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EFFECT OF CORROSION IN STRUCTURES A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements to

ACHARYA NAGARJUNA UNIVERSITY


For the award of the degree

B.Tech in CE By A Srikanth Vihari(y7ce805) T Naga Teja(y7ce872) Jasawnth Konatham(y7ce829) G V Siva Reddy(y7ce825) P Kiran Kumar(y7ce836)

March 2011 R.V.R & J.C.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (Approved by A.I.C.T.E) (Affiliated to Acharya Nagarjuna University) Chandramoulipuram: Chowdavaram GUNTUR - 1
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R.V.R & J.C COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the term paper entitled EFFECT OF CORROSION IN STRUCTURES is the Bonafide work of A Srikanth Vihari(y7ce805), who carried out work under my under my supervision, and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of B.Tech fourth year final project in Civil Engineering, R.V.R&J.C college of engineering, Chowdavaram, Guntur during the academic year 2010-2011.

(Dr. P. Sanjeeva Rao ) Prof. Dept. of CE

(Dr.K.Sai Ram) Prof. & Head, Dept. of CE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

From the idea to the act, from the conception to reality, from the emotion to the response, from the desire to the spasm, we led by those about whom to write all words seem meek.

We are very much thankful to Dr. A. Sudhakar, Principal of R.V.R. & J.C College of Engineering, Guntur, for providing support and stimulating environment.

We express our sincere thanks to Dr. K.Sai Ram , Head of the Department of Civil Engineering, and Lecturer-in-charge, Dr. P. Sanjeeva Rao , Professor in Mechanical Engineering for their encouragement and support to carry out this project successfully.

We are very glad to express our special thanks to all teaching and non teaching staff who has inspired us to select this project and for his valuable advices to work on this project.

A SrikanthVihari (y7ce805)

ABSTRACT Many metals are chemically active elements and get easily affected by substances like moisture, air, acids, etc. One must have observed iron articles that are shiny when new, get coated with reddish brown powder when left for some time. This process is commonly known as rusting of iron. The problem with iron (as well as many other metals) is that oxidation takes place and the oxide formed does not firmly adhere to the surface of the metal causing it to flake off easily. This eventually causes structural weakness and disintegration of the metal.

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION When a metal is attacked by substances around it, it is said to corrode and this process is called corrosion. Corrosion causes deterioration of essential properties in a material. Billions of rupees are lost each year because corrosion and a huge amount of money is spent in prevention of corrosion and tarnishing of metals. Corrosion causes damage to car bodies, buildings, bridges, iron railing, underground water and sewage pipes, ships and all objects made of metals. Much of this is loss due to the corrosion of iron and steel, although may other metals may corrode as well. Much effort has been expended in the past few decades in the attempt to link degradation of materials exposed to the atmosphere to the causative agents responsible for the degradation. The utility is doing so is primarily to understand the cause and effect relationships involved in the atmospheric corrosion process. Corrosion involves the reaction of a metallic material with its environment and is a natural process in the sense that the metal is attempting to revert to the chemically combined state in which it is almost invariably found in the earths crust. Whilst it is, therefore, a process that may be expected to occur, it should not be regarded as inevitable and its control or prevention is possible through a variety of means. The latter have their origins in electrochemistry, since the reactions involved in causing corrosion are electrochemical in nature, but corrosion control is as much in the hands of the engineering designer as it is the province of the corrosion prevention specialist. To the engineer, corrosion may be regarded as resulting in a variety of changes in the geometry of structures or components that invariably lead, eventually, to a loss of engineering function e.g.

