Worksheet _ _______________________________
Integration
One of the major problems in calculus is to investigate the relationship between two
related quantities. Differentiation involves finding the instantaneous rate of change of one
quantity relative to another, when a relation between the two quantities is known.
Integration is the process of finding a functional relation between two variables when the
derivative of one variable with respect to the other is known. To find an integral of a
function, it means to find an expression whose derivative is the given expression.
Integration therefore is the reverse of differentiation. It is the process of finding a
function whose derivative is given.
In differentiation, we are concern with how to get to the third column given the second
column as illustrated in the table below.
In integration, we are concern with how to get to the second column given the third
column as illustrated in the table below.
In general, the process of differentiation or finding the derivative helps us to find the rate
of change of one variable with respect to the other variable. However, if we already know
the rate of change of one of the variables, then we use integration to find the other
variable.
Problem 1
What is the difference between integration and differentiation?
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 2
Antiderivative
When only the derivative of a function is known, can we always find the original
function? The answer is no. The derivative alone is not sufficient to completely determine
a function. Lets suppose we want to find the function y whose derivative is
2
3 ) ( x x f = ' .
We could say that the function is y = x
3
. The function y = x
3
is called the antiderivative
of
2
3 ) ( x x f = ' . However, other functions like y = x
3
+ 2, y = x
3
12, y = x
3
+ 3, etc,
would also represent an antiderivative of
2
3 ) ( x x f = ' .
Because there are so many functions whose derivative is 3x
2
, we can obtain the entire
family of functions, called the general antiderivative, by adding a constant C. We can
conclude that the function whose derivative is given as
2
3 ) ( x x f = ' is y = x
3
+ C, where
C is a constant. C is called the constant of integration. You must always add the
constant of integration to your final answer since omitting it mean you are assuming C =
0. We add the constant of integration C to the function because the derivative only
determines the amount of increase, and integration is the total value of the function,
which equal to the amount of increase plus the original value of the function.
Problem 2
Why do we add the constant of integration C after we integrate a function?
 Some formulas for finding integration of a function
If ) (x f ' = 0, then f(x) = C.
If ) (x f ' = k, then f(x) = kx + C, where k is a real number.
If ) (x f ' = x
n
, then f(x) = C
n
x
n
+
+
+
1
1
, 1 = n .
If ) (x f ' =
x
1
, then f(x) = ln x + C.
If ) (x f ' = e
x
, then f(x) = e
x
+ C.
If ) (x f ' = kf(x), then f(x) = kF(x) + C.
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 3
Example
Find y, given (a) ) (x f ' = 0 (b) ) (x f ' = 3 (c) ) (x f ' = x
3
(d) ) (x f ' = 3x
5
Solution: (a) ) (x f ' = 0 then y = C.
(b) ) (x f ' = 3 then y = 3x + C
(c) ) (x f ' = x
3
then y = C
x
C
x
+ = +
+
+
4 1 3
4 1 3
.
(d) ) (x f ' = 3x
5
then y = C
x
C
x
C
x
+ = + = +
+
+
2 6
3
1 5
3
6 6 1 5
Problem 3
Find y, given
(a) ) (x f ' = 0 (b) ) (x f ' = 12x
(c) ) (x f ' = 201 (d) ) (x f ' = 2x
2
(e) ) (x f ' = 4x
5
(f) ) (x f ' = 10
(g) ) (x f ' = x
7
(h) ) (x f ' = x
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 4
 Notation for integration
The integration of a function f(x) with respect to x is denoted by
}
dx x f ) ( .
The symbol
}
is called the integral sign. f(x) is called the integrand. Integration should
not always be confined to the independent variable x. it can be applied to any other
independent variable. For example we can have
}
dt t f ) ( ,
}
dy y g ) ( , or
}
du u h ) ( .
Using the integral sign,
}
, we can rewrite the short cut formulas as follows:
}
0 dx = C.
}
k dx = kx + C where k is a real number.
}
n
x dx = C
n
x
n
+
+
+
1
1
, 1 = n .
}
x
1
dx = ln x + C.
}
e
x
dx = e
x
+ C.
}
dx x kf ) ( = k
}
dx x f ) (
If ) ( ) ( x f x F = ' and ) ( ) ( x g x G = ' then
}
f(x) + g(x) dx = F(x) + G(x) + C.
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 5
Example
Perform the indicated integral.
a)
}
4
x dx
Solution:
}
4
x dx = C
x
C
x
+ = +
+
+
5 1 4
5 1 4
(b)
}
y dy
Solution:
}
y dy = C
y
C
y
+ = +
+
+
2 1 1
2 1 1
(c)
}
5 dw
Solution:
}
5 dw = 5w + C
Problem 3
Find the integral.
(a)
}
0 dx (b)
}
2x dx
(c)
}
21 dx (d)
}
x
2
dx
(e)
}
x
5
dx (f)
}
10x dx
(g)
}
x
7
dx
(h)
}
x
21
dx
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 6
Example
(a)
}
(x
3
 2x 3) dx
Solution:
}
(x
3
 2x 3) dx = C x
x x
+
+
+
+ +
3
1 1
2
1 3
1 1 1 3
= C x
x x
+ + 3
2
2
4
2 4
= C x x
x
+ + 3
4
2
4
(b)
}
(x + 2)(2x 3) dx
Solution:
}
(x + 2)(2x 3) dx =
}
2x
2
+ x 6 dx
= C x
x x
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
6
1 1 1 2
2
1 1 1 2
= C x
x x
+ + + 6
2 3
2
2 3
Problem 4
Perform the indicated integral
(a)
}
16
x + x  2 dx
(b)
}
4x
3
+ 4x 7 dx
(c)
}
(x
2
+ 5)(3x 2) dx
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 7
(d)
}
(x + 2)
2
dx
(d)
}
(x  5)
2
dx
(e)
}
4x(x 3) du
(e)
}
4 du
 Simplifying expressions before integrating
Sometimes, we must rewrite the expression before we take the integral. This is usually
the case with most radical functions and rational functions with a constant numerator or a
monomial denominator.
Example
Perform the indicated integral.
} 4
3
x
dx
Solution:
} 4
3
x
dx =
}
3x
4
dx = c
x
+
+
+
1 4
3
1 4
= C
x
+
3
3
3
=  x
3
+ C =
= C
x
+
3
1
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 8
Problem 5
Perform the indicated integral.
a)
} 6
5
x
dx b)
} 2
3
2
x
dx
c)
}

