Ship board operation Defects, Maintenance

Question 1-8 Answers by: Hamid Reza Haji Asgari – Mahdi Bordbar 1) As A CH.OFF You Are Invited To Submit Your Ideas For An Efficient Maintenance Plan. Explain In Detail The Factors You Consider In Constructing A Maintenance Plan. Answer:

Each schedule will be, of-course, be tailored to fit each particular ship but a schedule could be based on the following three categories: (a) Short-term maintenance (b) Long-term maintenance (c) Maintenance due to operational requirements

Planned maintenance need not involve extensive paperwork but some basic points should be borne in mind: 1) A plan must be adaptable to various weather conditions. 2) The plan must be flexible so that changes of orders or cargoes do not upset it unduly. 3) The length of voyages, routes, and trades that the vessel is involved in must be considered. 4) The maintenance of safety equipment and emergency team training should be integrated with the overall maintenance plan. 5) The plan should be constructed so that the appropriate equipment is brought up to optimum condition for statutory and classifications surveys such as 'Safety Equipment', 'Load Line', and 'Lifting Appliances'. 6) Drydocking and repair periods should be integrated with the plan. 7) Manufacturers' advice should be complied with and all manufacturers' maintenance logs should be completed. 8) The plan should include the availability of appropriate equipment for breakdown maintenance due to unforeseen circumstances. 9) Provision must be made for spare part replacements due to wear and tear maintenance. There should also be a method for ordering spares as soon as replacement items are used. 10)The plan must be carefully thought out, well controlled, and an efficient recording system must be kept up to date.


2) You Are Appointed To Carry Out The Duties Of Safety Officer Onboard Your Ship, Give A General Outline You Would Adopt To Enhance Safety Awareness On Board. Answer: Reference: Shipboard Operation – H.I Lavery 1. Discuss safety awareness and methods for promoting safety awareness with interested crew members. 2. Devise a scheme for rescuing an unconscious man from an enclosed space on board your ship. 3. Use the above scheme to train crew members to deal with such an emergency and discuss its effectiveness. 4. Train crew members in the maintenance and use of the self-contained breathing apparatus and the air-hose breathing apparatus. 5. Devise a maintenance and inspection schedule for the fire equipment on board the ship. 6. Devise a maintenance and inspection schedule for the life-saving appliances on board the ship. 7. Compare your schedules with the company's maintenance scheme. 8. Discuss with other personnel the duties of a Safety Officer and a safety representative. 9. Consider how the effectiveness of the safety committee can be improved.


3) Describe The Care And Maintenance Required For Pilot Ladders. Discuss The Points To Be Checked For The Safety Of The Pilot When Rigging A Pilot Ladder. Answer: Reference: Shipping Industry Guidance on Pilot Transfer Arrangements Normally, pilots board and disembark using a traditional rope ladder from and to a pilot boat. However, this can be a very dangerous procedure if those involved do not adhere to International Maritime Organization (IMO) standards or fail to practice acceptable seamanship skills. A number of pilots have died as a result of accidents while boarding/disembarking from ships, and many more have been seriously injured. Furthermore, deficiencies with regard to boarding arrangements and unsafe rigging of pilot ladders continue to be detected during port state control inspections, resulting in delays and financial penalties for the ship operator. Nevertheless, pilot ladders remain the most safe and efficient way to board ships at sea and there is usually no alternative, except on occasions when a helicopter is used. Ensuring Safe Rigging for Pilots The IMO Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 23) sets out the principal requirements for the rigging of pilot ladders. There is further detailed technical specification for pilot ladders in IMO Resolution A.1045(27). Shipping companies have a legal obligation to provide a conforming ladder and ship-borne fittings. The two major causes of accidents are defects in the ladder treads or sideropes (see diagram) or a lack of proper attachment of the ladder to the vessel. Seafarers should always check the condition of the ladder before it is rigged and also ensure it is secure to the ship. Whilst this is done, seafarers should always take care of their own safety, wearing a life jacket (and a life-line if appropriate). On Board Issues The Master and officers should: • Closely supervise the rigging of pilot ladders • Closely observe the shipping/landing of pilots from ladders, ensuring that SOLAS requirements are met • Maintain a lee until the pilot vessel is well clear. At all times during the rigging, use and de-rigging of any pilot transfer arrangements there should be no risk to the ship’s crew. Crew members should not normally be required to leave the protection of the ship’s safety rails or bulwarks. A life line or safety harness should be worn if there is any risk of falling. New SOLAS requirements from 1 July 2012 Ships constructed after the 1 July 2012 must comply with the new equipment and arrangement requirements of SOLAS Regulation V/23. Equipment and arrangements replaced on or after the 1 July 2012 on existing ships, shall, so far is reasonable and practicable, comply with the requirements of this regulation. These requirements include the securing of an accommodation ladder to the ship’s side, when used in conjunction with the pilot ladder, and the prohibited use of mechanical pilot hoists.