general wastage leading to decrease in section, pitting leading to perforation, cracking leading to fracture. The rusting of ordinary steel is the most common form of corrosion and overall adds up to a high proportion of the total cost attributed to corrosion. General corrosion, in which the whole of the exposed metal surface is attacked, may lead to failure in the engineering sense, but this is usually avoided by the application of suitable control measures. All corrosion, however, is not of the general type and localized effects may pose more complex problems, especially in the engineering context. It is important to realize that corrosion characteristics are not inherent properties of alloys, as are yield strength, electrical conductivity and the like, since they relate to a combination of alloy and environment. Consequently, an alloy may be very resistant to corrosion in a particular environment, yet perform poorly in another, and even in a given environment factors like temperature, rate of flow and geometrical aspects may be critical. In any event, the significance of corrosion to the engineer is that it leads to loss of engineering function and the following examples have been chosen to illustrate this in a variety of the branches of engineering. They also serve to define some of the commoner forms of aqueous corrosion and their various consequences. Concrete is a complex material of construction that enables the high compressive strength of natural stone to be used in any configuration. In tension, however, concrete can be no stronger than the bond between the cured cement and the surfaces of the aggregate. This is generally much lower than the compressive strength of the concrete. Concrete is therefore frequently reinforced, usually with steel. When a system of steel bars or a steel mesh is incorporated in the concrete structure in such a way that the steel can support most of the tensile stresses and leave the immediately surrounding concrete comparatively free of tensile stress, then the complex is known as reinforced concrete.

CHAPTER II

CORROSION IN STEEL REINFORCED CONCRETES


Corrosion-induced deterioration of reinforced concrete can be modeled in terms of three component steps: (1) Time for corrosion initiation, Ti; (2) Time, subsequent to corrosion initiation, for appearance of a crack on the external concrete surface (crack propagation), Tp; and (3) Time for surface cracks to progress into further damage and develop into spalls, Td, to the point where the functional service life, Tf, is reached. Figure illustrates these schematically as a plot of cumulative damage versus time.

CHAPTER III

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CORROSION REACTIONS:
Some of the anodic and cathodic reactions that occur simultaneously on a metal surface in a "corrosion cell" are as follows. A typical anodic oxidation that produces dissolved ionic product, for example for iron metal is: [1] Fe ==> Fe2+ + 2e-

Examples of cathodic reductions involved in corrosion process are: [2] [3] [4] O2 + 2H2O + 4e- ==> 4OHO2 + 4H+ + 4e- ==> 2H2O 2H+ + 2e- ==> H2

The cathodic reaction represented by Equation [2] exemplifies corrosion in natural environments where corrosion occurs at nearly neutral pH values. Equations [3] and [4] represent corrosion processes taking place in the acidic environments encountered in industrial processes or for the confined volumes (pits, crevices) where the pH can reach acidic values because of hydrolysis reactions such as: [5] Fe2+ + 2H2O ==> Fe (OH)2 + 2H+

This reaction produces H+ ions, the concentration of which can, under certain conditions, become large if the H + ions cannot readily move out from a confined volume. The overall corrosion reaction is, of course, the sum of the cathodic and anodic partial reactions. For example, for a reaction producing dissolved ions (sum of reactions [1] and [4]): [6] [7] Fe + 2H+ ==> Fe2+ + H2 2Fe + O2 + 2H2O ==> 2Fe(OH)2

Tafel Equation
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The Tafel equation is an early (1905) empirical relation between the over potential of the electrode and the current density passing through the electrode:

"a" and "b" are characteristic constants of the electrode system. A plot of electrode potential against the logarithm of the current density is called the "Tafel plot" and the resulting straight line the "Tafel line". "b" is the "Tafel slope" that provides information about the mechanism of the reaction, and "a" the intercept, provides information about the rate constant (and the exchange current density) of the reaction.