.

\

3
8
x
dx d)
} 4
1
x
dx
Example
Perform the indicated integral
} 2
3
8
x
x
dx
Solution:
} 

.

\

2 2
3
8
x x
x
dx =
}
( )
2
8
x x dx
= C
x x
+
+
+
+ +
1 2
8
1 1
1 2 1 1
= C
x x
+
1
8
2
1 2
= C
x
x
+ +
8
2
2
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 9
Problem 6
Perform the indicated integral
(a)
} 2
2 4
3 2
x
x x
dx
(b)
} 3
4
3
2
3
x
x dx
(c)
} 3
2
3 2
x
x x +
dx
Example
Perform the indicated integral
}
3 2
x dx
Solution:
}
3 2
x dx =
}
3
2
x dx = C
x
+
+
+
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
2
= C
x
+
3
5
3
5
= C
x
+
5
3
3 5
= C
x x
+
5
3
3 2
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 10
Problem 7
Perform the indicated integral
(a)
}
5 3
x dx (b)
}
x 3 dx
(c)
}
3 2
2 x dx (d)
}
7
x dx
Example
Perform the indicated integral
}
x
x 3
2
+
dx
Solution:
}
x
x 3
2
+
dx =
}
2
1
2
3
x
x +
dx =
}
2
1
2
1
2
3
x x
x
+ dx =
}
2
1
2
1
2
3
+ x x dx
=
}
2
1
2
3
3
+ x x dx
= C
x x
+
+
+
+
+ +
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
= C
x x
+ +
2
1
3
2
5
2
1
2
5
= C x
x
+ +
2
1
2
5
2
5
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 11
Problem 8
Perform the indicated integral
(a)
}
x
x x 2 3
3
+
dx
(b)
}
x x
2
dx
(c)
}
3 2
) ( x x dx
The fundamental Theorem of Calculus
This is one particular theorem that is very important to the study of calculus.
Let f represent a function continuous on the interval [a, b]. Since f is continuous over [a,
b], f has an antiderivative on the interval [a, b]. Suppose the antiderivative of f on [a, b]
is F, then
}
b
dx x f
a
) ( = F(b) F(a).
When an integral involves a lower and upper limit, we call the integral a definite
integral. We write
}
b
dx x f
a
) ( = 
b
a
x F ) ( = F(b) F(a).
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 12
Properties of Definite integral
}
a
a
dx x f ) ( = 
a
a
x F ) ( = F(a) F(a) = 0
}
b
a
dx x kf ) ( = k
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( =k[ 
b
a
x F ) ( = k[F(b) F(a)].
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( = 
}
a
b
dx x f ) ( = [ 
a
b
x F ) ( = F(a) + F(b).
}
b
a
dx x g x f )] ( ) ( [ =
} }
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f ) ( ) ( = [F(b) F(a)] + [G(b) G(a)]
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( =
} }
+
c
a
b
c
dx x f dx x f ) ( ) ( is true for the basic definition assume a < c < b.
If f(x) > 0, for x in [a,b], then
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( > 0.
If f(x) < g(x) for x in [a,b], then
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( <
}
b
a
dx x g ) (
The concept of the definite integral could be used to calculate the distance traveled by a
moving object when its instantaneous velocity is known, to evaluate the area under a
curve given by a nonnegative continuous function defined on a closed interval, and to
compute the total change in a quantity defined as a function which varies over a closed
interval.
Example
Evaluate
}
2
0
4
dx x
Solution:
}
2
0
4
5 dx x =  32 ) 0 ( ) 2 (
5
5
1 4
5
5 5 2
0
5
5 1 4
= = = =
+
+
x
x x
2009 Michael Aryee Integral Page 13
Problem 9
Evaluate each definite integral.
a)
}
2
1 
2
) 1 2 3 ( dx x x b)
}
0
1 
) 3 4 ( dx x
c)
}
2
0
3
) 1 ( dx x d)
}
4
1 
2
) 3 ( dx x
e)
}
2
0
) 3 ( dx f)
}
1
1 
2
) ( dx x t t