4) Describe The Precautions To Be Taken In The Care And Handling Of Batteries Of Both The Lead Acid And The Alkaline Types. Answer:

Safety Precautions With Batteries All types of batteries should be handled with care: 1. Never Short The Terminals Of A Battery. 2. Carrying Straps Should Be Used When Transporting Batteries. 3. Protective Clothing, Such As Rubber Apron, Rubber Gloves, And A Face Shield Should Be Worn When Working With Batteries. 4. No Smoking, Electric Sparks, Or Open Flames Should Be Permitted Near Charging Batteries. 5. Care Should Be Taken To Prevent Spilling Of The Electrolyte. In the event electrolyte is splashed or spilled on a surface, such as the floor or table, it should be diluted with large quantities of water and cleaned up immediately. If the electrolyte is spilled or splashed on the skin or eyes, IMMEDIATELY flush the skin or eyes with large quantities of fresh water for a minimum of 15 minutes. If the electrolyte is in the eyes, be sure the upper and lower eyelids are pulled out sufficiently to allow the fresh water to flush under the eyelids. The medical department should be notified as soon as possible and informed of the type of electrolyte and the location of the accident.


5) Give Details of Instruction You Would Give to Bosun Regarding the Care and Inspection of Gantlines Used with Boson’s Chair, Safety Harness and Stages. Answer: Reference: Shipboard Operation – H.I Lavery Chapter 15 of the 'Code of Safe Working Practice' should be studied in full for the care and inspection of gantlines used with bosun's chairs, safety harnesses, and stage ropes. The safety of seamen using the above appliances depends very much on the conditions of the ropes and they must be given a high degree of care and attention. Particular attention should be paid to the following points: 1. Such ropes should be stowed in a special locker and should be used for no other purpose. Nothing else should be stowed in the locker. 2. All gantlines should be clearly marked for their particular function, e.g. funnel, bridge front. 3. Make sure the splices are correct. 4. All blocks and lizards should be in the same condition as the gantlines. 5. A palm and needle whipping should be on all gantline ends. 6. All gantlines should be thoroughly inspected each time before use and daily when in use. 7. The ropes must be load tested before use to four or five times-the weight which they will be required to carry. Also read all M notices relating to rope safety, e.g. M718 on mooring equipment and M795 on tows.


6) Enumerate Common Defects, Which May Be Experienced In A Hatch Cover. Describe The Maintenance Required For Mechanical Steel Hatch Covers. Describe Methods Of Inspection Of Steel Hatch Covers. Answer: Reference:  DNV Hatch Cover Maintenance  A Master’s Guide to Hatch Cover Maintenance According to the North of England P&I Club, the top ten typical defects which lead to claims related to water damage are: 1. The seal set is beyond the point of replacement 2. The seal is worn/torn, displaced or missing (including cross -joints) 3. Temporary seal fixes 4. Wastage of steel support pads or cover side plates 5. Blocked drain holes 6. Wasted cross -joint drain channels 7. The cross -joint cleating or alignment is faulty 8. Cleats and support stools are wasted or missed 9. Holes in steel plating due to corrosion 10. Worn centre line wedge devices on side rolling covers which cause cross joints to open when the ship is at sea Leak Detection Tests The two most common leak detection tests are the water hose test and the ultrasonic test. Ultrasonic testing is the preferred method because areas of inadequate hatch sealing are accurately located. Chalk testing (another hatch test) gives only an indication of poor compression and potential leaks. Chalk testing is not a leak detection test. Light testing is also effective but is potentially dangerous because personnel are in a closed, dark hold looking for light infiltration between panels. If hatches are found to leak during a test, make the necessary repairs, then test again. Water Hose Leak Detection Test Water hose tests are used to determine weathertightness of hatch covers. If correctly performed, hose testing will show hatch joints that leak. The general procedure for hose testing is to apply a powerful jet of water from a 2050mm diameter hose fitted with a 12mm diameter nozzle held at a distance of 1-1.5 metres from a hatch joint, moving along the joint at a speed of 1 metre every 2 seconds. The drawbacks of hose testing are: • the hold needs to be empty; • it cannot be performed in sub-zero conditions; • it requires the deck scupper drains to be open (potentially causing pollution); • the test cannot pinpoint leaks on the cross-joint or side joint accurately; • two people are needed to supervise the test. Care should be taken to avoid excessive nozzle back-pressure.