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CHAPTER IV

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FACTORS INFLUENCING CORROSION REACTIONS


In any discussion of the mechanism of a chemical reaction it is advisable to separate the factors which determine the tendency or driving force of the reaction to proceed from those which influence the rate of the reaction made possible by the existence of this tendency. This tendency is an expression of the fact that the system is not in a state of equilibrium (or inherent stability); it is measured by the difference in energy between the initial and final state of the system for any particular case. In most cases the observed rate is determined not by the absolute magnitude of this tendency but by other factors, which depend primarily upon the environment. In considering the group of three typical reactions involved in corrosion, we shall denote as primary factors those which determine the tendency of the metal to corrode and thus influence its initial rate of solution and as secondary factors those which influence the rate of the subsequent reactions. This term in no wise implies that these secondary factors are of lesser importance; in fact, by influencing the nature and distribution of the final corrosion products, they usually determine the ultimate rate of corrosion, and the useful life of the metal, in each environment. In the general case, some one or two of the many factors involved exert outstanding influence upon the ultimate rate of corrosion; these we term controlling or dominant factors. In general, the primary factors have to do with the metal (or alloy) itself; the secondary factors more with the specific environment. It is convenient to divide them in this way, although no sharp distinction can be made. Accordingly on this basis we list below some of the more important factors, discussing their general significance with respect to the mechanism of corrosion, and postponing until later chapters the detailed discussion of others.

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Factors Associated Mainly with the Metal


Effective electrode potential of a metal in a solution Over voltage of hydrogen on the metal Chemical and physical homogeneity of the metal surface Inherent ability to form an insoluble protective film

Factors Which Vary Mainly with the Environment


Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) in the solution Influence of oxygen in solution adjacent to the metal Specific nature and concentration of other ions in solution Rate of flow of the solution in contact with the metal Ability of environment to form a protective deposit on the metal Temperature Cyclic stress (corrosion fatigue) Contact between dissimilar metals or other materials as affecting localized corrosion.

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CHAPTER V

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TYPES OF CORROSION 1) Uniform Corrosion 2) Pitting Corrosion 3) Galvanic Corrosion 4) Crevice Corrosion 5) Concentration Cell Corrosion 6) Graphitic Corrosion
1) Uniform Corrosion:
The metal loss is uniform from the surface. Often combined with high-velocity fluid erosion, with or without abrasives. Generally noticed with industrial and hydraulic structures.

2) Pitting Corrosion:
The metal loss is randomly located on the metal surface. Often combined with stagnant fluid or in areas with low fluid velocity, such as water tanks. Theories of passivity fall into two general categories, one based on adsorption and the other on presence of a thin oxide film. Pitting in the former case arises as detrimental or activator species, such as Cl -, compete with O2 or OH- at specific surface sites. By the oxide film theory, detrimental species become incorporated into the passive film, leading to its local dissolution or to development of conductive paths. Once initiated, pits propagate auto-catalytically according to the generalized reaction, M+n + nH2O + nCl- M (OH) n + nHCl, resulting in acidification of the active region and corrosion at an accelerated rate (M +n and M are the ionic and metallic forms of the corroding metal).

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3)

Galvanic

Corrosion:

Occurs when two metals with different electrode potential is connected in a corrosive electrolytic environment. The anodic metal develops deep pits and groves in the surface. This type is noticed on other than reinforcement in structures where different metal fixtures / fittings are used.

4) Crevice Corrosion:
Occurs at places with gaskets, bolts and lap joints where crevice exists. Crevice corrosion creates pits similar to pitting corrosion. It is noticed in industrial structures steel structures and hybrid structures. Crevice corrosion is a localized form of corrosion usually associated with a stagnant solution on the micro-environmental level. Such stagnant microenvironments tend to occur in crevices (shielded areas). Oxygen in the liquid which is deep in the crevice is consumed by reaction with the metal. Oxygen content of liquid at the mouth of the crevice which is exposed to the air is greater, so a local cell develops in which the anode, or area being attacked, is the surface in contact with the oxygen-depleted liquid.

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5) Concentration Cell Corrosion:


Occurs where the surface is exposed to an electrolytic environment where the concentration of the corrosive fluid or the dissolved oxygen varies. Often combined with stagnant fluid or in areas with low fluid velocity. Dampness periodic water retention with Rcc and steel structures are prone to this type of corrosion.

