using the singularity functions. Obtain boundary conditions at specific points of the beam to get constants of integration. M(x). dx Example: y x ω P B A x ymax dy =0 dx 8 . locate x by dy using the property = 0 at x. Boundary Conditions: • Pin or roller support y=0 • Fixed support y=0 dy =0 dx 4. Obtain the moment function.BEAM DEFLECTIONS by DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD Procedure: 1.

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