Ultrasonic Leak Detection Test Ultrasonic leak detection is a viable alternative to the hose test for testing hatch covers, access doors and access hatches for weathertightness, as it accurately locates potential points of leakage. This test should only be carried out using class approved equipment and approved test procedures. The test involves placing (with hatches closed and secure) an electronic signal generator inside the cargo hold. A sensor is then passed around the outside of all compression joints. Readings taken by the sensor indicate points of low compression or potential points of leakage. Ultrasonic testing overcomes the majority of limitations associated with hose testing and can be carried out when holds are loaded. The drawbacks of ultrasonic leak detection tests are: • the equipment requires an experienced and specialist operator to interpret the readings; • the equipment requires regular calibration; • the equipment is not normally part of the ship’s equipment. Chalk Testing When performing a chalk test, the top edge of every compression bar is covered with chalk. Hatches are then fully closed and reopened. The rubber packing is examined for a chalk mark, which should run continuously along the packings centre. Gaps in the chalk mark indicate lack of compression. Chalk testing merely indicates if hatch panels are aligned and compression achieved. It will not show whether compression is adequate and therefore it is not a test for weathertightness. Maintenance and Repair Poor maintenance of hatch covers causes leakage leading to cargo damage and represents a hazard to the ship and its crew. Although hatch covers are simple and durable, their sealing gaskets are easily damaged. The quality of sealing is affected by lack of alignment and poor gasket compression. When hatch covers are opened at the end of an ocean voyage, look for signs of leakage such as rust staining or drip marks. Regular adjustment and repair, by ship’s staff, will reduce the overall cost of maintenance. Painting double drainage channels will help to prevent corrosion. Always keep a detailed record of maintenance. Take care during extensive hatch cover repair to avoid cover distortion. Rubber Gaskets Keep clean and free from paint. If physically damaged, permanently set-in or aged, replace with minimum one metre lengths. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when renewing gaskets. Gasket Channels If gasket channels are badly corroded, causing the hatch packing to hang loose, the packing should be removed and the channel repaired by welding new metal strips which should be painted before fitting new rubber. Always follow proper fire prevention safety procedures. Make sure that cargo spaces are free of cargo and combustible material. When conducting extensive structural repairs, remove the hatch covers to shore.


Hatch Cover Structure Repair or replace any damaged, worn or defective hatch covers or coamings. Consult with the ship’s classification society before commencing repair. Paint new structure immediately. Compression Bars Effective sealing is only possible with a straight, undamaged and non-corroded compression bar. Compression bars which are not in this condition should be repaired or replaced, taking care to align the bars properly. Remember to carry out a chalk test to check alignment, both during and after repair. Landing Pads Hatch sealing is arranged by design to give the correct compression of the gasket when there is metal-to-metal contact on the hatch landing pad, side plate, or inter-panel block. If landing pads are reduced in height (check with manufacturers’ drawings) because of wear, repair is essential. Hatch Wheel Trackways Trackways can corrode. They are weakened by abrasive wear and tear. When weakened, trackways can distort and break, affecting hatch movement and alignment. Deterioration is visible to the naked eye. Repair by replacing the worn or damaged material with sufficient new material to restore strength. Always keep hatch wheel trackways clean and painted. Hatch Coamings Look for cracks at coaming corners. If any are found, consult the ship’s classification society before commencing repairs in case the coaming needs to be reinforced. Examine coaming support brackets for corrosion where they connect with the ship’s deck. Make sure coamings and their support brackets are painted. Coamings can be damaged by cargo equipment during loading or discharge. Look out for damage and repair if found. Hatch Wheels Hatch wheel spindles and bearings (where fitted) need to be greased regularly. Check the wheel spindle for wear and the wheel housing for physical damage. Repair if the spindle is worn or if the wheels are out of alignment.


7) Explain Briefly What You Understand By Clause 9 Of ISM Code “Reports And Analysis Of “Non-Conformities And Hazardous Occurrences” What Is The Advantage Of Such Reports And Analysis? Answer: Reference: Guidelines on the application of the IMO International Safety Management (ISM) Code.Published by International Chamber of Shipping The company should have a system for recording, investigating, evaluating, reviewing and analysing reports, and for taking action as appropriate. Necessary feedback through the master should be provided to those persons who have raised reports through the appropriate procedures. Feedback is an important motivator and should assist in encouraging further effective reporting. Feedback should include an acknowledgment of receipt of the report, its status and any final decisions made. Experience from within the shipping industry and from other industries has shown that a company may benefit further in terms of: • An improvement in the safety consciousness and safety management skills of personnel; • The establishment of a safety culture that encourages continuous improvement in safety and environmental protection; • Greater confidence on the part of clients; and improved company morale. There is some evidence to suggest that over time commercial benefits may also flow from the general benefits, including: • Cost savings resulting from improved efficiency and productivity (such as through the minimisation of disruptions to the operation of the ship that may cause delay);