6) Graphitic Corrosion
Cast iron loosing iron in salt water or acids. Leaves the graphite in place, resulting in a soft weak metal. As waste water pipes and fixtures are liable for this type of corrosion.

CHAPTER VI

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REASONS OF CORROSION
The two most common causes of reinforcement corrosion are (i) localized breakdown of the passive film on the steel by chloride ions and (ii) general breakdown of passivity by neutralization of the concrete, predominantly by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. Sound concrete is an ideal environment for steel but the increased use of deicing salts and the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in modern environments principally due to industrial pollution, has resulted in corrosion of the rebar becoming the primary cause of failure of this material. The scale of this problem has reached alarming proportions in various parts of the world. 20

Following are the contributing factors leading to corrosion:

1) Loss of Alkanity due to Carbonation


It is well known that if bright steel is left unprotected in the atmosphere a brown oxide rust quickly forms and will continue to grow until a scale flakes from the surface. This corrosion process will continue unless some external means is provided to prevent it. One method is to surround the steel with an alkaline environment having a pH value within the range 9.5 to 13. At this pH value a passive film forms on the steel that reduces the rate of corrosion to a very low and harmless value. Thus, concrete cover provides chemical as well as physical protection to the steel. However, alkalinity can be lost as a result of (a) Reaction with acidic gases (such as carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere. (b) Leaching by water from the surface. Concrete is permeable and allows the slow ingress of the atmosphere; the acidic gases react with the alkalis (usually calcium, sodium and potassium hydroxides), neutralizing them by forming carbonates and sulphates, and at the same time reducing the pH value. If the carbonated front penetrates sufficiently deeply into the concrete to intersect with the concrete reinforcement interface, protection is lost and, since both oxygen and moisture are available, the steel is likely to corrode. The extent of the advance of the carbonation front depends, to a considerable extent, on the porosity and permeability of the concrete and on the conditions of the exposure. 21

In the case of carbonation, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) reacts with pore water alkali according to the generalized reaction,
Ca (OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O

It consumes alkalinity and reduces pore water pH to the 89 range, where steel is no longer passive.

2) Loss of Alkanity due to Chlorides


The passivity provided by the alkaline conditions can also be destroyed by the presence of chloride ions, even though a high level of alkalinity remains in the concrete. The chloride ion can locally de-passivity the metal and promote active metal dissolution. Chlorides react with the calcium aluminate and calcium aluminoferrite in the concrete to form insoluble calcium chloroaluminates and calcium chloroferrites in which the chloride is bound in non-active form; however, the reaction is never complete and some active soluble chloride always remains in equilibrium in the aqueous phase in the concrete. It is this chloride in solution that is free to promote corrosion of the steel. At low levels of chloride in the aqueous phase, the rate of corrosion is very small, but higher concentration increases the risks of corrosion.

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3) Cracks due to Mechanical Loading


Cracks in concrete formed as a result of tensile loading, shrinkage or other factors can also allow the ingress of the atmosphere and provide a zone from which the carbonation front can develop. If the crack penetrates to the steel, protection can be lost. This is especially so under tensile loading, for deboning of steel and concrete occurs to some extent on each side of the crack, thus removing the alkaline environment and so destroying the protection in the vicinity of the deboning.

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4) Stray Currents
Stray currents, arising for instance from railways, cathodic protection systems, or high voltage power lines, are known to induce corrosion on buried metal structures, leading to severe localized attack. They may find a low resistance path by flowing through metallic structures buried in the soil (pipelines, tanks, industrial and marine structures). a cathodic reaction (e.g., oxygen reduction or hydrogen evolution) takes place where the current enters the buried structure, while an anodic reaction (e.g., metal dissolution) occurs where the current returns to the original path, through the soil. Metal loss results at the anodic points, where the current leaves the structure; usually, the attack is extremely localised and can have dramatic consequences especially on pipelines.

Example of stray current from a DC railway line picked up by steel reinforcement in concrete

5) Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to atmospheric pollution Most of the times steel reinforcement is exposed to the atmosphere during transportation and storage in the building sites for a long period before their installation in the concrete structures. At any of those stages, steel rebars can be contaminated by chloride ions from sea spray or windblown salt. This fact leads to the formation of corrosion products on their surface.

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Fiber optical microscope images after three months at open atmosphere conditions.

6) Moisture Pathwa If the surface of the concrete is subject to long-term wetting, the water will eventually reach the level of the reinforcement, either through diffusion through the porous structure of the concrete, or by traveling along cracks in the concrete. Concrete roof decks, by their nature, are meant to be protected from moisture. However, the presence of moisture on roofing systems may result from failure of the roofing membrane, poor detailing of drainage facilities, or lack of maintenance of drainage facilities.

Overwatered leading to shrinkage cracking

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7) Water-Cement Ratio Concrete placed with a high water-cement ratio, as seen under Freeze-thaw cycles, is more porous due to the presence of excess water in the plastic concrete. The porosity increases the rte of diffusion of water and electrolytes through the concrete and makes the concrete more susceptible to cracking.

8) Low Concrete Tensile Strength Concrete with low tensile strength facilitates corrosion damage in two ways. First, the concrete develops tension or shrinkage cracks more easily, admitting moisture and oxygen, and in some cases chlorides, to the level of the reinforcement. Second, the concrete is more susceptible to developing cracks at the point that the reinforcement begins to corrode.

9) Electrical Contact with dissimilar metals


Dissimilar metals in contact initiate a flow of electrons that promotes the corrosion of one or the other, by a process known as galvanic corrosion. When two dissimilar metals are in contact with each other the more active metal (lower on the list) will induce corrosion on the less active. Such corrosion may induce cracking and damage in the concrete.

10) Corrosion due to difference in environments


Corrosion occurs when two different metals, or metals in different environments, are electrically connected in a moist or damp concrete This will occur when: 1. Steel reinforcement is in contact with an aluminium conduit. 2. Concrete pore water composition varies between adjacent or along reinforcing bars.

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3. Where there is a variation in alloy composition between or along reinforcing bars. 4. Where there is a variation in residual/applied stress along or between reinforcing bars.

11) STRESS INDUCED CORROSION:


Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the unexpected sudden failure of normally ductile metals subjected to a tensile stress in a corrosive environment, especially at elevated temperature in the case of metals. SCC is highly chemically specific in that certain alloys are likely to undergo SCC only when exposed to a small number of chemical environments. The chemical environment that causes SCC for a given alloy is often one which is only mildly corrosive to the metal otherwise. Hence, metal parts with severe SCC can appear bright and shiny, while being filled with microscopic cracks. This factor makes it common for SCC to go undetected prior to failure. SCC often progresses rapidly, and is more common among alloys than pure metals. The specific environment is of crucial importance, and only very small concentrations of certain highly active chemicals are needed to produce catastrophic cracking, often leading to devastating and unexpected failure. The stresses can be the result of the crevice loads due to stress concentration, or can be caused by the type of assembly or residual stresses from fabrication (e.g. cold working); the residual stresses can be relieved by annealing

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CHAPTER VII

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EXAMPLES OF CORROSION:

1) Bhopal Accident
Bhopal is probably the site of the greatest industrial disaster in history. Between 1977 and 1984, Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL), located within a crowded working class neighborhood in Bhopal, was licensed by the Madhya Pradesh Government to manufacture phosgene, monomethylamine (MMA), methylisocyanate (MIC) and the pesticide carbaryl, also known as Sevin. On the night of the 2-3 December 1984 water inadvertently entered the MIC storage tank, where over 40 metric tons of MIC were being stored. The addition of water to the tank caused a runaway chemical reaction, resulting in a rapid rise in pressure and temperature. The heat generated by the reaction, the presence of higher than normal concentrations of chloroform, and the presence of an iron catalyst , produced by the corrosion of the stainless steel tank wall, resulted in a reaction of such momentum, that gases formed could not be contained by safety systems. As a result, MIC and other reaction products, in liquid and vapor form, escaped from the plant into the surrounding areas. There was no warning for people surrounding the plant as the emergency sirens had been switched off. The effect on the people living in the shanty settlements just over the fence was immediate and devastating. Many died in their beds, others staggered from their homes, blinded and choking, to die in the street.