8) Briefly Explain The Maintenance Required For A Frozen Fairlead, Cargo Block And Derrick Heel Gooseneck. Answer: Reference: Shipboard Operation – H.I Lavery

A Frozen Fairlead:
Fairlead rollers which become rusted and will not turn are usually the consequence of neglect but the problem can occur on well-maintained ships when weather and operational conditions do not permit the weekly greasing programme to be carried out. Rollers which are seized cause excessive damage to mooring ropes and must be overhauled as soon as possible. The basic design varies from ship to ship but most roller fairleads are similar to the type shown in Figure. However, some fairleads have upper and lower spindle bolts instead of the one 'through' spindle in the diagram. The grease reservoir covers should be removed, the old grease taken out, and the reservoirs filled with a release and penetrating oil. All surfaces in contact with another surface should be given a liberal application of oil and left to soak overnight. The following morning use a gantline size rope to put a round turn on the roller, lead the rope to a winch, and heave gently. This is usually sufficient to free all but the most obstinate roller. If this is unsuccessful, the roller must be efficiently secured and the spindle withdrawn. Care should be taken when loosening the nuts; use plenty of release oil and only apply gentle persuasion such as tapping with a hammer. On some vessels it may be possible to heat the nuts in order to expand them and to loosen the rust. The engineers will probably be able to lend specialized tools for withdrawing the spindles. On removing the roller it will be observed that the rust will be concentrated on the horizontal surfaces and on the spindle. Remove all corrosion and check that the grease tracks are undamaged. It may be necessary to renew the spindle nuts and washers and possibly even the spindle itself. The horizontal surfaces should be protected by several coats of primer followed by two topcoats and heavy duty grease should be applied to the spindle. Grease nipples should be unscrewed and cleaned. When the roller is reassembled check that grease can be forced through the grease nipples on the appropriate surfaces. Resume the weekly greasing schedule.

Care of cargo blocks
Frequently check the swivel head for free movement by hand; grease the shank and bearing. Examine the side plates for distortion or buckling; a runner could become caught between a sheave and a distorted side plate, thus causing a serious accident. Sheaves should turn freely when rotated by hand and they should be examined for cracks and bush wear. The grooves of the sheaves should be checked for wear which


will quickly ruin a new runner. Axle pins should be secure and unable to work adrift; the thread in the pin should be checked for damage. If possible avoid painting blocks as this practice clogs grease nipples and reservoirs, covers statutory markings, and hides defects. The surfaces of blocks should be oiled frequently. Self lubricating blocks should have the reservoirs cleaned out and refilled with a suitable lubricant. Conventional blocks should be lubricated daily when in use. Check ~ll split pins and inspect the distance pieces.

Overhauling the derrick heel goose neck
If possible this operation should be carried out when the vessel is at anchor as the derrick must be lifted in order to inspect part of the goose neck. If conducted on passage the weather conditions should be ideal, the derrick should bewellsecured when it is unshipped, and due regard should be had to unforeseen athwartships movement of the vessel. Before starting the job a temporary secure crutch for the derrick heel should be made so that the derrick is not left suspended on the lifting tackle. Inexperienced personnel should be instructed on their role in the operation and all applicable safety precautions should be taken. 1. Securely lash the derrick head in its crutch. 2. Remove and overhaul the derrick heel block. 3. Secure a purchase of appropriate SWL to a suitable position on the mast or samson post and to the derrick. A direct lift can often be obtained over the derrick heel by unshipping the derrick topping lift block and securing the purchase by a strap to the heel of the derrick. 4. If the goose neck securing arrangements are similar to those shown in Figure, the split Pins should be withdrawn and paint and corrosion removed from around the bolts. On some ships the bolts nuts may be secured by an additional locking or ring nut. 5. Lubricate and remove the vertical and horizontal pivot bolt nuts. 6. Heave tight, preferably by hand, on the lifting purchase and take the weight of the derrick. 7. Lubricate, free, and remove the pivot bolts. A gentle tapping with a hammer may be necessary to dislodge the bolts. 8. Unship the derrick heel and secure it in the temporary crutch. 9. Clean all surfaces thoroughly and check all parts for signs of wear or hair cracks. Particular attention should be paid to the bolts. 10. Thoroughly lubricate all areas and re-assemble the goose neck area to its operational condition.