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Many more died later after reaching hospitals and emergency aid centers. The early acute effects were vomiting and burning sensations in the eyes, nose and throat, and most deaths have been attributed to respiratory failure. For some, the toxic gas caused such massive internal secretions that their lungs became clogged with fluids, while for others, spasmodic constriction of the bronchial tubes led to suffocation. It is been estimated that at least 3000 people died as a result of this accident, while figures for the number of people injured currently range from 200,000 to 600,000, with an estimated 500,000 typically quoted. The factory was closed down after the accident. The Bhopal disaster was the result of a combination of legal, technological, organizational, and human errors. The immediate cause of the chemical reaction was the seepage of water (500 liters) into the MIC storage tank. The results of this reaction were exacerbated by the failure of containment and safety measures and by a complete absence of community information and emergency procedures.

The long term effects were made worse by the absence of systems to care for and compensate the victims. Furthermore, safety standards and maintenance procedures at the plant had been deteriorating and ignored for months. A listing of the defects of the MIC unit runs as follows:

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Gauges measuring temperature and pressure in the various parts of the unit, including the crucial MIC storage tanks, were so notoriously unreliable that workers ignored early signs of trouble.

The refrigeration unit for keeping MIC at low temperatures (and therefore less likely to undergo overheating and expansion should a contaminant enter the tank) had been shut off for some time.

The gas scrubber, designed to neutralize any escaping MIC, had been shut off for maintenance. Even had it been operative, post-disaster inquiries revealed, the maximum pressure it could handle was only one-quarter that which was actually reached in the accident.

The flare tower, designed to burn off MIC escaping from the scrubber, was also turned off, waiting for replacement of a corroded piece of pipe. The tower, however, was inadequately designed for its task, as it was capable of handling only a quarter of the volume of gas released.

The water curtain, designed to neutralize any remaining gas, was too short to reach the top of the flare tower, from where the MIC was billowing

The lack of effective warning systems; the alarm on the storage tank failed to signal the increase in temperature on the night of the disaster

MIC storage tank number 610 was filled beyond recommended capacity; and -a storage tank which was supposed to be held in reserve for excess MIC already contained the MIC.

2) collapsed Silver Bridge

The collapsed Silver Bridge, as seen from the Ohio side SCC caused the catastrophic collapse of the Silver Bridge in December 1967, when an eyebar suspension bridge across the Ohio river at Point Pleasant, West Virginia, suddenly failed. The main chain joint failed and the whole structure fell into the river, killing 46 people in vehicles on the bridge at the time. Rust in the 31

eyebar joint had caused a stress corrosion crack, which went critical as a result of high bridge loading and low temperature. The failure was exacerbated by a high level of residual stress in the eyebar. The disaster led to a nationwide reappraisal of bridges. Suspended ceilings in indoor swimming pools are safety-relevant components. As was demonstrated by the collapses of the ceiling of the Uster (Switzerland) indoor swimming pool (1985) and again at Steenwijk (Netherlands, 2001), attention must be paid to selecting suitable materials and inspecting the state of such components. The reason for the failures was stress corrosion cracking of metal fastening components made of stainless steel[3]. The active chemical was chlorine added to the water as a disinfectant. A classic example of SCC is season cracking of brass cartridge cases, a problem experienced by the British army in India in the early 19th century. It was initiated by ammonia from dung and horse manure decomposing at the higher temperatures of the spring and summer. There was substantial residual stress in the cartridge shells as a result of cold forming. The problem was solved by annealing the shells to ameliorate the stress.

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CHAPTER VIII

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PREVENTION METHODS

1) Keep concrete always dry, so that there is no H2O to form rust. Also aggressive agents cannot easily diffuse into dry concrete. If concrete is always wet, then there is no oxygen to form rust.

2) A polymeric coating is applied to the concrete member to keep out aggressive agents. A polymeric coating is applied to the reinforcing bars to protect them from moisture and aggressive agents. The embedded epoxy-coating on steel bars provide a certain degree of protection to the steel bars and, thereby, delay the initiation of corrosion. These coatings permit movement of moisture to the steel surface but restrict oxygen penetration such that a necessary reactant at cathodic sites is excluded.

3) Stainless steel or cladded stainless steel is used in lieu of conventional black bars.

4) FLY ASH : Using a Fly Ash concrete with very low permeability, which will delay the arrival of carbonation and chlorides at the level of the steel reinforcement. Fly Ash is a finely divided silica rich powder that, in itself, gives no benefit when added to a concrete mixture, unless it can react with the calcium hydroxide formed in the first few days of hydration. Together they form a calcium silica hydrate (CSH) compound that over time effectively reduces concrete diffusivity to oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and chloride ions.

5) A portion of the chloride ions diffusing through the concrete can be sequestered in the concrete by combining them with the tricalcium aluminate to

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form a calcium chloro-aluminate (Friedels salt). It can have a significant effect in reducing the amount of available chlorides thereby reducing corrosion.

6) Electrochemical injection of the organic base corrosion inhibitors , ethanolamine and guanidine, into carbonated concrete.

7) The rougher the steel surface, the better it adheres to concrete. oxidation treatment (by water immersion and ozone exposure) of rebar increases the bond strength between steel and cement paste to a value higher than that attained by clean rebars. In addition, surface deformations on the rebar (such as ribs) enhance the bond due to mechanical interlocking between rebar and concrete.

8) As the cement content of the concrete increases (for a fixed amount of chloride in the concrete), more chloride reacts to form solid phases, so reducing the amount in solution (and the risk of corrosion), and as the physical properties improve, the extent of carbonation declines, so preventing further liberation of chloride from the solid phase. 9) Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) is a relatively new technology for which long-term service data are limited. This method employs a temporary anode that is operated at current density 7 orders of magnitude higher than for cathodic protection, such that anions, including chlorides, electromigrate away from the embedded steel cathode. Repassivation can then occur, similar to what was discussed above in conjunction with cathodic protection, although this occurs in a shorter period of time (12 weeks to several months). Not all chlorides are removed, but sufficient amounts are displaced from the steel-concrete interface.

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10) Installation of physical barrier systems such as coatings, sealers, membranes, and overlays toforestall subsequent Clingress

11) A relatively thin zinc surface layer is applied by either hot dipping or electrodeposition. This methodology relies on a relatively low corrosion rate for zinc and its potential for being active to the substrate steel, thereby providing galvanic cathodic protection at defects and penetrations.

12) Cathodic prevention is, in effect, identical to cathodic protection, except that it is applied to new, Cl- free structures for which current demand is less than for Cl contaminated ones. In addition, the objective here is not to reduce corrosion rate itself (because the reinforcement is passive), but instead to establish a potential gradient that opposes the inward diffusional migration of anions, specifically chlorides. In this regard, the approach functions similarly to ECE, except that, instead of removing chlorides, it retards their entry.

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13) Concrete mix design modifications involve such factors as reduced w/c, including use of waterreducing admixtures or superplastizers; type of cement; permeability reducing admixtures such as fly ash, silica fume, and blast furnace slag; and corrosion inhibiting admixtures.

14) Structural design aspects of corrosion control involve factors such as configurational (geometrical) considerations that minimize or, if possible, eliminate exposure to corrosives.

15) Remedies for corrosion-damaged concrete include removal of all delaminated concrete, cleaning of the reinforcement by abrasive blast cleaning, high pressure water, or needle scaling, and use of a concrete patching material. Rigorous solutions to corrosion problems are not always available, even where the circumstances that cause them can be defined and there is information or experience available to indicate the likely outcome. Codes of practice, specifications and the experience of manufacturers are available for tackling many corrosion problems and the designer should be aware of these and use them appropriately. There are particular problems in finding data for corrosion rates of metals in hitherto unexperienced environments, especially in relation to chemical processes, and it is thus necessary to obtain, usually short term, laboratory data before proceeding with a design. Where the corrosion rates are regarded as not excessive and the corrosion is spread reasonably uniformly over the exposed surfaces, even involving some degree of pitting, it should be possible to make an allowance for the reduction in metal thickness over the expected lifetime of the structure, so that it will remain safe throughout this period. The allowance made is commonly that which would give twice the desired life.

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CHAPTER IX

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CASE-STUDY
As the part of our project we had done a case-study in Dr.Kolli Sarada Market, Guntur. due severe corrosion. Here are following pictures of market building showing corroded regions:This market buildings has been failed

In this image it sis clearly shown that the beam and slab of the market building are clearly damaged due to the effect of
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corrosion. The beam was failed due to the non provision of sufficient clear cover.

This image is the perfect example for column failure due to the effect of corrosion.

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In this it is clearly shown that cracks are formed due to the corrosion and even small plants are been grown. Due to the plant growth the cracks expand more thus resulting more damage to walls.

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CHAPTER X

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Conclusion

Where uncertainty or the lack of a technical means of controlling corrosion render a problem insoluble it may be necessary to live with it whilst monitoring the corrosion rate as the plant operates, so that appropriate action may be taken if the rate reaches unacceptably high levels. There are a number of ways of assessing on-line corrosion, involving electro chemical measurements or more direct assessments of effective section, but ins pection visual or otherwise, possible. In some installations this may involve the incorporation of probes, coupons or test specimens exposed to the same environment as the plant and therefore simulating the corrosion of the latter, but in a form which allows easier assessment of the extent of corrosion. In other cases inspection holes may be necessary to allow access to those parts of the structure judged to be most vulnerable to corrosion. Where the latter is likely to reach unacceptable limits before the working life of the plant is reached and components need replacing the design should facilitate this, pumps and valves being components most likely to need replacement. The implications for the designer of the various points that have been made in earlier pages can be summarised in for all systems that may corrode has ramifications for the designer in ensuring that it is

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the suggestion that the aims of design from a corrosion control viewpoint should be uniformity. In particular uniformity of contour to avoid sharp changes in section with their implications for fluid flow, (including the draining of containers) stress concentration, solution concentration, temperature distribution and the problems that they create in relation to the application of surface coatings for corrosion control. The effects of fabrication methods also should be considered in this context, welded, brazed or soldered joints, where applicable and providing any dissimilar metal contact problems are taken into account, usually providing less risk of crevices than mechanical fastening methods, although whatever method of joining is employed only careful attention to detail can ensure satisfactory performance. Finally, but as an integral part of the total design and not as an afterthought, the means of corrosion control, by material modification or by chemical or electrochemical treatment, should be considered with as much care as is put into any other aspect of the design process.

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CHAPTER XI

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Luca Bertolini , Maddalena Carsana, Pietro Pedeferri, Corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete in the presence of stray current, Corrosion Science 49 (2007) 10561068 2) S. Sawada 1, J. Kubo, C.L. Page *, M.M. Page, Electrochemical injection of organic corrosion inhibitors into carbonated cementitious Materials, Corrosion Science 49 (2007) 11861204 3) Shihai Cui, Jianmin Han, Yongping Du, Weijing Li, Corrosion resistance and wear resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on metal matrix composites, Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2007) 53065309 4) G. Batis, E. Rakanta, Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to atmospheric pollution, Cement & Concrete Composites 27 (2005) 269275 5) A. Ali Gurten, Kadriye Kayakrlmaz, Mehmet Erbil, The effect of thiosemicarbazide on corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement in concrete, Construction and Building Materials 21 (2007) 669676

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